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**BSc and MSci EXAMINATION 2003
**

For Internal Students of Royal Holloway

DO NOT TURN OVER UNTIL TOLD TO BEGIN

PH2510A: ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Time Allowed: TWO hours

Answer QUESTION ONE and TWO other questions No credit will be given for attempting any further questions

Approximate part-marks for questions are given in the right-hand margin

Only CASIO fx85WA Calculators are permitted

PH2510A/38 © Royal Holloway and Bedford New College 2002

0 × 109 3.GENERAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS Permeability of vacuum Permittivity of vacuum µ0 ε0 1/4πε0 c e me mu mp mn e/me h η = h/2π = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 4π × 10-7 8.60 × 10-19 9.00 × 108 1.66 × 10-27 1.718 π ≅ 3.67 × 10-27 1.01 × 105 H m-1 F m-1 m F-1 m s-1 C kg kg kg kg C kg-1 Js Js J K-1 W m-2 K-4 J mol-1 K-1 mol-1 N m2 kg-2 m s-2 m3 N m-2 Speed of light in vacuum Elementary charge Electron (rest) mass Unified atomic mass constant Proton rest mass Neutron rest mass Ratio of electronic charge to mass Planck constant Boltzmann constant Stefan-Boltzmann constant Gas constant Avogadro constant Gravitational constant Acceleration due to gravity Volume of one mole of an ideal gas at STP One standard atmosphere k σ R NA G g P0 = MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS e ≅ 2.142 loge10 ≅ 2.67 × 10-11 9.02 × 1023 6.303 .81 2.05 × 10-34 1.76 × 1011 6.31 6.67 × 10-8 8.67 × 10-27 1.85 × 10-12 9.24 × 10-2 1.63 × 10-34 1.38 × 10-23 5.11 × 10-31 1.

Name all the labelled features (a-e) in the spectrum and explain their origin. for an atom with spin and orbital quantum numbers s and ℓ. (ii) Write down the quantum numbers for the states described as 2S3/2. and if so explain why. You are advised not to spend more than 40 minutes answering Question One. Enumerate the steps of the method and indicate what is meant by self-consistency of the potential. 1. (ii) half-life and (iii) mean lifetime. j. How many half-lives have to pass to reduce the activity of a sample to 1% of its initial value? [4] (e) What are “magic numbers” of nucleons? Explain how they can be accounted for.− page 1 − PH2510A PART MARKS ANSWER ONLY FIVE sections of Question One. [4] (b) Estimate the energy of the K and L X-ray absorption edges for uranium (Z=92). 3D2 and 5P3. [4] (d) In relation to radioactive decay. (a) State the main assumptions of the Hartree method for describing the ground state of a multi-electron atom. (iii) Determine if any of these states are impossible. [4] TURN OVER . [4] (f) The sketch below shows the typical response of a detector to monoenergetic γ-rays with an energy Eγ > 2me c 2 . define the terms (i) decay constant. [4] (c) (i) Write down the allowed values of the total angular momentum quantum number. respectively.

and what is its origin? What is the Zeeman effect and what causes it? Discuss what influences whether a normal or an anomalous splitting pattern will be observed. For the normal Zeeman effect. in terms of the eigenfunctions of the individual particles. State the Pauli Exclusion Principle and discuss its relation to the symmetry of the eigenfunction describing such a twoparticle system.− page 2 − PH2510A PART MARKS 2. [5] [2] [4] (b) (c) (d) [5] (e) [4] 3. j. Explain what is meant by LS coupling.e. Calculate the energy spacing between the components of the ground state energy level of hydrogen when split by a magnetic field of 1. Determine the strength of the magnetic field in the sunspot.7 pm. The spacings of adjacent energy levels of increasing energy in a calcium triplet are 30×10-4 eV and 60×10-4 eV. What are the quantum numbers of the three levels? Write down the levels using the appropriate spectroscopic notation. of the level of higher energy. (a) (b) (c) What is fine structure in the atomic spectra of hydrogen. Adjacent components are separated by 1. non-interacting. Landé Interval Rule). An atomic transition line with wavelength 350 nm is observed to be split into three components.. (a) Write down a valid eigenfunction for a system of two indistinguishable. Explain what are optically active electrons and how optical spectra may be accounted for in terms of such electrons. show that the energy shift that an energy level will undergo is given by ∆E = g λ µ b B mλ . and define all the symbols in this expression.0 T. in the case of LS coupling (i. What frequency of electromagnetic radiation could cause a transition between these levels? What is the specific name given to this effect? [4] [4] [5] (d) [4] (e) [3] TURN OVER . Show that the separation in energy of adjacent levels of a multiplet is proportional to the total angular momentum number. in a spectrum of light from a sunspot. particles of spin ½.

Another sample of the same size from a recently-cut tree of the same type gives 4. Show that for a given A the equation represents a parabola with a minimum mass at Z = Z min . mn = 1. you can assume that 1 u = 931.3 decays per minute. knowing that (i) 13 Al emits [3] (d) positrons with a maximum kinetic energy of 3. It is desired to determine the age of a wood timber used to construct an ancient shelter. State an example of an induced fission reaction.5 MeV/c2 ] [6] 5. Z ) = Amn + Z ( m(1H ) − mn ) − a1 A + a 2 A2 / 3 + a3 Z ( Z − 1) A −1 / 3 + a 4 ( A − 2 Z ) 2 A−1 + a5 A −3 / 4 (a) (b) Explain the physical basis for each term in this equation.− page 3 − PH2510A PART MARKS 4. write the expression for the energy released in the process. (a) Explain the method of 14C dating of organic objects. in terms of the atomic mass of the isotopes involved. The semi-empirical mass formula for an atom of mass number A and atomic number Z may be expressed as M ( A. A sample of the wood from the shelter is analysed for its 14 C content and gives 1. Describe the mass distribution of fission fragments and indicate the typical energy released. [6] (b) [3] [3] (c) (d) [4] [4] (e) END PTD . What is the age of the shelter? [ t1/2 (14C) = 5730 years ] Explain how parity non-conservation has been demonstrated in beta decay. 25 Calculate the values for a3 and a4 . and explain why.007825 u. Also. in MeV/c2. [ m(1H ) = 1.5 decays per minute. How is the energy distributed between the reaction products? Discuss the conditions necessary to establish a nuclear chain reaction. where Z min = (c) (mn − m(1H )) + 4a4 + a3 A −1 / 3 2(a3 A −1 / 3 + 4a4 A −1 ) [7] [4] Write the reaction for a β+ nuclear transition. Define all the symbols used.00866501 u.26 MeV and (ii) 107 47 Ag is the stable isobar of mass number 107. Indicate the typical age of the oldest objects that can be dated with this technique. State the four-factor formula and explain the factors in the formula.

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