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Chemistry Form Five: Chapter 1 - Rate of Reaction

Rate of reaction = change of quantity in reactant or product per unit time. We usually use water displacement method to collect gas in school laboratory as shown below:

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The reaction is fastest at the start when the reactants are at a maximum (steepest gradient) The gradient becomes progressively less as reactants are used up and the reaction slows down. Finally the graph levels out when one of the reactants is used up and the reaction stops. The amount of product depends on the amount of reactants used. The initial rate of reaction is obtained by measuring the gradient at the start of the reaction. A tangent line is drawn to measure rate of reaction at instataneous time

hemistry Form 5: Chapter 1 - Collision Theory
According to the collision theory, particles of reactant that achieve activation energy and collide with correct orientation will result in reaction. 1. Correct Orientation

Click on the diagram below to play! 2. Activation Energy • Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy that must be overcome by the colliding particles so that the reaction can occur .

the time taken for the formation of sulphur to cover the mark 'X' until it disappears from sight can be used to measure rate of reaction. Explanation using collision theory . In this experiment. • • • As the concentration of sulphuric acid is increased.Effect of Concentration on Rate of Reaction Experiment to show the effect of concentration on reaction rate • • • Sodium thiosulphate solution react with dilute sulphuric acid to form a yellow precipitate of sulphur.• Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 1 . the rate of reaction between sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate increases.

Catalyst Affects the Rate of Reaction Catalyst is a chemical substance that change the rate of chemical reaction.• • • • • • · When the concentration of the solution of a reactant increases. Catalyst is specific in its action. the rate of reaction increases. · With more particles per unit volume of the solution of the reactant. Only a small amount of catalyst is needed to achieve a big increase in rate of reaction. the frequency of collision increases. Hence. · This causes the frequency of effective collision to increase. Its chemical composition still the same before and after reaction. . Characteristics of catalyst: • Catalyst remains chemically unchanged during reaction. the number of particles per unit volume of the solution also increases. • • • Catalyst does not change the quantity of the product formed. • Catalyst only change the rate of reaction. Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 1 .

. Hence.Hydrogenation Hydrogenation process is addition reaction to convert alkene becomes alkane. it enables the reaction to occur through an alternative path which requires lower activation energy.How catalyst increase the rate of reaction: • When a positive catalyst is used in a chemical reaction. the rate of reaction increases. • • This causes the frequency of effective collision to increase. more colliding particles are able to overcome the lower activation energy. • As a result. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalyst of manganese (IV) oxide hemistry Form 5: Chapter 2 . It converts unsaturated compound to saturated compound.

and the formation of the ethanol is exothermic. . This produces a "partially hydrogenated oil" or "partially hydrogenated fat".Manufacture of Ethanol (Hydration) Ethanol is manufactured by reacting ethene with steam.Ethene reacts with H2 at 180 ° C in the presence of nickel or platinum catalyst to produce ethane Click on the diagram below to play! Application of hydrogenation: Making Margarine Vegetable oils often contain high proportions of polyunsaturated and mono-unsaturated fats (oils). but not necessarily all. and inconvenient for some baking purposes. and as a result are liquids at room temperature. hemistry Form 5: Chapter 2 . of the carbon-carbon double bonds are hydrogenated. You can "harden" (raise the melting point of) the oil by hydrogenating it in the presence of a nickel catalyst. That makes them messy to spread on your bread or toast. The reaction is reversible. Conditions (like the precise temperature. or the length of time the hydrogen is passed through the oil) are carefully controlled so that some.

. There are two methods of dehydration: a) Ethanol vapour is passed over a heated unglazed porcelain chips. a molecule of water is eliminated from each alcohol molecule to produce alkene. porous pot.Dehydration of Alcohol ALCOHOL -------> ALKENE • • In the dehydration of alcohols. pumice stone or alumina (aluminium oxide). b) Ethanol is heated under reflux at 170 °C with excess concentrated sulphuric acid.Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 2 .

Carboxylic acids are compounds which contain a -COOH functional group. Carboxylic acids are weak acid which ionize partially in water to produce lower concentration of hydrogen ions compare to strong acid.School Laboratory Experiment • Alkene can be tested by decolourising brown bromine water or decolourising purple acidified potassium manganate (VII) solution.Carboxylic Acid • • • Carboxylic acids are organic compounds which form an homologous series with the general formula of CnH2n+1COOH. hemistry Form 5: Chapter 2 . Formula Common Name Source IUPAC Name .

caper) pelargonium (an herb) goats (L. formica) vinegar (L.Esterification Esterification is a chemical reaction between carboxylic acid combines with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst (commonly concentrated sulphuric acid) to form an ester. butyrum) valerian root goats (L. caper) vines (Gk. . protus prion) butter (L. oenanthe) goats (L. acetum) milk (Gk. caper) methanoic acid ethanoic acid propanoic acid butanoic acid pentanoic acid hexanoic acid heptanoic acid octanoic acid nonanoic acid decanoic acid hemistry Form 5: Chapter 2 .HCO2H CH3CO2H CH3CH2CO2H CH3(CH2)2CO2H CH3(CH2)3CO2H CH3(CH2)4CO2H CH3(CH2)5CO2H CH3(CH2)6CO2H CH3(CH2)7CO2H CH3(CH2)8CO2H formic acid acetic acid propionic acid butyric acid valeric acid caproic acid enanthic acid caprylic acid pelargonic acid capric acid ants (L.

Examples of Esters • methyl butanoate (apple) : methan +butanoic ol acid CH3OH → methyl butanoate (ester) +wate r + + C3H7COOH → C3H7COOCH3 (ester) H2O • ethyl methanoate (rum essence) : ethan +methanoic ol acid C2H5O + HCOOH H → ethyl methanoate (ester) +wate r + H2O → HCOOC2H5 (ester) • ethyl butanoate (pineapple) : ethan +butanoic ol acid → ethyl butanoate (ester) +wate r + H2O C2H5O + C3H7COOC2H5 C3H7COOH → H (ester) • pentyl ethanoate (banana) : .

pentan +ethanoic ol acid → pentyl ethanoate (ester) +wate r + H 2O C5H11O + CH3COOC5H11 CH3COOH → H (ester) • pentyl butanoate (apricot) : pentan +butanoic ol acid → pentyl butanoate (ester) +wate r + H 2O C5H11O + C3H7COOC5H11 C3H7COOH → H (ester) • octyl butanoate (orange) : octano +butanoic l acid → octyl butanoate (ester) +wate r + H 2O C8H17O + C3H7COOC8H17 C3H7COOH → H (ester) • methyl ethanoate (solvent) : methan +ethanoic ol acid CH3OH → methyl ethanoate (ester) +wate r + + CH3COOH → CH3COOCH3 (ester) H 2O • ethyl ethanoate (solvent) : ethan +ethanoic ol acid → ethyl ethanoate (ester) +wate r + H2O C2H5O + CH3COOC2H5 CH3COOH → H (ester) Esterification by refluxing .

Redox Reaction .Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 3 .

it has been oxidised. The hydrogen ion acts as a oxidising agent. Magnesium acts as reducing agent.• • • Redox reactions are chemical reactions involving oxidation and reduction occurring simultaneously. Reducing agent is the substance that causes reduction. it has been reduced. Reduction involves gain of electrons and decrease in oxidation number. Oxidising agent is the substance that causes oxidation. The hydrogen's oxidation state has decreased from +1 to 0 . Example: The magnesium's oxidation state has increased from 0 to +2 . Oxidation involves loss of electrons and increase in oxidation number. Click on the diagram below to play! .

6. Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 3 . and when combined with fluorine. 3. but 1. Then it is 2+. and the sulfur is 6+. Examples: H is 1+ in H2O. The oxidation number of oxygen in a compound is 2-. and then it is 1-.There is no change in oxidation number. this is not a redox reaction. SO42-. in H2O2 it is 1-.each. The oxidation number of hydrogen in a compound is 1+. except when hydrogen forms compounds called hydrides with active metals. except in peroxides when it is 1-. Example: Cl2 and Al both are 0 2. 1. The algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers in the formula of a compound is zero. The oxidation number of an atom in the elemental state is zero. The oxygens are 2. Example: In H2O the oxygen is 2-.Rules of Oxidation Number There are several rules for assigning the oxidation number to an element. Example: in the sulfate ion. Example: In the compound NaCl. the oxidation numbers of the sulfur and the oxygens add up to 2-. Example: the oxidation numbers in the NaCl above add up to 0 4. The oxidation number of a monatomic ion is equal to its charge. whether it has undergone oxidation or reduction. Learning these rules will simplify the task of determining the oxidation state of an NaH (sodium hydride). 5.Conversion of Iron (II) to Iron (III) and Iron (III) to Iron (II) . Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 3 . The algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers in the formula for a polyatomic ion is equal to the charge on that ion. Therefore. and thus. the sodium has an oxidation number of 1+ and the chlorine is 1-.

• The presence of Fe3+ ions is confirmed by the formation of brown precipitate with excess of NaOH solution.Conversion of Fe2+ to Fe3+ Oxidising agent : bromine water Reducing agent : Fe2+ ions Oxidation half equation: • Fe2+ ions lose electrons and are oxidized to Fe3+. Fe2+ --------> Fe3+ + e Reduction half equation: • Bromine molecules which give bromine water its brown colour gain electrons and are reduced to colourless bromide ions. The solution changes colour from pale green (Fe2+) to yellow (Fe3+). Conversion of Fe3+ to Fe2+ . Br2 + 2 e -------> 2 Br- Overall ionic equation: 2 Fe2+ + Br2      2 Fe3+ + 2 Br- Observation: • Brown bromine water decolourises.

• The presence of Fe2+ ions is confirmed by the formation of green precipitate with excess of NaOH solution. As a result. Fe3+ + Overall ionic equation: 2 Fe3+ + Zn ---------> 2 Fe2+ + Zn2+ e  Fe2+ Observation: • Zinc powder dissolves into solution.Oxidising agent : Fe2+ ions Reducing agent : zinc Oxidation half equation: • Zinc atoms lose their electrons and are oxidized to zinc ions. the less reactive metal ion is deposited as a solid metal while the more reactive metal dissolves in the solution. Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 3 . Zn -------> Zn2+ + 2e Reduction half equation: • Fe3+ ions accept electrons and are reduced to Fe 2+. The solution changes colour from brown (Fe3+) to pale green (Fe2+).Redox Reaction in Displacement of Metal Reactivity Series of metals Most reactive K Na Ca Mg Al Zn Fe Pb [H] Cu Ag Least reactive Example of displacement reaction: Displacement of metals from solution is a redox reaction whereby a less reactive metal ion is displaced from its salt solution by a more reactive metal. Zn2+. • Zinc powder dissolves in iron (III) chloride. The general formula for a displacement reaction is: M (s) + Xn+ (aq) -----> Mn+ (aq) + X (s) where metal M is the more reactive than metal X. .

Oxidation reaction: Fe (s) -----> Fe2+ (aq) + 2eReduction reaction: Cu2+ (aq) + 2e. Iron. Copper(II) ions are reduced to copper metal and iron atoms become oxidised to iron (II) ions.Fe (s) + CuSO4 (aq) -----> FeSO4 (aq) + Cu (s) Iron displaces copper from the solution because it is more reactive than copper metal.-----> Cu (s) Overall Redox reaction: Fe (s) + Cu2+ (aq) -----> Fe2+ (aq) + Cu (s) hemistry Form 5: Chapter 3 . loses its electrons readily. Iron acts as reducing agent whereas copper (II) ions act as a oxidising agent. being more reactive. The electrons are transferred from the iron atoms to the copper(II) ions in the solution.Rusting of Iron .

For iron to rust. . Oxygen acts as the oxidizing agent and iron acts as the reducing agent .• • • Rusting is a corrosion of iron. In the presence of acids and salts. • The electrons flow to the edge of the water droplet where there is plenty of dissolved oxygen. • • The surface of iron at the middle of the water droplet serves as the anode at which oxidation occurs. rusting occurs faster because these substances increase the electrical conductivity of water. The iron surface there serves as cathode at which reduction occurs. making water a better electrolyte. Oxygen gains the electrons and is reduced to hydroxide ions. oxygen and water must be present. The iron atoms lose electrons to form iron (II) ions.

.• The iron (II) ions produced combine with the hydroxide ions to iron (II) hydroxide. energy from reaction is released to the surrounding resulting increase of temperature of surrounding. Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 4 . which may be either absorbed or released from a chemical reaction. breaking or formation of chemical bond involves energy. Electrons flow from more electropositive metal to less electropositive metal. The Fe(OH) 2 is then further oxidized by oxygen to form iron (III) oxide. • To form the chemical bond.Exothermic and Endothermic Reaction Chemical energy is needed to transform a chemical substance into a new product through chemical reaction. • To break the chemical bond. Fe2O3 known as rust Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 3 . energy from surrounding is absorbed resulting decrease of temperature of surrounding.Redox Reaction in Electrochemistry Reaction • • • More electropositive metal undergoes oxidation reaction by releasing electrons and act as a reducing agent. Less electropositive metal undergoes reduction reaction by gaining electrons and act as a oxidising agent. Therefore.

rusting of iron. The total energy of reactants is more than total the energy of products. Temperature of the surroundings increases. heating of hydrated salt. condensation. Bond breaking requires more energy than the energy that is released during bond formation • • • • Examples: Combustion of fuel. Temperature of the surroundings decreases. neutralization. Examples: Thermal decomposition of nitrate or carbonate salts. dissolving ammonium or potassium salts in water. melting.Making of Soap . reaction of alkaline metals with water. respiration. freezing. boiling. • • Endothermic Reaction Chemical reaction that absorbs heat from the surroundings. The total energy of reactants is less than the total energy of products. sublimation. Chemistry Form 5: Chapter 5 . burning of metal. dissolving alkali or concentrated acid in water. Haber process. reaction of acid with hydrogen carbonate. reaction of a reactive metal with acid. Bond formation releases more energy than is required in the bond breaking.• • Exothermic Reaction Chemical reaction that gives out heat to the surroundings. photosynthesis. dissolving anhydrous salts in water.

The glycerol and excess sodium hydroxide solution are removed by rinsing the soap formed with water. The acids then react with an alkali to form the corresponding sodium or potassium salts. This reaction is called saponification. • • • The fats or oils are hydrolysed first to form glycerol and fatty acids.Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids. . This is because sodium chloride lowers the solubility of soap in water. Soaps are prepared by hydrolyzing fats or oils under alkaline condition. The soap formed can be precipitated by adding sodium chloride.

.• Soaps feel slippery and form lather when they are shaken with water.