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Peer Reviewed Title: Epithets, Divine Author: Budde, Dagmar, University of Mainz Publication Date: 2011 Series: UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology Publication Info: UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, UC Los Angeles Permalink: Additional Info: Budde, Dagmar, 2011, Epithets, Divine. In Jacco Dieleman, Willeke Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. Keywords: epithet, name, title, hymn, aretalogy, litany, antonomasia Local Identifier: nelc_uee_7979 Abstract: The almost infinite number of epithets applied to Egyptian deities attests to the complex and diverse nature of Egyptian gods. In general, epithets outline a deity’s character, describe his/her physical appearance and attributes, and give information about the cult. Epithets immediately follow the deity’s name and can be made up of several distinct components. In hymns and ritual scenes, epithets often occur in long strings. It is useful to distinguish between epithets that identify a unique aspect of a deity’s personality (“personal epithets”) and epithets that refer to a particular situation or activity (“situational epithets”); in the latter case, the epithet can be applied to multiple deities. Supporting material: Figure 1

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Epithets.  EPITHETS.library. Los Angeles Editor Area Editor Religion University of California.).ucla. Los   .edu/viewItem.library. 2011. Divine. 1038 Version 1. Full Citation: Budde. Divine. Dagmar. Willeke Wendrich (eds. UEE. In Jacco Epithets. Los Angeles JACCO DIELEMAN ELIZABETH FROOD Editor University of Oxford Senior Editorial Consultant University of Oxford JOHN BAINES Short Citation: Budde. DIVINE Dagmar Budde EDITORS WILLEKE WENDRICH ‫األلقاب اإللھية‬  Editor-in-Chief University of California. UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology. http://digital2. July 2011 http://digital2.

forms of manifestation. and Horus “Who decides the battle of the Two Lands” (wpj-SattAwj). rn-wr. epithets could be transferred to other deities (Hornung 2005: 89) and occasionally even become I autonomous. and give information about the cult. fig. cols. DIVINE Dagmar Budde Götterbeinamen/Götterepitheta Épithètes divines The almost infinite number of epithets applied to Egyptian deities attests to the complex and diverse nature of Egyptian gods. “Personal epithets” (for definition. epithets often occur in long strings. Egyptian deities carried epithets that give information about their nature. In the course of time. This principle (Antonomasia. Whereas a name was normally associated with one deity only. describe his/her physical appearance and attributes.‫آلھة متعددة‬ n addition to their proper name (rn).‫عبارات وجمل طويلة في التراتيل ومناظر الطقوس‬ ‫تحدد الجوانب الفريدة لشخصية اإلله »الصفات الشخصية« والصفات التي تشير إلى حالة‬ ‫ يمكن استخدام اللقب لوصف‬،‫معينة أو نشاط »الصفات الظرفية« وفي ھذه الحالة األخيرة‬   . 13 and 14). particularly in the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods. epithets immediately followed the name. Divine. see below) allowed for the creation of new deities. ‫األلقاب اإللھية‬  ‫ھناك عدد ال نھائي تقريبا ً من األلقاب التي تنطبق على اآللھة المصرية والتي تشھد على‬ ‫ وتلخص ھذه األلقاب شخصية اإلله وتوصف‬،‫طبيعة اآللھة المصرية المعقدة والمتنوعة‬ ‫ وتلي ھذه األلقاب اسم اإلله‬،‫ وتعطى معلومات عن عبادته‬،‫مظھره الجسدى وسماته‬ ‫ فأحيانا ً تظھر ھذه األلقاب مكونة من‬،‫ ويمكن أن تتكون من عدة عناصر مميزة‬،ً‫مباشرة‬ ‫ ومن األھمية التمييز بين الصفات التي‬. a deity’s position and function within the pantheon. epithets outline a deity’s character. names and epithets of gods were occasionally written in cartouches. Their length and meaning varied according to context and text medium. Kuhlmann 1977b). In most cases. Epithets. Epithets immediately follow the deity’s name and can be made up of several distinct components. they grew in complexity. 1.      EPITHETS. the epithet can be applied to multiple deities. as well as genealogical relations and connections with particular locations. UEE 2011 1 . It is useful to distinguish between epithets that identify a unique aspect of a deity’s personality (“personal epithets”) and epithets that refer to a particular situation or activity (“situational epithets”). in the latter case. Like the royal titulary. and the situational context were crucial factors in the formation of epithets. Osiris-Onnophris (Wnn-nfrw mAaxrw. This was often the case with Isis. In general. see below) could be combined with names and titles into a titulary (nxbt. The location of the inscription. the God’s mother (mwt-nTr). Budde. In hymns and ritual scenes. and spheres of influence.

Classification The numerous epithets of Egyptian deities encompass in principle the following three domains (see Kuhlmann 1977a): 1) nature and function. Amun (“the hidden/secret one”). 5) status and age. and to create. 2) iconography (physical characteristics. friendliness. UEE 2011 2 . together forming a morning hymn that was recited to wake the gods in the temple at daybreak. to which can be added the following subdomains: 4) genealogy. e. but epithets usually give more information about his/her character and spheres of influence. Names and epithets are here arranged in long lists. Sakhmet (“the mighty one”). posture. and attributes). temple of Hathor in Dendera. and the closeness to humans Epithets.. A deity’s nature can be expressed in his/her name. Budde. honesty. as well as physical strength and weaknesses. Epithets can therefore refer to human traits like wisdom. and 3) provenance and local worship. In the formation of epithets. freedom of movement. 1. Nature and function. Khons (“the traveler”).      Figure 1.g. an ideal image of humans was partly projected onto the world of the gods (Otto 1964: 39). and a sense of justice. Inner sanctuary. and 6) myths and cosmogonies. to regenerate. Further themes are the ability to change shapes. Divine.

col. the falcon deity and son of Isis and Osiris. “Who does not accept bribes” (bXn-Snw) and “Who separates the Two Contestants” (wprHwj). and “Who wakes up complete” (rs-wDA). UEE 2011 . awt-a). Gods act in accordance with maat. “Weary of heart” (wrDjb).f sHD-pttA-m-wbn. who shines in the morning and brightens the sky and earth at his rising” (nfr-Hr psD-m-Dt. Origin and local worship. loathe lies (bwt. and 54. the dying and eternally reborn god. the epithet “With a beautiful side lock” (nfr/an-dbnt) is characteristic (Cauville. “Beautiful of face. Due to her intelligence. Khons appears as he “Who repeats rejuvenation” (wHm-rnp). Posture is addressed in epithets like “With extended arm” (fAj-a. thus identifying the god depicted here as Horus of Edfu.f). Thoth is the “Judge” (wp). 3). posture. Epithets generally describe deities in a positive light. Budde. 217. 7. Iconography (physical characteristics. Roman mammisi in Dendera. 12. Divine. overcome chaos and enemies (drjsft/sbjw/xftjw). Foremost. when Seth is called “unsuccessful” (wh or wh-sp. especially in the Roman Period. fig. Amun-Min is also “Tall of two plumes” (qASwtj). “Ruler (of)” (HqA/t). and attributes). is the “Lord of the sky (nb-pt). Amun-Min’s epithet “Who boasts of his perfection” (ab-m-nfrw. characteristic for Amun-Min. “Without whose consent no king ascends the throne” (nj-aHa-Hr-nst-m-xmt. 2). Horus. This is illustrated by the following examples: as sun god. but on the other hand also to his fertility and potency traits. and everyone rejoices at their sight (Haa-Hr-nb-nmAA. Amun dispenses the breath of life (dj-TAw).f) demonstrates that the transition between domains 1 and 2 can be fluid. HqA-Dt).s). This happens.40). who is depicted with a raised arm. 8. The outer appearance of Hathor is addressed in her epithet “Whose eyes are festively painted”(sHbt-mnDtj).      (Otto 1964: 11 . fig. Names and epithets often served as labels to deities in wall scenes. in his role of moon deity. 1). Isis is “Great of magic” (wrt-HkAw) and all-knowing. as well as “Master of the course of time (nb-nHH. 222. Dendara XIII: 193. Ra is the “Lord of rays” (nb-HDDwt).sn-grg). was worshipped as “Lord of life” (nb-anx). a reference to his double-plumed crown (Budde 2002). 3. the latter refers to Horus and Seth as they fight over who will succeed Osiris in office. for instance. are hence “Lord or Lady of Maat” (nb(t)MAat). and for the vulture goddess Nekhbet. “Foremost (of)” (xntj/t). 1. Epithets that establish a connection with a cult site usually consist of two parts and are constructed with “Lord/Mistress (of)” (nb/t). or “Dwelling in” (Hrj/t-jb) followed by the name of a location.f/. It refers on the one hand to the ithyphallic representations of the deity. while for child deities. who extends her wing in protection. However. The formulations Hrj/t-jb and xntj/t generally signal that the deity is the recipient of a local guest cult. 2. Seth is an example of how negative traits can also be expressed. who appears from the horizon” (sAb-Swt-pr-mAxt. Osiris. dappled of plumage.s).f. whereas nb/t is reserved 3 Epithets. which are Figure 2. but he is also a deity who—like the sun god or Hathor and Maat—“hears prayers” (sDm(t)-sprw/snmHw) and thus serves as a contact for humans.

” HwxAswt).” “small. in administrative documents (e. Assmann 1980b. Vol. In the temples. and in papyri. The designation aSA/t-rnw. Expressions referring to age such as “Small child” (Xrd-nxn) and “Eldest one” (jAw/smsw) also belong in this category.” and “first” (wr/t. Rüter 2009).s). epithets consist of two parts.nw. correspondence. 1. Many label the deity as “unique” (wa/t). “The child” (pA-Xrd) as a designation of several child deities or “The menit (necklace)” (tA-mnjt) as an epithet of Hathor. “Who breastfeeds her son. Daughter (of)” (zA/t). Sister (of)” (sn/t). Coffin Texts. “Beneficent god” (nTr/t-mnx/t). Genealogy. Myths and cosmogonies. in particular in the religious text corpora such as the Pyramid Texts. tpj/t). nDs/t. but also in literary texts. etc.” pnqt-zA. Hwn. sarcophagi. earth.. epithets were rarely construed with definite articles like. following a trend in contemporary royal titularies.” jr-pt-tA-mw-Dww) and can further be of a very general nature when they characterize the deity as “Great god” (nTr/tAa/t.g. Epithets. xj. or establish a relationship with a comparative construction like “Who is greater than all other gods” (wr-rnTrw-nbw. and mountains.      for the main deity of the area (Kurth 1983: 182 . Sporadically. Other constructions include noun with adjective (e.g.g.g. In most cases. on funerary objects (e. Xrd. see Otto 1964: 11 .f. “Great sovereign. who can be designated as “This one” (pn) and “That one. the underworld books. Epithets can also refer to kinship relations.” respectively (pf. Others refer to myths (e.. and coffins). which. With adjectives like “great. “Eye of Ra. as part of priestly titles and proper names. for example. 4. Srj/t. Faulkner 1958). most recently Quack 2003. “Perfect youth.s. UEE 2011 . most often for Horus and Seth. hymns (Assmann 1980a.g.” jrt-Ra) and cosmogonies (“Who creates sky. Kockelmann 2008. the Book of the Dead.s.g. see also Assmann 1975).g. Isis aretalogies. aA/t. In particular in the elaborate formulae of the ritual scenes of the Egyptian temples of the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods. cult songs (fig. tomb and temple walls. Divine. litanies or lists of deities (e. sfj.. and other creator deities since the New Kingdom (Leitz 4 Formation Principles Various principles were applied in the formation of epithets. epithets can indicate the status of a deity or his/her position within a hierarchy. 6. or “Noble god” (nTr/t-Sps/t). Most common are two nouns in a genitive construction such as “Lord of the sky” (nbt-pt) or “Mistress of all gods” (Hnwt-ntrw-nbw). Žabkar 1988).89). and adjective with object (e. This is most often expressed in a genitival construction with the words “Father (of)” (jtj). nTr/t-wr/t). On stelae. Budde. “Who strikes the foreign lands.” which was associated particularly with Amun.. the redactors devised chains of epithets. 1999. for the principles and possibilities of these formations. “She/He with many names. increased successively in length and variety. 2: 36)..” Hwn-nfr).s-m-nTrw) and “Beyond whom nobody exists” (jwtj-mAA-Hrj-tp. participle with direct object (e. Status and age. Ra. In comparison.” nTrt-aAt. Phrases constructed with the lemma SAa (“to begin”) designate creator gods and label the deity as primeval (Budde 2010).). inventory lists). water. 5.s.f/.” jtj-wr.” wr-pHtj). “Son. “Mother (of)” (mwt). others distinguish the deity with formulations such as “Whose like does not exist (among the gods)” (jwtj-sn. etc. nn-Hrxw.. stelae.f/. and “Heir (of)” (jwaw) followed by the deity’s name or characteristic epithets. Leitz 2002. “Brother. Daumas 1987: 26 . occasionally very long formations and combinations.f/.g. ritual scenes on the walls provided ample room for new..183).14). jwtj-mjtt..32. demonstrative pronouns occur. “Great goddess. aretalogies (e. Osiris. n-wnn-mjtt. “Child (of)” (nxn. legal documents. and mythological texts offer a comprehensive characterization of the addressed deities (Hornung 2005: 85 . “Who has great strength. Occurrence and Sources Epithets can be found in almost all text genres. see Assmann 1980c.

253). etc. Lady of the sky. and remain basically unchanged in their structure and predication. and those that refer to the immediate context. in a scene with Hathor in which she is offered a menu-jar with an intoxicating beverage (Cauville 2002a: 70 . The same happens in a scene in the Roman Period mammisi in Dendera in which emperor Trajan symbolically offers the horizon to Hathor of Dendera and Horus of Edfu (Daumas 1959: 252 . and Seshat (resp. 2). “He with perfect face” (nfr-Hr). Quaegebeur 1982) and occasionally Horus (fig. Lady of the Two Lands. Hnwt). in other words. Ruler of joy” (Chassinat 1934. Vol. Lady of jubilation. Vol. for example. Following a listing of her personal epithets. Vol. respectively (1983: 185 . the goddess is called here “Powerful one. Rait in the sky. HqA/t. who as god of the necropolis always carried the epithet “Lord of the sacred land” (nb-tA-Dsr.3). who rises in gold together with him who shines in gold” (wcrt sAt-Itmw Rat-m- Figure 3. Lady of drunkenness. multiple relations to the subject matter of the scenes and the offering items are established in the epithets. Sefekhet-abui). 3: 774 . Lady of bread. as the nature of deities changed little over time even if their sphere of influence could be extended. 195ff. 225). the most famous being Trismegistos. who brews beer.16). who in her role of architect of tomb and temples is called “Lady of the Epithets. 2 . 4: 214 . characteristic for Ptah or Osiris (Leitz 2002. Daughter of Atum. Names and epithets identifying the goddess depicted here as Hathor of Dendera. Budde. Lady of Dendera. The deity is oftentimes called their possessor (nb/t. specific to Thoth (Leitz 2002. Lady of making music.80. Examples are Anubis. Personal epithets tend to follow the name immediately in apposition. that establish the deity’s identity (Kurth 1983: 188). which could yet develop into formulaic sequences of epithets. Ruler of the jbadance. Vol. In Greek texts. the possibilities are nearly unlimited. reflects their almost inexhaustible diversity. 2: 217 . jtj/t. the personal epithets end with “Ruler of all gods” and are followed by the situational epithets. Eye of Ra. Roman mammisi in Dendera.      2002.186. In ritual scenes. Other epithets of Egyptian deities were also Grecized. Sternberg-el Hotabi 1992): “Hathor. this epithet occurs with Isis as Isis Polyonyme or Isis Myrionyme (Bricault 1994).). there exists a distinction between epithets that express the unique personality of the deity irrespective of context or medium. Dieter Kurth has coined such epithets “personal” and “situational” epithets.776). In this case. The latter occurs primarily in ritual scenes in which the deity adopts a scene-specific role. fig.217. Lady of jubilating. 3). UEE 2011 5 . Situational epithets are often ad hoc formations. nnt HqAt-xAbAsw wbnt-m-nbw-Hna-psD-m-nbw. Lady of dance. Personal and Situational Epithets In addition to the categories listed above. Vol. and Nepheros. “Thrice-great” (aA-aA-aA). 2: 176. are often of ancient origin. the Great. conceiver (SAa). Ruler of all gods. Ruler of the stars. Divine. Leitz 2002. sSm/t).218. 2: 15 . distributor (rdj/t.

particularly in the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods. 5. and the goddesses Hathor and Isis incorporate the names and personal epithets of Horus-theBehdetite (“Great god. Lord of the sky. The example illustrates that knowledge of mythological connections is often demanded for the reading and correct understanding. Names and epithets could be integrated with wall decoration as is done here with name and “personal epithets” of Horus of Edfu. Sauneron 1982). independent. Antonomasia A phenomenon of late texts is the use of epithets as autonomous names (antonomasia.18. 74).127). Budde. Willems et al. the signs of which could then become part of the iconographic repertoire of temple decoration. Guglielmi 1986). Similarly subtle writings of god names have been discussed by Junker (1903) and more recently Cauville (2002a: 100. Divine. The epithet sequence “Dappled of plumage. Names and epithets could be written cryptographically for visual effect as is done here with the name and “personal epithets” of Hathor of Dendera. Figure 5. the child god. Dendera main temple. adding an extra layer of meaning to the linguistic message (Cauville 2002b. Cauville 1990: 87. usually locally worshipped deities. This is also required when the appellation “Eye of Ra” (jrt-Ra) is written with a seated falcon god holding a wedjat-eye on his lap (fig. 88). Chassinat 1929: pl.” nTr-aA nb-pt). 2003: 14 . when the iconic nature of hieroglyphic signs began to be truly exploited.2008. main temple of Edfu. builders” (nbt-qdw) already in the Pyramid Texts (Budde 2000: 293). Moreover. Kurth 2007 . Traunecker 1997: 171 . seventh deity from the right.      Figure 4.173. Epithets. occurs both as a or ) and single hieroglyph in texts ( in large format on temple walls (fig. 126 . UEE 2011 6 . cf. this allowed for visual and phonetic punning in the spelling of words. 4. Important epithets could also be written as monograms. personal epithets were subject to developments in the hieroglyphic writing system. Spelling Conventions In their hieroglyphic spellings. Hence new ways of writing the names and epithets of deities evolved. who appears from the horizon” (sAb-Swt-pr-m-Axt). which is typical for Horus-the-Behdetite. as in the Theban region in the temples in El-Qala and Shenhur. Door lintel. in the latter case the falcon god. This led to the creation of new.

Laurent 1994 Isis myrionyme. the overwhelming abundance of divine epithets has become more accessible for study.434). 1999 Ägyptische Hymnen und Gebete. 2003: 89 . In Lexikon der Ägyptologie. However.g. Dagmar 2000 Die Göttin Seschat. The as-ofyet single. Vol. Leitz 2002) provides the largest source collection to date with about 56. Monographs or studies about individual deities are often provided with indices.86. Vol. 3 (columns 852 . ed. Kanobos: Forschungen zum griechisch-römischen Ägypten 2. those of Thoth. 1 . Zecchi 1996). Gisèle Clerc. Vol. Vol.124. have received detailed studies (Derchain-Urtel 1981). Bricault. Patrick 1922 Thoth. An index volume with the epithets organized by major deities completes this reference work (Leitz 2003).40). Jan 1975 Aretalogien. ed. Budde. who added a list of epithets to his study (Otto 1964: 95 . Specialized epithets. and Wolfhart Westendorf. 1999b.321. Sandri 2006: 292 . e. In Hommages à Jean Leclant. In Lexikon der Ägyptologie. monographs.163). Leipzig: Wodtke und Stegbauer. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Vol. Willems et al.1066). UEE 2011 7 . Bibliothèque d'étude 106. 1 (columns 425 . Schumacher 1988: 311 .388. 1980c Litanei. Epithets. Boylan. enabling a survey of the deity’s epithets (Boylan 1922: 180 . Budde 2000: 281 . 213 . Guglielmi 1991: 319. 2nd edition. du Bourguet 2002: 195 . Wolfgang Helck. London: Humphrey Milford. References Assmann. Thiers 2003: 362 . Bibliographic Notes With the publication of reference works. Christophe 1955: 33 . Budde. 3: Études isiaques. 2000a. and Wolfhart Westendorf.. Wolfgang Helck. ed.257. The Lexikon der Ägyptischen Götter und Götterbezeichnungen (7 volumes. 2002 “Die den Himmel durchsticht und sich mit den Sternen vereint”: Zur Bedeutung und Funktion der Doppelfederkrone in der Götterikonographie. Wolfgang Helck. Divine. 3 (columns 103 . 2000b. large general study and classification of divine epithets is by Eberhard Otto (1964: esp. Kurth 1998. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis. 1980a Hymnus.855).148). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Catherine Berger. 3 (columns 1062 . In Lexikon der Ägyptologie. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 30. formation principles.93. and Nicolas Grimal. 57 . pp. see the respective entries in Leitz (2002). Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. 2001. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. 2003: 145 . Oxford University Press. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.      where “The great goddess” (tA-nTrt-aAt) and “The lady of joy” (nbt-jhj) were worshipped as manifestations of Isis and Nephthys. a comprehensive analysis of their structures. and Wolfhart Westendorf.84. and text editions. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.110). Jasnow and Zauzich 2005: 538 .500 entries. ed. This is also the case with recent text editions and their philological commentaries (Cauville 1997.326. 2004. 1998. In Lexikon der Ägyptologie. Freiburg: Academic Press.200.102. and functions remains to be written. de Wit 1962: 4 .306.539.16. 1980b Kultlied. the Hermes of Egypt: A study of some aspects of theological thought in ancient Egypt. For the references to the epithets cited in this article. ed. 1999a. 67 . Wolfgang Helck. and Wolfhart Westendorf. pp.66 and 73 .

Die Inschriften des Tempels von Edfu: Begleitheft 6. 1997 Le temple de Dendara: Les chapelles osiriennes [Dendara pp. Daumas. Derchain-Urtel. Vols. 2000a Dendara III: Traduction. 2002b Entre exigence décorative et significations multiples: Les graphies suggestives du temple d’Hathor à Dendara. das mit allem beginnt”: Zu einer Bezeichnung der Hathor von Dendera. Leuven. François 1959 Les mammisis de Dendara. Epithets.      2003 Harpare-pa-chered: Ein ägyptisches Götterkind im Theben der Spätzeit und griechisch-römischen Epoche. Leuven: Peeters. 1999b Le temple de Dendara: La porte d'Isis. Mus.) Faulkner. Oxford: Griffith Institute. Vol. Gladbeck: PeWe-Verlag. Leuven: Peeters. Dendara 11. Vol. 1999a Dendara II: Traduction. Leuven: Peeters. Brussels: Fondation égyptologique Reine Élisabeth.: Peeters. Émile 1929 Le temple d’Edfou. Maria-Theresia 1981 Thot à travers ses épithètes dans les scènes d'offrandes des temples d'époque gréco-romaine. 2000b Le temple de Dendara. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 105. 10569). 1987 Le temple de Dendara. pp. and Ursula Verhoeven. Divine. Mass.23. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale 90. ed.110. 1998 Dendara I: Traduction. and Wolfgang Waitkus. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. In Lexikon der Ägyptologie. pp. Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca 12. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale.135. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. Wolfgang Helck. 2001 Dendara IV: Traduction. Raymond 1958 An ancient Egyptian book of hours (Pap. and Wolfhart Westendorf. Louis-André 1955 Temple d'Amon à Karnak: Les divinités des colonnes de la grande salle hypostyle et leurs épithètes. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 101. 2010 Cauville. de Wit. In Edfu: Materialien und Studien. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. 2002a Dendara: Les fêtes d'Hathor. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. ed. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 128.t: Entstehung und Verehrung einer Personifikation. 1 . ed. 1 and 2. Pierre 2002 Le temple de Deir al-Médîna. 1934 Le temple de Dendara. à Karnak II. 91 . (Texts edited and indices by Luc Gabolde. Leiden: Brill. Christophe. Brussels: Fondation égyptologique Reine Élisabeth.) 1990 Les inscriptions dédicatoires du temple d'Hathor à Dendera. UEE 2011 8 . Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 1991 Die Göttin Mr. Bibliothèque d'étude 21. Paris. Dagmar Budde. Chassinat. pp. Bulletin de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale 102. Probleme der Ägyptologie 7. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. Sylvie Le temple de Dendara XIII. 15 . Constant 1962 Les inscriptions du temple d’Opet. Budde. Vol. 6 (column 31). Guglielmi.dendara. Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 81. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 95. 9. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. In Kindgötter im Ägypten der griechisch-römischen Zeit: Zeugnisse aus Stadt und Tempel als Spiegel des interkulturellen Kontakts. 1 . Leuven: Peeters. 83 . du Bourguet. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 88. Waltraud 1986 Stilmittel.2]. Dieter Kurth. 9. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. Leuven: Peeters. Rites égyptiens 3. (Internet resource: http://www. Mémoires publiés par les membres de la mission archéologique française au Caire 121. Brit. Sandra Sandri. and Dudley. “Das Kind.114. Accession date: January 2011. von Kindgöttern und vom König in griechisch-römischen Tempeltexten.

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In The temple in ancient Egypt: New discoveries and recent research. Louis 1988 Hymns to Isis in her temple at Philae. 168 .      Sauneron. Brussels: Fondation égyptologique Reine Élisabeth. Claude 1997 Lessons from the Upper Egypt temple of el-Qal’a. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 79. Marco 1996 A study of the Egyptian god Osiris Hemag. Rites égyptiens 7. Photograph by Ursula Verhoeven. Figure 4. the wabet. Names and epithets identifying the goddess depicted here as Hathor of Dendera. ed. Dendera main temple. Divine. Archeologia e Storia della Civiltà Egiziani e del Vicino Oriente Antico. and Marleen de Meyer 2003 The temple of Shanhûr: The sanctuary. Dudley. Epithets. Mass. Materiali e studi 1. Serge 1982 Esna VIII: L’écriture figurative dans les textes d’Esna. Vol. Inke Wera 1988 Der Gott Sopdu. Names and epithets are here arranged in long lists. Schumacher. and the gates of the central hall and the great vestibule (1 . Filip Coppens. Imola: Editrice La Mandragora. 1: 4. temple of Hathor in Dendera. Hanover: University Press of New England. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 124. Sternberg-el Hotabi.: Peeters. Freiburg: Academic Press. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. pp. Photograph by Dagmar Budde. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Thiers. Christophe 2003 Tôd: Les inscriptions du temple ptolémaïque et romain II: Textes et scènes nos 173 . Names and epithets could be written cryptographically for visual effect as is done here with the name and “personal epithets” of Hathor of Dendera. Roman mammisi in Dendera. (After Chassinat 1934. main temple of Edfu. Budde. Roman mammisi in Dendera. together forming a morning hymn that was recited to wake the gods in the temple at daybreak.178. Photograph by Ursula Verhoeven.) Figure 5. London: British Museum Press. Figure 3.329. thus identifying the god depicted here as Horus of Edfu. Names and epithets often served as labels to deities in wall scenes.) Figure 2. Traunecker. Žabkar.98). Stephen Quirke. Door lintel. 74. Inner sanctuary. Willems. Harco. UEE 2011 10 . Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. Fouilles de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale 18. Heike 1992 Ein Hymnus an die Göttin Hathor und das Ritual “Hathor das Trankopfer darbringen” nach den Tempeltexten der griechisch-römischen Zeit. Names and epithets could be integrated with wall decoration as is done here with name and “personal epithets” of Horus of Edfu. Image Credits Figure 1. (After Chassinat 1929: pl. Zecchi. der Herr der Fremdländer.