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naturais no pantanal Matogrossense. Papeis Avulsos de Zool., S. Paulo, 36(10): 91-101. Cintra, R. 1985b.

80 Relatrio Tcnico (Perf: odo Jan/84 - Mar/85) sobre estudos do . Caiman yacare, realizados na Base de Pesquisas da Fauna do Pantanal. Unpublished Technical Report, Instituto Brasleiro de Oesenvolvimento Florestal, IBOF, Bras(ia. 32 pp. Cintra, R. 1988. Nesting Ecology 01 the Paraguayan Caiman (Caiman yacare) in the '. Brazilian Pantanal. J. Herpetol. 22(2):219222.

Prance, G.T. and G.S. Schaller. 1982. Preliminary study 01 some vegetation types 01 the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Brittonia 34(2):228-251. Rhodin, AG.J., R.A. Miltermeier and J.R. McMorris. 1984. Platemys macrocephala, a new species 01 chelid turtle Irom central Bolivia and the Pantanal region 01 Brazil. Herpetologica 40(1 ):38-46. Schaller, G.S. & P.G. Grawshaw, 1982. Fishing behavior 01 Paraguayan Caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare). Copeia (1):66-72.

RENATO CINTRA Base de Pesquisas da Fauna doPantanal Matogrossense (IBOF) Instituto Brasileiro de Oesenvolvimento Florestal - Pocon, Mato Grosso and CARLOS YAMASHITA CEMAVE - IBDF - Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal Caixa Postal 34, 72000 Brasilia. DF, Brasllia.

Table 2. Sizes 01 eggs 01 Platemys

macrocepha/a.

TECHNIQUES
lENGTH (mm) Nest number f 31.5 31.5 32.5 32 31.8 WIDTH (mm) 30.5 31 31 31 30.8 0.21 29.8 29.7 29.7 29.3 29.60.19 26.5 26.3 26.5 26 25.8 26.5 26.3 0.27 30 29.5 30.5 29.5 29.8 30.4 29.8 31 30 0.49 MASS

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18.5 18.5 19 19 18.8 0.22 20 19.5 19 19 19.3 0.41 13.5 12 13 12 11 12 12.2 0.80 14.5 15.5 16 15.5 17 17.5 16 16 15.71.09

A SIMPLE CODE FOR TOE CLIPPING ANURANS


A limited number of unique toe clipping cedes have been proposed (see Ferner 1979 lor a review). The most widely cited code is that of Martof (1953). Martof's system is appropriate if the study involves thousands of individuals. However, it has the disadvantage of requiring the clipping of many digits lor even numbers 01 two or three digits (e.g., #16 requires clipping threetoes, #66 lour toes and #199 six toes). Clarke (1972) has shown that toe clipping toads reduces the probability of recapture, suggesting that the procedure may be detrimental to them. Underhill (pers. comm. in Daugherty 1976) al so reported weight 1055 in toe-clipped Rana pipiens. Toe clipping may also reduce the mobility of arboreal frogs. A system that minimizes toe clips is prelerred. I have used the system shown in Figure 1. This system allows the first 99 individuals to be marked with only one or two toes clipped (Table 1) and involves the clipping 01 no more than three digits for up to 736 individuals, a number large enough to be adequate for many studies. After 99, not all consecutive numbers are available. When two amputations occur on one side of the body (Ieft or right), the lower digit takes the higher value. For example clipping thefirst and third digits on the right hand side would represent

x . laid in captivity Female 1

SO

0.41

XSO Female 2

x Female 3

SO

SO

30.5 30.5 30.2 30.9 30.5 0.24 28.5 28 29 29.5 28.8 28 28.6 0.53 30 30.3 31 29.5 30 30.5 30.5 31.3 30.4 0.52

Table 3. Oimensions 01 a young and adults 01 Platemys AGE SEX Cl (cm) 3.8 26.5 23 29.5 23.5 Cl/CW 1. 2. 3. 4. Hatchling 1.36 1.48 1.44 1.38 1.46 CW (cm) 2.6 19.5 15.5 20.5 17 CLlCH 2.52 2.71 2.46 2.61 4.22 CH (cm) .9 10.5 8.5 12 9 Pl/PW 1.37 1.42 1.45 1.52 1.12

macrocepha/a. PW (cm) 2.4 17.5 14 17.5 14 CW/PW 1.11 1.10 1.17 1.21 1.10 Pl (cm) 2.7 24 20 25.5 21.3 HW (cm) 1.3 5.7 5.5 6.7 5.1 MASS

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10 2.507 1.590 3.257 1.757

Hatchling 1. Adult 2. Adult 3. Adult 4. Adult

? F F F M

F = Female; M = Male; Cl = Carapace length; CW = Carapace Width; CH Plastron Width; HW = Head Width; Pl = Plastron length

= Carapace

Height; PW

Figure 1. A simple code lortoe clipping anurans. Note, when two clips are made on one si de of the body, the number in brackets is adopted by the lowest digit (e.g. marking the first and third digits on the right foot would represent number 103 not 301).

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Herp Review 20(3), 1989

\thenumber 103, not 301. Hence it is then necessary to delete those numbers which +bcome obsolete-(e.g., number 301 eannot be <used). Repeating marks can be avoided by 'ustnca table 01 clip codes (Table 1) and -checking thecodes as they are used. In additlon to minimizing the number 01 clips, this simplilied system is easily remembered, thus allowing more rapid marking and recognition of frogs in the field. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank 8ill Magnusson and the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia for their support and Lyn Cocceti lrom CAL T at Griffith University for preparing the table and figure. This research was partially funded by grant no. 301299-86/Z0 lrom the Brazilian Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientilico e Tecnologico to W.E. Magnusson.

LlTERATURE

CITED

MATERIALS

ANO METHOOS

Clark, R.D. 1972. The effect of toe clipping on survival in Fowlers toad (Bufo woodhousei fowleri). Copeia 1972:182-185. Daugherty, C.H. 1976. Freeze-branding as a technique for marking anurans. Copeia 1976 (4):836-838. Ferner, J.W. 1979. A review 01 marking techniques for amphibians and reptiles. SSAR. Herpetol. Cire. (9):41 pp. Martof, 8.S. 1953. Territoriality in the green frog Rana clamitans. Ecology 34:165-174. JEAN-MARC HERO Depto. Ecologia Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia Amazonas, 8RASIL
Current Address: Division 01 Australian Environmental Studies, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 Australia

NUMBERS AVAILABLE 1 Toe Clip

Total number of unique marks 18

1.2,3.4,5.6.7.8.9,10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80,90 11-19.21-29,31-39,41-49, ....91-99. 102-109.203-209.304-309,405-409.506-509. 607-609, 708.709,809 1020.1030,1040,1050,1060, 1070, 1080, 1090 112-119,122-129,132-139,142-149, ........ 192-199 213-219.223-229, 233-239, 243-249, ........ 293-299 314-319.324-329. 334-339, 344-349, ........ 392-399 415-419, 425-429 ..................................... , 495-499 516-519, 526-529, ...................................... 596-599 617-619.627-629 ...................................... 697-699 718-719.728-729, ...................................... , 798-799 819, 829, 839. 849, .................................... 889. 899 1021-1029,1031-1039.1041-1049 ......... 1091-1099 2031-2039, 2041-2049 ............................ 2091-2099 3041-3049. 3051-3059 ............................ 3091-3099 4051-4059, 4061-4069, ............................ 4091-4099 5061-5069. 5071-5079, ............................ , 5091-5099 6071-6079, 6081-6089, 6091-6099 7081-7089, 7091-7099 8091-8099

2
Toe Clips

124

3 Toe Clips

736

Table 1. Numbers available using 1,2 and 3 clips, and the accumulated total number of unique marks available. Note that after 99 not all numbers are available (see explanation in text).

HERPETOLOGICAL HUSBANDRV
See Herp. structions. Review 20(1) for euthor's in-

ARTIFICIAL HIBERNATION OF GARTER (Thamnophis sp.) ANO CORN (Elaphe guttata guttata) SNAKES
Previous studies utilizing artilicial hibernation lor garter snakes report high rates 01

mortality (24% for adult females and 50% lor adult males in Vagvolgyi and Halpern 1983; and 47.2% and 63%, resp., lor adults in Joy and Crews 1987). During the course 01 our studies on chemosensory structures and functions in snakes, we have used artificial hibernation as a means of simulating natural conditions and lowering the cost 01 rnaintaining captive garter snakes (Thamnophis sp.) and corn snakes (Elaphe guttata guttata). The methods described below have provided a high survival rate lor both adult and neonatal snakes. In addition, we observed robust courtship behavior and successful mating for both genera.

AII animals were contained in plastic sweater boxes (Hugh H. Wilson Co., Sunbury, PA), measuring either 40.6 x 27.3 x 16.5 cm (model 0957) or 40.6 x 27.3 x 9.5 cm (model 0956), with air holes in the cover. AII snakes, except for T. sirtalis parietalis. were provided with pine shavings as a substrate. Three brown paper towels were used to line the bottom for T. S. parietalis. One bowl 01 tap water, cooled down to hibernating temperatures, was placed in each sweater box. In September 1986, 50.50 adult T. S. parietalis were purchased commercially, group housed by sex, and maintained at ambient temperature (25 C 2) lor several days with water ad libitum. On 16 September, mal e snakes were separated into groups 01 12 or 14/sweater box, and lemales were separated into groups 01 eight or t O/sweater box. AII sweater boxes were then put into large cardboard boxes, which were closed and put into a relrigerated room (5 C 5, but never below 0 C). A large piece 01 opaque plastic was placed over the cardboard boxes to prevent Iight Irom entering the boxes and to keep humidity high. No acclimation period was provided nor did we attempt to leed the snakes prior to hibernation. AII snakes appeared healthy. Water and paper towels were changed every three weeks under red light illumination; otherwise the snakes were left undisturbed for 111 days (males) and 112-125 days (Iemales). On 16 October 1987, 12.15 adult T. marcianus, collected by the first author in LaSalle CO., TX and purchased commercially, were put into sweater boxes (four males/box and 3-4 females/box) and placed within an unlit low-temperature incubator (Queue Systems, Model 1210, Parkersburg, WV). On the same day, 7.7 adult corn snakes were put in sweater boxes individually and placed within the same incubator with the T. marcianus. AII snakes were exposed to declining temperatures (16 to 10 C 2) over 18 days. Water was changed every two weeks, and the pine shavings were not changed during the hibernation periodo Priorto hibernation, these snakes had been maintained in the laboratory on a 12:12 h lighl:dark cycle at ambient temperatures. T. marcianus were fed as many goldfish as they would eat once/week, and the corn snakes were fed one adult mouse/week. Water was available ad libitum. Feeding was discontinued one week prior to hibernation. AII snakes were brought out 01 hibernation after 73 days, directly into ambient room ternperatures. On 22 September 1988, 118 male and lemale T. S. parietalis, purchased cornrnercially, were randomly distributed into sweater boxes (10 snakes/box) and put into hibernation as described previously for this species. Twenty-eight snakes were removed after 92 days in hibernation, 20 snakes alter 99 days, nine after 119 days, 20 after 131 days, 10 after " 153 days, and 30 after 180 days. Table 1 shows the hibernation periods for corn snakes, T. marcianus, T. redix, and T. proximus proximus in 1988. AII of these snakes were hibernated in the same manner as described lor the snakes in 1987 except no acclimation period was given. These snakes were exposed to 10 C 2 Irom the onset. Juvenile corn snakes were not hibernated

Herp Review 20(3), 1989

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