ejge paper 2004 -0476

http://www.ejge.com/2004/Ppr0476/Ppr0476.htm

Yusuf Erzin
Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Sivas, Turkey e-mail: erzin@cumhuriyet.edu.tr

and

Orhan Erol
Professor of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey e-mail: orer@metu.edu.tr

Investigations are reported which aimed at developing an equation for quick prediction of swell pressures from easily determined soil properties. BentoniteKaolinite clay mixtures were prepared to obtain soils in a wide range of plasticity indices. A total of 80 constant volume swell tests in oedometers were performed on statically compacted specimens with varying properties. Swell pressure--plasticity index--water content--dry density interrelationships were evaluated. Swell pressure is correlated to the soil properties, namely, plasticity index, water content, liquidity index and dry density, using multiple regression analyses. The analyses have confirmed the existence of strong correlations between the swell pressure and the soil properties. The correlations revealed a simple regression equation for a quick prediction of swell pressures from easily determined soil properties.

KEYWORDS: Swell pressure, soil properties, plasticity index, expansive soil.

Expansive soils are that clay soils which exhibit significant volume changes because of soil moisture variation. Expansive soils are a worldwide problem that poses several challenges for civil engineers. Foundations constructed on these clays are subjected to large uplift forces caused by swelling, and inducing heaving, cracking, and break up of both building foundations and slabs on grade members. Heave problems account for more economic loss than all other soil problems. The

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PL or wP: plastic limit. 1981). type of clay mineral. Bentonite-Kaolinite clay mixtures were prepared to obtain soils in a wide range of plasticity indices. clay content. 1969. using multiple regression analyses. 1988).5. is due to the presence of expanding clay minerals. Standard constant volume swell tests (ASTM D-4546) were performed on statically compacted samples of the clay mixtures with intial water contents of 10.ejge. Table 1. PI or Ip: plasticity index Editor's note: This paper uses the old metric system unit of kg/cm2 which is equal to approximately 100 kPa in SI (the use of kg. and release of intrinsic stresses caused by overconsolidation or dessication of soils (Dhowian et al. 1 for samples at an intial water content of 15%. El-Sohby and El-Sayed.00 LL (wL) (%) 50 70 88 105 118 PL (wP) (%) 20 20 20 21 21 PI (Ip) (%) 30 50 68 84 87 LL or wL: liquid limit. Azam and Abduljauwad. initial water content. type of coarse grained fraction (El-Sohby and ElSayed.04 16. The analyses have confirmed the existence of strong correlations between the swell pressure and the soil properties.67 20. in general. and the swell pressures of each specimen. the mass unit. 1. Swell pressure was correlated to the soil properties. It is of the purpose of this paper to investigate an equation for a quick prediction of swell pressures of clayey soils from easily determined some soil properties. For this reason.com/2004/Ppr0476/Ppr0476. were directly measured. possessing plasticity indices. 1981. 1983. The data trends were similar for the 2 of 6 27/02/2013 16:36 .96 83.00 Bentonite % by weight 4. The major factors affecting the swelling of such soils are mainly concerned with the physical properties of the particles and the mass of soil. initial water contents and initial dry densities. hydration of cations on clay surfaces. The dependence of the swell pressure on the soil properties. initial dry density and plasticity index was examined. 1.ejge paper 2004 -0476 http://www.. The dependence of the swell pressure on both the initial dry density and the plasticity index is shown in Fig. and 1. 1988). 1999.htm cost of damages arising from expansive soil problems in the United States alone amounts to $2. as if it were a force. namely. initial dry density. In order to obtain clays possessing a wide range of plasticity index commercially processed kaolinite and bentonite mineral clays were mixed in preselected proportions. Many investigations were carried out to analyse the factors affecting the swelling of clayey soils (Komornik and David. 15.09 13.76 9. The composition and the consistency limits of the five clay mixtures used Clay mixture type 1 2 3 4 5 Kaolinite % by weight 95.. The composition and the consistency limits of the five clay mixtures are shown in Table 1. The correlations revealed a simple regression equation for a quick prediction of swell pressures from easily determined soil properties. Al-Mhaidib.91 86. 20. and 25% and having initial dry densities of 1.3 billion annualy (Dhowian et al.8 g/cm3 in conventional oedometer cells.6.24 90.7. 2000). such as initial water content. is unacceptable in SI).33 80. The swelling of soils. Swell pressures were directly measured from the constant volume swell tests performed on statically compacted specimens with varying properties.

htm entire range of initial water contents covered.ejge paper 2004 -0476 http://www. 3 of 6 27/02/2013 16:36 .com/2004/Ppr0476/Ppr0476. indicating that an increase in the plasticity index or an increase in the initial dry density results in a higher swell pressure value for samples having the same initial water content. The figure also shows that for samples at an initial water content at or above the plastic limit the swell pressure decreased with an increase in the water content. The figure shows that the initial water content has a small or no effect on the swell pressure for samples at an initial water content less than the plastic limit. Similar results were observed by El-Sohby and El-Sayed (1981) and Erol and Dhowian (1990). 2 for the clay mixture with plasticity index of 84. The relationship between initial water content and swell pressure is shown in Fig.ejge. which is 20 for the clay mixture in the figure. The data trends were similar for the entire range of plasticity indices covered. The relationship between initial water content and swell pressure for the clay mixture with plasticity index of 84. The dependence of the swell pressure on the initial dry density and the plasticity index for samples at an intial water content of 15%. Figure 1. Figure 2.

These analyses with high coefficients of multiple determination confirm the existence of strong correlations between the logarithm swell pressure and the soil properties IP. These analyses with high coefficients of multiple determination confirm the existence of strong correlations between the logarithm swell pressure and the soil properties IP .357 + 2. Table 2.0.3 log Ps = -3.853 rdry .785 + 2.4. 1969).01405 PI + 2. namely.4 log Ps = -3.084 rdry .8 2.0.408 rdry . PS is the swell pressure in kg/cm2.0117 w 98.0215 w 91.037 rdry . (%) Equation no. Dev.1 3. IL and rdry. and Std. = 10. Dev.995 + 2.0.819 IL R2 = 93.0.ejge. In equations 1 to 5 in Table 2.0128 w 98.989 IL 95. The same units and symbols will be used in subsequent analysis.3 15. PI or IP (%) Equation 30 50 68 84 97 R (%) Std.854 rdry -1. The liquidity index (IL) combines consistency limits and the in-situ moisture content of the soil (Lambe and Whitman. So.681 + 1. Equations obtained from the correlation of swell pressures to the initial dry density and the liquidity index. Equations obtained from the correlation of swell pressures to the initial dry density and the initial water content.1. as mentioned before.210 + 2.0163 wi Std.Dev.htm The multiple regression analyses were carried out to correlate the logarithm of the measured swell pressures to the soil properties.com/2004/Ppr0476/Ppr0476.1% (11) log Ps = -5.8 Combined analyses including the entire range of the plasticity indices revealed the following correlations: log Ps = .929 + 1. Table 3. and revealed the results as shown in Table 2. initial water content and initial dry density.0 3. rdry is the initial dry density in g/cm3.6 2. Then.0.394 rdry .197 + 0.736 IL 85.0.ejge paper 2004 -0476 http://www.7 As the values of the initial water content exceed the plastic limit its influence on the swell pressure is significant.01457 PI + 2.0.315 rdry .7 log Ps = -5. Dev. (12) 4 of 6 27/02/2013 16:36 .072 IL 98. w is the initial water content in %.0247 w 85. the liquidity index value of each specimen was calculated.7 6.083 + 2.862 rdry .689 + 2.077 IL 91.859 rdry .2 15.914 + 3. (%) Equation no.116 IL 98.1. the dependence of the swell pressure on the soil properties IL and rdry was investigated. 1 2 3 4 5 log Ps = -5.6 log Ps = -4.5 log Ps = -3.8 log Ps = -2.0.6 11. is the standard deviation. Dev.0 6.7 log Ps = -2. 6 7 8 9 10 log Ps = -5. w and rdry.033 rdry . The multiple regression analyses carried out to correlate the logarithm of the swell pressures to the two soil properties IL and rdry revealed the results as shown in Table 3.1 log Ps = -3.9% R2 = 94.424 + 3.8% Std.0.4 11. PI or Ip (%) Equation 30 50 68 84 97 R (%) Std.812 + 0. R is the coefficient of multiple determination.310 rdry .0150 w 96.082 rdry .

the dependence of the swell pressure on two soil properties.020 + 0. namely.ejge paper 2004 -0476 http://www. plasticity index and initial dry density. namely. 12 and 13 reveal high coefficients of multiple correlation of R2 = 94.htm = 11. 2.6%. plasticity index and initial dry density. Figure 3. indicating strong correlations between the swell pressure and soil properties.com/2004/Ppr0476/Ppr0476. The data trends and the statistical analysis presented throught the study reveals the following: 1. it is expected that the swell pressure of a clayey soil could be predicted using Equation 13 from easily determined soil properties. R2 = 93.6% Std.8% and R2 = 89. So. Comparison of measured/predicted swell pressures. In addition. was investigated. and revealed a simple regression equation for a quick prediction of swell pressures from easily determined soil properties.2% These results with high coefficients of multiple determination confirm the existence of strong correlations between the logarithm swell pressure and the soil properties.ejge. The data trends in the figure indicates that there is a good agreement between the measured and predicted swell pressures. but less affected by initial water content.01383 PI + 2. The swell pressure is strongly dependent on initial dry density and plasticity index. Significant correlations exist between the swell pressure and the soil properties. 5 of 6 27/02/2013 16:36 . The swell pressures obtained from Equation 11 are compared with the measured swell pressures in Fig. respectively. = 14. 3. The multiple regression analyses carried out to correlate the logarith of the swell pressures to the two soil properties IP and rdry revealed the following equation: log Ps = -5. Dev.1%. However.356 rdry R2 = 89. Equations 11 and 12 has three soil properties while Equation 13 has two soil properties.4% (13) Equations 11.

M. No. pp. 1999.John Wiley and Sons. 2.W.Y. Geotechnical Engineering. 3. S. M. El-Sayed. T. Abduljauwad. 7. El..com/2004/Ppr0476/Ppr0476. Vol. R. Al-Mhaidip. and S. Azam. and A. Komornik. 4. © 2004 ejge 6 of 6 27/02/2013 16:36 .ejge paper 2004 -0476 http://www. 6. pp. 1969.A.. SM1. Orhan Erol. 5. David.Sohby. and A. 16. and A. 291-307. 1990. Vol.N. 1981.Sohby. N. El-Sayed.W. Erol. 6. R.126. El. Mineralogy and swelling of expansive clayey soils. Vol. 1969. 8. 14. Influence of gypsification on engineering behavior of expansive clay. Soil Mechanics. 538-542. Journal of SMFE Div. Swelling behavior of expansive shales from the middle region of Saudi Arabia. A. 243-254. O.A. Vol. 19-39. Vol. pp. King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology. Swell behavior of arid climate shales from Saudi Arabia. 95. QJEG. ASTM Method D. and R.. 1988. Prediction of swelling pressure of clays. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. A.ejge. 209-225. Vol. Riyad. Y. 1990.. pp. ASTM. 1983. pp. 79-87. Inc. Evaluation of expansive soils and foundation methodology in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Some factors affecting swelling of clayey soils. ASCE.. Whitman. and Abdulfattah. Lambe. Dhowian A.htm 1. Geotechnical Engineering. and D. No. pp. 2000. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering.23. Dhowian. Test methods for one-dimensional swell or settlement potential of cohesive soils. 12. 9.

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