GATE EC 2007

Q.1 to Q.20 carry one mark each
MCQ 1.1

If E denotes expectation, the variance of a random variable X is given by (A) E [X2] − E2 [X] (B) E [X2] + E2 [X] (C) E [X2] (D) E2 [X] The variance of a random variable x is given by E [X2] − E2 [X] Hence (A) is correct option. The following plot shows a function which varies linearly with x . The value of the integral I = ydx # 1
2

SOL 1.1

MCQ 1.2

is

(A) 1.0 (C) 4.0
SOL 1.2

(B) 2.5 (D) 5.0

The given plot is straight line whose equation is x +y =1 −1 1 or Now y = x+1 I = ydx # 1
2

=

(x + 1) dx # 1
2

=;

(x + 1) 2 2 9 4 E = − = 2.5 2 2 2

MCQ 1.3

For x << 1, coth (x) can be approximated as Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

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SOL 1.3

(A) x (C) 1 x Hence (C) is correct answer. coth x = cosh x sinh x as x << 1, cosh x . 1 and sinh x . x Thus coth x . 1 x sin b θ l 2 is lim θ"0 θ (A) 0.5 (C) 2

(B) x2 (D) 12 x

MCQ 1.4

(B) 1 (D) not defined

SOL 1.4

Hence (A) is correct answer. θ sin ^ θ sin ^ θ 2h 2h 1 lim sin ^ 2 h = 1 = 0.5 lim = lim = θ"0 θ " 0 2^ θ h 2 θ 2 θ"0 ^ θ 2 2h Which one of following functions is strictly bounded? (A) 1/x2 (B) ex (C) x2 (D) e - x
2

MCQ 1.5

SOL 1.5

Hence (D) is correct answer. We have, lim 12 = 3 x"0 x lim x2 = 3
x"3 x"3

lim e - x = 3
2

x"3

lim e - x = 0
2

lim e - x = 1
x"0

Thus e - x is strictly bounded.

2

MCQ 1.6

For the function e - x , the linear approximation around x = 2 is (A) (3 − x) e - 2 (B) 1 − x (C) 63 + 3 2 − (1 − 2 ) x @e - 2 (D) e - 2 Hence (A) is correct answer. We have f (x) = e - x = e - (x - 2) - 2 = e - (x - 2) e - 2 = ;1 − (x − 2) + (x − 2) 2 ...E e - 2 2! Neglecting higher powers Visit us at: www.nodia.co.in

SOL 1.6

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= (3 − x) e - 2
MCQ 1.7

An independent voltage source in series with an impedance Zs = Rs + jXs delivers a maximum average power to a load impedance ZL when (B) ZL = Rs (A) ZL = Rs + jXs (C) ZL = jXs (D) ZL = Rs − jXs According to maximum Power Transform Theorem * ZL = Zs = (Rs − jXs) Hence (D) is correct option. The RC circuit shown in the figure is

SOL 1.7

MCQ 1.8

(A) a low-pass filter (C) a band-pass filter
SOL 1.8

(B) a high-pass filter (D) a band-reject filter

At ω " 3 , capacitor acts as short circuited and circuit acts as shown in fig below

Here we get V0 = 0 Vi At ω " 0 , capacitor acts as open circuited and circuit look like as shown in fig below

Here we get also V0 = 0 Vi So frequency response of the circuit is as shown in fig and circuit is a Band pass filter.

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Hence (C) is correct option.
MCQ 1.9

The electron and hole concentrations in an intrinsic semiconductor are ni per cm3 at 300 K. Now, if acceptor impurities are introduced with a concentration of NA per cm3 (where NA >> ni , the electron concentration per cm3 at 300 K will be) (A) ni (B) ni + NA (C) NA − ni
2 (D) ni NA

SOL 1.9

As per mass action law np = ni2 If acceptor impurities are introduces p = NA Thus nNA = ni2 2 or n = ni NA Hence option (D) is correct. In a p+ n junction diode under reverse biased the magnitude of electric field is maximum at (A) the edge of the depletion region on the p -side (B) the edge of the depletion region on the n -side (C) the p+ n junction (D) the centre of the depletion region on the n -side The electric field has the maximum value at the junction of p+ n . Hence option (C) is correct. The correct full wave rectifier circuit is

MCQ 1.10

SOL 1.10

MCQ 1.11

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Hence (C) is correct option.gatehelp. X = 01110 and Y = 11001 are two 5-bit binary numbers represented in two’s complement format.12 In a transconductance amplifier. MCQ 1.Page 5 GATE EC 2007 www.12 In the transconductance amplifier it is desirable to have large input resistance and large output resistance.co.13 SOL 1. Hence (A) is correct option.13 MSB of Y is 1.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . The sum of X and Y represented in two’s complement format using 6 bits is (A) 100111 (B) 0010000 (C) 000111 (D) 101001 MCQ 1.11 The circuit shown in (C) is correct full wave rectifier circuit. thus it is negative number and X is positive number Now we have X = 01110 = (14) 10 and Y = 11001 = (− 7) 10 X + Y = (14) + (− 7) = 7 In signed two’s complements from 7 is (7) 10 = 000111 Visit us at: www. it is desirable to have (A) a large input resistance and a large output resistance (B) a large input resistance and a small output resistance (C) a small input resistance and a large output resistance (D) a small input resistance and a small output resistance SOL 1.com SOL 1.nodia.

then which of the following is NOT true (A) R (τ) = R (− τ) (B) R (τ) # R (0) (C) R (τ) =− R (− τ) (D) The mean square value of the process is R (0) Autocorrelation is even function.co.CD This is SOP form and we require only 3 NAND gate s−5 If the closed-loop transfer function of a control system is given as T (s) (s + 2)( s + 3) . MCQ 1.Page 6 GATE EC 2007 www. 1 Y (s) = s (s − 1) Final value theorem is applicable only when all poles of system lies in left half of S -plane.input NAND gates. wide-sense stationary random process. Thus it is unbounded. Y = AB + CD = AB . wide-sense stationary random process. all the poles as well as zeros are on the left half of the s −plane. then It is (A) an unstable system (B) an uncontrollable system (C) a minimum phase system (D) a non-minimum phase system MCQ 1. Hence (D) is correct option.18 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.16 SOL 1.17 If R (τ) is the auto correlation function of a real. In given system as there is right half zero (s = 5). 1 If the Laplace transform of a signal Y (s) = . MCQ 1. then which of the following is ALWAYS true? (B) S (f) \$ 0 (A) S (0) # S (f) SOL 1.14 The Boolean function Y = AB + CD is to be realized using only 2 .15 SOL 1. then its final value is s (s − 1) (A) − 1 (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) Unbounded Hence (D) is correct answer. The minimum number of gates required is (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 SOL 1. the system is a nonminimum phase system.in . Here s = 1 is right s −plane pole.16 MCQ 1.17 MCQ 1.15 In a minimum phase system.gatehelp.14 Hence (B) is correct answer.com Hence (C) is correct answer. Hence (C) is correct option If S (f) is the power spectral density of a real.nodia.

ds s s 2D H \$ dl = `J + 2t j . we require two dimensions to define them and similarly Visit us at: www. orthogonal vectors.c π 3 x! π y λ λ mE MCQ 1.. Thus it is always zero or greater than zero. A plane wave of wavelength λ is traveling in a direction making an angle 30c with positive x − axis and 90c with positive y − axis.ωt ..co.3 S (f) df = 0 3 Power spectral density is non negative.nodia..com (C) S (− f) =− S (f) SOL 1. 4# H = J + 2D 2t 2D 4# H \$ ds = `J + 2t j . X2 . The E field of the plane wave can be represented as (E0 is constant) t 0 e j c ωt − (A) E = yE t 0 e jc ωt + (C) E = yE 3 π x− π z λ λ m 3 π x+ π z λ λ m MCQ 1..21 to Q... X2. XM . then magnetic field intensity H .gatehelp...18 (D) #.ds Maxwell Equations Integral form Stokes Theorem ## # ## ## s Q. XM SOL 1.Page 7 GATE EC 2007 www..in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . γ = β cos 30cx ! β sin 30cy = 2π 3 x ! 2π 1 y λ 2 λ 2 = π 3 x! πy λ λ E = ay E0 e j (ωt .21 For two orthogonal vectors. − XM is (A) 2M (B) M + 1 (C) M (D) dependent on the choice of X1..19 Hence (A) is correct option.XM at M non-zero. MCQ 1.. X2.20 If C is code curve enclosing a surface S . − X2. the current density j and the electric flux density D are related by 2D 2D (B) H \$ d l = (A) H \$ ds = c j + 2t m \$ d t c j + 2t m \$ dS S c S S ## ## # ## (C) SOL 1. − X1. The dimension of the vector space spanned by the 2M vectors X1. Hence (B) is correct option.75 carry two marks each.21 It is given that X1.20 H \$ dS = # c j + 2D m \$ d t ## 2t S C (D) H \$ d l # = ## c j + 2D m \$ ds # 2t C S c Hence (D) is correct option.19 t 0 e jc ωt − λ x − (B) E = yE t 0 e jc ωt − λ x + (D) E = yE π π 3πz λ m 3πz λ m SOL 1.γ) = ay E0 e j.

gatehelp.in MCQ 1.2 = 0.06 SOL 1.24 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . 2M vectors are basically M orthogonal vector and we require M dimensions to define them.18 (C) 0. 10) = 18 Hence (A) is correct answer.23 Hence (C) is correct answer.Page 8 GATE EC 2007 www.22 Consider the function f (x) = x2 − x − 2 . The maximum value in closed 2 interval 6− 4.6 # 0. when A student has failed in paper 2 is P^ B h = 0.6.2. Probability of failing in paper 1 is P (A) = 0.6 We know that (P + B) Pb A l = B P (B) or P (A + B) = P (B) P b A l = 0. 4] is (A) 18 (B) 10 (C) − 225 (D) indeterminate f (x) = x2 − x + 2 f'( x) = 2x − 1 = 0 " x = 1 2 f"( x) = 2 Since f"( x) = 2 > 0 . Given that a student has failed in Paper 2.12 (D) 0.3 and that in Paper 2 is 0.co.nodia. The maximum value of f (x) in the closed interval [− 4.22 We have MCQ 1.2 Probability of failing in paper 1. The probability of a student failing in both the papers is (A) 0.12 B d2 y The solution of the differential equation k2 2 = y − y2 under the boundary dx conditions (i) y = y1 at x = 0 and Visit us at: www. the probability of failing in Paper 1 is 0. f (4)] = max (18. Paper 1 and Paper 2. thus x = 1 is minimum point.5 (B) 0.23 An examination consists of two papers. Hence (C) is correct answer.3 Possibility of failing in Paper 2 is P (B) = 0. The probability of failing in Paper 1 is 0.com for three orthogonal vector we require three dimensions to define them. SOL 1. 4@ will be at x =− 4 or x = 4 Now maximum value = max [f (− 4). MCQ 1.

D2 − 12 = 0 k or D =! 1 k C.co. = Thus solution is x k x k (B) y = (y2 − y1) exp a− x k + y1 k (D) y = ^y1 − y2h exp a− x k + y2 k SOL 1. then next approximation using this method will be (A) 2/3 (B) 4/3 (C) 1 (D) 3/2 SOL 1.+ C2 e + y2 From y (0) = y1 we get C1 + C2 = y1 − y2 From y (3) = y2 we get that C1 must be zero. f2 (t) and f3 (t) which are zero outside the interval [0.24 2 − y2 1 c 2 m = y2 D2 − 12 k k x k x k y = C1 e . Thus C2 = y1 − y2 y = (y1 − y2) e . = C1 e .gatehelp. y1 and y2 are constants.25 We have f (x) = x3 − x2 + 4x − 4 f'( x) = 3x2 − 2x + 4 Taking x0 = 2 in Newton-Raphosn method 23 − 22 + 4 (2) − 4 f (x0) =4 x1 = x0 − = 2− 2 3 f'( x0) 3 (2) − 2 (2) + 4 Hence (B) is correct answer.E.Page 9 GATE EC 2007 www.I.com (ii) y = y2 at x = 3 . where k.Raphson method. T] are shown in the figure.nodia.25 The equation x3 − x2 + 4x − 4 = 0 is to be solved using the Newton .in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . Which of the following statements is correct? Visit us at: www.+ y2 x k MCQ 1. If x = 2 is taken as the initial approximation of the solution.F.26 Three functions f1 (t). is (A) y = (y1 − y2) exp a− x2 k + y2 k (C) y = ^y1 − y2h sinh a x k + y1 k Hence (D) is correct answer. MCQ 1.+ C2 e P. d2 y We have k2 2 = y − y2 dx 2 d y y y or − 2 =− 2 2 dx k k2 A.

26 (B) f1 (t) and f3 (t) are orthogonal (D) f1 (t) and f2 (t) are orthonormal =0 For two orthogonal signal f (x) and g (x) #.nodia. common area between f (x) and g (x) is zero. If the semi-circular control D of radius 2 is as shown in the figure.Page 10 GATE EC 2007 www.co. Hence (C) is correct options.com (A) f1 (t) and f2 (t) are orthogonal (C) f2 (t) and f3 (t) are orthogonal SOL 1.e.27 (B) − jπ (D) π We know that 1 ds = 2πj [sum of residues] 2 s − 1 D Singular points are at s = ! 1 but only s =+ 1 lies inside the given contour. then the value 1 of the integral ds is 2 (s − 1) D # (A) jπ (C) − π SOL 1.in .27 +3 f (x) g (x) dx i.gatehelp.3 MCQ 1. Thus Residue at s =+ 1 is # Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.

2 Ω V. Let the 3-dB bandwidth of Filter 1 be B1 and that of Filter 2 be B2 .29 (A) (C) SOL 1. Therefore L Bandwidth of filter 1 is B1 = R L1 Bandwidth of filter 2 is B2 = R = R = 4R L2 L1 L1 /4 Dividing above equation B1 = 1 B2 4 Hence (D) is correct option.29 4 3 4 3 V.gatehelp. 2 Ω Here Vth is voltage across node also.com lim (s − 1) f (s) = lim (s − 1) s"1 s"1 1 =1 s2 − 1 2 D 1 ds = 2πj 1 = πj # s2 − `2j 1 Hence (A) is correct answer.in .28 (B) 1 (D) 1/4 We know that bandwidth of series RLC circuit is R .co.Page 11 GATE EC 2007 www. MCQ 1. 2 3 Ω (D) 4 V. the Thevenin voltage and resistance looking into X − Y are MCQ 1. For the circuit shown in the figure.nodia. the value B1 is B2 (A) 4 (C) 1/2 SOL 1. Applying nodal analysis we get Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. 2 3 Ω (B) 4 V.28 Two series resonant filters are as shown in the figure.

50 exp (− 12. where t is in seconds is given by (A) 0. Vc (0+) = 0 At t = 3 .nodia. For t > 0 . VC (3) = 5 V The equivalent resistance seen by capacitor as shown in fig is Req = 20 20 = 10kΩ Visit us at: www. vC is 0 volts at t = 0 sec.25t) mA The voltage across capacitor is At t = 0+ .30 (B) 0.25 exp (− 25t) mA (D) 0. MCQ 1.gatehelp.co.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .5t) mA SOL 1. the capacitor current iC (t) .com Vth + Vth + Vth − 2i = 2 2 1 1 But from circuit i = Vth = Vth 1 Therefore Vth + Vth + Vth − 2Vth = 2 2 1 1 or Vth = 4 volt From the figure shown below it may be easily seen that the short circuit current at terminal XY is isc = 2 A because i = 0 due to short circuit of 1 Ω resistor and all current will pass through short circuit.50 exp (− 25t) mA (C) 0.Page 12 GATE EC 2007 www.25 exp (− 6. Therefore Hence (D) is correct option.30 Rth = Vth = 4 = 2 Ω isc 2 In the circuit shown.

31 In the ac network shown in the figure.2 V.32 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . the phasor voltage VAB (in Volts) is (A) 0 (C) 12.04 s Using direct formula Vc (t) = VC (3) − [Vc (3) − Vc (0)] e−t/τ = VC (3) (1 − e−t/τ) + VC (0) e−t/τ = 5 (1 − e−t/0. Impedance (5) 2 − (3j) 2 = 25 + 9 = 3.gatehelp.co.in SOL 1.04) or Vc (t) = 5 (1 − e−25t) dV (t) Now IC (t) = C C dt = 4 # 10−6 # (− 5 # 25e−25t) = 0.32 A p+ n junction has a built-in potential of 0.8 + 1.8 V. the depletion layer width will be (A) 4 μm (B) 4.Page 13 GATE EC 2007 www. W = K V + VR Now 2μ = K 0. MCQ 1.nodia.5e−25t mA Hence (A) is correct option.31 (B) 5+30c (D) 17+30c = (5 − 3j) (5 + 3j) = = (5 − 3j) # (5 + 3j) 5 − 3j + 5 + 3j Hence (D) is correct option. The depletion layer width a reverse bias of 1.com Time constant of the circuit is τ = Req C = 10k # 4μ = 0.4 10 10 VAB = Current # Impedance = 5+30c # 34 = 17+30c MCQ 1.2 V is 2 μm.9 μm (C) 8 μm (D) 12 μm Hence option (A) is correct.5+30c SOL 1.2 From above two equation we get Visit us at: www. For a reverse bias of 7.

-2 (B) P .1. R .990 (D) 0. Match each device in Group I with one of the option in Group II to indicate the bias condition of the device in its normal mode of operation.gatehelp.2.35 Group I lists four different semiconductor devices.34 Hence option (B) is correct.995 MCQ 1.34 SOL 1.8 + 7.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . Thus Zener diode : Reverse Bias Solar Cell : Forward Bias Laser Diode : Forward Bias Avalanche Photo diode : Reverse Bias Hence option (B) is correct. S .985 51 # 0. the base transport factor is (A) 0.1. Group .985 (C) 0.33 Zener diode and Avalanche diode works in the reverse bias and laser diode works in forward bias. R . In solar cell diode works in forward bias but photo current is in reverse direction. Q .995. R .2. match each device in Group I with its charactecteristic property in Group II Group-I Group-II (P) BJT (1) Population iniversion (Q) MOS capacitor (2) Pinch-off voltage Visit us at: www.2. S.980 (B) 0.2 (D) P .33 0. The DC current gain (β) of a BJT is 50.nodia. Q .1.Page 14 GATE EC 2007 www. S . Q .1.2.2 (C) P . β = 50 = 50 α= β + 1 50 + 1 51 Current Gain = Base Transport Factor # Emitter injection Efficiency α = β1 # β2 50 or β1 = α = = 0.1.com W = 2μ or MCQ 1.2 = 0. Q . R .I Group-II (P) Zener Diode (1) Forward bias (Q) Solar cell (2) Reverse bias (R) LASER diode (S) Avalanche Photodiode (A) P .8 + 1. Assuming that the emitter injection efficiency is 0.995 β2 MCQ 1. S .2.2 SOL 1.2.co.1.2 W2 = 4 μ m 8 =2 2 Group I lists four types of p − n junction diodes.

R .4.1. R .5 V We redraw the circuit as shown in fig.4 In BJT as the B-C reverse bias voltage increases. V0 is MCQ 1.3.1.gatehelp. Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.4. R .3. Q . In LASER population inversion occurs on the condition when concentration of electrons in one energy state is greater than that in lower energy state. For the Op-Amp circuit shown in the figure.Page 15 GATE EC 2007 www.1. neutral base width) > A change in neutral base width will change the collector current.36 (A) -2 V (C) -0.1. a non equilibrium condition. S . A reduction in base width will causes the gradient in minority carrier concentration to increase.2 (D) P .com (R) LASER diode (S) JFET (A) P .3. the B-C space charge region width increases which xB (i.e.36 (B) -1 V (D) 0. Q . S . In MOS capacitor. S .2. R .2 SOL 1.35 (3) Early effect (4) Flat-band voltage (B) P . Q .in .co.nodia.4. i. S .3.e. This effect si known as base modulation as early effect.5 V SOL 1. flat band voltage is the gate voltage that must be applied to create flat ban condition in which there is no space charge region in semiconductor under oxide.2 (C) P . which in turn causes an increased in the diffusion current. Therefore BJT : Early effect MOS capacitor: Flat-band voltage LASER diode : Population inversion JFET : Pinch-off voltage Hence option (C) is correct. Q . In JFET the gate to source voltage that must be applied to achieve pinch off voltage is described as pinch off voltage and is also called as turn voltage or threshold voltage.

gatehelp. MCQ 1. thus IC = 1.7 V.3) = 5 V Since VBC > 0.5 = 0.co.5 V Hence (C) is correct option.37 = v- For the BJT circuit shown. The mode of operation of the BJT is (A) cut-off (C) normal active SOL 1.5 mA 2k or v0 = 0.5 − v0 = 0. VBE = 0. then IB = 0 and IE = IC . so applying KVL in Base-emitter loop IE = 2 − VBE = 2 − 0.7 − (− 4.= 0.7 = 1.5 mA 1k and i = 0.5 − 1 =− 0.3 V Now VBC = VBE − VCE = 0.com Applying voltage division rule v+ = 0.5 V Now i = 1 − 0. We assume that BJT is in active.in .3 mA 1k RE Since β is very large. Hence (B) is correct option =0 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.7 V.37 (B) saturation (D) reverse active If we assume β very large. assume that the β of the transistor is very large and VBE = 0.Page 16 GATE EC 2007 www.nodia.5 V We know that v+ Thus v. we have IE = IC .3 mA Now applying KVL in collector-emitter loop 10 − 10IC − VCE − IC or VCE =− 4.7 V. thus transistor in saturation.

assume that the diode current follows the equation I = Is exp (V/VT ). For Vi = 2V.Page 17 MCQ 1.e. MCQ 1.39 In the CMOS inverter circuit shown. The relationship between V01 and V02 is (A) V02 = 2 Vo1 (B) Vo2 = e2 Vo1 (D) Vo1 − Vo2 = VT 1n2 (C) Vo2 = Vo1 1n2 SOL 1.gatehelp.co. V0 = V01.38 GATE EC 2007 www.in . and for Vi = 4V. V0 = V02 .38 Here the inverting terminal is at virtual ground and the current in resistor and diode current is equal i. if the trans conductance parameters of the NMOS and PMOS transistors are W kn = kp = μn Cox Wn = μCox p = 40μA/V2 Ln Lp and their threshold voltages ae VTHn = VTHp = 1 V the current I is Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.com In the Op-Amp circuit shown. IR = ID Vi = I eV /V or s R or VD = VT 1n Vi Is R D T For the first condition VD = 0 − Vo1 = VT 1n 2 Is R For the first condition VD = 0 − Vo1 = VT 1n 4 Is R Subtracting above equation Vo1 − Vo2 = VT 1n 4 − VT 1n 2 Is R Is R or Vo1 − Vo2 = VT 1n 4 = VT 1n2 2 Hence (D) is correct option.nodia.

41 The Boolean expression Y = ABC D + ABCD + ABC D + ABC D can be minimized to Visit us at: www. VK = 0.gatehelp.15 V to 45m # RZ = 0.45 Thus the range of output voltage is 7.15 Volt to 7.14 to 7. MCQ 1.14 to 7.43 V We have VZ = 7 volt. the range of voltage across 200 k Ω V200 = Vi − VZ = 3 to 9 volt The range of current through 200 k Ω is 3 = 15 mA to 9 = 45 mA 200k 200k The range of variation in output voltage 15m # RZ = 0. RZ = 10Ω Circuit can be modeled as shown in fig below Since Vi is lies between 10 to 16 V.Page 18 GATE EC 2007 www.5 − 1) 2 = 90 μ A V MCQ 1.co.39 (B) 25 μ A (D) 90 μ A Hence (D) is correct option We have Vthp = Vthp = 1 V W W P and = N = 40μA/V2 LP LN From figure it may be easily seen that Vas for each NMOS and PMOS is 2.29 to 7.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .29 V (C) 7.45 Volt Hence (C) is correct option. the output voltage (V0) ranges from (A) 7. If the input voltage (Vi) range is from 10 to 16 V.nodia.40 For the Zener diode shown in the figure.com (A) 0 A (C) 45 μ A SOL 1.40 (B) 7.00 to 7. the Zener voltage at knee is 7 V.5 V μA Thus ID = K (Vas − VT ) 2 = 40 2 (2. the knee current is negligible and the Zener dynamic resistance is 10 Ω .43 V SOL 1.29 V (D) 7.

Vi = 25 V.gatehelp. Q2: cut-off. Q4: cut-off (C) Q1: normal active. Q3: saturation.Page 19 GATE EC 2007 www. Y = ABCD + ABCD + ABC D + ABC D = ABCD + ABC D + ABC D + ABC D = ABCD + ABC D + BC D (A + A) = ABCD + ABC D + BC D A+A = 1 MCQ 1. the modes of operation of the transistors will be (A) Q1: revere active. Q2: normal active.in .5 (HIGH). X is given by MCQ 1. In the following circuit. Q4: saturation (D) Q1: saturation. Q4: cut-off (B) Q1: revere active. Q3: cut-off.42 The circuit diagram of a standard TTL NOT gate is shown in the figure.41 (B) Y = ABC D + BCD + ABC D (D) Y = ABCD + BC D + ABC D Hence (D) is correct answer. Q3: saturation.nodia.com (A) Y = ABC D + ABC + AC D (C) Y = ABCD + BC D + ABC D SOL 1.43 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. then Q1 " Reverse active Q2 " Saturation Q3 " Saturation Q4 " cut .42 In given TTL NOT gate when Vi = 2. Q2: saturation.off region Hence (B) is correct answer.co. Q2: saturation. Q4: normal active SOL 1. Q3: saturation.

44 The following binary values were applied to the X and Y inputs of NAND latch shown in the figure in the sequence indicated below : X = 0. Q = 1 (C) P = 1. P = 1.Y = 1. Q = 1 SOL 1.nodia. X = 0. Y = 1 P = 1. Q = 1 (B) P = 1. P = 1. Y = 0 P = 1.43 The circuit is as shown below Y = AB + AB and X = YC + YC = (AB + AB ) C + (AB + AB ) C = (AB + AB) C + (AB + AB ) C = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC Hence (A) is correct answer. Q = 1 For X = 1.44 Hence (C) is correct answer. Q = 1 For the circuit shown. P = 1. P = 1. the counter state (Q1 Q0) follows the sequence Visit us at: www. Q = 0 For X = 0.gatehelp. Q output will be. Q = 0.in MCQ 1. Q = 0. Q = 1. Y = 1 The corresponding stable P. or P = 0. For X = 0. Q = 0 or P = 0.com (A) X = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC (B) X = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC (C) X = AB + BC + AC (D) X = AB + BC + AC SOL 1. Y = 1 P = 1. Q = 1 (D) P = 1. Q = 0. Q = 0. MCQ 1. P = 0. Q = 1.co. Q = 0 or P = 0. Q = 1. X = 1. Q = 0 or P = 0. Q = 0.45 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . P = 1. P = 0. (A) P = 1.Page 20 GATE EC 2007 www. Q = 1. P = 1. Y = 0.

01 (D) 00.46 (B) F8GH .F7H Chip 8255 will be selected if bits A3 to A7 are 1.46 An 8255 chip is interfaced to an 8085 microprocessor system as an I/O mapped I/O as show in the figure. 01. The address lines A0 and A1 of the 8085 are used by the 8255 chip to decode internally its thee ports and the Control register.. 01. Q0) follows the sequence 00. 10. 10.Page 21 GATE EC 2007 www. 10.gatehelp. 00 . 01 SOL 1. 01. 11. 00. 00. The address lines A3 to A7 as well as the IO/M signal are used for address decoding. 10. MCQ 1.nodia. 10 For this circuit the counter state (Q1. 00.com (A) 00. 11. 01.45 (B) 00. Thus address range is Visit us at: www. 1.FCH (D) F0H .FFH SOL 1.FBH (C) F8H . 11.co. The range of addresses for which the 8255 chip would get selected is (A) F8H .. as shown below Clock 1st 2nd 3rd D1 D0 01 10 00 Q1 Q0 00 10 01 00 Q1 NOR Q0 1 0 0 0 Hence (A) is correct answer. 00 (C) 00.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . Bit A0 to A2 can be 0 or.

com 11111000 11111111 Hence (C) is correct answer. time-invariant system is given by H (f) = 1 + j5 10πf . The frequency response of a linear.49 Hence (B) is correct answer.47 Hence (A) is correct answer. where u (t) is the unit step function.co.in PUBLISHING FOR GATE . Hence (A) is correct answer. x (t) = e−t u (t) Taking Fourier transform X (jω) = 1 1 + jω X (jω) = 1 2 1+ω Magnitude at 3dB frequency is Thus or or 1 1 = 2 1 + ω2 ω = 1 rad f = 1 Hz 2π (B) non-causal system (D) low-pass system 1 2 MCQ 1. MCQ 1.48 A Hilbert transformer is a (A) non-linear system (C) time-varying system SOL 1.47 F8H FFH The 3-dB bandwidth of the low-pass signal e−t u (t). The step response of the system is t MCQ 1. 5 H (f) = 1 + j10πf 5 H (s) = 5 = = 11 1 + 5s 5^s + 1 s+ 5 h 5 Step response Y (s) = 1 a 1 s ^s + 5 h or Y (s) = 1 1 1 = 5 − 5 1 s ^s + 5 h s s+ 5 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company Visit us at: www.gatehelp.Page 22 GATE EC 2007 www.nodia. is given by (A) 1 Hz (B) 1 2 − 1 Hz 2π 2π (C) 3 (D) 1 Hz SOL 1.48 A Hilbert transformer is a non-linear system.49 (A) 5 (1 − e−5t) u (t) (B) 5 61 − e− 5@ u (t) t (C) 1 (1 − e−5t) u (t) (D) 1 ^1 − e− 5 h u (t) 2 5 SOL 1.

The value of x [0] is (B) 0 (A) − 0.in .5) (2) −n u (− n − 1) x (0) = 0 If we apply initial value theorem x (0) = lim X (z) = lim 0. x [− 1] = 0. x [− 2] = 1.5 −1 = 0.co. it is left handed system x (n) =− (0. If the velocity error constant KV = 1000 and the damping ratio ζ = 0. A control system with PD controller is shown in the figure.52 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.5 −1 1 − 2z Since ROC includes unit circle. X (z) = 0. MCQ 1.5 z"3 z " 31 − 2z That is wrong because here initial value theorem is not applicable because signal x (n) is defined for n < 0 .51 0.5 .nodia.Page 23 GATE EC 2007 www. It is given that 2z the region of convergence of X (z) includes the unit circle.com or MCQ 1.gatehelp. then the value of KP and KD are MCQ 1.5 −1 (C) 0. Let X (eiω) denoted the discrete-time Fourier transform of x [n].50 y (t) = 5 (1 − e−t/5) u (t) A 5-point sequence x [n] is given as x [− 3] = 1.25 SOL 1.51 (D) 05 Hence (B) is correct answer.50 For discrete time Fourier transform (DTFT) when N " 3 π x [n] = 1 X (e jω) e jωn dω 2π − π # # Putting n = 0 we get x [0] = 1 2π or X (e jω) e jω0 dω = 1 2π −π π # π −π X (e jω) dω # π −π X (e jω) dω = 2πx [0] = 2π # 5 = 10π Hence (B) is correct answer. The value of # π −π X (e jω) dω is (B) 10π (D) 5 + j10π (A) 5 (C) 16π SOL 1.5 The z −transform X (z) of a sequence x [n] is given by X [z] = 1 − . x [0] = 5 and x [1] = 1.

KD = 0.in .53 The transfer function of a plant is 5 T (s) = (s + 5)( s2 + s + 1) The second-order approximation of T (s) using dominant pole concept is 1 5 (A) (B) (s + 5)( s + 1) (s + 5)( s + 1) 5 s2 + s + 1 Hence (D) is correct option.09 (C) KP = 10.9 (D) KP = 10. then the lead compensator that an stabilize this control system is 2 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.gatehelp.54 The open-loop transfer function of a plant is given as G (s) = s 1 . Thus we have approximated it.09 SOL 1. MCQ 1. KD = 0.nodia.5) 2 + 4 ].com (A) KP = 100. We can see easily 3 that pole at s =− 0.5 ! j 2 is dominant then pole at s =− 5 .53 5 (s + 5)( s2 + s + 1) 5 = = 2 1 2 s 5`1 + j (s + s + 1) s +s+1 5 3 In given transfer function denominator is (s + 5)[( s + 0.co. KD = 0.Page 24 GATE EC 2007 www. (C) We have T (s) = (D) 1 s2 + s + 1 SOL 1.52 (B) KP = 100.9 Hence (B) is correct option We have Kv = lim sG (s) H (s) s"0 or 1000 = lim s s"0 (Kp + KD s) 100 = Kp s (s + 100) Now characteristics equations is 1 + G (s) H (s) = 0 (K + KD s) 100 1000 = lims " 0 s p = Kp s (s + 100) Now characteristics equation is 1 + G (s) H (s) = 0 or 1+ (100 + KD s) 100 =0 s (s + 10) Kp = 100 or s2 + (10 + 100KD) s + 10 4 = 0 2 Comparing with s2 + 2ξωn + ωn = 0 we get 2ξωn = 10 + 100KD or KD = 0. KD = 0.9 MCQ 1. If the plant is -1 operated in a unity feedback configuration.

co.gatehelp.nodia.com (A) (C) SOL 1.5 (C) 6.54 10 (s − 1) s+2 (B) 10 (s + 4) s+2 10 (s + 2) 2 (s + 2) (D) s + 10 s + 10 Hence (A) is correct option. (s − 1) From only options (A). 1 G (s) = 2 1 = ( s )( s − 1) + 1 s −1 1 The lead compensator C (s) should first stabilize the plant i.e (− 1 + j)[( − 1 + j) 2 + 7 (− 1 + j) + 12) + K] = 0 or K =+ 10 Hence (D) is correct option.55 For ufb system the characteristics equation is 1 + G (s) = 0 K or =0 1+ s (s2 + 7s + 12) or s (s2 + 7s + 12) + K = 0 Point s =− 1 + j lie on root locus if it satisfy above equation i. remove term. C (s) can remove this term ThusG (s) C (s) = 10 (s − 1) 1 # (s + 1)( s − 1) (s + 2) 10 = (s + 1)( s + 2) Only option (A) satisfies.5 (D) 10 SOL 1.e.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . The transfer function G (s) corresponding to this Bode plot is MCQ 1.56 (A) 1 (s + 1)( s + 20) (B) 1 s (s + 1)( s + 20) Visit us at: www. MCQ 1.55 A unity feedback control system has an open-loop transfer function K G (s) = 2 s (s + 7s + 12) The gain K for which s = 1 + j1 will lie on the root locus of this system is (A) 4 (B) 5. The asymptotic Bode plot of a transfer function is as shown in the figure.Page 25 GATE EC 2007 www.

.co.Page 26 GATE EC 2007 www.56 100 100 (D) s (s + 1)( s + 20) s (s + 1)( 1 + 0..05s) At every corner frequency there is change of -20 db/decade in slope which indicate pole at every corner frequency.(2) Taking laplace transform (i) we get sω (s) =− ω (s) = Ia (s) or (s + 1) ω (s) = Ia (s) Taking laplace transform (ii) we get sIa (s) =− ω (s) − 10Ia (s) + 10U (s) or ω (s) = (− 10 − s) Ia (s) + 10U (s) = (− 10 − s)( s + 1) ω (s) + 10U (s) or ω (s) =− [s2 + 11s + 10] ω (s) + 10U (s) Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .(3) From (3) Visit us at: www. The transfer function U (s) 1 (A) 2 10 (B) 2 s + 11s + 11 s + 11s + 11 (C) 2 10s + 10 (D) 2 1 s + s + 11 s + 11s + 11 SOL 1..nodia... MCQ 1. 1 (C) Thus Hence K =5 G (s) = 100 s (s + 1)( 1 + .com SOL 1. dω −1 1 ω 0 dt We have > di H = =− 1 − 10G=in G + =10Gu dt a or and dω =− ω + i n dt dia =− ω − 10i + 10u a dt . Thus K G (s) = s (1 + s)`1 + s j 20 Bode plot is in (1 + sT) form 20 log K = 60 dB = 1000 ω ω = 0. ia is the armature current and u is the armature ω (s) of the motor is voltage.in .57 The state space representation of a separately excited DC servo motor dynamics is given as dω −1 1 ω 0 dt > di H = =− 1 − 10G=ia G + =10Gu dt o where ω is the speed of the motor..gatehelp.57 Hence (A) is correct option.05s) Hence (D) is correct option.(1) .

The expression for p (t) with unity roll-off factor is given by sin 4πWt p (t) = 4πWt (1 − 16W2 t2) The value of p (t) at t = 1 is 4W (A) − 0.in .5 (B) 0 (D) 3 MCQ 1. if the spectrum M (f) of m (t) is as shown.59 SOL 1.nodia.com or(s2 + 11s + 11) ω (s) ω (s) or = 2 10 U (s) (s + 11s + 11) MCQ 1. sin (4πWt) We have p (t) = 4πWt (1 − 16W2 t2) at t = 1 it is 0 form.Page 27 GATE EC 2007 www. the slope overload distortion can be reduced by (A) decreasing the step size (B) decreasing the granular noise (C) decreasing the sampling rate (D) increasing the step size SOL 1.58 = 10U (s) In delta modulation. then the spectrum Y (f) of y (t) will be Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.gatehelp.5 (C) 0. Thus applying L' Hospital rule 0 4W 4πW cos (4πWt) p( ) = 4πW [1 − 48W2 t2] 1 4W = MCQ 1.60 cos (4πWt) = cos π = 0.59 Hence (C) is correct option. The raised cosine pulse p (t) is used for zero ISI in digital communications.58 Slope overload distortion can be reduced by increasing the step size 3 \$ slope of x (t) Ts Hence (D) is correct option.co.5 2 2 1−3 1 − 48W t In the following scheme.

Page 28 GATE EC 2007 www.nodia.gatehelp.com SOL 1.60 The block diagram is as shown below Here t (f) M1 (f) = M Y1 (f) = M (f) c e j 2π B + e -j2πB m 2 − e -j2πB m 2 Y2 (f) = M1 (f) c e j 2π B Y (f) = Y1 (f) + Y2 (f) All waveform is shown below Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.co.in .

MCQ 1.r Probability of at most one error = Probability of no error + Probability of one error = n C0 p0 (1 − p) n .288 # 103 bits per sec (B) must be greater than 12.co. the data rate (A) must be less than or equal to 12.nodia.2288 # 106 chips per second.0 + n C1 p1 (1 − p) n .288 # 103 bits per sec (C) must be exactly equal to 12.e.1 = (1 − p) n + np (1 − p) n .gatehelp.63 Hence (A) is correct option. a five-cell repeat pattern. SOL 1. If the processing gain is desired to be AT LEAST 100.61 During transmission over a certain binary communication channel. i.2288 # 106 chips/sec Visit us at: www.1 Hence (C) is correct option.Page 29 GATE EC 2007 www.88 # 103 bits per sec SOL 1. bit errors occur independently with probability p . In a Direct Sequence CDMA system the chip rate is 1.63 SOL 1. Assuming a frequency reuse factor of 1 .com Hence (B) is correct option.1 + (1 + p) n (D) 1 − (1 − p) n By Binomial distribution the probability of error is pe = n Cr pr (1 − p) n .61 MCQ 1. the maximum number of 5 simultaneous channels that can exist in one cell is (A) 200 (B) 40 (C) 25 (D) 5 Bandwidth allocated for 1 Channel = 5 M Hz Average bandwidth for 1 Channel 5 = 1 MHz 5 Total Number of Simultaneously Channel = 1M # 8 = 40 Channel 200k Hence (B) is correct option. 8 channels can co-exist in 200 kHz bandwidth using TDMA. A GSM based cellular operator is allocated 5 MHz bandwidth.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . The probability of AT MOST one bit in error in a block of n bits is given by (B) 1 − pn (A) pn (C) np (1 − p) n .62 MCQ 1. Chip Rate RC = 1.62 In a GSM system.288 # 103 bits per sec (D) can take any value less than 122.

64 MCQ 1. The mode of propagation in the waveguide is (B) TM11 (A) TE20 (C) TM20 (D) TE10 Visit us at: www. H=x η0 2 The time average power flow density in Watts is η (B) 100 (A) 0 100 η0 (C) 50η2 0 (D) 50 η0 H 2 2 2 2 2 = c 5 3 m + c 5 m = c 10 m = Hx + Hy ηo ηo ηo 2 2 ηo H E 2 η = = o c 10 m = 50 watts P = 2 ηo ηo 2ηo 2 2 SOL 1.com Data Rate Rb = RC G Since the processing gain G must be at least 100.66 The E field in a rectangular waveguide of inner dimension a # b is given by 2 ωμ t E = 2 ` λ j H0 sin ` 2πx j sin (ωt − βz) y a h 2 Where H0 is a constant. thus for Gmin we get 6 Rb max = RC = 1.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .03 ηo 377 = η' = = 400Ω 10 2 fc 2 1−c m 1 − c 10 10 m f 3 # 10 Hence (C) is correct option. We have For free space MCQ 1.2288 # 10 = 12. The wave impedance of the TE20 mode of propagation in the waveguide at a frequency of 30 GHz is (free space impedance η0 = 377 Ω ) (A) 308 Ω (B) 355 Ω (C) 400 Ω (D) 461 Ω The cut-off frequency is fc = c ` m j2 + ` n j2 2 a b Since the mode is TE20.288 # 103 bps Gmin 100 MCQ 1.64 An air-filled rectangular waveguide has inner dimensions of 3 cm # 2 cm. m = 2 and n = 0 8 fc = c m = 3 # 10 # 2 = 10 GHz 2 2 2 # 0. and a and b are the dimensions along the x − axis and the y − axis respectively.co. SOL 1.65 Hence (D) is correct option.Page 30 GATE EC 2007 www.65 The H field (in A/m) of a plane wave propagating in free space is given by t 5 3 cos (ωt − βz) + y t`ωt − βz + π j .nodia.gatehelp.

The 2-port scattering parameter matrix (s-matrix) of the shunt element is MCQ 1.in . The parallel branches of a 2-wire transmission line re terminated in 100 Ω and 200Ω resistors as shown in the figure. The characteristic impedance of the line is Z0 = 50Ω and each section has a length of λ .66 GATE EC 2007 www.68 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.nodia. 2 ωμ t E = 2 ` π j H0 sin ` 2πx j sin (ωt − βz) y a h 2 This is TE mode and we know that mπy Ey \ sin ` mπx j cos ` a b j Thus m = 2 and n = 0 and mode is TE20 A load of 50 Ω is connected in shunt in a 2-wire transmission line of Z0 = 50Ω as shown in the figure.com Hence (A) is correct option.67 1 −1 2 2 (A) > 1 1H − 2 2 0 1 (B) = 1 0G 1 4 3 4 3 −4 (C) > SOL 1.gatehelp.co.Page 31 SOL 1.67 (D) > 1H − 4 The 2-port scattering parameter matrix is S11 S12 S == S21 S22 G (Z Z ) − Zo (50 50) − 50 S11 = L 0 = =− 1 (ZL Z0) + Zo (50 50) + 50 3 2 (ZL Zo) 2 (50 50) S12 = S21 = = =2 (ZL Zo) + Zo (50 50) + 50 3 (Z Z ) − Zo (50 50) − 50 S22 = L o = =− 1 (ZL Zo) + Zo (50 50) + 50 3 Hence (C) is correct option. The voltage reflection coefficient Γ 4 at the input is −1 3 2 3 2 1 − 3 3 H MCQ 1.

68 Now ZL = Zin1 Zin2 25 12.gatehelp.nodia.com (A) − j 7 5 (C) j 5 7 The input impedance is 2 Zin = Zo . MCQ 1. ZL 2 2 Zin1 = Zo1 = 50 = 25 ZL1 100 2 2 Zin2 = Zo2 = 50 = 12.69 A λ dipole is kept horizontally at a height of λ0 above a perfectly conducting 2 2 infinite ground plane.5 ZL2 200 (B) − 5 7 (D) 5 7 if l = λ 4 SOL 1.co.5 = 25 3 Zs = (50) 2 = 300 25/3 Γ = ZS − Zo = 300 − 50 = 5 ZS + Zo 300 + 50 7 Hence (D) is correct option. The radiation pattern in the lane of the dipole (E plane) looks approximately as Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.Page 32 GATE EC 2007 www.in .

If the reflected wave is linearly polarized.70 2 (B) (D) 3 3 The Brewster angle is εr2 tan θn = εr1 εr2 tan 60c = 1 or εr2 = 3 Visit us at: www. (A) (C) 2 SOL 1. 2π cos ψ + π E = sin (π cos ψ) 2 Hence (B) is correct option. E 2 = cos . MCQ 1.com SOL 1. thus βd = 2π Array factor is βd cos ψ + α = cos .gatehelp.Page 33 GATE EC 2007 www. the configuration is as shown below Here d = λ.nodia. on an air-dielectric interface.69 Using the method of images.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . α = π.70 A right circularly polarized (RCP) plane wave is incident at an angle 60c to the normal. the relative dielectric constant ξr2 is.co.

Assume that the permittivities (ε0 εr ) of silicon and Sio2 are 1 # 10 .143 μm (B) 0. C = ε0 εr1 A D −13 −4 # 10 = 50 nm or D = ε0 εr1 A = 3.nodia.gatehelp.voltage characteristics of Metal/ Sio 2 /silicon (MOS) capacitor having an area of 1 # 10 .72 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.72 SOL 1.in . MCQ 1.com Hence (D) is correct option.5 # 10 . 72.4 cm 2 .12 F/cm and 3.5 # 10 − C 7 # 10 12 Hence option (A) is correct The maximum depletion layer width in silicon is (A) 0.71 The gate oxide thickness in the MOS capacitor is (A) 50 nm (B) 143 nm (C) 350 nm (D) 1 μ m SOL 1.13 F/cm respectively.Page 34 GATE EC 2007 www.71 At low voltage when there is no depletion region and capacitance is decide by SiO2 thickness only.co. 73 : The figure shows the high-frequency capacitance .857 μm (C) 1 μm (D) 1.143 μm The construction of given capacitor is shown in fig below MCQ 1. Common Data Questions Common Data for Questions 71.

there will be no depletion region and we get C1 = 7 pF When applied voltage is V . Visit us at: www. C reduces if V is increased.12 # 10 .4 cm Now D2 = ε0 εr2 A = 1 # 7 .73 Consider the following statements about the C − V characteristics plot : S1 : The MOS capacitor has as n -type substrate S2 : If positive charges are introduced in the oxide. the C − V polt will shift to the left.gatehelp.857 μ m Hence option (B) is correct. then to equalize the effect the applied voltage V must be reduced.com When applied voltage is 0 volts. Thus depletion region must be formed.73 Depletion region will not be formed if the MOS capacitor has n type substrate but from C-V characteristics.in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . Thus the C − V plot moves to the left.co.nodia. MCQ 1. Hence option (C) is correct. Hence S2 is true.4 = 6 # 10 .12 C2 7 6 # 10 = 0.Page 35 GATE EC 2007 www. Then which of the following is true? (A) Both S1 and S2 are true (B) S1 is true and S2 is false (C) S1 is false and S2 is true (D) Both S1 and S2 are false SOL 1. Thus CT = 1 pF or CT = C1 C2 = 1 pF C1 + C2 1 = 1 + 1 or CT C1 C2 Substituting values of CT and C1 we get C2 = 7 pF 6 10 . Hence S1 is false If positive charges is introduced in the oxide layer. a depletion region will be formed as shown in fig an total capacitance is 1 pF.

MCQ 1.co. Assume that the four symbols in both the constellations are equiprobable.in .com Common Data for Questions 74 & 75 : Two 4-array signal constellations are shown.74 Energy of constellation 1 is Eg1 = (0) 2 + (− 2 a) 2 + (− = 2a2 + 2a2 + 2a2 + 8a2 = 16a2 Energy of constellation 2 is Eg2 = a2 + a2 + a2 + a2 = 4a2 Eg1 16a2 = =4 Eg2 4a2 Hence (B) is correct option. then which of the following statements is true ? (A) Probability of symbol error for Constellation 1 is lower (B) Probability of symbol error for Constellation 1 is higher (C) Probability of symbol error is equal for both the constellations (D) The value of N0 will determine which of the constellations has a lower probability of symbol error SOL 1.nodia. 2 Thus probability of error will be lower for the constellation 1 as it has higher signal energy.Page 36 GATE EC 2007 www.75 If these constellations are used for digital communications over an AWGN channel. Let N0 denote the power spectral density 2 of white Gaussian noise. Ratio = MCQ 1.75 Noise Power is same for both which is N0 . It is given that φ1 and φ2 constitute an orthonormal basis for the two constellation.gatehelp.74 The if ratio or the average energy of Constellation 1 to the average energy of Constellation 2 is (A) 4a2 (B) 4 (C) 2 (D) 8 2 a) 2 + ( 2 a) 2 + (− 2 2 a) 2 SOL 1. Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. Hence (A) is correct option.

MCQ 1. then the minimum and maximum values of φ (in radians) are respectively (A) − π and π (B) 0 and π 2 2 2 (C) − π and 0 (D) − π and 0 2 Hence (C) is correct option.in .85 carry two marks each. MCQ 1.= V+ = V 1 + sCR i Applying voltage division rule (V + Vi) V+ = R1 (V0 + Vi) = o R1 + R1 2 (V + Vi) 1 or Vi = o 1 + sCR 2 Vo =− 1 + 2 or Vi 1 + sRC V0 = 1 − sRC Vi 1 + sRC Hence (A) is correct option.gatehelp.76 The transfer function V0 (s)/ Vi (s) is (A) 1 − sRC 1 + sRC (C) (B) 1 + sRC 1 − sRC SOL 1. Statement for Linked Answer Questions 76 & 77: Consider the Op-Amp circuit shown in the figure.Page 37 GATE EC 2007 www.76 1 1 (D) 1 − sRC 1 + sRC The voltage at non-inverting terminal is 1 1 V+ = sC 1 Vi = V 1 + sCR i R + sC 1 Now V.77 If Vi = V1 sin (ωt) and V0 = V2 sin (ωt + φ).76 to Q.co.nodia.com Linked Answer Questions : Q.77 Visit us at: www. V0 = H (s) = 1 − sRC Vi 1 + sRC Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE SOL 1.

.78 The contents of the accumulator just execution of the ADD instruction in line 4 will be (A) C3H (B) EAH (C) DCH (D) 69H SOL 1.1 ωRC − tan . B5H 2 : MVI B. Compare 9FH with the contents of A . Z = 1 Visit us at: www.gatehelp.co. Move B5H to A .2 ωRC Minimum value. Store the contents of A to location 3010 H 8 : HLT . Hence (B) is correct answer. store in A. 0EH 3 : XRI 69H MCQ 1.78 Line . Stop Thus the contents of accumulator after execution of ADD instruction is EAH. OEH 3: XRI 69H 4: ADD B 5: ANI 9BH 6: CPI 9FH 7: STA 3010H 8: HLT MCQ 1. Since 8 AH < 9BH. Z = 0 (B) CY = 0. Add the contents of A to contents of B and . Contents of A is 8 AH 6 : CPI 9FH .in 1 : MVI A. [A] XOR 69H and store in A .com H (jω) = 1 − jωRC 1 + jωRC +H (jω) = φ =− tan . Move 0EH to B .79 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE . Contents of A is CDH 4 : ADDB . contents of A is EAH 5 : ANI 9BH . After execution of line 7 of the program. φmin φmax = − π (at ω " 3) = 0( at ω = 0) Statement for Linked Answer Questions 78 & 79 : An 8085 assembly language program is given below. [a] AND 9BH. Line 1: MVI A.nodia. Maximum value. the status of the CY and Z flags will be (A) CY = 0. and store in A.1 ωRC =− 2 tan . B5H 2: MVI B. CY = 1 7 : STA 3010 H .Page 38 GATE EC 2007 www.

then the system response is −2 1 e−2x . = Go and e2.co.80 1 1 (D) e− 2 = Go and e1.Page 39 GATE EC 2007 www. Z = 1 The CY = 1 and Z = 0 Hence (C) is correct answer. = Go −1 −2 SOL 1.gatehelp.. Statement for linked Answer Question 80 & 81 : Consider a linear system whose state space representation is x (t) = Ax (t). then x (t) = > −2tH . If 1 the initial state vector of the system is x (0) = = G.(i) > d (− e−t)H dt −e d dt e−t == t=0 p q 1 r s G=− 1G p q 1 > e− (0) H = =r s G=− 1G −1 p−q = 1G = = r − s G Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.. = Go −1 −2 Hence (A) is correct option.80 MCQ 1. If the itial state vector of the system changes to x (0) = = − 2G − 2e −t e the system response becomes x (t) = > −tH −e The eigenvalue and eigenvector pairs (λi vi) for the system are 1 1 1 1 (A) e− 1 = Go and e− 2 = Go (B) e− 1. We have xo (t) = Ax (t) p q Let A == r sG 1 e−2t For initial state vector x (0) = = G the system response is x (t) = > H −2 − 2e−2t d −2t e Thus > d dt −2t H ) dt (− 2e == t=0 p q 1 r s G=− 2G p q 1 or > 4e−2 (0) H = =r s G=− 2G −2 p − 2q = 4 G = = r − 2s G − 2e −2 (0) We get p − 2q =− 2 and r − 2s = 4 1 e−t For initial state vector x (0) = = G the system response is x (t) = > −tH −1 −e Thus .79 (D) CY = 1. = Go −1 −2 −1 −2 1 1 (C) e− 1.nodia.in − (0) .com (C) CY = 1. = Go and e− 2. Z = 0 SOL 1.

(2) or − x11 − x21 = 0 or x11 + x21 = 0 We have only one independent equation x11 =− x21.. the Eigen vector will be x12 K 1 =x G = =− 2K G = K =− 2G 22 MCQ 1.gatehelp.com We get p − q =− 1 and r − s = 1 Solving (1) and (2) set of equations we get p q 0 1 =r s G = =− 2 − 3G The characteristic equation λI − A = 0 λ −1 =0 2 λ+3 or λ (λ + 3) + 2 = 0 or λ =− 1.nodia. then x21 =− K .in Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE .Let x11 = K . the Eigen vector will be x11 K 1 =x G = =− K G = K =− 1G 21 Now Eigen vector for λ2 =− 2 (λ2 I − A) X2 = 0 λ2 − 1 x12 or = 2 λ + 3G=x G = 0 2 22 − 2 − 1 x11 or = 2 1 G=x G = 0 21 or − x11 − x21 = 0 or x11 + x21 = 0 We have only one independent equation x11 =− x21. then x21 =− K . − 2 Thus Eigen values are − 1 and − 2 Eigen vectors for λ1 =− 1 (λ1 I − A) X1 = 0 or λ1 − 1 x11 = 2 λ + 3G=x G = 0 1 21 − 1 − 1 x11 = 2 2 G=x G = 0 21 . Let x11 = K..co.81 The system matrix A is 0 1 (A) = − 1 1G 1 1 (B) = − 1 − 2G Visit us at: www.Page 40 GATE EC 2007 www.

(1) . =1 . Statement for Linked Answer Question 82 & 83 : An input to a 6-level quantizer has the probability density function f (x) as shown in the figure. Decision boundaries of the quantizer are chosen so as to maximize the entropy of the quantizer output.82 (C) a = 1 and b = 1 (D) a = 1 and b = 1 4 16 3 24 Area under the pdf curve must be unity Thus 2a + 4a + 4b 2a + 8b = 1 For maximum entropy three region must by equivaprobable thus 2a = 4b = 4b From (1) and (2) we get b = 1 and a = 1 12 6 Hence (A) is correct option.. the ratio of signal power to quantization noise power is (A) 152 (B) 64 9 3 (C) 76 3 Hence correct option is ( ) (D) 28 SOL 1..com SOL 1.(2) MCQ 1.83 Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.co.82 The values of a and b are (A) a = 1 and b = 1 6 12 (B) a = 1 and b = 3 5 40 SOL 1.'0' and '1' . It is given that 3 consecutive decision boundaries are’ − 1'.81 2 1 0 1 (C) = (D) = G −1 −1 − 2 − 3G As shown in previous solution the system matrix is 0 1 A == − 2 − 3G Hence (D) is correct option..Page 41 GATE EC 2007 www..in .gatehelp. MCQ 1.nodia.83 Assuming that the reconstruction levels of the quantizer are the mid-points of the decision boundaries.

84 The current i is (A) 31.gatehelp.84 Since the inverting terminal is at virtual ground the resistor network can be reduced as follows The current from voltage source is I = VR = 10 = 1 mA R 10k This current will be divide as shown below Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.com Statement for Linked Answer Question 84 and 85 : In the Digital-to-Analog converter circuit shown in the figure below.in .5μ A (D) 250μ A SOL 1.co.25μ A (C) 125μ A (B) 62. VR = 10V and R = 10kΩ MCQ 1.Page 42 GATE EC 2007 www.nodia.

20. 82. 41. 78. 57. (A) (B) (C) (A) (D) (A) (D) (C) (D) (C) (C) (A) (C) 19.amp is I. 62. 49. 85. 66. 39. 76. 25. (B) (D) (D) (C) (D) (B) (A) (C) (A) (C) (A) (A) (B) 55. 74. 11. 63. 45. 10. 9. 27. 43. 6. 5.nodia. 84. 80.in .781 V (C) − 3.85 The net current in inverting terminal of OP . 65.co. 81.125 V (B) − 1. 59.562 V (D) − 6. 42.250 V SOL 1. 31. 46. (A) (D) (C) (A) (C) (D) (B) (C) (A) (D) (D) (A) (D) 37. 61. 48. Answer Sheet 1.85 The voltage V0 is (A) − 0. 12. MCQ 1. 58. 44. 38. 64.5 μ A 16 16 Hence (B) is correct answer. 4. 30. 56.com Now -3 i = I = 1 # 10 = 62. 28. 7. 67. 26. 60. (C) (B) (A) (A) (C) (B) (C) (A) (D) (A) (*) (B) (C) Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www. 47.125 16 Hence (C) is correct answer. 29. 23.Page 43 GATE EC 2007 www. 8. 40. 22. 79. 3. 13. 2. 24. 77.= 1 + 1 = 5I 4 16 16 So that V0 =− R # 5I =− 3.gatehelp. (D) (D) (A) (D) (C) (B) (C) (B) (A) (C) (D) (A) (C) 73. 83. 21. 75.

18. 70 71 (D) (B) (D) (A) (B) 72 (A) ********** Brought to you by: Nodia and Company PUBLISHING FOR GATE Visit us at: www.co.nodia.Page 44 GATE EC 2007 www. 69. 17. 34. 36. 54.gatehelp. 16. 53. 33. 15.in . 51. 35. (B) (D) (D) (C) (B) 32. (A) (B) (B) (C) (C) 50.com 14. (B) (B) (B) (D) 68. 52.