A GREAT NEW WORLD: AN INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN CIVILIZATION Prof.

OCTAVIAN ROSKE Week 13 Students: Augustin Cristea, 2nd year, group 5 Georgeta Mirela Iacob, 2nd year, group 4 Cristina Elisabeta Preda, 2nd year, group 5 Mihaela Tirlea, 2nd year, group 3 Alexandra Velicu, 2nd year, group 4 January 9th 2012

Vietnamization Speech, November 3, 1969 Richard Milhous Nixon ―The defense of freedom is everybody's business not just America's business.‖ – Richard Nixon I. Biography of the author: Richard Nixon (Mihaela Tirlea)

 Richard Nixon was the 37th president of the United States.  He was born in California in 1913. He graduated from Whittier College and Duke University Law School before beginning the practice of law.  During World War II, Nixon served as a Navy lieutenant commander in the Pacific.  On leaving the service, he was elected to Congress from his California district. In 1950, he won a Senate seat. Two years later, General Eisenhower selected Nixon, age 39, to be his running mate.  As Vice President, Nixon took on major duties in the Eisenhower Administration. Nominated for President by acclamation in 1960, he lost by a narrow margin to John F. Kennedy. In 1968, he again won his party's nomination, and went on to defeat Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey and third-party candidate George C. Wallace.  His accomplishments while in office included revenue sharing, the end of the draft, new anticrime laws, and a broad environmental program.  Some of his most acclaimed achievements came in his quest for world stability. For example, during visits in 1972 to Beijing and Moscow, he reduced tensions with China and the U.S.S.R.  Reconciliation was the first goal set by President Richard M. Nixon. The nation was painfully divided, with turbulence in the cities and war overseas. During his Presidency, Nixon succeeded in ending American fighting in Vietnam and improving relations with the U.S.S.R. and China. But the Watergate scandal brought fresh divisions to the country and ultimately led to his resignation.

1954 .000.The first U.The French suffer a decisive defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.S. 1964 .South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem is executed during a coup. is established in South Vietnam.Communist revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh dies at age 79. and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.S.S. troop withdrawals from Vietnam.The Geneva Accords creates a cease-fire for the peaceful withdrawal of the French from Vietnam and provides a temporary boundary between North and South Vietnam at the 17th parallel.  September 3.  November 2. supported by the United States and other anti-communist nations.II. Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.The National Liberation Front (NLF).The United States pledges $15 million worth of military aid to France to help them fight in Vietnam. 1968 .  March 2. Historical Context (Alexandra Velicu)  The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam.The American public learns of the Mai Lai massacre. 1968 .  January 1950 .France invades Vietnam and makes Vietnam a colony. 1969 .  July 1969 . destroyers sitting in international waters (the Gulf of Tonkin Incident). 1969 .  May 1941 . attacking approximately one hundred South Vietnamese cities and towns.  December 20. 1964 .President Nixon orders the first of many U.Ho Chi Minh establishes the Viet Minh (League for the Independence of Vietnam).  1858-1884 . 1955 .  January 30.  July 21. 1954 .  July 1950 . troops in Vietnam reaches 540.U. combat troops arrive in Vietnam.S.S. called the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.  August 2 and 4.A sustained U. with newly elected Ngo Dinh Diem as president.S.North Vietnamese attack two U. supported by its communist allies.S.Ho Chi Minh helps found the Indochinese Communist Party.  October 26. .  September 2.Japan invades Vietnam.South Vietnam declares itself the Republic of Vietnam. soldiers kill hundreds of Vietnamese civilians in the town of Mai Lai. also called the Viet Cong. 1945 .  May 7.U.  August 7. 1960 . 1965 . Laos. 1965 . aerial bombing campaign of North Vietnam begins (Operation Rolling Thunder).  March 8. and the government of South Vietnam.  September 1940 . the U. 1963 .  November 13. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam.Ho Chi Minh declares an independent Vietnam.  March 16.In response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.The North Vietnamese join forces with the Viet Cong to launch the Tet Offensive.  December 1968 .The Viet Minh receive military advisors and weapons from China.  October 1930 .

1970 .  The President enumerates the main questions the American people have asked themselves about the war: . and puts forward what Nixon believes to be the right way to end it.  He launches into an explanation of America’s initial involvement in the war: North Vietnam had attempted to impose a Communist regime unto South Vietnam. President Kennedy had continued this policy.The Paris Peace Accords are signed that provide a cease-fire. 1973 . and President Eisenhower had responded to the South Vietnamese Government’s request for military aid. thus also gaining the sympathy of the public. This news sparks nationwide protests.000 American citizens were stationed in Vietnam.Why and how had America become involved? . and about peace and freedom in the entire world. the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.South Vietnam surrenders to the communists. 1973 .  June 13. He thought about the effects his decision would have on America.  April 30. III.The last U.000 Americans had been killed in Vietnam. he had a greater obligation than just thinking about his administration.North Vietnam launches a massive assault on South Vietnam. 1969 – 1st Part (Georgeta Mirela Iacob)  Richard Nixon’s speech focuses on the involvement of the United States in the war in Vietnam. he intends to focus on getting the US out of it.  He begins by admitting that Americans can’t be expected to endorse a war policy they don’t know or understand correctly.  November 13. President Johnson decided to send American combat forces to South Vietnam.S.How were the negotiations in Paris moving along? . Furthermore.  While Nixon states he doesn’t agree with how Johnson handled the war. April 30.  March 1972 .  Nixon explains that while it would have been easy to withdraw all American forces and blame the war on the previous administration.What could be done to end the war and achieve peace?  He describes the situation as he found it at his inauguration: the war had been going on for 4 years. 1982 .Had there been any shift in the policy of the current administration? .The Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington D.C.President Nixon announces that U.The North Vietnamese cross the demilitarized zone (DMZ) at the 17th parallel to attack South Vietnam in what became known as the Easter Offensive. and there was great division at home and abroad about America’s entitlement to fight the war. 1976 .Portions of the Pentagon Papers are published in The New York Times. the training program for the South Vietnamese was behind schedule. the negotiations in Paris were at a deadlock. 540. is dedicated.  January 27. November 3. . 1971 . 31. his eventual future re-election and public opinion. troops will attack enemy locations in Cambodia. troops are withdrawn from Vietnam.  March 1975 . especially on college campuses.S. 1975 .  July 2.Vietnam is unified as a communist country. Vietnamization Speech.  March 29.

A plan for ―the complete withdrawal of all U. slightly encouraging the American nation. November 3. IV. instead of ending the war. with the specification that they would be willing to discuss proposals coming from either side (bar the South Vietnamese’s right to free elections).a settlement made through flexible and comprehensive offers. .  Unfortunately. meetings with the representatives of the Soviet Government and even a letter sent to Ho Chi Minh in which Nixon tried to convince the Vietnamese leader that peace is more powerful than war. combat ground forces‖ was adopted. to his plan for bringing peace: to strengthen the South-Vietnamese people in their defense against any kind of foe and to expressively keep a ―shield‖ for every ally. Vietnamization Speech. no progress had been made to come to an agreement for peace. a cease-fire under international supervision.  Nixon then shares the offer he had up until then extended to the North Vietnamese: a complete withdrawal of their armed forces within a year.000 combatants and also the further strengthening of the South Vietnamese Forces. and free elections in which the Communist party would participate.S. he chose to change America’s policy on negotiations and battle.  Nixon asks ―Well now. 1969 – 2nd Part (Augustin Cristea)  Nixon chooses to emphasize that the people of South Vietnam must determine their own future.  Nixon then shows the Americans some of the initiatives of peace . who is at fault?‖ in an attempt to reject some of the critics brought upon him by the American people.  President Nixon then enumerates some results ―of this long overdue change in American policy in Vietnam‖: the returning of more than 60. both concerning the South Vietnamese people (doing so would leave them at the hand of the Communists. Nixon refers to ―the enemy‖ as to an enemy of peace that can make ―a conscious decision‖ to provoke further aggressions. He strongly maintains the idea that the obstacle to an attempt to end the war is ―the other side‖. Hanoi refused to collaborate in the negotiations for peace or even discuss America`s proposals. who had demonstrated their ruthlessness in Hue) and America’s future as a nation and global power (Americans would lose confidence in themselves and their leadership. to the date of this speech.  He then turns. America’s allies would lose their trust in it). He lists the main reasons why the US could not at the present time withdraw their forces. Many countries in the SouthAsian region (like Thailand and South Korea) welcomed this offer.  Nixon speaks about the threat of the ―Communist aggression‖ pointing towards the real adversary – The Soviet Union.

asking for the support of the people because that is the only way that they will succeed. explaining that he too wants to end the war. sharing their concern for peace. or through the plan for Vietnamization. 1969 – 3rd Part (Cristina Elisabeta Preda)  The President states that in the case of Hanoi increasing its violent attacks he will not stand by. keeping in mind the Americans’ best interests and the goal of a ―a just and lasting peace‖. the American people would lose their faith.V.000 entrenched People's Army of . as they would begin to realize what would follow. November 3. the international allies would lose faith in America. President Nixon chooses to initiate the plan by which he shall support South Vietnam. Marine Corps battalions attacked and defeated more than 10. but not fight their war for them.  He clearly states that this course of action is not to be taken as a threat by North Vietnam. so that it would not erupt again the next year.Or persistence in the search for peace.S.one of the bloodiest and longest battles of the Vietnam War. or the year after that.  He then proceeds to addressing the young people of the Nation.  As a responsible leader. not because it was the easy way. what’s more.The immediate withdrawal from Vietnam .  The two possible courses of action are presented to the nation: . but while he listens to all of the voices of the people. he has to side with the majority and to think about what is best for all in the long run.  In the end.  The President tries to encourage the people by reminding them of the crises they have faced and surpassed in the past. their freedom to have an opinion and to express it.  Invoking Woodrow Wilson. but he will retaliate and take the necessary measures if the American forces in Vietnam are jeopardized. but in a definitive way. He believes that the principle he is defending is precisely this – the freedom of people to speak their mind. Vietnamization Speech. all the while admitting that a part of the citizens of America consider the withdrawal to be the best course of action. either through a negotiated settlement. Glossary of terms and names: B: Battle of Huế (1968) . The Army of the Republic of Vietnam and three understrength U.  As a consequence of a withdrawal. as it is his responsibility to protect ―the American fighting men wherever they may be‖. but because it was the right one. who uttered the famous words "war to end war‖ . he again assumes the responsibility for choosing this path and vows to do the very best that he can in order to fulfill that goal.  Nixon accepts full responsibility for his decisions and actions. but simply as a statement of policy made by him in his ability of Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. Nixon chose the latter. and.

by the People's Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front on April 30. This movement. Clause I of the Constitution. more of them executed by the PAVN and Viet Cong (according to the South Vietnamese government). Durham. Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces . the area having fallen to the Japanese. primarily the United States and its NATO allies. in its Marxist-Leninist interpretations. D: Duke University School of Law. Dwight David "Ike" (October 14. First Indochina War. 1890 – March 28.the capital of North Vietnam from 1954 to 1976. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period leading to the formal reunification of Vietnam into a communist state.a social. although the Allies declared a military victory. United States. Vietnam launched a rebellion against the French authority governing the colonies of French Indochina. The . Eisenhower Administration. The . significantly influenced the history of the 20th century. The .Vietnam(PAVN) and National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF. Viet Cong) guerrilla forces. moneyless. Communism .began in French Indochina on December 19. C: Cold War. which saw intense rivalry between the "socialist world" (socialist states ruled by Communist parties) and the "western world" (countries with market economies and Liberal democratic government). H: Hanoi . 1946 and lasted until August 1. military tension and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world. 1954. stateless and revolutionary socialist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production. the President of the United States is commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. Following the reoccupation of Indochina by the French following the end of World War II. E: Eisenhower.the law school and a constituent academic unit of Duke University. Section 2.the commander of a nation's military forces or significant element of those forces. the capital of South Vietnam. In the end. North Carolina. G: Ground forces . culminating in the Cold War between the Eastern bloc and the "Free World".the capture of Saigon.the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict. also known as. The . The – the presidency of Dwight Eisenhower (1953-1961) F: Fall of Saigon or Liberation of Saigon. 1969) – the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless. 1975. Hồ Chí Minh (19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969) – a Vietnamese Marxist-Leninist revolutionary leader who was prime minister (1945–1955) and president (1945–1969) of . According to Article II.military forces that fight on land rather than at sea or in the air. the city of Hue was virtually destroyed and more than 5000 civilians were killed.

The (as reffered to in the text) – President Lyndon B. Vice President and President. .served under President Lyndon B. The papers were first brought to the attention of the public on the front page of the New York Times in 1971. 1913 – April 22. 1973) – the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969). . 1945– 1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense) – a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. The (officially titled United States – Vietnam Relations. The – negotiations intended to establish peace in Vietnam and bring an end to the Vietnam War. The only president to resign the office. Huế . Vietnam. Johnson’s administration (1963–1969). One form shares between the general partner(s) and limited partners in a limited partnership. P: Paris Peace Accords of 1973.the sharing of profits and losses among different groups. . R: Revenue sharing . 1994) – the 37th President of the United States. and temporarily stopped the fighting between North and South Vietnam. Lyndon Baines (August 27.the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam).[2] K: Kennedy. J: Johnson.S. Previous Administration. also known as The Democratic Republic of Vietnam . it is the largest city in Vietnam. a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States (1961–1963). it was the capital of the French colony of Cochin-china and later of the independent state of South Vietnam from 1955-75.a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. as well as the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Vietcong during the Vietnam War until his death in 1969. Under the name Saigon.a communist state that ruled the northern half of Vietnam from 1954 until 1976 following the Geneva Conference and laid claim to all of Vietnam from 1945 to 1954 during the First Indochina War. Richard Milhous (January 9. John F.the 35th President of the United States. North Vietnam. Johnson as the 38th Vice President of the United States. Senator. serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963 N: Nixon. Pentagon Papers. serving from 1969 to 1974. they ended direct U. He was a key figure in the formation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945. military involvement. during which they controlled pockets of territory throughout the country. S: Saigon – now known as Ho Chi Minh City.the capital city of Thua Thien-Huế province. He is one of only four people[1] who served in all four elected federal offices of the United States: Representative. Nixon had previously served as a US representative and senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961. Humphrey Hubert H. South Korea . 1908 – January 22.

an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama.a political organization and army in South Vietnam and Cambodia that fought the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War. thus ending the war in a single blow Tonkin Gulf Resolution. Laos. to "expand. The .. which partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist zones at the 17th parallel.a policy of the Richard M. the . on August 9. The purpose of the offensive was to strike military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam and to spark a general uprising among the population that would then topple the Saigon government. South Vietnam was a client state of the United States during the Vietnam War.officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. the President of the United States. It received international recognition in 1950 as the "State of Vietnam" (1949–55) and later as the "Republic of Vietnam" (1955–75). and train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them an everincreasing combat role. The . supported by the United States and other anti-communist nations. and the Nixon administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement. T: Tet Offensive. Vietnamization . The Soviet Union was a single-party state ruled by the Communist Party from its foundation until 1990.S. and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. Its capital was Saigon.a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam. 1968. George C. Even though the USSR was technically a union of 15 subnational Soviet republics. both naval actions are known collectively as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. Watergate scandal. The .a state which governed southern Vietnam until 1975. The terms "South Vietnam" and "North Vietnam" became common usage in 1954 at the time of the Geneva Conference.a political scandal during the 1970s in the United States resulting from the break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington. The . 1974. its government and economy was highly centralized. combat troops. D. Soviet Union. V: Viet Cong or National Liberation Front (NLF)." W: Wallace. Asia Resolution.South Vietnam . equip. The (officially.C. and the government of South Vietnam. it was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991. . Effects of the scandal eventually led to the resignation of Richard Nixon. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam. Public Law 88-408) .a legislative measure which the United States Congress passed on August 10. supported by its communist allies. Vietnam War. The . 1964 in response to a sea battle between the North Vietnamese Navy's Torpedo Squadron 10135and the destroyer USS Maddox on August 2 and an alleged second naval engagement between North Vietnamese boats and the US destroyers USS Maddox and USS Turner Joy on August 4 in the Tonkin Gulf. at the same time steadily reducing the number of U. Nixon administration during the Vietnam War.a military campaign during the Vietnam War that began on January 31.

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