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Particle Swarm Optimization for Next Generation Smart Grid Outage Analyses
Zhe Chen, Ashwini Chegu
min max Pgi ≤ Pgi ≤ Pgi

Abstract—Smart Grid realization has been an ultimate goal for the power research community. The goal makes it necessary to incorporate the advanced algorithm and new technologies to make the power system more robust and secure. In order to reduce system-wide blackouts, high order contingency has to be analyzed and extensive work has been performed on N-k contingency studies. This paper proposes to use the Artificial Intelligence algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in solving cascading power outage failure problems, identifying potential risk, quantifying fitness results, and providing important guidance for system operators and business owners to make informed decisions. Keywords - blackouts; high order contingency; particle swarm optimization. contingency; N-k

Bbusθ = Pg − Pd − Pbus , shift − Gsh
B f θ ≤ Pg − P f , shift − B f θ ≤ Pg + Pf , shift
where

f i ( Pgi ) is the generation cost for each generator;
p.f. is the penalty factor for the unserved or dropped load; ΔP is the shed load, or total load and generation mismatch after removing Branches x and y. The input and output variables of PSO sub-functions used in the MATLAB code are defined in Tab. 1. The input variables are the information obtained from the original system, output variables add new columns to the matrix, featuring Lagrange and Kuhn-Tucker multipliers, generator tripping and optimal dispatch info, branch tripping and updated power flow info.

I. INTRODUCTION Smart Grid is an evolving concept and has been a hot topic under research for quite a few years, however, how smart a power system should be or can be needs to be identified and evaluated based on modern algorithms, thus undesired cascading power outages[1]-[4] can be reduced to prevent huge economic loss or social unrest during the blackouts such as the 2003 US-Canada wide-area power catastrophe. This paper incorporates the Particle Swarm Optimization method to apply on the power system to carry out high order contingency analysis[5]-[10]. The WECC-200 bus system will be the test system to demonstrate what the improvements are.

S i +1 = S i + Vi +1

Vi +1 = w × Vi + c1 ×r 1 × Pi

(

best

− S i + c 2 ×r 2 × G

)

(

best

− Si

)

(2) (3)

II. PROPOSED METHOD Particle Swarm Optimization[11] method is an efficient way to identify the local and global best fitness for a swarm of particles, who are guided by the Objective Function, current location and relative velocity. The PSO for high order contingency Selection problem objective is set up as follows:

where Si+1= new x and y locations of the particle; Si= previous x and y locations of the particle; Vi+1= the new velocity of the particle; w = inertial weight; r1, r2 = two random numbers in [0, 1] uniformly distributed; c1 = cognition component; c2 = social component.
Table 1. The Input and Output Variables of PSO Sub-functions Input
Variable Columns

output
Variable Columns

comment
Description

z ( x, y ) = min ∑ f i ( Pgi ) + p. f . × ΔP
θ , Pg
i

(1)

bus

13

buso

17

adding Lagrange and Kuhn-Tucker multipliers adding generator tripping info and new optimal dispatch adding branch tripping and updated power flow info

subject to
gen Z. Chen is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA. (zchen9@utk.edu). A. Chegu is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA. (achegu@utk.edu). 10 geno 25

branch

11

brancho

19

978-1-4673-1935-5/12/\$31.00 ©2012 IEEE

2 and Tab.479MW at Bus 79. while the loads are from Tab. in the worst case. thus increasing the risk of cascading tripping. Generators of The WECC 200-bus System # of branches connected 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 gen_bus # 4 6 9 11 13 15 18 30 35 36 40 43 45 47 65 70 77 79 103 112 116 118 138 140 144 148 Fig. 7. the whole load will be dropped creating a large blackout area. TEST RESULTS In order to validate the combination of Particle Swarm Optimization and Tabu enumerative search. the power flow will be migrated to the adjacent branches.2 The PSO flow diagram executed by the code developed is shown in Fig. Tab. so when one or more branches are tripped. This framework of WECC includes 31 generators and 96 loads in this power system.433 7274. the assignments of each variable and the identification of local and global bests for each particle and the whole group. the voltage levels range from 11kV to 500kV..5 95 2232. It can be seen that the generator powers are from 110MW at Bus 47 to 7274. this method is tested on the WECC 200-bus system. the profile of the generator buses and load buses are shown in Tab. the PMU locations are also included for system data verification and consolidation validation purpose. 3. 2. This demonstrates the outline of the PSO contingency scenario search procedure. PSO Flow Diagram 149 159 162 198 199 Pg/MW 800 1048 2160 2050 1690 2640 962 4450 4480 1640 200 325 1780 110 2900 1079 2197.7 3195 1690 1680 2200 1665 450 3000 1498 III. making the burden on the rest branches heavier. 1. This system has in fact 201 buses. 2.479 1517 1022 594 3467 982.95MW at Bus 119. usually a city-wide or even state-wide power outage. 3 respectively.61MW at Bus 106 to 4427.1. The diagram is shown in Fig. Load Profile of the WECC 200-bus system load_bus number 2 4 5 6 number of branches connected 2 1 6 1 Pload/MW 1662. The different branches to one same bus are assigned different numbers. and 299 branches including transformers and lines.5 95 .

4806+e7.15 114.61 251. shows how the relay protection detects the high order contingency. how the branches are tripped in order due to running over the transmission limit and how other branches are affected because of that effect. It is evident in Fig. .8 3040 95 3325 95 3800 579. and it reacts to the line trippings.25 95 857.1 1168.75 52.5 95 289.75 26.7 1012.94 95 1615 152 95 2030. 4.3 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18 19 30 31 34 35 36 40 41 43 44 45 47 48 50 51 54 55 57 58 59 61 62 65 66 67 70 71 75 76 77 78 79 80 85 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 8 1 2 1 5 1 1 5 4 1 4 1 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 16 4 4 4 8 5 6 5 4 3 1 2 1 1 3 3 9 1 11 1 4 6 7 4 1 4 2 2 3 10 227.2 166. 3.1 95 95 2962.34 131.72 38 95 140.205 140.82 109 110 112 113 116 117 118 119 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 148 149 150 151 152 154 155 156 157 158 159 161 162 164 165 166 167 188 196 197 198 199 2 1 1 5 1 6 1 7 3 3 1 8 1 2 8 4 1 5 1 1 6 3 2 6 7 4 2 7 1 2 1 2 2 4 2 5 5 4 1 1 1688.6 95 839.14 360.185 95 3031. This scenario is validated by running the Siemens PSS/E software of load flow on the sensitive lines/branches.53 95 2943.75 285 1900 950 95 95 The maximum Fitness Function (FF) value representing the total cost of load shedding is \$1. Fig.35 95 95 114.25 95 30.72 95 85.25 95 1950. thus makes the N-2 scenario even worse of becoming a even higher order power outage.41 111.05 95 132.1 767.7 434. which corresponds to the tripping of branches 77 and 235.5 95 95 753.02 134. Proper settings of relay center.295 95 242.73 798 95 586.6 110. affecting a larger area of power system.99 358.5 1149.5 385.95 813.45 193.31 380.05 175.15 95 4180 3420 95 95 95 128.95 304 225.95 843.15 1219.8 95 4427.815 32.13 7.95 194.88 47.

Particle Swarm Converging to the Global Optimization Tab. 2. and Fig. The WECC 200-bus System Fig. Tab. compares the PSO to Tabu enumerative search. finding that when the cognition component for each particle of the swarm c1=1. inertia weight for the searching velocity w=1. the matching percentage or the PSO searching efficiency is the highest. is the visual mapping of the particle swarm of 10 agents trying to locate their respective local best in blue color and global best in red color at that instant. c2. 4. angle become crucial in making or avoiding certain branch tripping. w) of PSO algorithm. The demonstration is like a video-clip to present to the viewer. They are changing real-time for each iteration of the program and showing the trend of converging to their best position searched. 4 and Fig. 4. PSO Parameter Comparison and Effect Fig. 5.4 diameter. 5. N-k contingency power flows Fig. 3. Cascading power outage progression by relay .9. the social component for the converging strength of the swarm to reach global optimal c2=1. Fig.8. Fig. 7. which means it won’t miss any local optimums or converge too fast to miss the global optimum. 6 show the relationship between Fitness Function values to the parameters (c1. These locations are corresponding to the calculated results from the PSO algorithm.

5. 5. . 235) to 13918082 at (82.5 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Fig. c2 and w 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Fig. The Top100 scenarios are identified and presented in descending order in Tab. It can save an tremendous amount of money from disaster relief by system failure prevention or risk mitigation. 7. but an enumerative search method called Tabu search is executed to detect how soon and how well the PSO can detect the worst case(s) of the large area power grids. Fitness Function dependance on c1. business owners. system operators the clear full large picture of the weak links and special needs for system protection and upgrade. 6. Top100 Scenarios for the WECC 200-bus system Serial # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Branch 1 77 187 188 31 29 235 74 75 235 Branch 2 235 235 235 235 235 246 235 235 267 FF 14805953 14676722 14676722 14660416 14660416 14660416 14580724 14580724 14519103 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 235 86 235 86 269 87 270 235 30 235 235 77 210 209 74 75 91 233 226 208 116 117 118 200 252 30 122 104 219 199 211 212 252 203 252 87 234 29 31 246 252 241 93 251 250 119 105 123 94 95 261 235 269 284 284 284 284 279 252 277 271 284 252 252 284 284 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 292 284 243 243 243 252 252 252 261 252 270 252 252 252 252 252 271 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 14453776 14407298 14407298 14368789 14368789 14325014 14325014 14258593 14255466 14240314 14218173 14115544 14107548 14106544 14030466 14030466 14025865 14024624 14012491 14005647 14005631 14005631 14005631 14001082 13994291 13992455 13990265 13990265 13990265 13988719 13985591 13982674 13982033 13972815 13967785 13967785 13956579 13955746 13955746 13955746 13944579 13941899 13940578 13938856 13938418 13934953 13934953 13934953 13933727 13933711 In order to analyze the WECC-200 bus system to a full extent. not only the PSO program is run. The FF values decrease from 14805953 at (77. 252). This list provides very detailed and comprehensive info for the power grids investors. Matching and Timing of PSO compared to Enumerative Method 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Tab.

CONCLUDING REMARKS This paper employs the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm to power system to study the high order contingency problem. [2] IEEE PES CAMS Taks Force. H. B. I. Power Systems. REFERENCES S. C. [4] Hiroyuki Mori and Yuichiro Goto.E. D. Donde. V. 2002.P. Thorp. Dec. 1650 – 1657. Dobson. B. D. 2006. and J. 2004.Chen and J.S. Kennedy and R. Iowa. A. Aug. maintenance.. Tamronglak.A.D. Nedic. I. “Initial review of methods for cascading failure analysis in electric power transmission systems.” Chaos. 15-32. pp. vol 19. 1954-1959. Newman. This paper proves the PSO algorithm works very well for power system. 2. 2. and J. D.N. operation and reform. R. Man.E. “A probabilistic indicator of system stress. Phadke.Pinar.E. Yang. The result shows the particle swarm can identify the top contingency scenarios based on the fitness function value calculated mainly by the product of the penalty factor and the unserved load within the system. Newman. [3] Q. Australia. “A Tabu Search Based Approach to (N-k) Static Contingency Selection in Power Systems. Nedic.” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks. Ames. 1995. A. Pinar.A. and Allan. May 2005. 4.P. no. [9] D. 823 – 834. Carreras. [11] J. Lynch.Donde.. it’ll provide great reference value for the Smart Grid investment. Lesieutre. V. D. Meza.A. Dobson. Carreras. D. Dobson.” 37th North American Power Symposium. Jayaweera.6 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 252 87 235 185 99 18 19 215 113 155 279 206 130 129 110 128 107 23 9 12 184 183 106 127 109 126 125 186 171 154 169 170 164 11 84 85 33 83 236 237 82 253 235 270 284 252 252 252 252 252 252 284 235 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 252 13932456 13928933 13928933 13926015 13924835 13923908 13923908 13923789 13923789 13923789 13921407 13921368 13921294 13921294 13921294 13921294 13921294 13921207 13921207 13921207 13920980 13920948 13920854 13920854 13920854 13920854 13920854 13920807 13919706 13919706 13919706 13919706 13919706 13919009 13918744 13918744 13918640 13918133 13918093 13918093 13918082 [1] sensitive high-danger branches with the knowledge that the enumerative simulation for every contingency combination is almost impossible when the system is too large. 2006. 20. “A loading-dependent model of probabilistic cascading failure. IV. Lopez. [6] V. 19. and A. V. vol. no. on Power Delivery. Jan 2005. International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems. “Partilce swarm optimization. “Anatomy of Power System Blackouts: Preventive Relaying Strategies. “Critical points and transitions in an electric power transmission model for cascading failure blackouts. pp. S. 19421948. “Criticality in a cascading failure blackout model”. Kirschen. McCalley. no. Carreras. [5] B. and Cybernetics. V.C. pp. pp. S. Lesieutre.” IEEE PES General Meeting 2008. 3. no. Horowitz. 4.” 38th North American Power Symposium. vol. 2005. The WECC 200-bus system is the proper study subject under research and the Siemens PSS/E software is used to validate the findings. 11. “Power system extreme event screening using graph partitioning. “Identififying high risk n-k contingencies for online security assessment”. 985-994.” IEEE Trans on Power Systems. S. no 1. D. Eberhart. 28. vol.” Probability in the Engineering and Informational Sciences. 2001. Vol. B. [10] Kirschen.” IEEE Trans. [7] B. V. [8] I. Lynch. “Identification of severe multiple contingencies in electric power networks. This info is very helpful for the system operators to identify the real . pp.Roy. April 1996..12. Perth.S.. IEEE Trans. 627633. vol . vol. G. pp. pp.” IEEE International Conference on Systems.E. Sept.

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