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Agriculture Policy Ministry of Agriculture

Submitted To MAM QAMAR Submitted By Abdul Rehman Roll No. 7822 MPA 4th (Evening)

Department Of Public Administration GC University Faisalabad

Agriculture policy Pakistan

Introduction
The Ministry of Agriculture, abbreviated as MoA, is a Cabinet-level ministerial department of Government of Pakistan, responsible for implementing, enforcing, developing, and executing the policy on agriculture, ricing, livestock, fishing, and farming. The ministry is governed by the agriculture minister, who must be a member of Parliament of Pakistan, currently the agriculture minister is Nazar Muhammad Gondal and the Secretary of the Ministry of Agriculture was Muhammad Ziaurrehman.

POLICIES Agriculture
Recognize that agriculture is back bone of Pakistan's economy Improve water management Educate farmers Upgrade infrastructure and facilities in regard to: Storage Packaging

Transport Review of land ownership and distribution to achieve equity and efficiency Improve and develop agriculture universities, research facilities and institutes Direct a gradual shift away from petrochemical fertilizers and pesticides Encourage a return to organic and traditional methods.

Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan's economy. These are the central elements of Mustaqbil's agricultural policy: 2011 Direct a gradual shift from farming based on petrochemical fertilizers and pesticides to organic and traditional methods Improve water management by reducing losses in transmission Educate farmers both in terms of general literacy and the specific technical requirements of farming. Upgrade infrastructure and facilities related to storage, packaging and transport of agricultural produce. A comprehensive review of land ownership and distribution with a view to achieve both equity and efficiency. Bring about comprehensive improvement in the quality of all agricultural universities, colleges and institutes.

Modern fertilizers are mostly oil based and can only become more expensive as oil inevitably becomes scarce. The same applies to many insecticides and pesticides. A return to organic farming must be contemplated and carefully encouraged. This will not be easy. The seeds in use today have been developed for use with (now) expensive inputs. The varieties of wheat and rice and other staple crops that were cultivated before the advent of these inputs have all but disappeared. But they must be reintroduced. And not just for the sake of economics but also for the sake of the environment which has taken a huge beating from fertilizers and pesticides. Clearly this is again a knowledge based effort. Farmers cannot do this on their own. They have to be guided and supported by leading edge research in these areas. Much agricultural production is lost due to spoilage before it gets to market. Farmers must be provided better information about storage, packaging and transport. The materials and machinery for this must be made available. Farm to market roads and railway lines must be enhanced.

Actual condition Agriculture in Pakistan

The agriculture sector continues to be an essential component of Pakistans economy. It currently contributes 21 percent to GDP. Agriculture generates productive employment opportunities for 45 percent of the countrys labour force and 60 percent of the rural population depends upon this sector for its livelihood. It has a vital role in ensuring food security, generating overall economic growth, reducing poverty and the transforming towards industrialization. The present government is determined to improve the quality of life of the people and to banish hunger and malnutrition from the country by making agriculture an efficient, productive and profitable sector of the economy. In order to improve governance in the public sector the government took bold steps and brought in the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of 1973. Accordingly, Ministries performing tasks which were provincial subjects were devolved from the Federal level, including the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. However, realizing the food security concerns across the country the government took timely steps to establish the Ministry of National Food Security and Research to tackle the Food Security issues. The newly created Ministry, under the aegis of the present government, has planned to take two major steps in order to solve the food security issues on a permanent basis. The first step is the establishment of the National Food Security Council representing Federal, Provincial and local level Governments. Secondly, through a Letter of Intent the Ministry, in collaboration with World Food Programme, is launching the Zero Hunger Programme worth US $ 1.6 billion to address the food security objective. Under this Programme the Ministry shall donate up to 500,000 metric tons of wheat per year and the World Food Programme intends to negotiate with local producers to exchange part of the donated wheat for High Energy Biscuits (HEB) and similar products manufactured in Pakistan

factories for distributions through WFP operations to primary school children, siblings of malnourished children and the vulnerable populations especially children at risk of malnutrition. The fund will also be converted to fortified wheat flour for distributions aimed at combating food insecurity in Pakistan. The WFP will also cooperate in the capacity building of the Ministrys officials in areas addressing food security and monitoring progress. Flooding in 2011, affected crops like rice, cotton and sugarcane, although in the current year, 2011- 12, they performed well and provided support and continued to support food security objectives this year. The agriculture sector recorded a growth of 3.1 percent in 2011-12. The profitability of agriculture sector during 2011-12, remained high because the farmers received good prices for rice, cotton and sugarcane, which allowed for greater financial resources passed on to the rural economy.

Mango orchard in Multan Pakistan

Chenab Sialkoat

Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. About 25% of Pakistan's total land area is under cultivation and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. Pakistan irrigates three times more acres than Russia. Agriculture accounts for about 21.2% of GDP and employs about 43% of the labor force. In Pakistan, the most agricultural province is Punjab where wheat and cotton are the most grown. Some people also have mango orchards but due to some problems like weather, they're not found in a big range. Barley and wheat cultivationalong with the domestication of cattle, primarily sheep and goatwas visible in Mehrgarh by 80006000 Irrigation was developed in the Indus Valley Civilization (see also Mohenjo-daro) by around 4500 BCE.[2] The size and prosperity of the Indus civilization grew as a result of this innovation, which eventually led to more planned settlements making use

of drainage and sewers. Sophisticated irrigation and water storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization, including artificial reservoirs at Girnar dated to 3000 BCE, and an early canalirrigation system from circa 2600. Archeological evidence of an animal-drawn plough dates back to 2500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilization. All agricultural affairs and activities in Pakistan are overseen and regulated by the Ministry of Agriculture.

Rankings
Pakistan is one of the world's largest producers and suppliers of the following according to the different sources i.e. Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations

and FAOSTAT given here with ranking:


Chickpea (2nd) Apricot (6th) Cotton (4th) Milk (5th) Date Palm (5th) Sugarcane (5th) Onion (7th) Kinnow, mandarin oranges, clementine (6th) Mango (4th) Wheat (7th) Rice (14th)

Pakistan ranks eighth worldwide in farm output, according to the List of countries by GDP sector composition.

Crops

Rice production in Pakistan Wheat fields in Punjab Pakistan The most important crops are wheat, sugarcane, cotton, and rice, which together account for more than 75% of the value of total crop output. Pakistan's largest food crop is wheat. In 2005, Pakistan produced 21,591,400 metric tons of wheat, more than all of Africa (20,304,585 metric tons) and nearly as much as all of South America (24,557,784 metric tons), according to the FAO. The country is expected to harvest 25 to 23 million tons of wheat in 2012.

Pakistan has also cut the use of dangerous pesticides dramatically


Pakistan is a net food exporter, except in occasional years when its harvest is adversely affected by droughts. Pakistan exports rice, cotton, fish, fruits (especially Oranges and Mangoes), and vegetables and imports vegetable oil, wheat, pulses and consumer foods. The country is Asia's largest camelmarket, second-largest apricot and ghee market and third-largest cotton, onion and milk market. The economic importance of agriculture has declined since independence, when its share of GDP was around 53%. Following the poor harvest of 1993, the government introduced agriculture

assistance policies, including increased support prices for many agricultural commodities and expanded availability of agricultural credit. From 1993 to 1997, real growth in the agricultural sector averaged 5.7% but has since declined to about 4%. Agricultural reforms, including increased wheat and oilseed production, play a central role in the government's economic reform package. Much of the Pakistan's agriculture output is utilized by the country's growing processed-food industry. The value of processed retail food sales has grown 12 percent annually during the Nineties and was estimated at over $1 billion in 2000, although supermarkets accounted for just over 10% of the outlets The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued major crop yields at Rs.504,868 million in 2005 thus registering over 55% growth since 2000 while minor crop yields were valued at Rs.184,707 million in 2005 thus registering over 41% growth since 2000. The exports related to the agriculture sector in 200910 are Rs 288.18 billion including food grains, vegetables, fruits, tobacco, fisheries products, spices and livestock.

Live stock
The livestock sector contributes about half of the value added in the agriculture sector, amounting to nearly 11 per cent of Pakistan's GDP, which is more than the crop sector. The leading daily newspaper Jang reports that the national herd consists of 24.2 million cattle, 26.3 million buffaloes, 24.9 million sheep, 56.7 million goats and 0.8 million camels. In addition to these there is a vibrant poultry sector in the country with more than 530 million birds produced annually. These animals produce 29.472 million tons of milk (making Pakistan the 4th largest producer of milk in the world), 1.115 million tons of beef, 0.740 million tons of mutton, 0.416

million tons of poultry meat, 8.528 billion eggs, 40.2 thousand tons of wool, 21.5 thousand tons of hair and 51.2 million skins and hides.[6] The Food and Agriculture Organization reported in June 2006 that in Pakistan, government initiatives are being undertaken to modernize milk collection and to improve milk and milk product storage capacity. The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued this sector at Rs.758,470 million in 2005 thus registering over 70% growth since 2000.

Rice production in Pakistan

Rice production in Pakistan holds an extremely important position in agriculture and the national economy. Pakistan is the world's fourth largest producer of rice, after China, India and Indonesia. Each year, it produces an average of 6 million tonnes and together with the rest of the Indian subcontinent, the country is responsible for supplying 30% of the world's paddy rice output. Most of these crops are grown in the fertile Sindh and Punjab region with millions of farmers relying on rice cultivation as their major source of employment. Among the most famous varieties grown in Pakistan include the Basmati, known for its flavour and quality.

Animal husbandry in Pakistan

Being a country that has a largely rural and agriculture-based industry, animal husbandry plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan and is a major source of livelihood for many farmers. It is estimated that there are between 30 to 35 million people in Pakistan's current labour force who are engaged in livestocks.[1] While the agricultural practice is prevalent throughout the entire country, it is more common in the fertile provinces of Punjaband Sindh, which are traditionally the main areas of agriculture and farming activity. In 1998, the livestock industry was contributing 37% to the total capacity of national agricultural output and 9% to the GDP.[1] As of 2001, there were there were approximately 23.3 million buffaloes, 22.4 million head of cattle, 49.1 million goats and 24.2 million sheep in Pakistan. Commercial poultry numbered 170.1 million broilers and 10.36 million layers in 1999. In addition, there were also 108 million poultry kept and tamed by people. Sheep differ widely throughout the grazing lands of central and northern Pakistan. Their wool is exported in large quantities. Among local cow breeds, the most notable are the Red Sindhi cattle and the Sahiwal Breed, used widely for milk and dairy production purposes. Dung excreted by cattle is a vital resource for supplying cooking fuel and soil fertilizers.

The production of dairy product items such as milk, ice cream, cheeses and butter is carried out by dairy plants. During the period of 1984 to 1990, national milk production experienced a 41% increase while meat production surged by 48%. Animals are also widely used for transport in Pakistan, especially in the rural areas; the most commonly used animals are camels, donkeys and bullocks. Challenges faced by modern poultry in Pakistan include high mortality rates and incidences of disease among chicks as well as an inefficient marketing system. The livestock industry still remains neglected and underdeveloped when compared to its full socio-economic potential. The government of Pakistan has been embarking on various development projects, with the assistance of the Asian Development Bank, to improve the livestock industry and its efficiency.

Fishing in Pakistan
Fishery and fishing industry plays a significant part in the national economy of Pakistan. With a coastline of about 814 km, Pakistan has enough fishery resources that remain to be developed. Most of the population of the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan depends on fisheries for livelihood. It is also a major source of export earning. Fishing industry is the managed by the Fisheries Development Commissioner (FDC) under the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (MFAL) of Government of Pakistan. The office of the FDC is responsible for policy, planning and coordination with provincial fisheries departments and other national and international agencies such as Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission. The marine subsector is overlooked by Marine Fisheries Department (MFD). The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) is engaged in the research of the industry. Some universities in the country are also involved in basic fisheries research.

Agriculture growth percentages from 2005-2012 year Agriculture Major crops Minor crops
2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 (p) Source: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics 6.3 4.1 1.0 4.0 0.6 2.4 -3.9 7.7 -6.4 7.8 -2.3 -0.2 0.4 -1.0 10.9 -1.2 -7.7 2.7 15.8 2.8 4.2 3.1 4.3 4.0 20.8 15.4 9.2 2.3 1.5 1.9 -1.1 -5.1 -13.0 -3.0 2.2 -0.4

Livestock Fishery

Forestry

Factors that effect agriculture policy in Pakistan


Economy of every state depends on three sectors i.e agriculture, industry and commerce. These three are interrelated with each other as the progress or retrogress of one sector effects the other two. Pakistan is an agricultural state thus agriculture gains are of much importance than any other sector. Importance of this sector is manifold as it feeds people, provides raw material for industry and is a base for foreign trade. Foreign exchange earned from merchandise exports is 45% of total exports of Pakistan. It contributes 26% of GDP and 52% of the total populace is

getting its livelihood from it. 67.5% people are living in the rural areas of Pakistan and are directly involved in it. There are two crops in Pakistan ie Rabi & Kharif.

Crop

Sowing season

Harvesting season

Kharif April June Rabi Oct Dec

Oct

Dec

April May

Major crops of Pakistan are wheat, rice, maize, cotton and sugar cane. These major crops contributed 7.7% last year against the set target of 4.5%. Minor crops are canola, onions, mangoes and pulses which contributed 3.6% as there was no virus attack last year. Fishery and Forestry contributes 16.6% and 8.8% respectively.

Though the agricultural sector is facing problems in Pakistan yet the major chunk of money comes from this sector. Following are the major causes of agricultural problems in Pakistan which disturb the agricultural growth or development in Pakistan.

Firstly, No mechanism has been adopted to eradicate the soil erosion and even after harvesting nothing is done to improve or restore the soil energy. Therefore, the fertility of soil is decreasing day by day. The thickness of fertile layer of soil in Pakistan is more than 6 inches but the average yield is lower than other countries where layer of fertile soil is only 4 inches. Secondly, water wastage is very high in our country. The archaic method of flood irrigation is still in practice in whole of the country which wastes almost 50 to 60 percent of water. A new

irrigation system called drip irrigation system has been introduced in many parts of the world. This not only saves water but also gives proper quantity of water according to the needs of plants. Thirdly, owing old methods of cultivation and harvesting, Pakistan has low yield per acre that means the average crop in Pakistan is just 1/4th of that of advance states. Where as Nepal, India and Bangladesh are using modern scientific methods to increase their yield per acre. For this purpose, these states are using modern machines to improve their yield.

Fourthly, the small farmers are increasing in our country as the lands are dividing generation by generation. So, there are large number of farmers who own only 4 acres of land. These small farmers do not get credit facilities to purchase seeds, pesticides, fertilizers etc. Additionally, a large area of land is owned by feudals and the farmers who work on their lands, are just tenants. This uncertain situation of occupancy neither creates incentive of work nor does attract capital investment. Fifthly, water logging and salinity is increasing day by day. No effective measures have been taken to curb it. As the storage capacity of the dams is decreasing so the water availability per acre is also decreasing. Therefore, the farmers are installing more and more tube wells to irrigate their crops. This is why salinity is becoming the major issue in most parts of Punjab and Sindh. Sixthly, focusing more on land, crops and yield problems the man behind the plough is always ignored. While formulating the 5 or 10 years plan, no emphasize has been laid on the importance of solving the problems of farmers. Most of the farmers are illiterate, poor and ignorant. In this wake the loans issued by ADBP or other banks are used by them in other fields like repayment of debts, marriage of daughters etc, in spite of its befitting use in agricultural sector. Lastly, The only mean of communication in rural areas is T.V or radio so it is urgently needed

on the part of these mass communication resources to air the programmes related to the new agricultural techniques and allied sciences. But these programmes should be telecast in regional or local languages. Because lack of guidance is the main reason of farmers backwardness. The communication gap between well qualified experts and simple farmers have not been bridged. Availability of these experts is not ensured in rural areas as they are reluctant to go there. Pakistan is rich in fertile land yet the land is being wasted in different ways. 79.6% million hectors of land is culturable where as only 20.43% million hectors is cultivated. The reason can be described in two points.

1. A major area is owned by feudals. It is difficult to manage such a huge area so only that part is cultivated which is easy to manage, the rest is left ignored. 2. The rise of industrialization has given threat to this sector. People are migrating to cities and cities are expanding, thus new towns and colonies are constructed on fertile lands.

The irrigation system of Pakistan needs improvement as about 67% of the land is irrigated with canals. Apart form these issues the monopoly of Foreign Big Wigs and false policies of government cannot be ignored.

Recent performance
During 2011-12, the overall performance of agriculture sector exhibited a growth of 3.1 percent mainly due to positive growth in agriculture related subsectors, except minor crops. Major crops accounted for 31.9 percent of agricultural value added and experienced a growth of 3.2 percent in fiscal year 2011-12 with negative growth of 0.2 percent in 2011. The significant growth in major crops is contributed by rice, cotton and sugarcane Minor crops contributed 10.1 percent

value addition in agriculture and exhibited a negative growth of 1.3 percent in 2011-12 against 2.7 percent growth of 2011. The Livestock sector, which has a 55.1 percent share in the agriculture, grew by 4.0 percent in 2011-12. The Fishery sector grew by 1.8 percent as against last years growth of 1.9 percent. Forestry sector posted a positive growth of 1.0 percent this year as compared to negative growth of 0.4 percent last year. Pakistan has two crop seasons, "Kharif" being the first sowing season from April-June and it is harvested during October-December. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, maize, mung, mash, bajra and jowar are Kharif" crops. "Rabi", the second sowing season, begins October-December and is harvested in April-May. Wheat, gram, lentil (masoor), tobacco, rapeseed, barley and mustard are "Rabi" crops. These crops make Pakistan an agricultural country and its performance is dependent upon timely availability of irrigation water. During 2011-12, the availability of water as a basic input for Kharif 2011 (for the crops such as rice, sugarcane and cotton) has been 10 percent less than the normal supplies but 13 percent higher than last years Kharif 2010 season. The water availability during Rabi season (for major crop such as wheat), is estimated at 29.4 MAF, which is 19.2 percent less than the normal availability, but 15 percent less than last years Rabi crop

Different Stakeholders
Consumers for their basic articles of consumption Agrobased Manufacturers dependent on raw materials from agriculture Traders for their commodities based on agriculture Governments as political stakeholders, responsible for Policy and

Governance

Farmers as producers of Food, fibre and fodder for their livelihood

Consumers as Stakeholders
Consumers need farm goods at affordable price, assured quality and adequate quantity for meeting their energy requirements as well as health and nutrition

MANUFACTURERS AND TRADERS AS STAKEHOLDERS


Agricultural produce are often raw materials for manufacturing as well as trading including exports Manufacturers and traders need stable supplies of these commodities at economic prices Indeed, to ensure this, international Commodity Agreements are established and implemented by Member States Manufacturers, in their production processes need to use non polluting technologies especially to safeguard water as well as land.

Government as Stakeholder
Political crises are caused when farm and related policies go wrong, adversely affecting the economic viability of farming enterprises, Indeed, Governments in power look for good monsoons and high production levels for timing the elections, Lesson learnt by governments is that farming prosperity makes all the difference between winning and losing the mandate to govern Hence governments try to keep the constituency of farmers happy through farmer friendly policies in relation to supply of inputs, farm prices, taxes and rates

Farmers, the Main Stakeholders in Agriculture


Farmers comprising men and women, small, medium and large farmers, indigenous people with varying cultural practices, Livestock farmers, Pastoralists, Fisherfolk, Are the most affected differently and to varying degrees if the sustainability of their enterprises is affected by Government Policy, Environment and Climatechange, Market conditions, genetic interferences without safeguards in their ecology, manmade or natural disasters

Synergy in Stakes And Stake Holders


In Green Agriculture, the stakes are high The stake holders are many The stake and stake holders should be brought into synergy This synergy is immensely worthwhile Let us work together

Solutions for Agricultural Problems in Pakistan:


1. Feudalism should be abolished and lands should be allotted to poor farmers. This will enhance the productivity and per acre yield of all the crops in Pakistan. Taxes should be levied on Agricultural income but not without devising limit of land holding. Other wise it would directly effect poor farmers. 2. Federal Seed Certification and Federal Seed Registration is approved but it should taken responsible steps in approving seeds as it has already approved 36 new kinds of seeds. Specially, those seeds should be banned which can create pest problem in near future. These seeds are of cotton mainly. International seed makers are providing those seeds which are not successful in our country as these seeds are not tested on our soil. 3. A new Agricultural policy must be framed in which following steps should be focussed on. - Small farmer must be focused. The major problems of small farmers should be solved first. - Consumer friendly policy must be projected.

Productivity enhancement programme must be constituted to adjust and support prices. - Different Agricultural zones should be introduced. As Multan in famous for its Mangoes and citrus fruits so it must be made Mango, citrus zone by which Perishable products should be exported. This would enhance agro based industry and increase foreign reserves. Pakistan Agricultural storage & Services Corporation needs to take steps in this regard.

Corporate farming like giving lands to Mitehels, Nestle and Multinational companies

is also a good idea that will also help those who own a large area of fertile land but cant manage it.

- Surplus vegetables and fruits must be exported. A Rs 39 million scheme has been approved for the current fiscal year for establishment of agro export processing zone for fruits, vegetables and flowers. This will also help in commercializing agriculture Latest mechinery should be provided to the farmers to increase the per acre yield. This

provision should be on easy installments so that the farmers can avoid the burden of loans. If possible subsidy should be given by the government of modern machinery.Modern techniques of irrigation can solve the problems of irrigation in Pakistan. This includes drip irrigation and sprinkle irrigation methods. By using this technique the farmers can save a huge some of money which he pays for irrigation through tubewells and tracktors.

More dams should be constructed on Indus, Jehlum and Chenab rivers. This will enhance the storage capacity of water and reduce the per acre cost of all the crops. This step will also reduce the salinity chances of the lands as less tube well water will be flooded to the lands which cause salinity.

CONTENTS
Sr. No
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Topic
Introduction Policies Agriculture Actual Condition Rankings Crops Rice production in Pakistan Animal husbandry in Pakistan Fishing in Pakistan Factors that affect agriculture policy in Pakistan Recent Performance Different stakeholders Consumers as stakeholders Manufacturers and traders as stakeholders Government as stakeholder Synergy in stakes and stake holders Solutions for agricultural problems in Pakistan

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