New Microsoft Office Word Document (2) | Large Intestine | Pancreas

Pancreas: Function

The pancreas is a small organ, approximately six inches long, located in the upper abdomen, and adjacent to the small intestine. It lies toward your back.� Because it is so deep within your body, doctors have difficulty diagnosing disease in the pancreas. �
The Pancreas

� Completes the job of breaking down protein, carbohydrates, and fats using digestive juices of pancreas combined with juices from the intestines. � Secretes hormones that affect the level of sugar in the blood. � Produces chemicals that neutralize stomach acids that pass from the stomach into the small intestine by using substances in pancreatic juice. � Contains Islets of Langerhans, which are tiny groups of specialized cells that are scattered throughout the organ.�
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These cells secrete:  Glucagon�raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood
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Insulin�stimulates cells to use glucose Somatostatin�may regulate the secretion of glucagons and insulin.

What are the functions of the liver? The liver regulates most chemical levels in the blood and excretes a product called bile, w further digestion and absorption. All of the blood leaving the stomach and intestines passes t breaks down the nutrients and drugs in the blood into forms that are easier to use for the re been identified with the liver. Some of the more well-known functions include the following:  Production of bile, which helps carry away waste and break down fats in the small intestine during digestion.
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Production of certain proteins for blood plasma. Production of cholesterol and special proteins to help carry fats through the body. Conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage. (This glycogen can later be converted back to glucose for energy.) Regulation of blood levels of amino acids, which form the building blocks of proteins. Processing of hemoglobin for use of its iron content. (The liver stores iron.) Conversion of poisonous ammonia to urea. (Urea is one of the end products of protein metabolism that is excreted in the urine.)

   Breaking down the food into a liquidly mixture called chyme. Functions of Large Intstine The large intestine takes about 16 hours to finish the digestion of the food. Bile by-products enter the intestine and ultimately leave the body in the feces. fats and medications to the entire body. By this point the food is mushy and the stomach then passes this mixture on to the small intestine which will further break down the food. It removes water and any remaining absorbable nutrients from the food before sending the indigestible matter to the rectum. Resisting infections by producing immune factors and removing bacteria from the blood stream. vitamin B12. minerals. The stomach mixed the food with stomach acid to break it down and digest it.   Clearing the blood of drugs and other poisonous substances. meals containing a lot of fiber move more quickly. water electrolytes. The acid released by the stomach doesn't break down food it only provides a good environment for the enzymes to work in. nutrients within the food come into contact with the many small blood vessels that surround the small intestine. and that is dependent on the makeup of the food passing through. As this liquid flows across the inner surface of the small intestine (which has many small folds to increase the surface area). It does this by:  Storing the food we eat. it has been mechanically broken down into a liquid. When the liver has broken down harmful substances. carrying away nutrients. It can take three to six hours for a meal to pass from one end of the small intestine to the other. By the time ingested food reaches the small intestine. Blood by-products are filtered out by the kidneys and leave the body in the form of urine. The stomach's main function is digestion. Function of the Small Intestine  The small intestine is responsible for absorbing most of the nutrients found within your food. and stores fecal matter in the rectum until it can be discharged via the anus in defecation. This blood then leaves the small intestine. vitamins. Mixing enzymes which is are chemicals that break down food. Regulating blood clotting. . The colon absorbs vitamins which are created by the colonic bacteria . The stomach uses pepsin (enzyme) and peptidase (another enzyme) to break down proteins in your food. It also compacts feces.such as vitamin K (especially important as the daily ingestion of vitamin K is not normally enough to maintain adequate blood coagulation). thiamine and riboflavin. Slowly empties that liquidly mixture into the small intestine. they are excreted into the bile or blood.

. called epiploic appendages (or appendices epiploicae) are found. and distinguish it from the small intestine. The wall of the large intestine is lined with simple columnar epithelium. It is a part of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. While both the small intestine and the large intestine have goblet cells. are characteristic features of the large intestine. Appendicitis is the result of a blockage that traps infectious material in the lumen. Along the sides of the taeniae. On the surface. The appendix is attached to its inferior surface of the cecum. The appendix can be removed with no apparent damage or consequence to the patient. which gives the appendix an important role in immunity. There are three bands. called haustra. can be identified. and they start at the base of the appendix and extend from the cecum to the rectum. each about 1/5 in wide. The large intestine extends from the ileocecal junction to the anus and is about 4. tags of peritoneum filled with fat. Instead of having the evaginations of the small intestine (villi). bands of longitudinal muscle fibers called taeniae coli.The large intestine differs in physical form from the small intestine in being much wider and in showing the longitudinal layer of the muscularis have been reduced to 3 straplike structures known as the taeniae coli. The sacculations.9 ft long. It contains the least of lymphoid tissue. the large intestine has invaginations (the intestinal glands). they are abundant in the large intestine.

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