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**Analog Filter Synthesis
**

26.1 Introduction..................................................................................... 26 -1 26.2 Methods to Synthesize Low-Pass Filter........................................ 26 -1 26.3 Frequency Transformations......................................................... 26 -10

Butterworth Low-Pass Filter •Chebyshev Low-Pass Filter • Inverse Chebyshev Low-Pass Filter • Cauer Elliptic Low-Pass Filter

Nam Pham

Auburn University

Bogdan M. Wilamowski

Auburn University

26.4 Summary and Conclusion............................................................ 26 -13 References................................................................................................... 26 -13

Frequency Transformations; Low-Pass to High-Pass • Frequency Transformations; Low-Pass to Band-Pass • Frequency Transformations; Low-Pass to Band-Stop • Frequency Transformation; Low-Pass to Multiple Band-Pass

26.1 Introduction

Analog filters are essential in many different systems that electrical engineers are required to design in their engineering career. Filters are widely used in communication technology as well as in other applications. Although we discuss and talk a lot about digital systems nowadays, these systems always contain one or more analog filters internally or as the interface with the analog world [SV01]. There are many different types of filters such as Butterworth filter, Chebyshev filter, inverse Chebyshev filter, Cauer elliptic filter, etc. The characteristic responses of these filters are different. The Butterworth filter is flat in the stop-band but does not have a sharp transition from the pass-band to the stop-band while the Chebyshev filter has a sharp transition from the pass-band to the stop-band but it has the ripples in the pass-band. Oppositely, the inverse Chebyshev filter works almost the same way as the Chebyshev filter but it does have the ripple in the stop-band instead of the pass-band. The Cauer filter has ripples in both pass-band and stop-band; however, it has lower order [W02, KAS89]. The analog filter is a broad topic and this chapter will focus more on the methodology of synthesizing analog filters only (Figures 26.1 and 26.2). Section 26.2 will present methods to synthesize four different types of these low-pass filters. Then we will go through design example of a low-pass filter that has 3 dB attenuation in the pass-band, 30 dB attenuation in the stop-band, the pass-band frequency at 1 kHz, and the stop-band frequency at 3 kHz to see four different results corresponding to four different synthesizing methods.

**26.2 Methods to Synthesize Low-Pass Filter
**

26.2.1 Butterworth Low-Pass Filter

ωp —pass-band frequency ωs —stop-band frequency αp —attenuation in pass-band αs —attenuation in stop-band

26 -1

K10147_C026.indd 1

6/22/2010 5:25:41 PM

3): T ( jω) = 2 1 + ω2n / ω02n ( 1 ) There are three basic steps to synthesize any type of low-pass filters.26 -2 [dB] Fundamentals of Industrial Electronics [dB] –20 –20 –40 –40 Magnitude Magnitude FIGURE 26.1 Butterworth filter (left). Step 1: Calculate order of filter: log[(10α s /10 − 1)(10 p − 1)]1/2 log(ω s / ω p ) α /10 n= (n needs to be ro oundup to integer value) K10147_C026. The second step is calculating poles and zeros of a low-pass filter. however. Chebyshev filter (right). All steps to design Butterworth low-pass filter. AQ1 [dB] [dB] –20 –20 –40 –40 Magnitude Magnitude FIGURE 26.2 Inverse Chebyshev filter (left).indd 2 6/22/2010 5:25:46 PM . this part is another topic of analog filters. Butterworth response (Figure 26. WLS92]. The first step is calculating the order of a low-pass filter. Cauer elliptic filter (right). WG05. The third step is design circuits to meet pole and zero locations. so it will be not be covered in this work [W90.

30656 1.5 + 180°. Qk = 1 2ak Step 3: Design circuits to meet pole and zero locations (not covered in this work) (Figure 26.3 Butterworth filter characteristic.92443 + 0.30656 0.4).1456 ⇒ n = 4 log(3000 / 1000) Step 2: Calculate pole and zero locations Normalized values of poles and ω0 and Q: −0.38291i −0. K10147_C026. (ω0 = 1) (ω pωs )1/2 [(10 α s /10 k180° n −1 .00059 1.38291 − 0. Example: Step 1: Calculate order of filter: n= log[(1030 /10 − 1)(103/10 − 1)]1/2 = 3. ….54120 0. ….Analog Filter Synthesis ωp αp ωs 26 -3 0 dB αs FIGURE 26.38291 + 0.38291i 1.92443 − 0. k = 0. bk = ± sin(Ω).indd 3 6/22/2010 5:25:55 PM .1.00059 1.92443i −0. k = 0. n 2 Normalized pole locations: ak = − cos(Ω).1.92443i −0.00059 1.00059 1.54120 Normalized values of zeros ⇒ none. Step 2: Calculate pole and zero locations: Angle if n is odd: Ω=± Angle if n is even: k n−2 Ω = ± 0. n 2 ω0 = − 1) / (10 α p /10 − 1)]1/( 4n) .

and phase of Butterworth filter. magnitude response.5 Chebyshev filter characteristic. 26.26 -4 Fundamentals of Industrial Electronics s -plane [dB] –20 –40 Magnitude –90 –180 –270 Phase FIGURE 26.4 Pole-zero locations.5): Step 1: Calculate order of filter: n= ln[4 * (10α s /10 − 1) / (10 p − 1)]1/2 log[(ω s / ωp) + ((ω s 2 / ω p 2 ) − 1)1/2 ] Frequencies at which Cn = 0 1 Is here 1/√1 + ε2 Is here Frequencies at which |Cn| = 1 α /10 2 T ( jω) = 1 / (1 + ε2Cn (ω)) 2 (n needs to be roundup to integer value) |T6( jω)| 0 0 FIGURE 26.2 Chebyshev Low-Pass Filter ωp —pass-band frequency ωs —stop-band frequency αp —attenuation in pass-band αs —attenuation in stop-band Chebyshev response (Figure 26. K10147_C026.indd 4 6/22/2010 5:26:00 PM .2.

magnitude response.91606 3.indd 5 6/22/2010 5:26:08 PM .3535 ⇒ n = 3 log[(3000 /1000) + ((30002 /10002 ) − 1)1/2 ] Step 2: Calculate pole and zero locations Normalized values of poles and ω0 and Q: −0.6).29862 0.06766 Normalized values of zeros ⇒ none.14931 + 0. K10147_C026. γ = n ωk 2ak ak = sinh(γ)cos(Ω). and phase of Chebyshev filter.14931 − 0.90381i −0. QK = Step 3: Design circuits to meet pole and zero locations (not covered in this work) (Figure 26.06766 3.Analog Filter Synthesis 26 -5 Step 2: Calculate pole and zero locations: Ω = 90° + 90° (k − 1)180° + n n ε = 10 α p /10 1/ 2 sinh −1(1 / ε) − 1 . ωk = ak 2 + bk 2 . s-plane [dB] –30 –40 Magnitude x α x –90 –180 Phase FIGURE 26.6 Pole-zero locations.91606 0. bk = cosh(γ)sin(Ω).90381i −0. Example: Step 1: Calculate order of filter: n= ln[4 * (1030 /10 − 1) / (103/10 − 1)]1/2 = 2.

26 -6 Fundamentals of Industrial Electronics 26. Example: Step 1: Calculate order of filter: n= ln[4 * (1030/10 − 1) / (103/10 − 1)]1/2 = 2.7): TIC ( jω) = 2 2 ε 2Cn (1/ω) 2 2 1 + ε Cn (1/ω) The method to design the inverse Chebyshev low-pass filter is almost the same as the Chebyshev lowpass filter.2. 5… < np ak + bk cos[Π * i / (2n)] Notes: two conjugate poles on the imaginary axis. i = 2k − 1 : 1. Step 3: Design circuits to meet pole and zero locations (not covered in this work) (Figure 26. find zeros ωi = . Step 1: Calculate order of filter n = order of the Chebyshev filter Step 2: Calculate pole and zero locations: Pic = 1 1 .8).3535 ⇒ n = 3 log[(3000/1000) + ((30002/10002 ) − 1)1/2 ] Gain = c √1 + c2 Passband Stopband FIGURE 26. 3. K10147_C026.3 Inverse Chebyshev Low-Pass Filter ωp —pass-band frequency ωs —stop-band frequency αp —attenuation in pass-band αs —attenuation in stop-band Inverse Chebyshev response (Figure 26.7 Inverse Chebyshev filter characteristic.indd 6 6/22/2010 5:26:13 PM . It is just slightly different.

45803 1.1) (26.4641i 3. L) 1 + ε Rn 2 To design the Cauer elliptic filter is more complicated than designing three previous filters. a mathematic process is summarized as below.10).4641i −3. it has lower order than the three previous filters (Figure 26.4 Cauer Elliptic Low-Pass Filter Cauer elliptic response (Figure 26. and phase of inverse Chebyshev filter.9): T ( jw) = 2 1 2 (w.45803 1.6613 + 1. That is the advantage of the Cauer elliptic filter: k= ωp ωs (26.4641i −3.60734 1. magnitude response.5(1 − k′ ) (1 + k′ ) K10147_C026. Although the low-pass Cauer elliptic filter has ripples in both stop-band and pass-band.8 Pole-zero locations.4641i 3. In order to calculate the transfer function of this filter.3) k′ = 1 − k 2 q0 = 0.29944i −1.6613 − 1.4641 26. Step 2: Calculate pole and zero locations Normalized values of poles and ω0 and Q: −0.2.2) (26.indd 7 6/22/2010 5:26:20 PM .Analog Filter Synthesis 26 -7 s-plane [dB] –20 –40 Magnitude x –90 x –180 Phase FIGURE 26.10240 Normalized values of zeros: 3.4641 3.29944i −0.10240 1.

9 Cauer elliptic filter characteristic. and phase of Cauer elliptic filter. magnitude response.26 -8 Fundamentals of Industrial Electronics G= 1 √1 + ε2 G= 1 √1 + ε2L 2 i FIGURE 26.indd 8 6/22/2010 5:26:29 PM .4) D= 100.05 α (26.10 Pole-zero locations.5) n≥ (26.7) K10147_C026. s-plane [dB] a –20 –40 x x 0 Magnitude –90 Phase FIGURE 26.6) Λ= p 1 10 +1 ln 0.05α p 2n 10 −1 (26. 5 9 q = q0 + 2q0 + 15q0 + 150q13 0 (26.1α s − 1 0.1α 10 p − 1 log(16D) log(1 / q) 0.

18154i −4.97313i 0.31554 + 0.97313i −0. r (26.9) Ωi = 2q1/ 4 ∑ ∞ m=0 (−1)m q m(m +1) sinh((2m + 1)πµ /n) 2 2mπµ (−1)m q m cosh m =1 n 1+ 2 ∑ ∞ (26.31554 + 0. This filter is the second low pass filter.18154i −4.9713 ⇒ n = 2.. .18154 4.13) B0i = (σ0Vi )2 + (Ωi ω)2 2 2 (1 + σ2 0 Ωi ) 2σ0Vi 2 1 + σ2 0 Ωi for odd n (26. Normalized values of poles and ω0 and Q: −0. 2.Analog Filter Synthesis 26 -9 σ0 = 2q1/ 4 ∑ ∞ m =0 (−1)m q m(m +1) sinh[(2m + 1)Λ] ∞ m =1 1+ 2 ∑ (−1)m q m cosh(2mΛ) 2 0 2 (26..18154 K10147_C026.11) Ω2 Vi = (1 − kΩi2 ) 1 − i k A01 = 1 Ωi2 (26.15) r B0i σ0 A 0i H 0 = i =1 r B0i −0.05α p 10 A 0i i =1 ∏ ∏ (26.10) i µ= 1 i− 2 for odd n for even n i = 1.85360 0.12) (26.35259 1.85360 1.indd 9 6/22/2010 5:26:46 PM .18154i 4.35259 Normalized values of zeros: 4.16) for even n Example: n = 1.14) B1i = (26.18154i 4..8) ω= (1 + kσ ) 1 + σ k 2 0 (26.

B = ω 2 −ω1 Bs Bωc s Bω Frequency transformation transforms the pass-band of the low-pass. 26.11 Frequency transformations low-pass to high-pass. 26. jΩ = ⇒ Ω .26 -10 Fundamentals of Industrial Electronics 26. and band-rejection filters. A designer can design any type of filters by designing a low-pass filter first. Ω 1 –1 –1 1 1 S= s ω FIGURE 26. the desired filter can be derived by “frequency transformation.” In other words. high-pass filters. K10147_C026. there are a lot of applications in the real world of designing. centered around ω = 0. the frequency transformation function Z(s) has a zero in the center of the pass-band of the high-pass (at ω = ∞) and a pole in the center of the high-pass.3.11). Similarly.1 Frequency Transformations Low-Pass to High-Pass 1 1 1 −1 ≤ Ω ≤ 1 frequency of low-pass passband Z (s) = S = . into that of the high-pass. centered around Ω = 0. Similarly. stop-band (at ω = 0) [SV01]: T (S) = ω 02 S + (ω 0S /Q) + ω 02 2 ⇒ T (s ) = ω 02 s2 = 2 2 (1/s ) + (ω 0 /Qs) + ω 0 (1/ω 0 ) + (s /ω 02Q) + s 2 2 T(S): low-pass transfer function.3. it transforms the low-pass stop-band that is centered around Ω = ∞ into that of the high pass. it transforms the low-pass stop-band that is centered around Ω = ∞ into that of the band-pass. T(s): high-pass transfer function. ωc 2 = ω1ω2 .12). centered around ω = 0 (Figure 26. Consequently. centered around ω = ∞ (Figure 26. ω −1 ≤ ω ≤ 1 frequency of high-pass passband s jω Frequency transformation transforms the pass-band of the low-pass. When a low-pass filter is achieved. However. centered around Ω = 0.2 Frequency Transformations Low-Pass to Band-Pass Z (s ) = S = s 2 + ωc ωc (s 2 + ωc 2 ) ω2 − ωc = ⇒ Ω= . centered around ω = ωc. the understanding of methods to design a low-pass filter is the basic but not the trivial task. which require not only the low-pass filters but also the band-pass filters. Consequently.3 Frequency Transformations Four typical methods of deriving a low-pass transfer function that satisfies a set of given specifications are presented.indd 10 6/22/2010 5:26:52 PM . into that of the band-pass.

stop-band (at ω = ± ωc) [SV01]: Ω Ω0 ω –Ω0 ω1 ωc ω2 B FIGURE 26. Similarly. centered around ω = 0 and ω = ∞ (Figure 26.13). stop-band that is centered around Ω = ∞ into that of the band-stop. the frequency transformation function Z(s) has zeros in the center of the pass-band of the band-pass (at ω = ± ωc) and poles in the center of the band-pass. into that of the band-stop. the frequency transformation function Z(s) has zeros in the center of the pass-band of the band-stop (at ω = 0 and ω = ∞) and poles in the center of the band-stop.12 Frequency transformations low-pass to band-pass. ωc 2 = ω1ω2 . K10147_C026. Consequently. stop-band (at ω = 0 and ω = ∞) [SV01]: T (S) = ω 02 S 2 + (ω 0S /Q) + ω 02 ⇒ T (s ) = s 2 B 2ω 02 s 4 + (ω 0 Bs 3/Q) + (2ω c 2 + B 2ω 02 )s 2 + (ω 0 Bω c 2 s /Q) + ω c 4 T(S): low-pass transfer function.3 Frequency Transformations Low-Pass to Band-Stop Bs s + ωc 2 2 Z (s ) = S = ⇒ Ω= − Bω .13 Frequency transformations low-pass to band-stop. centered around Ω = 0. T(s): band-pass transfer function. 26.indd 11 6/22/2010 5:26:57 PM . B = ω2 − ω1 ω − ωc 2 2 Frequency transformation transforms the pass-band of the low-pass. centered around ω = ωc. it transforms the low-pass.Analog Filter Synthesis B 26 -11 Ω Ω0 ω –Ω0 ω1 ωc ω2 FIGURE 26.3.

4 Frequency Transformation Low-Pass to Multiple Band-Pass Frequency transformation transforms the pass-band of the low-pass. Similarly. For example.14 Frequency transformation low-pass to multiple band-pass.indd 12 6/22/2010 5:27:07 PM . The function Z(s) is called Foster Reactance function.14): Z (s ) = S = s(s 2 + ω2 ω(ω2 − ω2 z1 ) z1 ) ⇒ Ω= 2 2 B(s + ωP1 ) B(ω2 − ωP12 ) Transfer functions from the low-pass frequency S to the frequency s of other types of filters are recognized and can be written under the following form: Z (s ) = 2 2 2 2 H (s 2 + ω 2 z1 )(s + ω z 2 ) … (s + ω zn ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 (s + ω p1 )(s + ω p2 ) … (s + ω pn ) Or Ω(ω) = 2 2 2 2 H (ω 2 − ω 2 z1 )(ω − ω z 2 ) … (ω − ω zn ) 2 2 2 2 (ω 2 − ω 2 p1 )(ω − ω p 2 ) … (ω − ω pn ) Z(s) has zeros where the desired filter has pass-bands and poles where it has stop-bands. into that of the multiple band-pass. we can write the transfer function of the filter (Figure 26. K10147_C026. centered around ω = 0 and ω = ωz1.3. centered around Ω = 0. the frequency transformation function Z(s) has zeros in the center of the passband of multiple band-pass and at ωz1 (at ω = 0 and ω = ±ωz1) and poles in the center of the band-stop of multiple pass-band (at ω = ±ωc and ω = ∞) [SV01] (Figure 26. centered around ω = ωp1 and ω = ∞.15) as Z (s ) = Hs(s 2 + ω 2 z) (s 2 + ω 2 p) or Ω(ω) = H ω (ω 2 − ω 2 z) (ω 2 − ω 2 p) Ω ω 1 ω2 Ω0 ω3 ω –Ω0 ωz0 ωp1 ωz1 FIGURE 26. stop-band that is centered around Ω = ∞ into that of the multiple band-pass. Consequently.26 -12 Fundamentals of Industrial Electronics T (S) = ω 02 S 2 + (ω 0S /Q) + ω 02 ⇒ T (s ) = ω 0 2 s 4 + 2ω 0 2 ω c 2 s 2 + ω 0 2 ω c 4 ω 02 s 4 + (ω 0 Bs 3/Q) + (2ω c 2ω 02 + B 2 )s 2 + (ω 0 Bω c 2 s /Q) + ω c 4 ω 02 26. it transforms the low-pass.

Besides that. 2001. the transformation Ω (ω) can be rewritten into multi-equations corresponding to ω = ω1. References [SV01] R. 2002. Oxford University Press.Analog Filter Synthesis 26 -13 2 dB 30 dB 1 kHz ωp 4 kHz ωz 6 kHz FIGURE 26. Understanding the methods to synthesizing analog filters is extremely important and is the basic step to design analog filters. Schaumann and M. ω3 = 6 kHz. Newnes. Woburn. K10147_C026.K. ω3.indd 13 6/22/2010 5:27:15 PM .4 Summary and Conclusion Analog filters have been used broadly in communication. this chapter also presented steps to design other types of filters from the low-pass filter by writing the frequency transfer function. [W02] S. Therefore. ω = ωz and poles at ω = ωp and ω = ∞. and 1. Three equations with three unknowns always have solutions: 1= 2 H ω1(ω1 − ω2 Z) 2 ω1 − ω2 P −1 = 2 H ω2 (ω2 2 − ωZ ) 2 ω2 2 − ωP 1= 2 H ω3 (ω2 3 − ωZ ) 2 2 ω3 − ωP ω 2 z = 22 (1/3)s 3 + (22/3)s 2 sS= ω p = 8 . the values of Ω (ω) are equal to 1. U. MA. respectively. Four different synthesizing methods were presented.15 Frequency transformation by foster reactance function. so the Foster Transfer Function is s2 + 8 1 H= 3 26.. ω2. Winder. Analog and Digital Filter Design. At corner frequencies ω1 = 1 kHz. each method will result in different characteristics of filters. −1. The transfer function has zeros at ω = 0. Analog Filter Design.E. ω2 = 4 kHz. Van Valkenburg. Oxford.

J. Steadman. IEEE Trans. Gottiparthy. A filter synthesis teaching-aid.M. [W90] B. Wilamowski. 1990. Educ. and E. and J.indd 14 6/22/2010 5:27:15 PM . 21(4). [WLS92] B. 32(3). Active and passive filter design with MATLAB.. FIESTA-A filter educational synthesis teaching aid. Educ. J.. Wilamowski. 280–286. Kobe. S. Educ. Golden. Ramirez-Angulo.W. Legowski. Eng. Personal computer support for teaching analog filter analysis and design courses. K10147_C026. E-35(4). 561–571.M. CO.R. 351–361. IEEE Trans. Sanchez-Sinencio.M. April 6. Int. 2005. 1992.F. in: Proceedings of the Rocky Mountain ASEE Section Meeting. [WG05] B..26 -14 Fundamentals of Industrial Electronics [KAS89] M. Wilamowski and R. August 1989.

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