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SECTION A

( 60 marks)
Answer all questions in this section.

1.

Figure 1 shows a fluid mosaic model of a plasma membrane

Figure 1

(a) Label any two structures J, K, L or M in Figure 1 using the following terms:
Protien carrier

Hydrophilic head

Protien pore

Hydrophobic tail

Cholesterol
( 2 marks)
(b) Molecules can pass through structure L in Figure 1 by facilitated diffusion,
(i)

State one characteristic of the molecule that can pass through structure
L
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( 1 marks)

(c) State one characteristic of the plasma membrane based on the model in Figure 1
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( 1 marks)
(d) Using the mechanism of movement of a substances across the plasma membrane
through osmosis:
(i) Explain why food is preserved using concentrated sugar solution.
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( 3 marks)
(ii) Sketch a diagram to show the movement of the substances that you have
describe in (d) (i).

(3 marks)

2. Diagram 2 shows structures of protein. Protien structures can be grouped into four
levels of organization according to their structures.

Figure 2
(a) Name the level of organization for protein structures labelled P and Q
_______________________________________________________________
(1 marks)
(b) Rearrange the organization of protein structures in decending order.
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(1 marks)
(c) Give an example of protein for structure Q and R respectively.
(i) Q: _______________________________________________________
(ii) R: _______________________________________________________
(2 marks)

(d) What is the type of protein structure that is suitable for X in the following equation?

(1 marks)
(e) Essential amino acid is one of two groups of amino acid. Explain the meaning of
essential amino acids.
_________________________________________________________________
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(2 marks)
(f) Diagram 3 shows a test tube containing a mixture of starch suspension and salivary
amylase which has been kept at 60 C for 20 minutes.

Figure 3
(i)

State the observation after the mixture is tested with Benedicts Test.
_________________________________________________________
(1 marks)
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(ii)

Explain your answer in (f) (i)


___________________________________________________________
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(2 marks)

3. Figure 3 shows a reaction catalysed by lipase.

Figure 3
(a) Label P,Q,R and S in Figure 3
(4 marks)
(b) State two characteristic of P.
1. ______________________________________________________________
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2. ______________________________________________________________
_
(2 marks)
(c) State the principle of enzymic reaction as shown in Figure 3
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(1 marks)

(d) What can you deduce about the enzyme lipase based on Figure 3?
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(1 marks)
(e) The temperature at which a lipase reaction takes place is increased to more than
60oC. State the effect on the quantity of the product. Explain your answer.
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(2 marks
)
4. Figure 4 shows phase X and Phase Y in the cell cycle of an organism. Phase X
consists of three sub-phases, P, Q and R. Phase Y involves two process, U and V.

Figure 4
(a) Name process U.
______________________________________________________________
(1 marks)

(b) State two roles of process U in an organism.


______________________________________________________________
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(2 marks)
(c) Figure 4(b) shows the various stages in process U.

Figure 4(b)
(i)

Based on Figure complete the correct sequences of stages in process


U.
Stage

Stage

Stage

Stage

IV

_______

_______

________
(2 marks)

(ii)Name the stages in process U


Stage

Name of stage
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I
II
III
IV
(4marks)

(iii)A technique which involves the cell cycle shown in Figure 4(b) could
be used in cattle farming. A researcher intends to use the technique to
increase the number of beef cattle. Name the technique use.
_________________________________________________________
(1marks)
5. Diagram 5 shows the set-up of an experiment to study the anaerobic respiration in
yeast.

Figure 5
(a) What is the function of paraffin oil in this experiment?
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(1 marks)
(b) Why is the glucose solution boiled before conducting the experiment?

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(1 marks)
(c) (i) What happens to lime water after one hour?
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(1 marks)

(ii) Explain your answer for (c)(i)


______________________________________________________________
(1 marks)
(d) What are the other observations that can be recorded in this experiment?
1. ________________________________________________________________
2. ________________________________________________________________
(2 marks)
(e) (i) What are the final products of yeast respiration?
_______________________________________________________________
(2 marks)
(ii)Write a word equation for anaerobic respiration that occurs in yeast.
_______________________________________________________________
(2 marks)
6. Figure 6 shows two types of organelles found in the cell

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Figure 6

(a) (i) Name organelles P and Q.


P: __________________________

Q: _____________________________
(2 marks)

(ii)State the types of tissue where organelles P and Q can be found in large
numbers
_______________________________________________________________
(2 marks)
(b) Both organelles are involved in physiological processes of living cells. Explain the
importance of both organelles to the cells.
(2 marks)
(c) What are the differences between the reactions which take place in organelle P in
an oxygen-rich condition and in an oxygen-deficient condition?
__________________________________________________________________

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__________________________________________________________________
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(4 marks)

Section B
(20 marks)
Answer any one question from this section.

1. (a) Figure 7 shows the beginning and the n of an experiment to illustrate a


physical process.

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Figure 7
(i)

Give a brief explanation of the process shown in Figure 7

(ii)

Figure 8 shows three types of food.


(4 marks)

Figure 8
Choose any two types of food shown in Figure 8. For each food explain one
method by which it can be preserved for a long period of time.
(6 marks)
(b) Figure 9 shows a plant cell immersed in different concentrations of sucrose
solution.

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Figure 9
Explain what happens to the cell in each of the different concentration of sucrose
solution as shown in Figure 9
(10 marks)

2. (a)

(i)

Water plays an important role in the cell protoplasm. About 70%


of the human body is made up of water.
Based on the above statement, explain the importance of water to the
human body

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(2 marks)
(ii)

Enzyme is a protein that is produced by living cell. It functions as


a biological catalyst to control an increase the rate of biochemical
reaction in the cells.
Based on the above statement, explain the factors that can affect the rate
of enzymatic reaction.
(8 marks)

(b)

The limiting factors of enzyme activity are enzyme concentration


and substrate concentration.
With the help of graph, explain the above statement.
(10 marks)
Section C
(20 marks)
Answer any one question from this section

1. (a) Figure 11 shows a chloroplast, the site of photosynthesis in plant cells.

Figure 11
Describe how light reaction and dark reaction which take place in the chloroplast
result in the production of photosynthetic products.
(10 marks)
(b)Figure 12 shows the control system of a greenhouse.

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Figure 12
Describe how factors which affect the rate of photosynthesis can be controlled artificially
in a greenhouse to optimize crop production. Suggest why you think growing plants in a
greenhouse is a good method to increase the productivity of crops.
(10 marks)
2. (a)

Organism perform gaseous exchange through simple diffusion

Explain, with the help of a labeled diagram, how gaseous exchange between the
human alveolus and blood capillaries in lungs occur. How is the respiratory surface
adapted for this process?
(10 marks)
(b)Explain the differences between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration
(10 marks)

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