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19 views3 pagesModern Physics

Jun 02, 2013

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Modern Physics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Modern Physics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Chaos: Making a New Science
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- Why Science Does Not Disprove God
- Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman
- The Making of the Atomic Bomb
- The Universe in a Nutshell
- The Order of Time
- A Universe from Nothing: Why There Is Something Rather than Nothing
- The Physics of Everyday Things: The Extraordinary Science Behind an Ordinary Day
- University Physics
- The Edge of Physics: A Journey to Earth's Extremes to Unlock the Secrets of the Universe
- The Nature of Space and Time
- This Is Gonna Hurt: Music, Photography, and Life Through the Distorted Lens of Nikki Sixx
- The Fabric of the Cosmos: Space, Time, and the Texture of Reality
- Gravitation
- Polar Shift
- Timecaster Supersymmetry
- Parallel Worlds: A Journey Through Creation, Higher Dimensions, and the Future of the Cosmos
- Greatest Secret of All
- QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter

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Quantum Numbers, Orbitals, and Electron Configurations Quantum Mechanics and the H Atom Bohr theory (1914) ran into problems when it was applied to atoms other than H, and was soon replaced by quantum mechanics (1926). When quantum mechanics was applied to the H atom, the same energies were calculated for the H atom energy levels as in the Bohr model,

1 En = RH 2 n

for n = 1, 2, 3, ...

(1)

but the method by which they were calculated was entirely different. Quantum mechanics assumes the electron is wave-like, and the planetary orbits of Bohr theory (which views the electron as a particle) are discarded. Orbitals, which give us a picture of the most probable locations for the electron in a particular energy state, replace the Bohr orbits. Since the electron is viewed as a wave, it is impossible to describe its precise location: an averaged picture is the best we can do! Another change is that while the quantum number n still plays the prominent role, it is augmented by the quantum numbers l, ml, and ms. The allowed quantum numbers for the H atom are given in the tables below. Table 1.

Quantum Number Allowed Values Name and Meaning

n l

ml ms

Principal quantum number: orbital energy and size. Azimuthal (or orbital) quantum number: orbital shape (and energy in a multi-electron atom), letter name for subshell (s, p, d, f) Magnetic quantum number: orbital orientation Electron spin quantum number: spin up ( ) or spin down ( ).

Table 2

l Value Letter Equivalent to l Value No. of Orbitals in Set Approximate Shape of Orbitals with Specific l Values

0 1 2 3 Table 3

Shell ( n) Subshell (l)

s p d f

1 3 5 7

spherical px, py, pz are dumbbells along x, y, and z axes mostly cloverleaf shapes very complicated shapes!

Orientations (ml)

No. of Orbitals

n=1 n=2

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p

n=3

Page 1 of 3

1 1 3 1 3

Maximum Occupancy 2 e-

2 e6 e2 e6 e-

Chang, 8th Edition, Chapters 7, Worksheet #2 l=2 3d (or px, py, pz) ml = 2, 1, 0, -1, -2 (or dxy, dyz, dxz, d x 2 y 2 , d z2 )

Orbital Energies and Electron Configurations of Multi-Electron Atoms For the H atom the orbital energy depends only on n, so all orbitals with the same value of n have the same energy. This is not true, however, for any other atom! The H atom orbitals may be used to approximate the orbitals for multi-electron atoms. But since these atoms have more than one electron, electrons in the outer orbitals are shielded somewhat from the nucleus: they do not feel the full nuclear charge. Orbitals with a lower l value penetrate closer to the nucleus and are less shielded and have a lower energy than those with a higher l value. The result is that for a given value of n the energy order is s < p < d < f. Orbitals are filled from lowest energy to highest energy. Each orbital holds 2 electrons (Pauli Exclusion Principle), one with spin up ( ) and one with spin down ( ). If more than one orbital has the same energy (e.g., px, py, pz ), electrons first enter different orbitals with spins parallel (Hunds Rule); once each orbital in the set contains one electron, additional electrons form pairs. The order of orbital filling is easily remembered if correlated with the periodic chart. The order is 1s (first row of chart); 2s, 2p (second row); 3s, 3p (third row); 4s, 3d, 4p (fourth row); 5s, 4d, 5p (fifth row); 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p (sixth row); 7s, 5f, 6d. There are a few exceptions to these rules: see Chang, Table 7.3, p. 293 for atomic configurations. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ 1. (a) List all the orbitals for which n = 4. (b) How many orbitals are there in all?

Answer: (a) When n = 4, allowed values of l are: l = 0=s, l = 1=p, l = 2=d, and l = 3=f. Thus we have one 4s, three 4p, five 4d, and seven 4f orbitals. See Table 1 on p. 1 for the allowed ml values for each value of l. For example, when l = 3, ml = 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3. (b) 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16 orbitals (each holds 2 e-).

_____________________________________________________________________________ _ 2. Which of the following subshells cannot exist: (a) 1p; (b) 4f; (c) 2d; (d) 5p; (e) 3f? Why not?

Answer: (a), (c), (e) [See Table 1 for the relation between the allowed values of l and value of n]

_____________________________________________________________________________ _ 3. List all possible values of ml for each of the indicated subshells. What role does the principal quantum number n play in determining your answer?

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Chang, 8th Edition, Chapters 7, Worksheet #2 Subshell (a) 4s (b) 2p (c) 3d (d) 5f

Answer: (a) 0; (b) 1, 0, -1; (c) 2, 1, 0, -1, -2; (d) 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3; Principal quantum number plays no role: answers do not depend on n

_____________________________________________________________________________ _ 4. Give the formula that relates the number of possible values of ml to the value of l.

Answer: 2l +1 (why?)

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