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Miscellaneous Algebra Prelim Solutions: University of Minnesota

Miscellaneous Algebra Prelim Solutions: University of Minnesota

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Problem (Spring 2008, #5). Show that f (x) = xp x + a is irreducible over Fp whenever a Fp is not zero. Proof. First, note that f (x) has no roots in Fp : since bp = b mod p (Fermats Little Theorem), f (b) = bp b + a = a = 0. Now, let be a root of f (x) in the algebraic closure of Fp . Note that + i for i = 1, . . . , p is also a root of f (x). This is because in a eld of characteristic p, we have (x + y )p = xp + y p for every x and y in the eld; so f ( + i) = ( + i)p ( + i) + a becomes p + ip ( + i) + a. Again, by Fermats Little Theorem, ip = i, so this equation becomes p + a, which is zero by the assumption that is a root. Thus, Fp () contains every root of f (x) and so p f (x) =

i=1

x ( + i)

over Fp (). Now suppose, to the contradiction, that f (x) = g (x)h(x) Fp [x] such that 1 < deg g (x) < p. Then, letting d = deg g (x),

d

g ( x) =

j =1

x ( + ij )

over Fp (). Expanding this product shows that the coecient of xd1 is d j =1 + ij , which is equal to d + k , for some k Fp . Since g (x) has coecients in Fp and d is not zero, this means that lies in Fp , contradicting the fact that f (x) has no roots in Fp .

These solutions, chronologically listed, have not been checked by any prelim graders.

Problem (Fall 2008, #2). Prove that if a polynomial f in k [x] with a eld k has a repeated irreducible factor g in k [x], then g divides the greatest common divisor of f and its derivative. Be sure to explain what derivative can mean without limits. Proof. First, lets dene the algebraic derivative of a polynomial f (x) = an xn + + a1 x + a0 in k [x]. We dene the map D : k [x] k [x] on the k -basis of k [x] by Dxn = nxn1 and extend k -linearly. To see if the product rule holds, we evaluate D on the product of two basis elements: D(xn xm ) = Dxn+m = (n + m)xn+m1 . On the other hand: Dxn xm + xn Dxm = nxn1 xm + mxn xm1 = (n + m)xn+m1 . Since the product rule holds on the basis elements and D is k -linear, it holds for all polynomials in k [x]. Note that D1 = D(1 1) = D1 1 + 1 D1, so D1 = 0. Extending k -linearly, this means that the derivative of any constant polynomial is zero (which was left a bit ambiguous in our denition). Conversely, if D(an xn + an1 xn1 + ) = nan xn1 + (n 1)an1 xn2 + = 0 in a eld with characteristic not dividing n, then it must be that n = 0. Now suppose f (x) = g (x)n h(x), where n > 1 and g is irreducible. g certainly divides f , so we just need to show that g also divides Df . We compute Df : Df = D(g n h) = Dg n h + g n Dh = ng n1 h + g n Dh. If the characteristic of k divides n, then Df = g n Dh and we have that g divides both f and Df . If the characteristic of k does not divide n, then the irreducibility of g means that g is nonconstant (any constant is a unit in k [x], since k is a eld), so Dg = 0. By assumption, n 1 > 0, so we can factor out g (x) from Df , giving us: Df = g (ng n2 h + g n1 Dh). So g divides Df . So, in any characteristic, g must divide the greatest common divisor of f and Df . Problem (Fall 2009, #7). Show that f (z ) = wz 4 4z + 1 = 0 has multiple roots z only for w = 27. Proof. A multiple root of f (z ) is also a root of the algebraic derivative1 Df (z ) = 4wz 3 4. I.e., 4w3 4 = 0, which means that w = 3 . So, plugging into f gives us f () = 3 4 4 + 1 = 0, which simplies to = 1/3. So w = 3 = (1/3)3 = 27, as we wished to show.

1

Im assuming that were working over a eld, although the problem does not say so.

Problem (Spring 2010, #5). Let R be a commutative ring of endomorphisms of a nitedimensional complex vector space V . Prove that there is at least one (non-zero) common eigenvector for R on V . Proof. Let W be the C-linear span of R. So, W is a subspace of EndC (V ), hence nitedimensional since V is. By denition, every vector in W is a Clinear combination of elements of R. So, because the elements of R commute, W is also commutative (with respect to composition). Let T1 , . . . , Tn be a basis for W . Lets now show that we can nd a simultaneous eigenvector for this basis. We induct on n: for n = 1, T1 has an eigenvector since C is algebraically closed. Hence, the minimal polynomial for T1 has a root over C, which is an eigenvalue corresponding to a nonzero eigenvector. Now assume T1 , . . . , Tn1 have a simultaneous eigenvector, say v V with Ti v = i v . Letting Vi denote the i -eigenspace for Ti where 1 i < n, we show that the intersection 1 n i=1 Vi is Tn -stable. Indeed, a vector w in the intersection lies in each Vi , so Ti w = i w for 1 i < n. So, Ti Tn w = Tn Ti w = Tn i w = i Tn w, since Ti Tn = Tn Ti . So Tn w lies in each Vi , hence lies in the intersection. Now, since the 1 intersection n i=1 Vi is Tn -stable, it makes sense to speak of the minimal polynomial for Tn of this subspace. Once again, since C is algebraically closed, this polynomial has a root, which n1 precisely corresponds to an eigenvector v for Tn . Since v lies in i =1 Vi , it is simultaneously an eigenvector for the entire basis T1 , . . . , Tn , say with respective eigenvalues i . Now it just remains to show that v is a simultaneous eigenvector for R. If r is any element of R, then

n

r=

i=1

ai Ti

Thus, v is an eigenvector for each R. Problem (Fall 2010, #3). Show that f (x) = x25 10 factors linearly over F101 , the eld of 101 elements. Proof. Note that 104 = 100 100 = (1)(1) = 1 mod 101. So 10 is a root of f (x) since 1025 = 1024 10 = 1 10 = 10. Now consider F 101 , which is cyclic of order 100. Since 25 divides 100, there is an element of order 25. For j = 0, 1, . . . , 24, we have (10 j )25 = 1025 (25 )j = 10, 3

giving 25 roots of f (x). And each j is distinct since {1, , 2 , . . . , 24 } is the cyclic group generated by . Combining this with the fact that 10 is invertible, it follows that these 25 roots are distinct. So f (x) splits into linear factors. Problem (Fall 2010, #5). Let X, Y be nbyn complex matrices such that XY = Y X . Suppose that there are nbyn invertible matrices A, B such that AXA1 and BY B 1 are diagonal. Show that there is an nbyn invertible matrix C such that CXC 1 and CY C 1 are diagonal. Proof. First we prove that the existence of matrices A and B is equivalent to X and Y each having a basis of eigenvectors. To see this, let D = AXA1 . Then Dei = i for each i, since D is diagonal. From D = AXA1 , we get that XA1 = A1 D. So XA1 ei = A1 Dei = A1 i ei = i A1 ei . So A1 ei is an eigenvector for X . Because A1 is an isomorphism, the vectors {A1 ei }i=1,...,n are a basis for Cn , thus an eigenbasis. Conversely, suppose X has an eigenbasis v1 , . . . , vn for Cn with Xvi = i vi . Let P be the matrix such that the ith column of P is vi . Then P has full rank, hence P 1 exists. Furthermore, P 1 XP is diagonal, since P 1 XP ei = P 1 Xvi = P 1 i vi = i P 1 vi = i ei , So, there is a matrix, namely P 1 , such that conjugating X with P 1 yields a diagonal matrix. Returning to the original problem, we see that X and Y both have an eigenbasis for Cn (i.e., are diagonalizable). Then Cn = V , the direct sum of distinct eigenspaces of X . Since X and Y commute, each V is Y -stable. Lets show that for a diagonalizable linear operator T on a nite dimensional vector space V over a eld k , whenever W V is T -stable, T is diagonalizable on W . Let f (x) be the minimal polynomial for T on V over k . Since W is T -stable, it makes sense to speak about the minimal polynomial g (x) for T on W . Since f (T )(V ) = 0, f (T )(W ) = 0. Thus, by denitely of g (x), g (x) divides f (x). And because T is diagonalizable, f (x) splits into distinct linear factors. Then so does g (x) and, hence, T is diagonalizable on W . So each V has a basis of eigenvectors for Y . And because these vectors lie in V , they are eigenvectors for X . Taking the union of these vectors gives us a basis for Cn that are simultaneously eigenvectors for Cn . Then, from what we saw above, letting these vectors be the columns of a matrix C , we have that C 1 XC and C 1 Y C are diagonal. Problem (Fall 2011, #1). Describe all abelian groups of order 72. Proof. By the Fundamental Theorem of Finite Abelian Groups, any group G of order 72 is isomorphic to the direct product of cyclic groups of prime power order, unique up to reordering. Also, by Sun-Zes theorem, we may collapse the direct product cyclic groups 4

Z/m Z/n to Z/mn whenever m and n are relatively prime. That said, we enumerate all abelian groups of order 72 = 23 32 : Z/8 Z/9 = Z/72 Z/8 Z/3 Z/3 = Z/24 Z/3 Z/4 Z/2 Z/9 = Z/4 Z/18 Z/4 Z/2 Z/3 Z/3 = Z/12 Z/6 Z/2 Z/2 Z/2 Z/9 = Z/2 Z/2 Z/18 Z/2 Z/2 Z/2 Z/3 Z/3 = Z/2 Z/6 Z/6

Problem (Fall 2011, #5). Prove that the ideal generated by 7 and x2 + 1 is maximal in Z[x]. Proof. Let M denote the ideal generated by 7 and x2 + 1. To show that M is maximal, well show that Z[x]/M is a eld. Note that Z[x]/M = (Z[x]/7)/(x2 + 1) = (Z/7)[x]/(x2 + 1). So Z[x]/M is a eld if and only if (Z/7)[x]/(x2 + 1) is a eld. Since Z/7 is a eld, (Z/7)[x] is a unique factorization domain. Now notice that because x2 + 1 has no roots (a root would have order 4 in (Z/7) , which is impossible by Lagrange) in Z/7, it is irreducible. But in a unique factorization domain, this means that x2 + 1 is prime and generates a prime ideal. So (Z/7)[x]/(x2 + 1) is an integral domain. But it is a nite integral domain, so it is a eld. Problem (Spring 2012, #1). Show that all groups of order 35 are cyclic. Proof. Let G be a group of order 35 = 3 7. By Sylows theorem, the number of 5-Sylow subgroups is equal to 1 modulo 5 and also must divide 35. The only number satisfying these conditions is 1. So there is a unique 5-Sylow subgroup H . Furthermore, since p-Sylow subgroups are conjugate to one another, H being the unique 5-Sylow subgroup means that H must be normal in G. Similarly, the number of 7-Sylow subgroups is equal to 1 modulo 7 and must divide 35. Again, the only possibility is that there is a unique (hence normal) 7-Sylow subgroup K . Note that if x is an element of both H and K , then Lagrange tells us that x5 = 1 = x7 . So the order of x divides both 5 and 7, thus the order of x must be 1. Thus, H K = 1. Since H and K are normal and H K = 1, we have that HK =H K = Z/5 Z/7. And because 5 and 7 are relatively prime, Z/5 Z/7 = Z/35. So HK is a subgroup of G of order 35, so HK equals G. So G is isomorphic to Z/35. Problem (Spring 2012, #2). Let G be a nite group and H a subgroup of index 2. Show that H is normal. 5

Proof. By denition, the index of H in G is the number of left cosets of H , which is the same as the number of right cosets of H . Thus, there are two left cosets: H and gH , where g does not lie in H . Because these two sets are disjoint and their union is G, gH = G H . Similarly, Hg = G H . So gH = Hg for all g , which is exactly the statement that H is normal.

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