You are on page 1of 44

Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4

1




BELGIAN REAL PROPERTY LAW






1. ReaI Property Law - IntroductIon

1.1 GeneraI Features and Sbort HIstory

In Dclgiun, iIc ariiclcs rclaicd io rcal rocriy arc srcad oui iIrougIoui iIc
Dclgian Civil Codc (Icrcaficr dcscrilcd as iIc 'BCC'}, sonc sccial civil law acis
(i.c Long Lcasc Aci of 1824}, ia law and rcgulaiory and cnvironncnial law.

TIc DCC Ias lccn foundcd on iIc FrcncI Civil Codc of Naolcon and was
iniroduccd in iIc ycar of iIc Dclgian indccndcncc of 1831. Savc sonc ninor
nodificaiions of iIc DCC in ariicular wiiI rcgard io iIc lcasc agrccncnis, iIc
nain rcforns of rcal csiaic law Iavc lccn laid down in sccial civil law acis.

TIc nosi rclcvani sourccs of iIc rcal csiaic law arc iIc following.

I. CIVIL LAW

HCC.

TIc ariiclcs rclaicd io rcal rocriy law arc srcad oui iIrougIoui
diffcrcni cIaicrs in our DCC i.c..
o Marriagc. ariiclcs 215, 217, 223 and 224 of iIc DCC
o Divorcc. ariiclcs 302, 311 of iIc DCC
o Parcnial auiIoriiy. ariiclc 367 of iIc DCC
o Innovallc rocriy, iIc dcfiniiion of owncrsIi and iIc diffcrcni
ways io oliain owncrsIi. ariiclcs 516 uniil 577 of iIc DCC
o Joini-owncrsIi. ariiclcs 577-2 1 uniil 577-14 of iIc DCC
o Usufruci and rigIi of usc. ariiclcs 578 uniil 636 of iIc DCC
o Scrviiudcs. ariiclcs 637 uniil 710lis of iIc DCC
o Division of innovallc rocriy and aiiriluiion. ariiclcs 815 uniil
892 of iIc DCC
o Cifis. ariiclc 893 of iIc DCC
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
2
o Wills. ariiclc 967 of iIc DCC
o Law of olligaiions
1
. ariiclcs 1101 uniil 1369 of iIc DCC
o Pairinonial Fanily Law. ariiclcs 1417 and 1418 of iIc DCC
o Salc. ariiclcs 1582 uniil 1685 of iIc DCC
o EcIangc. ariiclcs 1702 uniil 1707 of iIc DCC
o Lcasc. ariiclcs 1708 uniil 1762lis of iIc DCC (nonu cusc,
csdcntu cusc und tIc connccu cusc)
o Farn lcasc
o Sccuriiics and Morigagcs (Morigagc Aci daicd 1851}

SpecIIIc CIvII Iaw acts sucb as
2
:
o Long Lcasc Aci daicd 10 January 1824
o Duilding FigIi Aci daicd 10 January 1824
o Morigagc Crcdii Aci daicd 4 Augusi 1992
o Aci Drcync" for iIc salc of a Iousc or an aarincni in
consiruciion

II. TAX LAW

TIc nain ariiclcs can lc found in iIc Ta Codc rclaicd io iIc inconc of
innovallc rocriy, iIc Fcgisiraiion Duiy Codc rclaicd io iIc iransfcr iacs
and iIc VAT codc for iIc salc of a ncw luilding.

III. REGULATORY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

TIcsc naiicrs (cnvironncnial naiicrs, iown lanning, soil rcncdiaiion and
rigIis of rc-cniion} Iavc lccn quiic rcccnily rcgulaicd (as fron 1962} and
Iavc lccn oljcci io of loi of nodificaiions iIrougIoui iIc lasi dccadcs.

As fron iIc ninciics, iIc owcr io rcgulaic iown lanning, zoning and
cnvironncnial naiicrs Ias lccn assigncd io iIc Fcgions (iIc FlcnisI Fcgion,
iIc Walloon Fcgion and iIc Drusscls Arca}. Conscqucnily, iIc alicallc
rcgulaiions vary dccnding on iIc locaiion of iIc consiruciion siic.
A dciailcd lcgislaiion on iIc rcncdiaiion of soil and groundwaicr olluiion only
cisis in iIc FlcnisI rcgion. In iIc Walloon Fcgion, a dccrcc Ias rcccnily lccn
cnacicd lui Ias noi yci cnicrcd inio forcc. In iIc Drusscls rcgion, sucI dciailcd
and inicgraicd lcgislaiion docs noi yci cisi, lui is cccicd io lc cnacicd in iIc
ncar fuiurc.

Procriy law is uniforn for iIc wIolc Dclgian couniry ccci for iransfcr
iacs and rcgulaiory (adninisiraiivc} and cnvironncnial naiicrs
Our rcal rocriy law is lascd uon iIc rincilcs of iIc FrcncI Codc
Naolcon and dcfcnds iIc rigIi of cacI crson or lcgal cniiiy io Iavc iis

1
TIc gcncral disosiiions of iIc Dclgian law of olligaiions aly on all coniracis (also
rcal csiaic coniracis} savc if a sccific rulc dcrogaics fron ii.
2
Wc Iavc only cnuncraicd iIc nosi inoriani oncs.
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
3
own rivaic rocriy. In Dclgiun, wc Iavc a civil law concci of rocriy.
TIis IilosoIy Ias noi lccn cIangcd iIc lasi dccadcs ccci iIc
olligaiion io Iavc an cquililraicd coniraci ursuani io iIc Eurocan
Dircciivc on iIc unfair disosiiions
3
and iIc significani rcsiriciions
cnacicd iIc lasi ycars ly iIc adninisiraiivc and cnvironncnial law.
TIcrc arc no lans in Dclgiun io cIangc iIc rcal rocriy law savc iIc
Eurocan rojcci io csiallisI a unificd coniraci law.

1.2 Property and Estates

1.2.1 Estate versus Property

In Dclgiun, ii is noi ossillc for scvcral crsons io lc owncrs" of
iIc sanc rcal rocriy oiIcr iIan in iIc forn of joini-owncrsIi.
Wc ignorc iIc sysicn of fcudal rigIis. Pursuani io ariiclcs 552
564 of iIc DCC, iIc owncrsIi of rcal rocriy is govcrncd ly
iIrcc rincilcs.
o OwncrsIi of land includcs owncrsIi of iIc ground and
sulsoil
o OwncrsIi of land includcs all iIc rocccds and inconc
dcriving iIcrc fron
o OwncrsIi of land includcs owncrsIi of all iIai is
aiiacIcd io ii.
According io iIis rincilc of acccssion, an owncr of a loi
of land nornally Ias iIc rocriy of all iIai is aiiacIcd io
ii. TIc owncr of a loi of land lcconcs iIus iIc owncr of
any consiruciion crccicd on Iis loi of land and of any
inrovcncni or iransfornaiion nadc io iIc luilding,
rcgardlcss of iIc idcniiiy of iIc crson iIai crccicd iIc
luilding and/or iIc owncrsIi of iIc luilding naicrials.
TIc siaius of joini owncrsIi (cooctc/ncdccgcndon"} is
alicallc io rcal rocriy dividcd lciwccn scvcral colc in
diffcrcni cniiiics, cacI conrising a rivaic ari, lus a sIarc inio
iIc connon aris of iIc dividcd rocriy. TIc lasis dccd
(conoscd oui of iIc siaiuics of iIc luilding and iIc rulcs of joini
owncrsIi} dcicrninc wIicI aris arc connon and wIicI arc
rivaic and Iow iIcy arc nanagcd. TIc joini owncrs forn
iogciIcr an associaiion iIai Ias lcgal crsonaliiy and is allc
conscqucnily io rcrcscni iIc joini-owncrs iowards 3
rd
ariics
(Ariiclc 577-5 of iIc DCC}.

AliIougI, wc Iavc diffcrcni iycs of rcal rigIis iIai csiallisI
diffcrcni linds of ouncsIs/cnoncnts" on rcal rocriy i.c..

(1) Long Leose:

3
Iniroduccd in iIc Dclgiun ly law daicd 3 Aril 1997

Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
4

A long lcasc (cnItcosc/cucIt) is a rigIi n cn iIai confcrs on iis Ioldcr
cnjoyncni of a rcal rocriy lclonging io iIc granicr (lcssor} in considcraiion
for a ycarly cIargc, nancd cunon". TIis is csscniially a icnorary rigIi. ii
nusi lc coniracicd for a criod of fron 27 io 99 ycars. TIc Ioldcr of iIc long
lcasc rigIi (lcsscc} nay ccrcisc all iIc rigIis aiiacIing io iIc cnjoyncni of iIc
rcal rocriy io wIicI iIcy criain, rovidcd iIai Ic docs noi rcducc iis valuc
(c.g. Ic nay rcni iIc rocriy oui, or Ic nay also lani or luild, cic.}. Hc can
also lurdcn iIc csiaic wiiI a cIargc for iIc duraiion of Iis rigIi. TIc Ioldcr of
a long lcasc rigIi nay iransfcr Iis rigIi; Ic nay also norigagc ii, lui only for
iIc rclcvani duraiion.

(1) Bu11d1ng R1g1:

A luilding rigIi ('ostuccIt/succc`) is a rigIi n cn of a nainun
duraiion of 50 ycars (rcncwallc} allowing iis Ioldcr io own luildings, worls or
laniings crccicd on land lclonging io anoiIcr ariy. For iIc duraiion of Iis
rigIi, iIc Ioldcr is iIc solc owncr of sucI asscis. Ic nay usc, cnjoy or dcnolisI
iIcn rovidcd iIai Ic rciurns iIc land in iIc condiiion in wIicI Ic rcccivcd ii.
Ai iIc ciry of Iis rigIi, iIc Ioldcr is cniiilcd io clain rcconcnsc for iIc
aciual valuc of iIc laniings, worls or luildings Ic crccicd.

TIc Ioldcr nay iransfcr, norigagc or grani an usufruci ovcr Iis luilding rigIi.

(11) Usu]ruo1:

A usufruci (usuut/uucItgcIuI) is a rigIi n cn iIai confcrs on iis Ioldcr
cnjoyncni of a rcal rocriy lclonging io iIc nalcd owncr wiiI iIc olligaiion io
nainiain iIc rocriy in iis original siaic. Lcgal cniiiics can only lcncficiaic io
a usufruci for a nainun icrn of 30 ycars. Hc can lurdcn iIc csiaic wiiI a
cIargc for iIc duraiion of Iis rigIi. TIc Ioldcr nay also norigagc iis rigIi, lui
only for iIc rclcvani duraiion.

A Long Lcasc and a luilding rigIi arc oficn uscd for ia uroscs, lui
also io ialc advaniagcs of iIc coniraciual frccdon of loiI sysicns. TIc
only incraiivc rulc wiiI rcgard io a luilding rigIi is iIai iis duraiion
cannoi ccccd 50 ycars and a Long Lcasc on iIc oiIcr Iand sIall
incraiivcly Iavc a duraiion of nininun 27 ycars uniil 99 ycars. So
iIcsc long icrns agrccncnis can lc dcicrnincd as io corrcsond io iIc
cccicd ccononic duraiion of iIc rojcci.

1.2.2 SuperIIcIes soIo cedIt

In Dclgiun, iIc owncrsIi of a loi of land conriscs also iIc owncrsIi
of all luildings crccicd on iIc land (iIc so-callcd 'ncc o ucccsson`}.
According io iIc rincilc of acccssion as sci foriI in ariiclc 553 of iIc
DCC, an owncr of a loi of land nornally Ias iIc rocriy of all iIai is
aiiacIcd io ii. TIc owncr of a loi of land lcconcs iIus iIc owncr of any
consiruciion crccicd on Iis loi of land and of any inrovcncni or
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
5
iransfornaiion nadc io iIc luilding, rcgardlcss of iIc idcniiiy of iIc
crson iIai crccicd iIc luilding and/or iIc owncrsIi of iIc luilding
naicrials.
In Dclgiun, an owncr of a loi of land can waivc Iis rigIi of acccssion.
According io a dccision of iIc Surcnc Couri daicd 19 May 1988
4
, a
waivcr of iIc rigIi of acccssion is considcrcd as a luilding rigIi. As
ncniioncd alovc, a luilding rigIi is a rigIi n cn (i.c. a rcal rigIi} of a
nainun duraiion of 50 ycars (rcncwallc} allowing iis Ioldcr io own
luildings, worls or laniings crccicd on land lclonging io anoiIcr ariy.

No siaiisiics arc lnown on iIc crccniagc of isolaic owncrsIi of
luildings.
1.3 Interests In Iand

1.3.1 Numerus cIausus

In Dclgiun, wc Iavc a nuncrus clausus of iIc diffcrcni iycs of rcal rigIis.
Only rcal rigIis as cnacicd ly Law can lc csiallisIcd.
1.3.2 Systems oI Interests In Iand and numerus o1ousus
TIc following rcal rigIis can lc csiallisIcd on rocriy.
FigIi of owncrsIi
5

Long Lcasc
Duilding FigIi
Usufruci
FigIi io usc and Ialiiaiion
Dcsidcs iIc alovcncniioncd rcal rigIis, iIcrc cisis acccssory rcal rigIis sucI
as iIc norigagc and iIc lcdgc on innovallc rocriy.
1.3.3.1 Easements

Undcr Dclgian law, an cascncni is a rigIi cnjoycd ly iIc owncr of a land ovcr
iIc land of anoiIcr sucI as rigIis of way, rigIis of ligIi, rigIis io a flow of
waicr, cic. as sci foriI in Ariiclc 637 of iIc DCC. An cascncni cisis for iIc
acconnodaiion and lciicr cnjoyncni of iIc land io wIicI ii is annccd. Ii is a
cIargc on sonconc's land for iIc usc of anoiIcr nan's land. TIc doninani
icncncni is iIc land owncd ly iIc osscssor of iIc cascncni, and iIc scrvicni
icncncni is iIc land ovcr wIicI iIc rigIi is cnjoycd.


4
Cass. 19 May 1988, A.Cuss., 1987-88, 1230
5
According io ariiclc 544 of iIc DCC, iIc rigIi of owncrsIi confcrs io iIc owncr iIc
alsoluic rigIi io cnjoy a rocriy and io disosc iIcrcof in conforniiy wiiI iIc law.
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
6
An cascncni docs noi confcr any rocriy rigIis on iis lcncficiary. Ii consisis
ciiIcr in a rigIi io do sonciIing on a land lclonging io anoiIcr crson or in a
rcsiriciion of iIc usc of iIc land of iIc scrvicni icncncni. Howcvcr, an
cascncni docs noi consiiiuic for iIc owncr of iIc scrvicni icncncni an
olligaiion io do sonciIing. SucI olligaiions can only lc csiallisIcd ly a
crsonal olligaiion (scc furiIcr iIc Housc Fcgulaiions}.

An cascncni is a rcal rigIi (i.c. a rigIi in rcn}; ii can lc ccrciscd cgu onncs"
and is iIus cnforccallc vis--vis iIird ariics. TIc owncr of a rcal rigIi can
rccovcr Iis rocriy fron iIc wrongful osscssor. A rcal rigIi is also
auionaiically iransfcrrcd in iIc cvcni iIc undcrlying rocriy is iransfcrrcd.

An cascncni is an acccssory rcal rigIi; ii Ias no auiononous cIaracicr. TIis
ncans iIai ii can only lc iransfcrrcd if iIc annccd land is iransfcrrcd. TIc
agrccd cascncnis arc dcscrilcd in iIc rocriy iiilc or in a scaraic dccd of
csiallisIncni of cascncnis.

If a scaraic dccd cisis, iIc cisicncc of iIc cascncnis will lc ncniioncd on
iIc Morigagc Fcgisicr cccri.

Eascncnis can also lc a cIargc inIcrcni io a siic or a lcgal curiailncni of
owncrsIi, i.c. iown lanning rcgulaiions, ccriain lcvcl noi io lc ccccdcd ly
siruciurcs, .

1.3.4 Mortgages and Rent Cbarges

In Dclgiun, wc Iavc only onc iyc of norigagc i.c. an acccssory norigagc
('IotIcquc/IotIccI`}. iIis norigagc dccnds on iIc cisicncc of a
dcli io lc sccurcd. A norigagc Ias iIcrcforc io lc considcrcd as an
acccssory rcal rigIi.
Morigagc Aci daicd 16 Dcccnlcr 1851
TIcrc cisis also iIc ossililiiy io grani a lcdgc on an innovallc
rocriy (Ariiclc 2072 of iIc DCC}. Howcvcr, currcnily iIis iyc of
sccuriiy is noi uscd anynorc.
In Dclgiun, iIc lanl usually rcquircs iIc csiallisIncni of a norigagc
as sccuriiy for financing iIc urcIasc of rcal csiaic.
A norigagc guaraniccs iIc rcayncni of a dcli (Ariiclc 41, 1
si
aragraI
of iIc Dclgian Morigagc Aci of 22 Dcccnlcr 1851}. In iIc cvcni of non-
ayncni, iIc crcdiior is cniiilcd io scll iIc cncunlcrcd rocriy.
A norigagc can also lc vcsicd on a rigIi of usufruci, a luilding rigIi and
a long lcasc rigIi during iis icrn
A norigagc Ias io lc vcsicd ly a noiarial dccd and sIall only lc
cnforccallc iowards 3
rd
ariics as fron iIc noncni of iis rcgisiraiion ai
iIc concicni Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc. If iIc granior of iIc norigagc
cannoi lc rcscni ai iIc signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd, Ic can only lc
rcrcscnicd ly a noiarial roy
TIc cosis of iIc csiallisIncni of a norigagc arc IigI. A rcgisiraiion duiy
of 1 % on iIc sun sccurcd ly norigagc will lc duc (Ariiclc 92 of iIc
Dclgian Fcgisiraiion Duiics Codc}. In addiiion, fccs for iIc scrviccs of iIc
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
7
noiary nusi lc aid. TIis noiarial fcc is rooriional, rogrcssivc and
calculaicd on iIc sun of iIc dcli sccurcd ly norigagc. Cosis rclaiing io
iIc cccuiion of iIc noiarial dccd (c.g. sian duiics, osiagc cic.} will
also lc duc.
In ordcr io avoid iIcsc IigI cosis and all iIc fornaliiics io lc fulfillcd in
iIc cvcni of a norigagc lcing csiallisIcd, iIc dclior can nalc a
norigagc ronisc. TIc norigagc ronisc is suiiallc for iIc dclior, as
only a ficd rcgisiraiion duiy of EUF 24.78 (DEF 1,000} will lc duc. In
addiiion, iIc alicallc noiarial fccs arc norc or lcss a quaricr of iIc
noiarial fccs duc for iIc csiallisIncni of a norigagc and no cosis
rclaiing io iIc scrviccs of iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc Iavc io lc ialcn
inio accouni. Finally, no ulliciiy (c.g. in iIc Morigagc Fcgisicr, in iIc
annual accounis cic.} is givcn io iIc norigagc ronisc.

1.3.S RIgbts In rem to acquIre reaI property

|Fcal rocriy can lc acquircd ly law (rincilc of acccssion}, ly dccd, ly will,
ly gifi and ly inIcriiancc.|

1.3.6 Otber Interests In Iand

No, iIcrc cisi a nuncus cuusus in Dclgiun.

1.4 Apartment OwnersbIps

In Dclgiun, iIc alicallc rulcs rclaicd io an aarincni joini-owncrsIi can
lc found in iIc Ariiclcs 577-3 uniil 577-14 of iIc DCC. TIcsc ariiclcs wcrc
iniroduccd in iIc DCC ly a Law daicd 30 Junc 1994 and arc incraiivc.

TIc aarincni joini owncrsIi (cooctc/ncdccgcndon"} is alicallc io
luildings dividcd lciwccn scvcral colc Iaving cacI a rivaic ari (i.c. an
aarincni} and a sIarc inio iIc connon aris including iIc land of iIc
luilding. In iIc cvcni of joini-owncrsIi a lasis dccd (conoscd oui of iIc
siaiuics of iIc luilding and iIc rulcs of joini owncrsIi} sIall lc drawn ly a
ullic noiary and sIall lc rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc. TIis
dccd dcicrnincs wIicI aris of iIc luilding arc connon and wIicI aris arc
rivaic and Iow iIcy arc nanagcd. TIc joini owncrs forn iogciIcr an
associaiion iIai Ias lcgal crsonaliiy and iIai is allc io rcrcscni iIc joini-
owncrs iowards 3
rd
ariics (Ariiclc 577-5 of iIc DCC}. EacI joini owncr sIall
Iavc a voiing rigIi in iIc gcncral ncciing io lc Icld ai lcasi oncc a ycar. A
nanagcr sIall lc aoinicd ly iIc gcncral ncciing io rcrcscni iIc joini-
owncrsIi iowards 3
rd
ariics.

Nornally, iIc lasis dccd sIall rovidc if a rcsiaurani can lc Icld ly onc of iIc
joini-owncrs. Pursuani io ariiclc 577-7 2 of iIc DCC, cacI nodificaiion of iIc
dcsiinaiion of iIc good sIall lc ialcn ly iIc najoriiy of 4/5 of iIc joini-owncrs.
TIc sanc najoriiy sIall lc rcquircd io nodify iIc disiriluiion of iIc sIarcd
cosis. For iIc roIiliiion of cis inio iIc luilding, only a nornal najoriiy sIall
lc ncccssary.
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
8
TIc owncr of an aarincni can lc frccly norigagcd ly iis owncr wiiIoui iIc
conscni of iIc oiIcr joini owncrs. FuriIcr, iIc cffccis of iIc norigagc arc
cacily idcniical io iIosc on a rocriy Icld individually including in iIc cvcni
iIai ii is dcsiroycd. TIc rocccds rcccivcd fron iIc insurancc conany sIall lc
uscd io rcluild iIc luilding.

1.S BuIIdIng Lease

As ncniioncd alovc, in Dclgiun wc Iavc iwo iycs of luilding lcascs.

l/ Long cusc (cnItcosc/cucIt) (Long lcasc Aci daicd 10 January 1824}

A long lcasc is a rigIi n cn iIai confcrs on iis Ioldcr cnjoyncni of a rcal
rocriy lclonging io iIc granicr (lcssor} in considcraiion for a ycarly cIargc,
nancd cunon". TIis is csscniially a icnorary rigIi. ii nusi lc coniracicd for a
criod of fron 27 io 99 ycars. TIc long lcasc Ioldcr sIall lc iIc full owncr of a
luilding crccicd on a lcascd loi of land.


2/ Hudng gIt ('ostuccIt/succc`) (Duilding FigIi Aci daicd 10 January
1824}

A luilding rigIi is a rigIi n cn of a nainun duraiion of 50 ycars (rcncwallc}
allowing iis Ioldcr io own luildings, worls or laniings crccicd on land
lclonging io anoiIcr ariy.

1.6 Tbe pubIIc Law Context oI reaI property transactIons

In Dclgiun iIcrc cisis a widc rangc of rigIi of rc-cniions in favour of
all lind of ullic auiIoriiics (for canlc iIc rigIi of rc-cniion in
favour of iIc Harlour Conany for all goods siiuaicd in iIc ori of
Aniwcr}. In iIc cvcni of a salc, iIc noiary ullic sIall cIccl iIcsc
rigIis of rc-cniions on iIc inicrnci siic www.rccIivanvoorloo.lc.
TIc rclininary agrccncni sIall lc signcd undcr rcccdcni condiiion
iIai iIc Ioldcr of iIc rigIi of rc-cniion docs noi ccrcisc iis rigIi. TIc
noiary ullic sIall noiify iIc lanncd salc io iIc auiIoriiy and iIcy sIall
Iavc in rincilc 2 noniIs io ccrcisc iIcir rigIi.

In Dclgiun cisis ullic sulsidics io a ccriain cicni for fanilics iIai arc
luying iIcir Ioncs

1.? ReaI Property Iaw In ActIon

For iIc iinc lcing, iIcrc cisis a grcai inicrcsi io invcsi in Dclgiun rcal
rocriy in ariicular in Drusscls ialing inio accouni iis ccniral
siiuaiion in Euroc and iIc rcscncc of iIc Eurocan insiiiuiions.
Morcovcr, iIc riccs arc noi as IigI as in oiIcr nain Eurocan ciiics.
Many forcign invcsiors arc currcnily invcsiing in Drusscls. TIc io arca
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
9
in Drusscls is iIc Lcoold Disirici wcrc io rcnis arc acIicvcd of
aroinaicly EUF 229/n cr ycar.
Morigagcs arc vcry oficn uscd ly Dclgian rcsidcnis io acquirc rcal
rocriy
In nosi of iIc cascs, a rcal csiaic agcni sIall lc uscd for iIc salc of a
Iousc
According io Dclgian law, iIc noiary is iIc crson officially concicni in
rcal csiaic naiicrs. Pullic auiIoriiy Ias lccn dclcgaicd io Iin ly iIc
Siaic cnowcring Iin io givc an addcd valuc cquivalcni io iIai of a
judgcncni io iIc dccds iIai Ic rcccivcs. TIc noiary nay carry oui rcal
csiaic ncgoiiaiions, wiiIoui Iowcvcr ncglcciing Iis duiy of inariialiiy.
Hc nay also inicrvcnc, fron iIc siagc of iIc rclininary coniraci, in Iis
caaciiy as a counscl and as iIc officcr wIo will sulscqucnily draw u
iIc final dccd.TIc clicni is frcc io cIoosc Iis noiary. TIc scllcr or Iis
csiaic agcni will gcncrally roosc iIcir noiary, lui iIc luycr rcnains
conlcicly frcc io aoini a noiary of Iis cIoicc.
In iIc cvcni of a iransfcr of an officc luilding cnconassing a ccriain n,
a rcal csiaic lawycr sIall oficn lc involvcd io crforn a duc diligcncc of
iIc luilding and io ncgoiiaic iIc coniracis.
In Dclgiun, a lcgal roccdurc can ialc aloui 2 or 3 ycars. An acal can
lc iniroduccd wiiIin onc noniI aficr a judgncni. Ii is adviscd io nalc
an anicallc sciilcncni in iIc cvcni of a disuic.
In iIc asi, cacI ariy Iad io lcar iIc lcgal fccs of Iis lawycr. A rcccni
judgncni rcndcrcd ly iIc Surcnc Couri daicd 2 Scicnlcr 2004 Ias
Iowcvcr dccidcd iIai iIc succcssful ariy can rccovcr iIcsc fccs.
TIc nornal couris (couri of iIc siiuaiion of iIc good} sIall lc concicni.
If a ciiiion Ias lccn filcd wiiI iIc couri, iIc couri sIall aoini in nosi
of iIc cascs a couri ccri io invcsiigaic iIc iccInical dciails of iIc
disuic (c.g. disuic lciwccn rincial and an arcIiicci}


1.S ForeIgn Investments

As a conscqucncc of ariiclc 191 of iIc Consiiiuiion and Ariiclc 11 of iIc
DCC, a forcigncr cnjoys iIc sanc rigIis as a Dclgian naiional, unlcss
siaiuiory rovisions siaic iIc conirary.

TIcrc arc no sccific lcgal rcsiriciions on iIc rigIi of forcigncrs io invcsi
in rcal csiaic in Dclgiun.

Dcsidcs, iIc rcgisiraiion duiics io lc aid on iIc salc of a
Iousc/luilding, a caiial gain of 16,5 % sIall lc aid on iIc incrcasc in
valuc of a rocriy acquircd suljcci io ayncni and rcsold wiiIin 5
ycars of iis urcIasc. WIcn iIc scllcr docs noi rcsidc in Dclgiun, iIis
ia on caiial gain sIall lc collccicd ly iIc ullic noiary on iIc day of
rcsalc.


Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
10
2. Land RegIstratIon

2.1 OrganIsatIon

2.1.1 Statutory basIs

WIai is iIc siaiuiory lasis for Land Fcgisiraiion?

Pursuani io Ariiclc 1 of iIc Morigagc Aci daicd 16 Dcccnlcr 1851 (Icrcaficr
dcscrilcd as iIc Morigagc Aci"}, all dccds rclaicd io iIc iransfcr of rcal
rocriy, iIc lcasc agrccncnis wiiI a icrn iIai ccccds 9 ycars or iIc
dcsignaiion of all lind of rcal rigIis sIall lc iranscrilcd in iIcir ioialiiy in iIc
Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc ('Hucuu d`HotIcquc/IotIccIIuntoo`} wIcrc iIc
goods arc siiuaicd. If a dccd is noi iranscrilcd ii sIall noi lc cnforccallc
againsi 3
rd
ariics wIo arc of good faiiI.

Is iIcrc a diffcrcni sysicn in a ari of your couniry?

No, iIc Morigagc Aci is a naiional (fcdcral} law iIai alics for iIc cniirc
couniry.

2.1.2 ReIevant InstItutIons

WIicI insiiiuiions dcal wiiI iIc rcgisiraiion of land in your
couniry? WIai arc iIcir lasic concicnccs?

1/ Land Fcgisiry Officc ('Cudustc/Iudustc' }.

TIc cniirc couniry is dividcd inio diffcrcni lois of land Iaving iis own land
rcgisicr nunlcr wiiI idcniificaiion of iIcir surfacc (for canlc a good siiuaicd
ai 1000 Drusscls, Avcnuc Marni 23 rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc Land Fcgisiry Officc ai
Drusscls (1
si
Division}, Scciion A nunlcr 504/D wiiI a ioial surfacc of 10a 56
ca}. TIc Land Fcgisiry Officc sIall also dcicrninc iIc cadasiral inconc of a
luilding. TIc Land Fcgisiry Officc is an adninisiraiivc auiIoriiy and dccnds
of iIc Minisicr of Financc.

If you ignorc iIc owncr of a luilding, you can cIccl ai iIc Land Fcgisiry Officc
wiiI iIc caci addrcss of iIc luilding and cvcniually wiiI iis land rcgisicr
nunlcr io wIon a ccriain luilding lclongs.

(scc aiiacIcd canlc}


2/ Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc

Undcr Dclgian law, iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry cvidcnccs iowards iIird ariics iIc
rocriics of land and luilding.

Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
11
TIc Morigagc Fcgisicr sIows, in addiiion io iIc owncrsIi of a land and/or
luilding, also wIciIcr iIcrc arc any norigagc, rigIis n cn, co-owncrsIis,
lcgal aciions or scnicnccs rcgarding iIc land and/or luilding, cascncnis,
aiiacIncnis and lcascs for a duraiion of norc iIan ninc ycars.


Dcforc iIc signaiurc of a dccd wiiI rcgard io rcal rocriy, iIc noiary ullic
Ias io acconlisI a largc nunlcr of fornaliiics, sucI as oliaining a land
rcgisicr cccri and oliaining a norigagc rcgisicr cccri.
(scc aiiacIcd canlc}

2.1.3 Land regIsterJregIstre IoncIerJGrundbucb

In Dclgiun, iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry Officcs (cr arrondisscncni} arc an
adninisiraiivc auiIoriiy and dccnds fron iIc Minisicr of Financc.

TIc rcgisiraiion and inscriiions (norigagcs} wiiI iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc
arc nadc ly rcgisirars wIo do noi Iavc a gcncral law dcgrcc. TIc Morigagc
Fcgisiry Officc is a ullic officcr. Hc Ias a assivc rolc; Ic can only cIccl if a
dccd Ias iIc rigIi forn and cannoi vcrify iIc lcgaliiy of a ccriain iransaciion.
TIc rcgisiraiion of dccds is cccuicd in a vcry arcIaic way. cacI dccd rcgisicrcd
is cniircly iranscrilcd in iis rcgisicrs.

In BeIgIum, tbe pubIIcIty reIated to reaI property Is cIassIIIed upon tbe
ownersJboIders oI reaI rIgbts (personsJIegaI entItIes) contrary to a
grundbuck"system. AII researcb bas to be done vIa tbe owner oI a
property or Its boIder oI a reaI rIgbt.


2.1.4 Is aII reaI property regIstered?

In Dclgiun, all owncrsIi of land and/or luilding, norigagcs, rigIis n cn, co-
owncrsIis cic. sIould lc rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc. If noi, ii
is noi cnforccallc iowards 3
rd
ariics.

In Dclgiun, alnosi all rcal rocriy is rcgisicrcd

2.2 Contents oI RegIstratIon

2.2.1 WbIcb data are regIstered?

1/ Land Fcgisiry Officc.
nanc of iIc owncr of iIc rocriy and iis addrcss or rcgisicrcd
scai
addrcss of iIc rocriy
land rcgisicr nunlcr of iIc rocriy
surfacc of iIc rocriy
cadasiral inconc for iIc calculaiion of iIc ycarly rcal csiaic iacs
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
12

2/ Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc.
all dccds cccuicd wiiI rcgard io iIc rocriy (salc, ncrgcr,
luilding rigIi cic}
cisicncc of a joini-owncrsIi
norigagcs
scnicnccs or lcgal aciions
cascncnis ('scutudcs/cdcnstIuuIcdcn`}
aiiacIncnis
lcasc agrccncnis for a duraiion iIai ccccds 9 ycars


2.2.2 SampIe oI regIstratIon

[scc canlc aiiacIcd]

2.3 RegIstratIon Procedure

2.3.1 AppIIcatIon Ior RegIstratIon

Is iIcrc any forn rcquircd for iIc alicaiion for rcgisiraiion.

All noiarial dccds, dccds cccuicd ly a Pullic Officcr
6
or scnicnccs wiiI rcgard
io rcal rocriy sIall lc rcgisicrcd wiiIin 2 noniIs aficr iIcir cccuiion ly iIc
noiary ullic (Ariiclc 2 of iIc Morigagc Aci}, Pullic Officcr or judgc. TIcy sIall
scnd onc ccriificd coy io iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc. Aficr rcgisiraiion in iIc
lools, iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc sIall scnd iIc ccriificd coy lacl io iIc
noiary ullic, Pullic Officcr or judgc wiiI iIc daia of rcgisiraiion (nunlcr of
rcgisiraiion and iis daic}.

Is ii usually a lawycr or a noiary ullic wIo alics for iIc
rcgisiraiion on lcIalf of iIc ariics?

In rincilc, as only noiarial dccds, dccds cccuicd ly a Pullic Officcr and
scnicnccs can lc rcgisicrcd, ii sIall in nosi of iIc cascs lc iIc noiarics ullic,
iIc Pullic Officcrs or iIc judgcs iIai alics for rcgisiraiion.

Howcvcr, cacI crson can rcqucsi for a rcgisiraiion.

2.3.2 DutIes oI tbe RegIstrar

WIai docs iIc rcgisirar conirol?

- Scc ncniioncd alovc assivc rolc/only conirols iIc forn of iIc dccds
- No cIccl of lcgaliiy of iIc iransaciion

6
A dccd rclaicd io rcal rocriy can lc cccuicd ly a Pulic Officcr if onc of iIc ariics
is a ullic auiIoriiy for canlc if iIc Dclgian Siaic is sclling or urcIasing a good.
TIc noiary ullic Ias noi a nonoolc io cccuic an auiIcniic dccd.
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
13



How arc iIc alicanis inforncd aloui iIc rcgisiraiion?

TIc Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc sIall iransnii a ccriificaic roving iIc
iranscriiion or inscriiion.

2.4 Access to InIormatIon

Is iIc rcgisiraiion donc on acr or clccironically?

On acr

How can you gci acccss io iIc rcgisicr? Is ii a in iIc ullic donain or
is iIc acccss rcsiricicd?

As iIc Morigagc Fcgisicr is a ulic rcgisicr, everybody can rcqucsi a norigagc
rcgisicr ccriificaic againsi ayncni (Ariiclc 127 of iIc Morigagc Aci} ai iIc
Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc. TIis rcqucsi can lc donc ly lciicr, ly fa or ai iIc
officc iisclf. SucI a rcqucsi ialcs in rincilc 2 or 3 wccls.

Dcforc iIc iransfcr of rcal csiaic and iIc signing of iis noiarial dccd, iIc noiary
ullic is olligcd io rcqucsi sucI a ccriificaic.

Can you scarcI for infornaiion ly addrcss, ly rcgisiraiion nunlcr of
land and/or ly Ioldcrs of rigIi on ii?

- rcscarcI ly Ioldcrs of rigIi

If you rcqucsi a norigagc ccriificaic, iIc rcal csiaic sIall lc dcscrilcd n
cxtcnso i.c. iIc caci addrcss and iis rcgisiraiion nunlcr (old and ncw onc} and
iIc idcniificaiion of iis currcni and forncr owncrs (for a Iysical crson. firsi
nanc and nanc, daic and lacc of liriI for a lcgal cniiiy. nanc, rcgisicrcd
officc and daic of incororaiion}

2.S SubstantIve EIIects to tbe RegIstratIon

WIai arc iIc sulsianiivc cffccis of iIc rcgisiraiion?

WIilc iIc noiarial dccd crcaics or iransfcrs iIc rigIi, is iIc rcgisiraiion wiiI
iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc ncccssary for iis cnforccaliliiy againsi 3
rd
ariics.

If for canlc a Iousc is sold iwicc, wIocvcr iIai rcgisicrs 1
si
lcconcs iIc ncw
owncr of iIc Iousc. TIc oiIcr urcIascr can only clain an indcnniiy of iIc
scllcr.

Is iIc rcliancc in good faiiI on iIc rcgisicr roiccicd ?
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
14

Ycs, lui you Iavc io rcqucsi a norigagc ccriificaic as closcsi io iIc signaiurc of
iIc noiarial dccd io rcvcni a rcgisiraiion jusi lcforc your rcgisiraiion.

2.6 Rank and PrIorIty NotIce

2.6.1 Rank

How is iIc ranl of rcgisiraiions dcicrnincd?

Pursuani io ariiclc 123 of iIc Morigagc Aci, iIc ranl of iIc rcgisiraiion of a
iiilc - if norc iiilcs arc rcgisicrcd ai iIc sanc daic - is dcicrnincd on iIc lasis
of iIc rcccivcd nunlcr.

Howcvcr, iIc norigagcs iIai Iavc lccn rcgisicrcd iIc sanc daic sIall all Iavc
iIc sanc ranl savc iIcir rcccivcd nunlcr (Ariiclc 81 of iIc Morigagc Aci}.

Casc. Owncr granis firsi a norigagc io A and iIcn io D. Aficrwards, C
Ias a 3
rd
norigagc rcgisicrcd in an cccuiion roccdurc. TIc iinc of
rcgisiraiion is as follows. 1
si
D, iIcn C and iIcn A

If iIc norigagcs arc rcgisicrcd on a diffcrcni daic, iIc ranl will lc. D, C and A.

Howcvcr, if iIc norigagcs arc rcgisicrcd ai iIc sanc daic, iIcy will all Iavc iIc
sanc ranl.

2.6.2 PrIorIty notIce

Is iIcrc any ossililiiy io sccurc a fuiurc rcgisiraiion (or ai lcasi iis
ranl}?

No, in Dclgiun wc do noi Iavc sucI a ossililiiy io sccurc a rcgisiraiion.

3. SaIe oI ReaI Estate among PrIvate Persons
(consumers)

3.1 Procedure In generaI

TIc ncc o conscnsuu uctng ('conscnsuusnc`)`
In Dclgiun, iIc salc is rcaliscd lciwccn iIc scllcr and iIc luycr as soon as an
agrccncni is rcacIcd lciwccn iIcn on iIc salcs oljcci and iIc ricc (Ariiclc
1583 Civil Codc}. Howcvcr, in ordcr io rovc said salc, a wriiicn agrccncni
sIould lc cnicrcd inio, daicd and signcd ly loiI ariics, callcd iIc rclininary
salcs agrccncni ('KoooucccnIonst`/Conons dc ucntc'}.
WIilsi iIc rclininary salcs agrccncni cisis as soon as iIcrc is an agrccncni
on iIc salcs oljcci and iIc ricc, sucI an agrccncni is only cnforccallc
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
15
iowards iIird ariics as fron iIc daic on wIicI iIc agrccncni Ias lccn
rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc concicni norigagc rcgisiry officc
('HotIccIIuntoo/Hucuu dcs HotIcqucs`}. Sincc only noiarial dccds
('notucc uItc`/`uctc notuc`} can lc rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc norigagc rcgisiry
officc, iIc involvcncni of a noiary ullic is nandaiory in any acquisiiion of rcal
rocriy (Ariiclc 1 of iIc Morigagc Aci of 16 Dcccnlcr 1851 (Icrcaficr
dcscrilcd as iIc Morigagc Aci"}} (save exceptIon autbentIc deed by pubIIc
oIIIcer).
TIc ncgotutons
TIc ncgoiiaiions cnicrcd inio lciwccn iIc scllcr and iIc luycr rior io iIc
signaiurc of a rclininary salcs agrccncni can lc icrninaicd ai any noncni
(ccci for iIc icrninaiion donc in an inaroriaic way wiiIoui any lcgiiinaic
rcason}. In iIai casc, iIc dcfauliing ariy could incur rc-coniraciual lialiliiy
('c-contuctucc uunsuIcIIcd`/`u csonsuItc c-contuctucc`} (Ariiclc
1382 Civil Codc}, wIicI could cniail iIc ayncni of an indcnniiy io iIc oiIcr
ariy. Dcforc iIc siariing of iIc ncgoiiaiions, a lciicr of inicni"
('ntcntcucIung`/`cttc d`ntcnton`} is oficn signcd lciwccn iIc scllcr and iIc
luycr io grani iIc laiicr iIc cclusiviiy during a ccriain criod during wIicI ii
sIould crforn a duc diligcncc and during wIicI iIc scllcr is noi cniiilcd io
ncgoiiaic wiiI oiIcr inicrcsicd ariics.
TIc cnnu sucs ugccncnt
TIc rclininary salcs agrccncni is a rivaic agrccncni iIai siaics anong
oiIcrs iIc agrccncni lciwccn iIc ariics on iIc salcs oljcci and iIc ricc.
Savc oiIcrwisc rovidcd for, iIc rclininary salcs agrccncni is final and
linding.
TIc notuu dccd

Aficr iIc signaiurc of iIc rclininary agrccncni, a noiarial dccd sIall lc signcd
wiiIin 4 noniIs. Dcforc

3.1.1 MaIn steps oI a reaI estate saIe

In nosi of iIc cascs, iIc scllcr uscs iIc scrviccs of a rcal csiaic agcni in ordcr
io find a luycr.
As ncniioncd alovc, wIcn iIc scllcr Ias found a luycr, iIc salc is rcaliscd
lciwccn iIc scllcr and iIc luycr as soon as an agrccncni is rcacIcd lciwccn
iIcn on iIc salcs oljcci and iIc ricc (Ariiclc 1583 Civil Codc}. Howcvcr, in
ordcr io rovc said salc, a wriiicn agrccncni sIould lc cnicrcd inio, daicd and
signcd ly loiI ariics, callcd iIc rclininary salcs agrccncni
('KoooucccnIonst`/Conons dc ucntc'}. TIis rclininary salcs agrccncni is
a rivaic agrccncni iIai siaics anong oiIcrs iIc agrccncni lciwccn iIc
ariics on iIc salcs oljcci and iIc ricc. Savc oiIcrwisc rovidcd for, iIc
rclininary salcs agrccncni is final and linding.
TIc rclininary salcs agrccncni sIall lc draficd in nosi of iIc cascs ly a rcal
csiaic agcni or a lawycr (if iIc salc conccrns a significani luilding or an
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
16
indusirial conlc}. In sonc cascs, iIc rclininary salcs agrccncni sIall lc
draficd ly iIc noiary ullic of iIc urcIascr.
WIilsi iIc rclininary salcs agrccncni cisis as soon as iIcrc is an agrccncni
on iIc salcs oljcci and iIc ricc, sucI an agrccncni is only cnforccallc
iowards iIird ariics as fron iIc daic on wIicI iIc agrccncni Ias lccn
rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc concicni Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc
('HotIccIIuntoo/Hucuu dcs HotIcqucs`}. Sincc only noiarial dccds
('notucc uItc`/`uctc notuc`} can lc rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry
Officc, iIc involvcncni of a noiary ullic is nandaiory in any acquisiiion of
rcal rocriy (Ariiclc 1 of iIc Morigagc.
Aficr iIc signaiurc of iIc rclininary salcs agrccncni, iIc noiarial dccd Ias io
lc cccuicd wiiIin a criod of 4 noniIs. TIis dclay is iIc conscqucncc of iIc
olligaiion io ay iIc iransfcr iacs (10 % in Flandcrs, 12,5 % in Drusscls and
in iIc Walloon rcgion} ai iIc laicsi 4 noniIs aficr iIc cccuiion of iIc
rclininary salcs agrccncni (Ariiclc 32 (4} of iIc Fcgisiraiion Duiics Codc}.
DoiI ariics arc liallc for iIc ayncni of iIcsc iransfcr iacs cvcn if ii is
gcncrally iIc luycr wIo lcars iIcn.
Dcforc iIc signaiurc of iis dccd, iIc noiary ullic Ias io acconlisI a largc
nunlcr of fornaliiics, sucI as.
Oliaining a land rcgisicr ccriificaic
Oliaining a norigagc rcgisicr ccriificaic
Oliaining a iown lanning ccriificaic wiiI iIc conccrncd
nunicialiiy
Oliaining a soil ccriificaic if rcquircd (only in iIc FlcnisI Fcgion}
Noiifying iIc rclcvani ia auiIoriiics (c.g. iIc dircci ia collccior
and iIc VAT- collccior if iIc conany is suljcci io VAT} ai lcasi 12
days lcforc iIc signaiurc of iIc salcs dccd
Vcrifying iIc rocriy iiilcs of iIc asscis io cIccl wIciIcr iIcy
coniain any iransfcr rcsiriciions c.g. a rc-cniion rigIi in favour
of a icnani in iIc cvcni of a salc iIai inlics iIai iIc laiicr sIould
Iavc iIc ossililiiy io luy firsi, a rc-cniion rigIi in favour of a
ullic auiIoriiy cic.
TIcsc fornaliiics and vcrificaiions can nornally lc fulfillcd ly iIc noiary ullic
wiiIin a nininun criod of iinc of 2 noniIs u io a nainun criod of iinc
of 4 noniIs.

3.1.2 TIme Irame

How long do iIosc sics nornally ialc in your couniry ?
As ncniioncd alovc, ii ialcs nornally as fron 2 u io 4 noniIs io sign iIc
noiarial dccd.
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
17
3.2 ReaI Estate SaIes Contract

3.2.1 Form

Is iIcrc any forn rcquircd ly law ciiIcr for iIc salcs coniraci or for
iIc iransfcr of owncrsIi?

In Dclgiun, iIc salc is rcalizcd lciwccn iIc scllcr and iIc luycr as soon as an
agrccncni is rcacIcd lciwccn iIcn on iIc salcs oljcci and iIc ricc (Ariiclc
1583 of iIc Dclgian Civil Codc}. Howcvcr, in ordcr io rovc said salc, a wriiicn
agrccncni sIould lc cnicrcd inio, daicd and signcd ly loiI ariics, callcd iIc
rclininary salcs agrccncni ('KoooucccnIonst`/Conons dc ucntc'}. SucI
an agrccncni is only cnforccallc iowards iIird ariics as fron iIc daic on
wIicI iIc agrccncni Ias lccn rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc concicni Morigagc Fcgisiry
Officc ('HotIccIIuntoo/Hucuu dcs HotIcqucs`}. Sincc only noiarial dccds
('notucc uItc`/`uctc notuc`} can lc rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry
Officc, iIc involvcncni of a noiary ullic is nandaiory in any acquisiiion of
rcal rocriy (Ariiclc 1 of iIc Morigagc Aci}.

WIai arc iIc conscqucnccs if iIc coniraci docs noi ncci iIc fornal
rcquircncnis?

TIc salcs agrccncnis sIall Iowcvcr linding lciwccn iIc ariics - noi lc
cnforccallc iowards 3
rd
ariics of good faiiI. Only iIc luycr wIo Ias a
rcgisicrcd noiarial dccd (wiiI iIc concicni Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc} sIall lc
considcrcd as iIc rcal owncr.

3.2.2 Wbo draIts tbe contract Ior a reaI estate saIe normaIIy?

TIc noiary ullic of iIc luycr drafis in rincilc iIc salcs dccd savc in iIc
cvcni of an aarincni sold undcr iIc sysicn of iIc Drcync Aci wIcrc ii is iIc
noiary ullic of iIc scllcr iIai drafis iIc dccd.

3.2.3 PreIImInary contract

Is iIcrc a rclininary coniraci?

Ycs, in nosi of iIc cascs a rclininary salcs coniraci sIall lc drawn ly a rcal
csiaic agcni, a lawycr or iIc noiary ullic iisclf.

WIai lcgal cffccis docs ii Iavc?

Ii roofs a salc lciwccn a urcIascr and a luycr and ii nalcs iIc salc linding
lciwccn iIcn. TIc noiarial dccd sIall coy all iIc disosiiions as sci oui ai iIc
rclininary salcs agrccncni.

3.2.4 TypIcaI ReaI Estate SaIes Contract

Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
18
Is iIcrc any siandard forn?

No, all law firns or noiary ullics Iavc iIcir own siandard forn wiiIin iIc
officc.

(Scc aiiacIcd a coy of a salcs coniraci}.

3.3 TransIer oI OwnersbIp and Payment

3.3.1 RequIrements Ior TransIer oI OwnersbIp

WIai arc iIc rcquircncnis for iIc iransfcr of owncrsIi ?

In rincilc, iIc owncrsIi sIall lc iransfcrrcd ai iIc noncni iIai iIc salc is
concludcd (nornally ai iIc signaiurc of iIc rclininary salcs coniraci} lui sIall
in nosi of iIc cascs lc dcfcrrcd uniil iIc signing of iIc noiarial dccd. Ii is
lccnly adviscd io rovidc for sucI a clausc. Sincc iIc luycr docs noi gcncrally
ialc osscssion of iIc rocriy on iIc day iIc rclininary coniraci is signcd,
iIc scllcr is iIc onc wIo will rcnain rcsonsillc for iIc condiiion of iIc
rocriy lcing sold, will ialc oui a firc insurancc, and will ay iIc iacs raics
as wcll as iIc cIargcs uniil iIc day of iIc signing of iIc auiIcniic dccd of salc.

3.3.2 Payment due

How do you nanagc io nalc iIc ayncni and iIc iransfcr of
owncrsIi Iacn ai iIc sanc iinc or ai lcasi io nininizc risls for
loiI scllcr and luycr?

As claincd alovc, iIc iransfcr of owncrsIi sIall lc dcfcrrcd uniil iIc
signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd. Ai iIc noiarial dccd, iIc lalancc of iIc urcIasc
ricc sIall lc aid.

WIcn is iIc ayncni duc undcr a iyical coniraciual agrccncni ?

In rincilc, a down ayncni of 10 % of iIc urcIasc ricc Ias io lc donc ai
iIc noncni of iIc signaiurc of iIc rclininary salcs coniraci. TIc lalancc
sIall lc aid ai iIc signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd.

As for iIc ricc and nciIod of ayncni, iIc noiary will ncniion iIc sclling
ricc agrccd lciwccn iIc ariics and will sccify any down ayncni nadc rior
io iIc dccd. TIc noiary will rccord iIc ayncni of iIc ricc io iIc scllcr and iIc
rcccii givcn io iIc laiicr. TIc ricc will lc aid in casI, gcncrally ly ncans of
a ccriificd lanl cIcquc.

Is iIc ayncni cffcciuaicd via an cscrow accouni or dirccily anong
iIc ariics ?

Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
19
In nosi of iIc cascs, iIc down ayncni of 10 % sIall lc aid ai a lloclcd
accouni ai iIc noiary ullic. (dangcrous io ai dirccily io iIc scllcr}. Ai iIc
signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd, iIc lalancc sIall in nosi of iIc cascs lc aid
wiiI a ccriificd lanl cIcquc.

Is an insurancc for risls inIcrcni io iIc ayncni and iIc iransfcr of
rocriy ossillc, usual or cvcn olligaiory?

If iIc down ayncni of iIc 10 % of iIc urcIasc ricc is donc ai a lloclcd
accouni ai iIc noiary ullic, iIc noncy will lc rcinlurscd io iIc urcIascr if
any rollcn occurs wiiI iIc salc.

(also insurancc for accidcnial dcaiI. if iIc rclininary salcs agrccncni Ias
lccn draficd ly a noiary ullic}

3.3.3 Ways oI tbe seIIer to enIorce tbe payment

How can iIc scllcr cnforcc iIc ayncni (c.g. ly cccuiion}?

In rincilc, iIc rclininary salcs coniraci rovidcs for a clausc iIai if iIc
noiarial dccd is noi cccuicd wiiIin 4 noniIs ly fauli of iIc urcIascr, iIc
scllcr sIall lc cniiilcd io ciiIcr (i} icrninaic iIc agrccncni or (ii} io rcquirc iIc
cccuiion of iIc salcs agrccncni. In casc of icrninaiion of iIc salc, iIc down
ayncni of 10 % sIall rcnain in iIc Iands of iIc scllcr as an indcnniiy.

Ai iIc signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd, iIc ayncni of iIc lalancc (90 % of iIc
urcIasc ricc} sIall lc aid. In rincilc, iIc noiarial dccd sIall noi lc signcd
if iIc urcIascr docs noi Iavc iIc lalancc of iIc ayncni wiiI Iin.

If iIc noiarial dccd rovidcs for a disosiiion iIai dcfcrs iIc ayncni io an
oiIcr daic, iIis olligaiion sIall lc dirccily cnforccallc wiiIoui a rcvious
judgcncni.

3.3.4 TransIer oI possessIon to tbe buyer

How, on iIc oiIcr Iand, nay iIc luycr lc surc io gci osscssion
wIcn Ic ays iIc urcIasc ricc?

In iIc cvcni of a salc of a luilding, iIc dclivcry will lc acconlisIcd ly iIc
Ianding ovcr of iIc lcys ly iIc scllcr io iIc luycr.
In iIc cvcni of a salc of a loi of land, iIc dclivcry will lc acconlisIcd ly iIc
Ianding ovcr of iIc rocriy iiilc ly iIc scllcr io iIc luycr (Ariiclc 1605 DCC}.


3.4 SeIIer's TItIe

3.4.1. TItIe searcb: AscertaInIng tbe seIIer's tItIe
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
20

WIicI facis docs iIc luycr Iavc io asccriain lcforc Ic can lc surc
iIai iIc scllcr Ias a valid iiilc?

Hc Ias io cIccl wIciIcr Iis iiilc Ias lccn rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc Morigagc
Fcgisiry Officc and if ii is iIc lasi rcgisicrcd iiilc. Hc sIall asl a rcccni
Morigagc Fcgisiry ccriificaic.

(clain iransfcr ly will, gifis or inIcriiancc}

3.4.2. TItIe searcb: Absence oI Encumbrances

How docs iIc luycr asccriain iIai Ic will acquirc iIc rocriy
wiiIoui cncunlranccs?

If iIc rcal rocriy is cncunlcrcd wiiI norigagcs or oiIcr cIargcs, ciiIcr iIc
luycr ialcs ovcr iIc norigagc or oiIcr cIargcs or Ic urcIascs iIc rcal
rocriy frcc fron all norigagcs or oiIcr cIargcs. In iIai casc, iIc urcIasc
ricc sIall lc uscd for iIc rcayncni of iIc norigagc or oiIcr cIargcs. In iIc
rclininary salcs agrccncni, iIc salc will iIcn lc nadc suljcci io iIc condiiion
rcccdcni iIai iIc urcIasc ricc is sufficicni io rcay iIc norigagc or oiIcr
cIargcs.
3.4.3. TItIe Insurance or LIabIIIty

WIy did your sysicn dcvclo iiilc insurancc (or wIy is iiilc insurancc
noi ncccssary in your sysicn?} In wIicI cascs is ii uscd?

In Dclgiun, wc Iavc no sysicn of iiilc insurancc. TIc norigagc rcgisiry
ccriificaic asccriains if a crson or a lcgal cniiiy Ias a valid iiilc of owncrsIi.

3.4.4. Leases

How docs iIc luycr nalc surc iIai iIcrc arc no lcascs on iIc sold
rocriy?

In iIc rclininary salcs agrccncni sIall lc siiulaicd if iIc rocriy is rcnicd
oui. Lcascs will lc dcscrilcd and Iandcd ovcr io iIc luycr.

TIc scllcr can also cIccl iIc siiuaiion crsonally wIcn visiiing iIc rcniscs.

WIai arc iIc conscqucnccs for iIc luycr if sucI a coniraci cisis?

TIc conscqucnccs sIall dccnd uon iIc iyc of iIc lcasc coniraci and iis
duraiion.

() Hcsdcntu cusc (iIc icnani Ias iis rincial rcsidcncc in iIc
rcniscs}.

Lcasc of 9 ycars
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
21

If iIc lcasc Ias a ccriain daic (i.c. ly rcgisiraiion of iIc lcasc agrccncni wiiI
iIc concicni rcgisiraiion officc} iIc urcIascr sIall rcscci iIc lcasc cvcn if
iIc lcasc agrccncni rovidcs for an culsion clausc (Ariiclc 9 of iIc Aci rclaicd
io iIc Fcsidcniial lcasc}. TIc urcIascr sIall collcci iIc rcni cIargcs as fron
iIc signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd.

If iIc lcasc Ias noi a ccriain daic lcforc iIc signaiurc of iIc noiarial urcIasc
dccd.
a} iIc urcIascr sIall rcscci iIc lcasc agrccncni, if iIc icnani Ias lccn
norc iIan 6 noniIs in iIc lcascd oljcci. TIc urcIascr can Iowcvcr
icrninaic iIc lcasc wiiI a 3 noniIs' rior noiicc io lc noiificd wiiIin 3
noniIs aficr iIc signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd, if Ic wanis io usc iIc
lcascd oljcci iisclf or for iis fanily, if Ic wanis io rcnovaic or rcfurlisI
iIc good or wiiIoui any rcason savc if iIc lcasc agrccncni rovidcs for
iIc rcscci of iIc lcasc ly an cvcniual urcIascr.
l} iIc urcIascr Ias noi io rcscci iIc lcasc agrccncni, if iIc icnani rcnis
iIc lcascd oljcci lcss iIan 6 noniIs.

Lcasc of > 9 ycars

Lcascs of norc iIan 9 ycars sIall lc cccuicd in a noiarial dccd and lc
rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc io lc cnforccallc iowards 3
rd

ariics. If noi, iIc lcasc sIall only lc cnforccallc for a duraiion of 9 ycars.

If iIc lcasc agrccncni Ias lccn rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc, iIc
urcIascr sIall rcscci ii. If noi, iIc lcasc is only cnforccallc for 9 ycars and
iIc sanc sysicn as dcscrilcd alovc (for lcascs of 9 ycars} sIall aly.

Lcasc of < 9 ycars

TIc urcIascr sIall rcscci iIc cisiing lcasc agrccncni savc if ii is noi
rcgisicrcd and iIc icnani is noi norc iIan 6 noniIs rcniing iIc rcniscs.


() Nonu cusc.

TIc urcIascr sIall rcscci iIc lcasc agrccncni if ii is a noiarial lcasc or a
rcgisicrcd lcasc savc if iIc lcasc agrccncnis rovidcs for an culsion clausc
(Ariiclc 1743 DCC}.

If noi, iIc urcIascr can icrninaic iIc lcasc agrccncni savc if iIc noiarial
urcIasc dccd olligcs iIc urcIascr io rcscci iIc cisiing lcasc agrccncni.

() Connccu cusc.

If iIc lcasc Ias lccn cccuicd in a noiarial dccd or if iIc lcasc Ias a ccriain
daic, iIc urcIascr can noi culsc iIc icnani savc if iIc lcasc agrccncni
rovidcs for iIc ossililiiy of culsion if iIc lcascd oljcci is iransfcrrcd (Ariiclc
12 of iIc Conncrcial Lcasc Aci}.
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
22

If a lcasc cisis, ii sIould also lc vcrificd if iIc icnani Ias noi a rc-cniion
rigIi on iIc rocriy in iIc cvcni of a salc.

3.S DeIects and WarrantIes

3.S.1 LegaI ruIes

TIc noiary will cIccl iIc idcniiiy of iIc ariics, iIc caci siiuaiion of iIc good
wiiI iIc land rcgisiry officc, iIc norigagc siaius wiiI iIc norigagc rcgisiry
officc, ossillc lcascs, iown lanning siaius, cic. Aficr iIcsc inquirics, Ic will
givc a lcgal francworl io iIc agrccncni. TIc drawing u of iIc auiIcniicaicd
dccd rcquircs iIc usc of a icrninology lorrowcd fron lcgal vocalulary and
sonciincs noi vcry faniliar io iIc ullic. TIc noiary drawing u iIc docuncni
nusi lc allc io rcfcr io iIc siiulaiions coniaincd in iIc rclininary coniraci.
TIis sIows iIc inoriancc of a wcll drawn u and conlcic rclininary
coniraci.


WIai arc iIc luycr's lcgal rigIis againsi iIc scllcr, inicrncdiarics (rcal csiaic
agcnis} and/or noiarics ?

conccrning a dcfcci of iiilc

TIc noiary ullic sIall lc rcsonsillc as Ic Iad io cIccl iIc validiiy of iIc
rocriy iiilc wiiI iIc concicni Morigagc Fcgisiry Officc.

Conccrning dcfccis affcciing iIc qualiiy of iIc rocriy

TIc scllcr Ias io Iold iIc luycr Iarnlcss againsi iIc Iiddcn dcfccis ('ucIogcn
gcIcIcn`/`uccs cucIcs`} of iIc luildings (Ariiclc 1641 Civil Codc}. A clain wiiI
rcgard io iIc Iiddcn dcfccis nusi lc filcd wiiI iIc concicni couri wiiIin a
liniicd criod of iinc aficr iIc discovcry of sucI a dcfcci. Howcvcr, in gcncral,
iIc rclininary salcs agrccncni and iIc noiarial dccd coniain a clausc
discIarging iIc scllcr fron any olligaiion arising fron Iiddcn dcfccis. Evcn so,
iIc scllcr sIall only lc discIargcd if ii was noi awarc of iIc Iiddcn dcfccis. In
iIc cvcni of a salc, iIc guaranicc for Iiddcn dcfccis will lc iransfcrrcd fron iIc
scllcr io iIc luycr.
In iIc cvcni of iIc consiruciion of a luilding, iIc arcIiicci and iIc coniracior
will lc Icld liallc during 10 ycars as fron iIc daic of iIc rovisional
conlciion ('uooogc ocucng`/`cccton ousoc`} for sulsianiial dcfccis
of iIc luilding (Ariiclcs 1792 and 2270 Civil Codc}. In iIc cvcni of a salc of
sucI a luilding, iIc 10-ycar guaranicc (`lU-ugc uunsuIcIIcd/`guuntc
dcccnnuc`} iowards iIc arcIiicci and iIc coniracior will lc iransfcrrcd fron iIc
scllcr io iIc luycr.
Conccrning rcsiriciions ly zoning law, cnvironncnial law and oiIcr
adninisiraiivc rcgulaiions, wIicI Iavc noi lccn considcrcd in iIc
coniraci ?
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
23

TIc noiary ullic sIall oliain a iown lanning ccriificaic wiiI iIc conccrncd
nunicialiiy io cIccl iIc zoning law and oiIcr adninisiraiivc rcgulaiions. Hc
sIall also cIccl wIciIcr any rigIis of rc-cniions arc cncunlcring iIc
rocriy. TIc inicrncisiic of iIc cisiing rc-cniion rigIis is iIc following.
www.voorloorccIicn.lc. TIc noiary ullic sIall lc Icld rcsonsillc if Ic fails
io do so.
If a rocriy is sold in Flandcrs, iIc noiary ullic sIall rcqucsi a soil ccriificaic
io cIccl if iIc ground is noi conianinaicd. TIc noiary ullic sIall lc Icld
rcsonsillc if Ic fails io do so.
|clain soil conianinaiion if noiIing is ncniioncd on iIc soil ccriificaic|

3.S.2 TypIcaI contractuaI cIauses: tbe scope oI ooveo1 emp1or

WIai lind of coniraciual clauscs on warraniics arc iyically agrccd
uon in a rcal csiaic salc anong rivaic crsons?

TIc scllcr(s} nusi lc idcniificd ly iIcir surnanc, firsi nancs, rofcssions,
donicilc. TIc luycrs nusi lc idcniificd in iIc sanc way. If iIc luycrs arc
narricd, ii is advisallc io indicaic wIciIcr iIc rcal csiaic is lougIi in iIc nanc
of loiI Iusland and wifc, as ari of joini csiaic, or if iIc rocriy is lcing
lougIi in iIc nanc of only onc arincr. Ii is also advisallc io indicaic wIciIcr
iIcrc is a narriagc sciilcncni lciwccn Iusland and wifc.

Idcniificaiion of iIc rocriy lcing sold
TIc rcal csiaic nusi lc accuraicly locaicd and iis arca dcscrilcd so as io avoid
any confusion. Land rcgisiry daia arc io lc ncniioncd. Howcvcr, iIc arca
ncniioncd in iIc land rcgisiry in iIc land rcgisiry daia is only givcn as an
indicaiion. WIcn iIc arca of iIc rocriy lcing sold is inrccisc, ii is advisallc
io Iirc iIc scrviccs of a survcyor io oliain an accuraic ncasurcncni. Ii is also
advisallc io ncniion acccssorics sucI as iIc cquincni wiiI wIicI iIc
rocriy is rovidcd, as wcll as iIc ficd oljccis, wIciIcr luili-in or noi, and
wIicI forn a ari of iIc salc. fiiicd liicIcn, IouscIold alianccs, luili-in
culoards, siair carci, non-fiiicd carci; cic.

Condiiions of iIc rocriy
If iIc rocriy sIows signs of nainicnancc or norc significani dcfccis, ii is
advisallc io oini iIcn oui. TIc luycr urcIascs iIc rocriy in iIc siaic in
wIicI ii is found wIcn iIc rclininary coniraci is signcd. If danagc sIould
iIcrcforc lc causcd io iIc rocriy, lciwccn iIc signing of iIc rclininary
coniraci and iIc drawing u of iIc auiIcniic dccd, iIc scllcr is lound io carry
oui iIc rcairs, sincc Ic nusi Iand ovcr iIc rocriy in iIc siaic in wIicI ii
was found wIcn iIc rclininary salcs agrccncni was signcd.
TIc scllcr cannoi clain an indcnniiy cvcn in iIc surfacc of iIc sold oljcci is
1/20 lcss of iIc surfacc oinicd oui in iIc dccd.


Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
24

Eascncnis
All cascncnis cncunlcring iIc rocriy lcing sold and lnown io iIc scllcr or
siiulaicd in iIc iiilc dccd for iIc rocriy, arc io lc ncniioncd in iIc
rclininary salcs agrccncni. Dui in nosi cascs, a coy of iIc scllcr's noiarial
dccd (rcfcrrcd io as rocriy iiilc"/ ttc dc octc } will lc aiiacIcd io iIc
rclininary coniraci. TIc dciailcd caninaiion of cascncnis is lcfi io iIc noiary
wIo will cIccl wIciIcr any aciually cisis as wcll as iIcir cicni and will
rovidc a dcscriiion of iIcn in iIc auiIcniic dccd.

Hiddcn dcfccis
Ccncrally scaling, iIc rclininary coniraci coniains a clausc discIarging iIc
scllcr fron any olligaiion arising fron Iiddcn dcfccis. TIis discIargc could
sccn surrising io sonc luycrs. TIc rollcn, Iowcvcr, ougIi io lc ui inio
crscciivc.

Hiddcn dcfccis arc io lc undcrsiood as lcing dcfccis unlnown io iIc scllcr and
noi dcicciallc ly a closc caninaiion of iIc oljcci lcing sold, wIicI arc lilcly
io nalc ii unfii for iIc urosc for wIicI ii is inicndcd. If iIc scllcr was awarc
of iIc dcfccis of iIc oljcci, Ic will lc dcclarcd as lcing disIoncsi and, in iIai
casc, will noi lc allc io lc discIargcd fron iIc olligaiion io rcfund iIc ricc
and io furiIcr concnsaic iIc luycr fron any danagc Ic nigIi Iavc suffcrcd.

Transfcr of owncrsIi and cnicring inio osscssion
TIc iransfcr of owncrsIi ialcs lacc, in rincilc, as soon as iIc rclininary
coniraci Ias lccn signcd. TIc ariics nay Iowcvcr siiulaic in iIc rclininary
coniraci iIai iIc iransfcr of owncrsIi will only ialc lacc on iIc day iIc
auiIcniic dccd is signcd.

Occuaiion of iIc rocriy
If iIc rocriy is noi vacani, iIc rclininary coniraci will siiulaic iIc
condiiions undcr wIicI iIc rocriy is occuicd. Lcascs will lc dcscrilcd and
Iandcd ovcr io iIc luycr.

Firc insurancc
TIc Scllcr will dcclarc in iIc rclininary coniraci iIai iIc rocriy lcing sold is
insurcd againsi firc and rclaicd dangcrs and will rcnain insurcd uniil iIc daic
of iIc signing of iIc auiIcniic dccd. Fron iIai sanc daic, iIc luycr sIall
insurc iIc rocriy wiiI a conany of Iis cIoicc.

Morigagc frccdon of iIc rocriy
TIc rocriy is lcing sold frcc fron all norigagc or oiIcr cIargcs. TIis docs noi
ncan iIai iIc rocriy lcing sold is noi cniailcd wiiI a norigagc or anoiIcr
cIargc.
TIai is wIy iIc salc will lc nadc suljcci io iIc rcccdcni condiiion iIai iIc
ricc is sufficicni io rcfund norigagcs and disiraining ariics. TIc ayncni of
an arcciallc down ayncni ai iIc iinc of iIc signing of iIc rclininary
coniraci nay rovc dangcrous wIcn iIai down ayncni is Iandcd io iIc scllcr.
Ii nigIi aciually occur iIai iIc lalancc of iIc ricc io lc aid on iIc day of iIc
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
25
signing of iIc auiIcniicaicd dccd no longcr allows iIc scllcr's crcdiiors io lc
aid off. TIc luycr is iIcrcforc adviscd io Iavc iIis down ayncni laccd in iIc
Iands of iIc noiary wIo will only rcfund ii io iIc scllcr aficr Iaving cIcclcd iIc
norigagc siaius of iIc rocriy.

Priccs and nciIods of ayncni
TIc ricc nusi lc ficd in a dcfiniic way. In nosi cascs, iIc ricc is siiulaicd
as ayallc on iIc day iIc auiIcniic dccd is io lc signcd.
Howcvcr, ii is sccificd iIai a down ayncni will lc nadc ai iIc iinc iIc
rclininary coniraci is signcd, in ordcr io avoid an inconsidcraic wiiIdrawal ly
iIc luycr. TIis down ayncni is in rincilc icn or fificcn cr ccni of iIc ioial
sclling ricc.

Cosis, duiics and fccs
TIc luycr, wiiI sonc rarc ccciions, is iIc onc wIo will lcar iIc cosis, duiics
and fccs of iIc salc. TIc duiics conccrn iIc ia lcvicd ly iIc Siaic for iIc
rcgisiraiion of iIc dccd of salc. As for iIc cosis, iIcy conccrn a sci of fornaliiics
and duiics io lc acconlisIcd ly iIc noiary rior io iIc signing of iIc
auiIcniic dccd and aficr signing (sucI as land rcgisiry officc, rcgisiraiion of
norigagcs, sian duiics, osiagc duiics, cic.} TIc fccs conccrn iIc ayncni of
iIc scrviccs of iIc noiary wIo draws u iIc auiIcniicaicd dccd. TIcsc fccs arc
rooriional, dcgrcssivc and calculaicd on iIc sclling ricc. TIcy arc laid down
ly law.
In gcncral, rcgisiraiion duiics and fccs nay lc ficd dcfiniiivcly; oiIcr cosis arc
calculaicd rovisionally.

Cosis, duiics and fccs arc only ayallc wIcn iIc auiIcniicaicd dccd is signcd.
Ii nay Iowcvcr Iacn, lui iIai is ccciional, iIai iIc sclling ricc is
siiulaicd dccd in Iand", iIai ncans iIai iIc ricc includcs loiI iIc sclling
ricc of iIc rocriy as wcll as iIc cosis, duiics and fccs of iIc dccd.
Town lanning rcgulaiions
TIc rclininary salcs agrccncni will coniain gcncral clauscs rclaiing io iIc
conliancc of luildings and iIcir inicndcd uroscs wiiI lcgislaiion in forcc
and wiiI lcgislaiion conccrning iown and couniry lanning.
FuriIcrnorc, iIc scllcr will noi nalc any conniincni as io wIciIcr ii will lc
ossillc io carry oui worl on iIc rocriy rcquiring auiIorisaiions io lc
oliaincd fron iIc auiIoriiics conccrncd.
A norc dciailcd sunnary of iIc urlanisn rclaiing naiicrs is givcn in a
scaraic cIaicr Icrcaficr.
|cvcniual soil conianinaiion disosiiions|




Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
26

Is ii ossillc io ccludc iIc rcncdics of iIc luycr ? Docs ii nalc a
diffcrcncc if iIc scllcr or iIc luycr acis in iIc coursc of Iis iradc,
lusincss or rofcssion?


- Hiddcn dcfccis
- Only if scllcr is Ioncsi
- Profcssional scllcr sIall lc judgcd norc scvcrally aloui is Ioncsiy

To wIai dcgrcc do couri ccrcisc conirol ovcr iIc fairncss of sucI
clauscs?

|judgc Ias io arcciaic|

3.S.3 LIabIIIty oI tbe Buyer Ior Debts oI tbe SeIIer

Is iIc luycr liallc for arrcars of iIc scllcr, rcgarding in ariicular
Fcal csiaic iacs
For iIc ia auiIoriiics, iIc rcal csiaic iacs sIall lc duc ly iIc owncr of iIc
rocriy on iIc 1
si
of January of cacI ycar.
In rincilc, if a rocriy is sold in iIc niddlc of iIc ycar, iIc rcal csiaic iacs
sIall lc dividcd lciwccn iIc scllcr and iIc urcIascr ro raia. A sciilcncni will
lc nadc ai iIc signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd.
OiIcr iacs c.g. rclaicd io luildings on iIc rocriy on iIc lusincss of
iIc scllcr conducicd on iIc rocriy
TIc sanc rulc alics as alovc for iIc rcal csiaic iacs
CIargcs for garlagc collcciion, waicr and gas dclivcry
All cosis will lc lornc ly iIc urcIascr as fron iIc noncni of iIc signaiurc of
iIc noiarial dccd.
CIargcs for iIc adninisiraiion of condoniniun aarincnis
All cIargcs will lc lorn ly iIc urcIascr as fron iIc noncni of iIc signaiurc
of iIc noiarial dccd. |clain furiIcr iIc diffcrcni caiials|
3.6 AdmInIstratIve PermIts and RestrIctIons

3.6.1 Standard RequIrements

In a iyical convcyancc of a rcsidcniial csiaic.

WIicI crniis arc rcquircd?

Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
27
TIc rulcs arc diffcrcni for iIc 3 Fcgions (iIc Walloon Fcgion, iIc Flandcrs
Fcgion and Drusscls}

In gcncral, a luilding can only lc dccncd io lc in conforniiy wiiI iIc urlan
lanning and zoning lcgislaiion if.

- ii is covcrcd ly a valid Duilding or Urlan Planning Pcrnii, and
- iis usc or dcsiinaiion conlics wiiI iIc usc and dcsiinaiion
rcquircncnis rcvailing ai iIc iinc of issuing of iIc Duilding or Urlan
Planning Pcrnii.

In sonc cvcnis, an cnvironncnial crnii sIall lc rcquircd i.c. sioragc of fucl, a
IigI nunlcr of arling saccs cic. TIis sIall in nosi of iIc cascs noi lc
rcquircd in iIc cvcni of a rcsidcniial salc.

Docs iIc drafi crson cIccl iIc luilding crnii, zoning ordinanccs
and/or cnvironncnial issucs ?

(i} iIc noiary ullic sIall cIccl wIciIcr a luilding crnii cisi for iIc
rocriy lcing sold and sIall rcfcr io ii in iis dccd. In iIc sanc dccd,
iIc noiary ullic sIall siiulaic iIc alicallc lcgislaiion (diffcrcni
for iIc 3 Fcgions}.
(ii} TIc noiary ullic sIall cIccl ai iIc concicni Municialiiy of iIcrc
arc any zoning rcsiriciions cic. and sIall coy iIcir lciicr in iis
inicgraliiy in iis dccd. TIc Dclgian icrriiory is suljcci io gcncral and
ariicular lans iIai lay down all iown lanning siaius of rcal csiaic
and dcicrninc iIc uroscs for wIicI ii is inicndcd. As an canlc,
sonc iowns, wiiI iIc ain of cIccling dcoulaiion, do noi allow
officcs io lc sci u in sonc disiricis. TIc luycr nusi lc inforncd or
failing iIai, nalc inquirics Iinsclf aloui iIc rcgulaiions conccrning
iIc rocriy for salc.
(iii} If a rocriy is locaicd in iIc Flandcrs Fcgion, iIc noiary ullic sIall
oliain a soil ccriificaic wiiI iIc Pullic Wasic Conany of Flandcrs
(Ocnlarc Vlaansc AfvalsioffcnnaaiscIaij" or OVAM}. TIc
conicni of iIis ccriificaic Ias io lc ialcn down in iIc noiarial dccd
rcgarding iIc iransfcr. Morcovcr, if a risl aciiviiy or ocraiion" is
locaicd on iIc land, an cloraiory soil invcsiigaiion Ias io lc carricd
oui rior io iIc iransaciion. TIcsc olligaiions arc inoscd ly iIc
FlcnisI Dccrcc on Soil Dcconianinaiion, a full lcgislaiivc francworl
asscd on 22
nd
Fclruary 1995 ly iIc FlcnisI Fcgion rcgarding iIc
dcicciion and iIc rcncdiaiion of soil olluiion. Ai rcscni no sinilar
lcgislaiion alics in iIc Drusscls and iIc Walloon Fcgion.

Arc iIcrc any siaiuiory rc-cniion rigIis for ullic auiIoriiics?

TIcrc arc nany rc-cniion rigIis for ullic auiIoriiics in Dclgiun i.c. for iIc
Iarlor conany if iIc rocriy is locaicd ai a Iarlor, EcIangc division
'HuucIuucng` (Aci 22 July 1970}, VEN- FlcnisI Ecological nciworl
Dccrcc FlcnisI govcrnncni 21 Ociolcr 1997 cic.
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
28
In rincilc, iIcsc adninisiraiivc auiIoriiics Iavc a criod of 2 noniIs aficr
iIc noiificaiion of iIc salc io ccrcisc iis rigIi of rc-cniion.

SoII remedIatIon

In Dclgiun, dciailcd lcgislaiion on iIc rcncdiaiion of soil and
groundwaicr olluiion only cisis in iIc FlcnisI rcgion. In iIc
Walloon Fcgion, a dccrcc Ias rcccnily lccn cnacicd lui Ias noi yci
cnicrcd inio forcc. In iIc Drusscls rcgion, sucI dciailcd and
inicgraicd lcgislaiion docs noi yci cisi, lui is cccicd io lc
cnacicd in iIc ncar fuiurc.
On 22 Fclruary 1995 iIc FlcnisI rcgion Ias adoicd a full lcgal
francworl rcgarding iIc dcicciion and rcncdiaiion of soil
olluiion, lclow iIc 'Soil Fcncdiaiion Dccrcc', inlcncnicd ly iIc
'FlcnisI Fcgulaiion on Soil Fcncdiaiion' or Vlarclo Dccrcc of
5 MarcI 1996. TIc rclcvani auiIoriiy for soil conianinaiion and
rcncdiaiion in iIc FlcnisI Fcgion is OVAM (iIc Pullic Wasic
Agcncy of Flandcrs}.
Pursuani io iIc Soil Fcncdiaiion Dccrcc, a iransfcr of land is
suljcci io a sccific roccdurc. Prior io iIc conclusion of iIc
iransfcr agrccncni, a soil ccriificaic nusi lc oliaincd fron OVAM
for cacI loi of land iIai will lc iransfcrrcd. SucI ccriificaic can
lc oliaincd wiiIin onc noniI. TIc noiion of 'iransfcr of land' is
quiic lroad and covcrs nosi rcal csiaic iransaciions. TIc ialc-
ovcr of iIc sIarcs of a conany is noi io lc considcrcd as a
'iransfcr of land'. If iIc 'iransfcr of land' is rclaicd io a 'risl soil',
an cloraiory soil invcsiigaiion nusi lc conducicd and iIc soil
ccriificaic is oliaincd lascd on iIc rcsuli of iIc invcsiigaiion.
'Fisl land' is all rcal csiaic on wIicI a oicniially soil
conianinaiing aciiviiy ialcs lacc or Ias ialcn lacc. TIc FlcnisI
govcrnncni Ias adoicd a lisi of iIcsc aciiviiics ('Vlarclo lisi'}. If
iIc cloraiory invcsiigaiion rcvcals soil olluiion, OVAM is
cniiilcd io sulnii iIc iransfcr io iIc fulfilncni of a dcscriiivc soil
invcsiigaiion and, ossilly, iIc sciiing-u of financial guaraniccs
and iIc drawing-u ly a rccogniscd ccri of a soil
dcconianinaiion lan.
TIc iining for iIc roccdurc can lc csiinaicd as follows.

1 ExpIoratory soII
InvestIgatIon
4 io 8 wccls
Evaluaiion OVAM 60 days
2 DescrIptIve soII
InvestIgatIon
4 io ? wccls (ossilly
scvcral noniIs}
Evaluaiion OVAM 60 days
3 SoII decontamInatIon pIan +/- 4 wccls
Sci u of financial
guaranicc
2-3 wccls
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
29
Dcclaraiion of conforniiy ly
OVAM
90 days as fron iIc rcccii
of iIc clcan u worls
scIcdulc
So cctcutc tunsc o und
4 DecontamInatIon works ?
S ControI and monItorIng by
OVAM
During iIc clcan u worls
6 FInaI InvestIgatIon 4 wccls

Dcsidc iIc olligaiions inoscd in casc of a iransfcr, iIc FlcnisI
lcgislaiion rovidcs also iIai iIc ocraior of a risl aciiviiy
crforns criodical soil invcsiigaiions. Easinan is Icld io crforn
sucI criodical soil invcsiigaiion cvcry fivc ycars.
Fcgarding iIc cicni of iIc clcan-u olligaiion, iIc Soil Fcncdiaiion Dccrcc
nalcs an csscniial disiinciion lciwccn Iisiorical soil olluiion (olluiion
originaicd lcforc iIc cniry inio forcc of iIc Soil Fcncdiaiion Dccrcc, i.c.
Ociolcr 1995} and ncw soil olluiion (olluiion originaicd aficr iIc cniry inio
forcc of iIc Dccrcc}. Clcan-u of ncw olluiion is ordcrcd if iIc soil siandards
or inicrvcniion valucs for soil clcan-u arc ccccdcd. TIc sanc rulc alics io
ni olluiion, i.c. Iisiorical olluiion nicd wiiI ncw olluiion. WiiI rcscci io
Iisioric olluiion, OVAM arcciaics if clcan-u is rcquircd, ialing inio
accouni iIc aciual dangcr io nan and cnvironncni roduccd ly iIc olluiion.

EnvIronmentaI permIt

TIc rcgulaiion of iIc roicciion of iIc cnvironncni falls wiiIin iIc
jurisdiciion of iIc rcgions. EacI of iIc 3 rcgions iIc FlcnisI, iIc
Walloon and iIc Drusscls rcgion Ias adoicd lcgislaiion rcquiring
iIc ocraiors of aciiviiics iIai arc considcrcd io lc Iarnful io iIc
cnvironncni io oliain an cnvironncnial crnii". Dclow, wc only
analysc iIc FlcnisI lcgislaiion in furiIcr dciail sincc Kallo is
locaicd in iIc FlcnisI rcgion.
TIc FlcnisI Aci rcgarding iIc cnvironncnial crnii was adoicd
on 28 Junc 1985. Ii cnicrcd inio forcc only on 1 Scicnlcr 1991,
iIrougI iIc Eccuiivc Dccrcc, callcd Vlarcn 1". Vlarcn 1"
rovidcs for iIc roccdurcs io lc conlicd wiiI and a lisi of
aciiviiics iIai arc considcrcd io lc Iarnful io iIc cnvironncni.
TIcsc aciiviiics arc rangcd in 3 grous or classcs". Evcry ocraior
of grou 1 and 2 aciiviiics nusi oliain an cnvironncnial crnii
lcforc iIc aciiviiics siari. Lcss inoriani aciiviiics lisicd in grou 3
nusi only lc noiificd io iIc auiIoriiics lcforc siariing u.
AnoiIcr Eccuiivc Dccrcc, "Vlarcn 2", Ias lisicd gcncral and
sccior condiiions iIai nusi lc fulfillcd ly iIc ocraiors of lisicd
aciiviiics. TIcsc condiiions nusi sccurc iIai iIc aciiviiics do noi
Iarn iIc cnvironncni nor colc and oiIcr aciiviiics. Ccncral
condiiions aly io all ocraiors, no naiicr wIai iIcir aciiviiics
arc. Sccior condiiions arc sccifically rclaicd io iIc sccior io wIicI
iIc aciiviiy lclongs. Finally iIc auiIoriiy iIai dclivcrs iIc crnii is
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
30
allowcd io dcicrninc sccific condiiions iIrougI iIc crnii. TIosc
condiiions arc condiiions iIai aly only io iIc ocraior wIo Ias
alicd for iIc crnii and of wIon iIc auiIoriiy fccls iIai Ic
sIould cnsurc iIai iIcrc is no Iarn io iIc cnvironncni and
surrounding colc and oiIcr aciiviiics.
TIc lcgislaiion dcscrilcs iIc roccdurc iIai nusi lc followcd io
oliain iIc crnii and rovidcs for acal roccdurcs. Ocraiing a
lisicd aciiviiy and/or insiallaiion wiiIoui or in lrcacI wiiI iIc
cnvironncnial crnii is suljcci io crininal and adninisiraiivc
sanciions in iIc 3 rcgions.
TIc FlcnisI lcgislaior Ias givcn inoriani conirol-iasls io
sccializcd civil scrvanis. TIcsc officials arc allowcd io drafi rcoris
(roccsscn-vcrlaal"} conccrning lrcacIcs of iIc condiiions of iIc
cnvironncnial crnii or cnvironncnial law in gcncral. AnoiIcr
inoriani iasl Ias lccn givcn io iIc nayor of iIc nunicialiiy
wIcrc lisicd aciiviiics or insiallaiions arc locaicd. Hc or sIc is
allowcd io ordcr iIc icrninaiion of aciiviiics ocraicd wiiIoui or in
violaiion of iIc cnvironncnial crnii or cnvironncnial law in
gcncral.
Diffcrcni roccdurcs arc rovidcd for iIc nodificaiion of iIc
condiiions, iIc iransfcr and iIc rcncwal of iIc cnvironncnial
crnii.
An cicnsion and/or a nodificaiion of iIc aciiviiics and/or
insiallaiions rcquirc(s} a nodificaiion of iIc crnii.
An cnvironncnial crnii is dclivcrcd for a nainun duraiion of
20 ycars. TIc rcncwal of iIc crnii Ias io lc alicd for lciwccn
iIc 18iI-noniI and iIc 12iI-noniI lcforc iIc cnd of iIc currcni
crnii. Howcvcr iIc alicaiion for a crnii rcncwal can lc
sulniiicd lcforc iIai criod in casc of a significani cansion or
nodificaiion.
TIc cIangc of ocraior docs no affcci iIc validiiy duraiion of iIc
cnvironncnial crnii. TIc FlcnisI lcgislaiion rovidcs iIai an
cnvironncnial crnii rcnains valid for iIc duraiion for wIicI ii
Ias lccn dclivcrcd. Howcvcr iIc FlcnisI lcgislaiion rovidcs iIai
iIc cIangc of ocraior is also sulniiicd io a rior noiificaiion io
iIc auiIoriiy iIai Ias dclivcrcd iIc crnii. A sccific forn nusi
lc uscd for iIis noiificaiion. TIcrc is no sccific sanciion if iIc
cIangc of ocraior is noi noiificd. Howcvcr if iIc cIangc of
ocraior is noi noiificd iIc forncr ocraior could lc Icld liallc
iowards iIc adninisiraiion for any infringcncni of iIc crnii and
iIc cnvironncnial lcgislaiion.
TIc FlcnisI rcgion Ias also adoicd lcgislaiion conccrning iIc
olluiion of surfacc waicrs, wIicI sulics a lcvy for iIc
consuniion of waicr and iIc discIargc of indusirial wasicwaicr.

Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
31

|clain Drusscls and Walloon Fcgion|

BuIIdIng PermIt
Flandcrs.
For iIc innovallc goods locaicd in iIc FlcnisI rcgion, iIc
roccdurc rcgarding iIc dclivcry of a luilding crnii is sci foriI in
iIc FlcnisI Aci of 18 May 1999 rcgarding iown lanning.
TIc alicaiion for luilding crniis nusi lc filcd wiiI iIc
nunicialiiy wIcrc iIc innovallc good conccrncd is locaicd. If
iIc crnii rclaics io a ullic crson/ullic worls iIc rclcvani
auiIoriiy is iIc FlcnisI Covcrnncni. TIc rclcvani auiIoriiy
canincs if iIc alicaiion is conlcic. If noi, iIc roccdurc is
suscndcd uniil iIc filc Ias lccn conlcicd. During iIc
roccdurc, iIc alicaiion could lc sulniiicd io ullic inquiry
during 30 days. TIc FlcnisI govcrnncni Ias csiallisIcd a lisi of
worls of snall inoriancc iIai arc noi sulniiicd io ullic inquiry.
TIc ullic inquiry csscniially rclaics io iIc ncigIlourIoods, wIicI
can connunicaic iIcir rcnarls and oljcciions rcgarding iIc
rojcci. TIc alicaiion can also lc sulniiicd io scvcral
adninisiraiivc auiIoriiics for advicc. TIc alicaiion can also lc
sulniiicd io scvcral adninisiraiivc auiIoriiics for advicc. TIc
alicaiion rclaicd io sonc lind of rojccis lisicd ly iIc FlcnisI
Covcrnncni arc also suljcci io an cnvironncnial inaci
asscssncni siudy.
TIc rclcvani auiIoriiy Ias io ialc a dccision wiiIin a sccific icrn.
TIc alscncc of dccision is considcrcd as a rcfusal of iIc rcqucsicd
luilding crnii. TIc alicallc icrns rovidcd ly law arc
sunnarizcd in iIc iallc Icrcaficr. If iIc crnii is rcfuscd (cvcn
iaciily}/granicd, an acal can lc lodgcd wiiI iIc IigIcr
adninisiraiivc auiIoriiics. If a crnii is granicd, inicrcsicd iIird
ariics can cIallcngc iIc crnii lcforc iIc Council of Siaic.
TIc roccdurc and iining for iIc dclivcry of a luilding crnii can
lc sunnarizcd as follows.

Step TImIng
Alicaiion wiiI iIc
nunicialiiy or iIc
FlcnisI Covcrnncni

Eaninaiion of
alicaiion filc and
aclnowlcdgncni of
rcccii if iIc filc is
conlcic
14 days
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
32
Pullic inquiry 30 days
Dccision
7

ly nunicialiiy
ly FlcnisI
govcrnncni
75 days + 30 (if ullic
inquiry}
90 days + 30 (if furiIcr
inquiry}

(clain Walloon Fcgion and Drusscls Fcgion}.


3.6.2 RequIrements Ior certaIn types oI reaI estate saIes onIy

Plcasc siaic lricfly iIc addiiional adninisiraiivc crniis and rcsiriciions
for oiIcr iyical cascs c.g. iIc salc of agriculiural or indusirial land

agriculiural land. clain rc-cniion rigIi of iIc farncr

indusirial land. scc alovc cnvironncnial crnii !!!



3.6.3 ControI oI admInIstratIve permIts and restrIctIons

Is iIc conirol of adninisiraiivc crniis and rcsiriciions lcfi io iIc luycr's
own rcsonsililiiy, or is ii carricd oui ly iIc noiary or anoiIcr lawycr ?

Dy noiary and cvcniually lawycr

3.? TransIer Costs

3.?.1 Contract and RegIstratIon


3.?.2 TransIer taxes

How IigI arc iacs on iIc iransfcr of rcal rocriy? On wIai is iIc
ia lascd?

10 % in iIc Flandcrs Fcgion
12,5 % in Drusscls and Walloon Fcgion

TIc ia collccior conccrncd will lcvy a duiy of 10%/12,5% calculaicd on iIc
ricc and iIc cosis of iIc salc, wiiIoui iIc lasis of ia asscssncni lcing lcss
iIan iIc narlci valuc of iIc rocriy (Dclgian rcgisiraiion duiy Codc, Ari. 44}.


7
TIc dclivcry icrn is calculaicd as fron iIc sulnission of iIc alicaiion
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
33
If iIc auiIcniicaicd dccd docsn'i ialc lacc wiiIin iIc 4 noniIs of iIc signing
of iIc rclininary salcs agrccncni, rcgisiraiion duiy of 10%/12,5% will lc
lcvicd ai iIc lasi four noniI aficr iIc signing of iIc rivaic agrccncni. TIcn,
iIc rcgisiraiion duiy won'i lc lcvicd, wIcn iIc auiIcniicaicd dccd will lc
rcscnicd io iIc fornaliiy of iIc rcgisiraiion.

Is iIc duc ayncni of iIc iacs a rcquircncni for iIc rcgisiraiion of iIc
iransfcr of a rocriy?

TIc auiIcniicaicd dccd of salc nusi lc rcgisicrcd wiiIin fificcn days of iis
signing ly iIc ullic noiary drawing u iIc dccd.


Docs iIc noiary ullic collaloraic in iIc collcciion of iIc ia?

Ycs, iIc noiary ullic will lcforc iIc signaiurc of a salc dccd scnd a siaicncni
of iis fccs, cosis and iIc rcgisiraiion duiics io lc aid. Hc will noi sign Iis dccd
if all iIcsc cosis arc noi aid io Iin.

3.?.3 ReaI Estate Agents

How oficn is a rcal csiaic agcni involvcd in iIc salc of rcsidcniial
rocriy anong rivaic crsons?

50-75 %

How nucI is iIc agcni's fcc?

Nornally, iIc agcni sIall collcci a fcc of 3 % of iIc salcs ricc

WIo usually ays iIc agcni iIc scllcr or iIc luycr?

TIc scllcr sIall ay iIc fccs of an agcni.

3.S Buyer's Mortgage

In ordcr io financc iIc urcIasc ricc, luycrs usually Iavc io norigagc
iIc Iousc. Undcr wIicI condiiions and nodaliiics is ii ossillc?

|clain Moriagc crcdii Aci|

TIc lanl sIall usually noi grani a loan for 100 % of iIc urcIasc ricc of iIc
Iousc. Nornally, ii sIall grani a loan u iill 70 % of iIc valuc of iIc
Iousc/aarincni. TIc lanl sIall rcqucsi a salary siaic of iIc lcndcrs lccausc
ii sIall noi givc a loan for norc iIan a 3
rd
of sonconc's salary.


Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
34
4. SpecIaI probIems concernIng tbe SaIe oI ReaI
Estate (Cases)

4.1 Tbe ConcIusIon oI tbe Contract

In Dclgiun, iIc salc is rcaliscd lciwccn iIc scllcr and iIc luycr as soon as an
agrccncni is rcacIcd lciwccn iIcn on iIc salcs oljcci and iIc ricc (Ariiclc
1583 Civil Codc}. Howcvcr, in ordcr io rovc said salc, a wriiicn agrccncni
sIould lc cnicrcd inio, daicd and signcd ly loiI ariics, callcd iIc rclininary
salcs agrccncni ('KoooucccnIonst`/Conons dc ucntc'}.
WIilsi iIc rclininary salcs agrccncni cisis as soon as iIcrc is an agrccncni
on iIc salcs oljcci and iIc ricc, sucI an agrccncni only is cnforccallc
iowards iIird ariics as fron iIc daic on wIicI iIc agrccncni Ias lccn
rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc concicni norigagc rcgisiry officc
('HotIccIIuntoo/Hucuu dcs HotIcqucs`}. Sincc only noiarial dccds
('notucc uItc`/`uctc notuc`} can lc rcgisicrcd wiiI iIc norigagc rcgisiry
officc, iIc involvcncni of a noiary ullic is nandaiory in any acquisiiion of rcal
rocriy (Ariiclc 1 of iIc Morigagc Aci of 16 Dcccnlcr 1851 (Icrcaficr
dcscrilcd as iIc Morigagc Aci"}}.
4.2 SeIIer's tItIe

4.2.1 Consequences oI an InvaIId saIes contract

a} lccausc ii laclcd iIc rcquircd forn

D cannoi scll ii io C as Ic sIall noi lc considcrcd as iIc valid owncr

l} lccausc A did noi osscss lcgal caaciiy

|clain ariicular/conany|

c} lccausc an adninisiraiivc crnii rcquircd for iIc coniraci Ias ncvcr
alicd for

|clain ossililiiy annulncni|

|May C go aIcad wiiI iIc coniraci and acquirc iIc rocriy validly?|


4.2.2 Tbe seIIer Is not tbe owner

How is D roiccicd?

In rincilc, iIc noiary ullic Iad io cIccl iIc rocriy iiilc of A. TIc noiary
ullic will lc rcsonsillc?


Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
35
May Ic rciain iIc rocriy?

No, Ic can jusi dcnand an indcnniiy.

How is iIc luycr roiccicd if, alrcady during iIc iransaciion, ii iurns oui
iIai iIc scllcr is noi iIc owncr?

Hc can dcnand an indcnniiy |during ncgoiiaiions|


4.2.3 ExecutIon agaInst tbe SeIIer

Aficr iIc ariics Iavc signcd iIc salcs coniraci, lui lcforc iis rcgisiraiion, a
crcdiior of iIc scllcr disirains uon iIc rocriy in ordcr io cnforcc a judgncni
againsi iIc laiicr.

Arc iIcrc risls for iIc luycr (c.g. io loosc Iis ayncni}?

|indcnniiy|

How nay iIc luycr lc roiccicd ?

|io rcgisicr asa|

4.3 Payment

TIc luycr ays laic. WIai arc iIc scllcr's rcncdics?

In rincilc, iIc noiarial dccd sIall noi lc cccuicd if iIc urcIasc ricc is noi
dcosii on a lloclcd accouni.

May iIc scllcr rcscind iIc coniraci ?

If iIc urcIascr docs noi wani io sign iIc noiarial dccd wiiIin a ccriain criod
of iinc, iIc scllcr nay rcqucsi iis icrninaiion lcforc iIc Couri.

Docs iIc luycr Iavc io ay a (siaiuiory} cnaliy or is Ic liallc for
danagcs?

Nornally, Ic sIall losc Iis down ayncni of 10 % as an indcnniiy.

4.4 DeIects and WarrantIes

4.4.1 MIsrepresentatIons

Half a ycar aficr iIc luycr Ias novcd in, a waicr ic lrcals and flood
aris of iIc Iousc. TIc waicr ic was ui in wIcn iIc Iousc was luili
sonc dccadcs ago
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
36

Nornally, iIc luilding is sold in iIc siaic in wIicI iIc luycr Ias found iIc
Iousc and iIc scllcr discIargcs iisclf fron any olligaiion arising fron Iiddcn
dcfccis. Howcvcr, if iIc scllcr was awarc of iIc dcfcci, Ic will lc dcclarcd as
lcing disIoncsi and will Iavc io ay an indcnniiy. In iIc casc ai Iand, iIis
cannoi lc casc as iIc Iousc was luili sonc dccadcs ago.

In sring, iIc lascncni is floodcd. NcigIlours icll iIc luycr iIai iIc
scllcr conlaincd io iIcn iIai iIc flooding Iacncd cvcry oiIcr ycar in
sring

TIc luycr sIall Iavc io rovc iIai iIc scllcr was disIoncsi and iIai Ic lncw
iIc Iiddcn dcfcci. In iIai cvcni, iIc scllcr Ias io rcfund iIc ricc and io
concnsaic iIc luycr fron any danagc iIai Ic Ias suffcrcd.

An cicnsion of iIc Iousc Ias lccn luili wiiIoui iIc ncccssary crnii of
iIc luilding auiIoriiy. Now, iIc auiIoriiy asls iIc luycr io icar down
iIc cicnsion. TIc scllcr clains iIai Ic did noi lnow iIai iIc crnii was
nissing, sincc iIc cicnsion Iad lccn luili ycars ago ly iIc rcvious
owncr.

|vcrify dccd - indcnniiy|

4.4.2 DestructIon oI tbe bouse

Aficr iIc ariics Iavc signcd iIc salcs coniraci, iIc Iousc lurns down. WIai
arc iIc conscqucnccs for iIc coniraci?

May iIc luycr rcscind iIc coniraci or docs Ic Iavc io ay iIc urcIasc
ricc?

In rincilc, iIc rivaic salcs agrccncni rovidcs for iIai iIc iransfcr of iIc
risls and iIc rocriy arc dcfcrrcd io iIc signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd. If iIc
Iousc lurns down lcforc iIc signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd, iIc luycr is
cniiilcd io rcscind iIc coniraci and iIc scllcr sIall rcfund Iin iIc down
ayncni as iIc scllcr is noi allc anynorc io dclivcr iIc Iousc any norc io iIc
luycr. Hc can also clain iIc rcluilding of iIc Iousc wiiI iIc rocccds of iIc
insurancc againsi firc

May iIc scllcr rcscind iIc coniraci? Is Ic liallc for danagcs? Is iIcrc a
voluniary or nandaiory insurancc for iIcsc cascs?

TIc rocriy lcing sold rcnains ai iIc risls of iIc scllcr uniil signaiurc of iIc
noiarial dccd. Hc sIall nainiain iIc insurancc againsi firc uniil 5 days aficr iIc
signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd.

S. SaIe oI a bouse or apartment by tbe buIIdIng
company (vente d'ImmeubIe construIre)

Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
37
- clain dIIIerence salc of an aarincni luilding io lc crccicd and
consiruciion ly coniracior and arcIiicci on a lougIi loi of land/
coniracis.
- Alicaiion Drcync Aci
- Princilc of iransfcr of owncrsIi iransfcr of risls
1. salc of an aarincni. As fron iIc daic of iIc signaiurc of iIc
rclininary agrccncni (io lc followcd ly a noiarial dccd wiiIin
a criod of 4 noniIs}, iIc luycr sIall lcconc iIc owncr (i} as
io any and all consiruciions alrcady crccicd ly iIc vcndor and
(ii} as io any and all consiruciions siill io lc crccicd ly iIc
vcndor, as soon as iIc naicrials arc inlcncnicd and
incororaicd. TIc worls sIall Iowcvcr rcnain ai iIc vcndor's
risl uniil iIc daic of iIc csiallisIncni of a rovisional
conlciion ccriificaic as iIc iransfcr of risls ialc only lacc ai
iIai daic.
2. salc of a consiruciion.iIc rincial lcconcs owncr as soon
as iIc naicrials arc inlcncnicd and incororaicd
- Princilc of iransfcr of risls. consiruciion will ass io iIc rincial
uon iIc dclivcry (rovisional conlciion}
TIc luycr sIall Iavc iIc cnjoyncni and frcc usagc of iIc ncw
Iousc/aarincni as fron iIc daic of iIc rovisional conlciion ccriificaic.




S.1 Statutory BasIs

S.1.1 NatIonaI Iaw

Do any sccial rulcs (c.g. on consuncr roicciion} aly if iIc scllcr also
consirucis iIc Iousc wIicI Ic is sclling? WIcn do iIcsc rulcs aly?

TIc Law Drcync" daicd 9 July 1971 (Icrcaficr dcscrilcd as iIc Law"} sIall
aly io iIc salc io non rofcssionals of rivaic Iouscs and/or aarincnis
lcforc or during iIc coursc of iIcir crcciion.

According io ariiclc 1 of iIc Law, ii alics io agrccncnis rclaicd io iIc salc of a
Iousc or an aarincni lcforc or during iIc coursc of Iis crcciion as wcll as io
agrccncnis ly wIicI Scllcr or Coniracior undcrialcs io crcci, io nalc crcci or
io rovidc a Iousc or an aarincni. TIc Law alics rovidcd iIai iIc luycr is
olligcd io nalc onc or scvcral down ayncni lcforc iIc conlciion of iIc
worls.

In iIc cvcni of iIc consiruciion of an c.g. officc luilding, iIcsc rulcs sIall noi
aly.
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
38

S.1.2 InIIuences oI EU Iaw

|io lc vcrificd|

S.2 Procedure In generaI

S.2.1 SIngIe bouses



TIc coniraci sIall lc govcrncd ly iIc Drcync Aci as dcscrilcd Icrc alovc if iIc
consirucior sclls iIc Iouscs lcforc or during iIc coursc of iIcir crcciion and
iIc luycr is olligcd io nalc onc or scvcral down ayncni lcforc iIc
conlciion of iIc worls.




Ai iIc signaiurc of iIc rclininary salcs coniraci, a down ayncni of 5 % of iIc
urcIasc ricc can lc rcqucsicd (Ariiclc 10 ar 2} ly iIc scllcr.

Ai iIc signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd, iIc scllcr can rcqucsi iIc ayncni of iIc
loi of land and iIc valuc of iIc siaic of iIc luilding. TIis valuc of iIc siaic of
iIc Iousc sIall lc arovcd ly an arcIiicci. Iis oinion and aroval sIall lc
aiiacIcd io iIc noiarial dccd. TIc lalancc of iIc urcIasc ricc sIall lc aid in
tuncIcs according io iIc advanccncni of iIc consiruciion. (i.c 10 % aficr iIc
insialncni of iIc walls cic}.




TIc arcIiicci and iIc coniracior of iIc Iousc will lc Icld liallc during 10 ycars
as fron iIc daic of iIc rovisional conlciion ('uooogc ocucng`/`cccton
ousoc`} for sulsianiial dcfccis of iIc luilding (Ariiclcs 1792 and 2270 Civil
Codc}.
S.2.2 CondomInIums

Scc alovc

S.2.3 RenovatIons

[yes]

S.3 ConcIusIon oI tbe Contract

- Diffcrcncc salc of consiruciion and aaricncni
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
39


S.4 Payment

S.4.1



Ai iIc signaiurc of iIc rclininary salcs coniraci, a down ayncni of 5 % of iIc
urcIasc ricc can lc rcqucsicd (Ariiclc 10 ar 2} ly iIc scllcr.

Ai iIc signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd, iIc scllcr can rcqucsi iIc ayncni of iIc
loi of land and iIc valuc of iIc siaic of iIc luilding. TIis valuc of iIc siaic of
iIc Iousc sIall lc arovcd ly an arcIiicci. Iis oinion and aroval sIall lc
aiiacIcd io iIc noiarial dccd. TIc lalancc of iIc urcIasc ricc sIall lc aid in
insialncnis according io iIc siaic of rogrcss of iIc consiruciion. (i.c. 10 %
aficr iIc insialncni of iIc walls 10 % ai iIc consiruciion of iIc froniagc cic}.




Ii sIould also lc noicd iIai iIc ricc nay lc rcviscd, lui iIc nciIod for
rcvising of iIc consiruciion ricc is siricily conirollcd.


TIc salc sIall lc cccuicd ly a noiarial dccd dirccily cnforccallc wiiIoui iIc
inicrvcniion of a couri.
Or
]scc ncc o ucccsson]

S.4.2

A lanl guaranicc for iIc good cccuiion of iis olligaiions sIall lc csiallisIcd
ly iIc luilding conany.

S.4.3

- TIc noiarial salc dccd will rovidc for iIai iIc luycr only Ias io ay
according io iIc advanccncni of iIc consiruciion.
- TIc noiarial salc dccd will rovidc for a disosiiion iIai iIc luilding will
lc sold frcc fron any norigagcs or licns.

Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
40
S.4.4
Scc oini 5.4.1
S.4.S

TIc luycr can vcsi a norigagc on iIc consiruciion io lc luild as fron iIc
noncni if iIc signaiurc of iIc noiarial dccd.
His norigagc sIall Iavc a 1
si
ranl as iIc ncw luilding will lc sold frcc fron all
cisiing norigagcs.
No, iIc lanl sIall Iavc a rigIi io lc aid oui of iIc sclling ricc of iIc ncw
luilding.
S.S
S.S.1
() suc o u ncu Iut Iousc I u Iudng conun
TIc consiruciion/arcIiicci agrccncni sIall dcscrilc in dciail iIc Iousc io lc
luili and sIall aiiacI iIc lans.
(ii} suc o un uutncnt n u ncu uutncnt Iudng
TIc noiarial salc dccd sIall dcscrilc iIc loi of land in dciail wIcrcon iIc
luilding sIall lc consirucicd and rcfcrcncc sIall lc nadc io iIc lasis dccd.
A lasis dccd sIall lc csiallisIcd ly iIc luilding conany iIai dcscrilcs in
dciail all iIc floors wiiI iis connon (sucI as iIc clcvaior, an cnirancc, a
corridor cic.} and rivaic aris (iIc aarincnis iisclf}.
Nornally, iIis dcscriiion is sufficicni.
S.S.2
TIc coniraci nornally rovidcs for an caci dclay for iIc icrninaiion of iIc
luilding. Usually, iIis dclay is sci ai a ccriain nunlcr of worling days aficr
conclusion of iIc coniraci (c.g. 100 worling days aficr conclusion of iIc
coniraci}
Ii is advisallc io inscri a disosiiion in iIc salcs coniraci iIai rovidcs for a
cnaliy if iIis dclay is noi rcsccicd.
S.S.3

Aficr iIc conlciion of iIc Iousc/aarincni ly iIc luilding conany, a
ncciing sIall lc scIcdulcd lciwccn iIc luycr and iIc scllcr/luilding conany
io visii iIc ncw consiruciion and io drafi a rovisional conlciion ccriificaic. In
Dclgiun, iIis noncni is callcd iIc rovisional conlciion of iIc ncw
Iousc/luilding ("uooogc ocucng / cccton ousoc"}. TIc
luilding/Iousc sIall lc fully conlcicd in conliancc wiiI iIc icrns and
condiiions of iIc salcs/consiruciion agrccncni i.c. iIc Iousc/aarincni is
rcady io lc uscd in accordancc wiiI iis dcsiinaiion, suljcci io iIc rcair of
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
41
sonc ninor dcfccis io lc ncniioncd in a snagging lisi aiiacIcd io iIc
rovisional conlciion ccriificaic. Ai iIc rovisional conlciion all iIc clains
iIai can lc nadc for aarcni dcfccis sIall ciinguisI. Howcvcr, iIis
ccniion fron lialiliiy sIall lc liniicd io iIc dcfccis iIai can lc siaicd ly
ncrc visual caninaiion. TIis ccniion for lialiliiy sIall noi rcfcr io dcfccis
wIicI could only lc noiiccd wIcn using iIc ncw aarincni/Iousc (c.g. dcfccis
rclaiing io waicrroof, Icaiing and air condiiioning insiallaiions, and all
iIosc wIicI arc cvidcnccd iIrougI nornal usagc}.

(If Drcync Aci is alicallc} Onc ycar aficr iIc rovisional conlciion, a final
conlciion of iIc Iousc/aarincni sIall lc donc. TIis ncans iIai iIc
consiruciions arc fully conlcicd in conliancc wiiI iIc icrns and condiiions
of iIc salcs/consiruciion agrccncni and iIai all ninor dcfccis and any and all
dcfccis and/or irrcgulariiics iIai acarcd during iIis ycar Iavc lccn rcaircd.
TIc rcason wIy iIcrc Ias io lc 1 ycar lciwccn iIc rovisional and final
conlciion is io allow iIc ncw owncr io cIccl Iis Iousc/aarincni ai lcasi
during iIc winicr. Aficr iIc final conlciion ccriificaic, only a clain rclaicd io
iIc Iiddcn dcfccis can lc iniroduccd.
According io ariiclcs 1792 and 2270 of iIc DCC, iIc arcIiicci and iIc
consirucior rcnain liallc for any sulsianiial dcfccis io iIc luilding for a
criod of 10 ycars. TIc siariing daic of iIc 10 ycar lialiliiy sIall usually
lc iIc daic of iIc rovisional conlciion of iIc Iousc/aarincni. TIc
luycr sIall noi Iavc dirccily a clain againsi iIc conanics
connissioncd ly iIc luildcr. In iIc cvcni of a sulsianiial dcfcci, iIc
luycr sIall iniroducc a clain againsi iIc consirucior/arcIiicci wIo sIall
iIcir sclf iniroducc a clain againsi iIcir sulconiraciors. TIcsc ariiclcs
arc incraiivc !
TIc arcIiicci and iIc coniracior arc also liallc for ninor" Iiddcn dcfccis
i.c. iIosc noi covcrcd ly iIc 10 ycar lialiliiy. TIis lialiliiy Ias io lc
involcd wiiIin a rcasonallc criod of iinc". TIc siariing oini and iIc
duraiion of iIc rcasonallc criod of iinc arc qucsiions of faci lcfi io iIc
discrciion of iIc couris. TIc duraiion of iIc rcasonallc criod usually
conriscs lciwccn 6 noniIs and 2 ycars. TIis lialiliiy can lc adaicd
(ccludcd, liniicd or incrcascd} ly coniraci, ursuani io iIc nornal lcgal
rulcs on lialiliiy and concraiion clauscs.
TIc luilding conany/scllcr sIall ai Iis ccnsc during ( insurancc All
Fisl"/Tous Hsqucs CIuntc/Ac Hsco`s Houuuuts) and aficr
(insurancc rclaicd io iIc 10 ycar- lialiliiy} conlciion of iIc worls
rocurc and nainiain an adcquaic insurancc

S.6 BuIIder's InsoIvency

S.6.1
TIc luildcr Ias io csiallisI a lanl guaranicc ai iIc lcginning of iIc
consiruciion iIai covcrs iIc full conlciion of iIc consiruciion. If iIc luildcr is
Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
42
lanlrui during iIc consiruciion, iIc anouni guaraniccd ly iIc lanl sIall lc
uscd for iIc conlciion of iIc worls. In iIis casc, usually iIc ncw coniracior
sIall noi conly wiiI iIc dclay for iIc conlciion of iIc Iousc/aarincni.
S.6.2
If an unrcgisicrcd coniracior (clain} is uscd, iIc lanl guaranicc (iIai covcrs
100 % of iIc cccuiion of worls} sIall lc rclcascd for 100 % ai iIc rovisional
conlciion.
If a rcgisicrcd coniracior (clain} is uscd, iIc lanl guaranicc (iIai only covcrs
5 % of iIc cccuiion of iIc worls} sIall lc rclcascd for 50 % ai iIc rovisional
conlciion and for 50 % ai iIc final conlciion.
So, if iIcrc arc io nany dcfccis io iIc good, iIc luycr sIall noi grani iIc
rovisional conlciion and iIc lanl guaranicc sIall noi lc rclcascd.

***
6. PrIvate InternatIonaI Law

- Fcal rocriy. Lc rci siiac
- Morigagcs. lc rci siiac

?. Mortgages

|io lc conlcicd|
















Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
43














































Reo1 Proper1g Lou Be1g1um - Dro]1 Lou]or1 29 Sep1ember 2DD4
44