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Alllussei I, BaliLai L 1968 1975 λ¿¼·²¹ Ý¿°·¬¿´.

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M. Cain
Marxism in Contemporary Sociology
Maixism las a µiesence in conlemµoiaiy sociology in
lliee µiinciµle loims: assimilaling Maixism, using
Maixism, and Luilding Maixism. Tle •isl ol llese is
closely idenli•ed will lle way Maixism is incoi-
µoialed inlo mainslieam sociology, lle second will
Maixisl sociology, and lle lliid will wlal migll Le
called sociological Maixism.
ïò ß--·³·´¿¬·²¹ Ó¿®¨·-³
Mosl sociologisls, even llose ielalively unsymµallelic
lo lle lleoielical and µolilical agenda ol Maixism,
iecognize llal lle Maixisl liadilion las Leen a souice
ol inleiesling and suggeslive ideas loi sociology, one
ol lle imµoilanl souices ol lle `sociological imagin-
alion.• Couises in sociological lleoiy lyµically include
iesµecllul discussions ol Maix, WeLei, and Duilleim
9295
Ó¿®¨·-³ ·² ݱ²¬»³°±®¿®§ ͱ½·±´±¹§
as `lounding lalleis` ol cenlial lleoielical cuiienls in
lle lisloiy ol sociology. Duilleim is idenli•ed will
noims and µioLlems ol social inlegialion, WeLei will
ialionalizalion and lle culluial sociology ol mean-
inglul aclion, and Maix will class and conlicl. Sludies
ol µolilics and lle slale ioulinely Loiiow liom lle
Maixisl liadilion a concein will Lusiness inluence,
economic consliainls on slale aclion, and lle class
Lases ol µolilical µailies and µolilical moLilizalion
(e.g., Iiµsel 1960). Discussions ol woil liequenlly lall
aLoul lle laLoi µiocess, lle µioLlem ol exliacling
slills. Discussions ol social clange lall aLoul
conliadiclions (e.g., Bell 1976,) and, µeilaµs aLove
all, discussions ol social conlicl aie inluenced Ly lle
coie Maixisl idea llal conlicls aie geneialed Ly
sliucluially Lased social cleavages, nol simµly suL-
jeclive idenlilies (e.g., Bouidieu 1984). !n llese and
many ollei ways, llemes inlegial lo lle Maixisl
liadilion aie imµoiled inlo lle mainslieam ol so-
ciological sclolaisliµ, liequenlly losing any exµlicil
linl lo lleii Maixisl µedigiee in lle µiocess.
îò Ë-·²¹ Ó¿®¨·-³
Maixisl sociology ieµiesenls a moie sell-conscious,
moie amLilious use ol Maixisl ideas in sociology.
Heie lle idea is lo lale lle conceµlual liamewoil
elaLoialed willin lle Maixisl liadilionmode ol
µioduclion, exµloilalion, lle laLoi µiocess, class
sliucluie, class sliuggle, class consciousness, lle slale,
ideology, ievolulion, and so onand lo use llese
conceµls lo undeisland a wide aiiay ol sociological
µioLlems. Tle goal is nol loi Maixisl conceµls lo lose
lleii idenlily Ly Leing aLsoiLed inlo lle mainslieam,
Lul lo clallenge lle mainslieamwill an alleinalive sel
ol exµlanalions and µiediclions. !n sludies ol slale
µolicy loimalion, lle claim is nol jusl llal lleie may
Le Lusiness inluence and economic consliainls on
slale µolicies, Lul llal class µowei sels lundamenlal
limils on lle iange ol µossiLililies ol slale aclion (e.g.,
µiocess and leclnology, lle claim is nol jusl llal
emµloyeis lace a µioLlem ol gaining cooµeialion liom
woileis and gelling llem lo µeiloim will adequale
woileis and emµloyeis is a lundamenlal µioµeily ol
woil oiganizalion in caµilalisl economies (e.g.,
Biaveiman 1974). !n sludies ol inequalily lle claim is
nol jusl llal class is one ol lle salienl dimensions ol
social inequalily in indusliial socielies, Lul llal class
ielalions sliucluie lundamenlal lealuies ol lle syslem
ol inequalily (e.g., Wiigll 1985).
íò Þ«·´¼·²¹ Ó¿®¨·-³
Tle mosl amLilious ailiculalion ol Maixism and
sociology goes Leyond simµly exµlicilly deµloying
Maixisl calegoiies lo laclle a iange ol sociological
µioLlems. Heie lle goal is lo Luild Maixism ilsell, lo
conliiLule lo ils develoµmenl as a coleienl lleoielical
sliucluie Ly undeislanding ils sloilcomings and
ieconsliucling ils aigumenls. (Lxamµles include Al-
llussei 1970, Colen 1978. An eailiei examµle will
consideiaLle inluence in conlemµoiaiy discussions is
Giamsci 1971). Building Maixism is imµoilanl loi lle
ollei lwo ailiculalions ol Maixismand sociology: !l is
only in conlinually Luilding Maixism llal il can
geneiale new insiglls lo Le aµµioµiialed µiecemeal
inlo lle mainslieam, and new aigumenls lo Le used Ly
Maixisl sociologisls in lleii engagemenl will so-
ciology.
To undeisland lle lasls involved in Luilding
Maixism, il is necessaiy lo Liiely lay oul lle coie
suLslanlive aigumenls ol lle Maixisl liadilion ol
social lleoiy. Tlese aigumenls lall undei lliee lleoi-
elical clusleis: (a) a lleoiy ol lle liajecloiy and desliny
ol caµilalism, (L) a lleoiy ol lle conliadicloiy
ieµioduclion ol caµilalism, and (c) a noimalive lleoiy
ol socialism and communism. Tle •isl ol llese is lle
coie ol classical Maixism, lle Maixism ol Maix and
Lngels, and is closely idenli•ed will wlal is usually
called `lisloiical maleiialism.` Tle second µiovides
lle Lasic ingiedienls ol wlal migll Le called so-
ciological Maixism. !n lle lace ol emµiiical and
lleoielical ciilicisms ol lisloiical maleiialism liom
willin Maixism, sociological Maixism las Lecome
incieasingly cenlial lo Maixism as a wlole. Tle lliid
comµiises lle Lasis loi lle Maixisl ciilique ol caµi-
lalism and ils emanciµaloiy vision ol alleinalives.
íòï ̸» ̸»±®§ ±º ¬¸» Ì®¿¶»½¬±®§ ¿²¼ Ü»-¬·²§ ±º
Ý¿°·¬¿´·-³
Tle liadilional Maixisl lleoiy ol lle liajecloiy and
desliny ol caµilalism was giounded in lliee lun-
damenlal lleses.
íòïòï ̸»-·- ïò ̸» ´±²¹ó¬»®³²±²-«-¬¿·²¿¾·´·¬§ ±º ½¿°ó
·¬¿´·-³ ¬¸»-·-ò !n lle long iun caµilalism is an unsusl-
ainaLle social oidei. Caµilalism does nol lave an
indelnile luluie. !ls inleinal dynamics (`laws ol mo-
lion•) aie mainly geneialed Ly lliee inleiacling
loices: lle exµloilalion ol woileis Ly caµilalisls, lle
comµelilion among caµilalisls willin evei-exµanding
mailels, and lle develoµmenl ol lle loices ol µio-
duclion. Tlese dynamics ol caµilalism aie deeµly con-
liadicloiy and, il is µiedicled, will evenlually deslioy
lle condilions ol caµilalism•s ieµioduciLilily. Tlis
means llal caµilalism is nol meiely claiacleiized Ly
eµisodes ol ciisis and decay, Lul llal llese eµisodes
lave an inleienl lendency lo inlensily ovei lime in
ways wlicl male lle suivival ol caµilalism incieas-
ingly µioLlemalic (Maix 1967).
9296
Ó¿®¨·-³ ·² ݱ²¬»³°±®¿®§ ͱ½·±´±¹§
íòïòî ̸»-·- îò ̸» ·²¬»²-·•½¿¬·±² ±º ¿²¬·½¿°·¬¿´·-¬
½´¿-- -¬®«¹¹´» ¬¸»-·-ò As lle suslainaLilily ol caµilal-
ism declines (llesis 1), lle class loices aiiayed
againsl caµilalism inciease in numLeis and caµacily
lo clallenge caµilalism. Lvenlually lle social loices
can Le oveilliown (Maix and Lngels 1992, Iulacs
1971).
íòïòí ̸»-·- íò ̸» ²¿¬«®¿´ ¬®¿²-·¬·±² ¬± -±½·¿´·-³
¬¸»-·-ò Given lle ullimale nonsuslainaLilily ol caµi-
lalism (llesis 1), and lle inleiesls and caµacilies ol
lle social aclois aiiayed againsl caµilalism, in lle
alleimall ol lle desliuclion ol caµilalism lliougl
inlensi•ed class sliuggle (llesis 2), socialism is ils
mosl lilely successoi (oi, in an even sliongei veision
ol lle llesis, ils inevilaLle successoi). Pailially llis is
Lecause caµilalism ilsell cieales some ol lle inslilu-
lional gioundwoil loi socialism (concenlialion ol
owneisliµ, incieased µioduclivily, elc.), Lul mainly
socialism emeiges in lle alleimall ol caµilalism•s
demise Lecause lle woiling class would gain liemen-
dously liom socialism and il las lle µowei lo cieale
il. Given lle inleiesls and caµacilies ol lle ielevanl
social aclois, socialism would Le invenled lliougl a
µiocess ol µiagmalic, ciealive, colleclive exµeiimen-
lalism wlen il Lecame an `lisloiical necessily`
(Lngels 1945).Tlis is an eleganl social lleoiy, enoi-
mously alliaclive lo µeoµle commilled lo lle moial
and µolilical agenda ol an egalilaiian, democialic,
socialisl luluie. Since sliuggles loi social clange aie
lundamenlal liansloimalions ol social sliucluies,
laving lle conldence llal lle `loices ol lisloiy` aie
on one•s side and llal evenlually lle syslem againsl
wlicl one is •glling will Le unsuslainaLle, µiovides
enoimous encouiagemenl. Tle Leliel in lle liull ol
llis classical lleoiy, aiguaLly, lelµed lo suslain com-
munisl sliuggles in lle lace ol sucl oveiwlelming oL-
slacles.
!nloilunalely, lle emµiiical evidence loi lle cen-
lial lleses ol lle lleoiy ol lle dynamics and desliny ol
caµilalism aie quile weal, and a numLei ol lle
lleoielical loundalions loi lle lleses lawed. As a
iesull, mosl Maixisl sclolais eillei exµlicilly aLandon
lisloiical maleiialism oi ignoie il. Tleii woil, lleie-
loie, lends lo ievolve mainly aiound lle second µillai
ol lle Maixisl liadilion: lle lleoiy ol conliadicloiy
ieµioduclion.
íòî ̸» ̸»±®§ ±º ¬¸» ݱ²¬®¿¼·½¬±®§ λ°®±¼«½¬·±²
±º Ý¿°·¬¿´·-³ ¿²¼ ·¬- Ý´¿-- λ´¿¬·±²-
Tle Maixisl lleoiy ol lle conliadicloiy ieµioduclion
ol caµilalism and caµilalisl class ielalions is also Lased
on lliee lundamenlal lleses.
íòîòï ̸»-·- ïò ̸» -±½·¿´ ®»°®±¼«½¬·±² ±º ½´¿-- ®»´¿ó
¬·±²- ¬¸»-·-ò By viilue ol lleii exµloilalive claiaclei,
class sliucluies aie inleienlly unslaLle loims ol
social ielalions andiequiie aclive inslilulional aiiange-
menls loi lleii ieµioduclion. Wleie class ielalions
exisl, lleieloie, il is µiedicled llal vaiious loims ol
µolilical and ideological inslilulions will develoµ lo
delend and ieµioduce llem. !n caµilalism llis µioL-
lem ol social ieµioduclion ol class ielalions is luillei
comµlicaled Ly inslaLililies geneialed Ly caµilalisl
comµelilion and uneven develoµmenl.
íòîòî ̸»-·- îò ̸» ½±²¬®¿¼·½¬·±²- ±º ½¿°·¬¿´·-³ ¬¸»ó
-·-ò Tle inslilulional solulions lo lle µioLlems ol
social ieµioduclion ol caµilalisl class ielalions al any
µoinl in lime lave a syslemalic lendency lo eiode
and Lecome less lunclional ovei lime. Tlis is so loi
lwo µiinciµle ieasons: ¡iisl, caµilalisl develoµmenl
geneiales clanges in leclnology, lle laLoi µiocess,
class sliucluie, mailels, and ollei asµecls ol caµi-
lalisl ielalions, and llese clanges conlinually µose
new µioLlems ol social ieµioduclion. !n geneial,
eailiei inslilulional solulions will cease lo Le oµlimal
undei sucl clanged condilions. Second, class aclois
adaµl lleii slialegies in oidei lo lale advanlages ol
wealnesses in exisling inslilulional aiiangemenls.
Ovei lime, llese adaµlive slialegies lend lo eiode lle
aLilily ol inslilulions ol social ieµioduclion lo iegu-
íòîòí ̸»-·- íò ײ-¬·¬«¬·±²¿´ ½®·-·- ¿²¼ ®»²± ¿¬·±²
¬¸»-·-ò Because ol lle conlinual need loi inslilulions
ol social ieµioduclion (llesis 1) and lle lendency loi
lle ieµioduclive caµacily ol given inslilulional
aiiangemenls lo eiode ovei lime (llesis 2), inslilu-
lions ol social ieµioduclion in caµilalisl socielies will
lend lo Le µeiiodically ienovaled. Tle lyµical ciicum-
slance loi sucl ienovalion will Le inslilulional
ciisisa silualion in wlicl oiganized social aclois,
µailiculaily class aclois, come lo exµeiience lle insli-
lulional suµµoils as unsalislacloiy, ollen Lecause
lley cease lo Le aLle lo conlain class conlicls willin
loleiaLle limils. Tleie is no necessaiy imµlicalion
leie llal lle new inslilulional solulions will Le oµ-
limal oi llal caµilalism will collaµse in lle lace ol
suLoµlimal aiiangemenls. Wlal is claimed is llal caµ-
ilalisl develoµmenl will Le mailed Ly a sequence ol
inslilulional ienovalion eµisodes in iesµonse lo lle
conliadiclions in lle ieµioduclion ol caµilalisl iela-
lions.
Mosl ol lle emµiiical ieseaicl and lleoielical
develoµmenl done Ly conlemµoiaiy sclolais engaged
in Luilding Maixism las in one way oi anollei
ievolved aiound llese lliee lleses. Tlus Maixisl
lleoiies ol advanced caµilalism lave locused on
queslions ol low lle slale iegulales ielalions among
9297
Ó¿®¨·-³ ·² ݱ²¬»³°±®¿®§ ͱ½·±´±¹§
caµilalisls and lle ielalions Lelween caµilal and laLoi
(e.g., Agliella 1979). Tle slale also oiganizes class
sliuggles so llal lley do nol lliealen caµilalism. !l
does llis lliougl vaiious concessions lo lle woiling
class sucl as lacloiy legislalion, minimum wages,
unemµloymenl comµensalion, and so loill (e.g.,
Pizewoisli 1985). Alleinalively, lle slale disoiganizes
lle woiling class, loi examµle, lliougl lle legal oidei
wlicl conslilules individual cilizens (e.g., Poulanlzas
1973) oi, in some limes and µlaces, Ly µiomoling
iacial divisions lliougl disciiminaloiy access lo joLs.
Sociological Maixism invesligales lle ways in wlicl
consenl lo caµilalismis Loll oiganized and µolenlially
clallenged willin µioduclion (Buiawoy 1985) as well
as willin lle inslilulions ol civil socielyliomsclools
lo cluicles, liom liade unions lo µolilical µailies
(e.g., Bowles and Ginlis 1976). !n llese and ollei
ways, lle µioLlem ol undeislanding lle conliadicloiy
ieµioduclion and liansloimalion ol caµilalisl class
ielalions and inslilulions conslilules lle cenlial
agenda ol sociological Maixism.
íòí ̸» Ò±®³¿¬· » ̸»±®§ ±º Ó¿®¨·-³
!l one Lelieves lle liadilional Maixisl lleoiy ol lle
dynamics and desliny ol caµilalism, llen lleie is lillle
need loi an elaLoiale noimalive lleoiy ol lle alleina-
lives lo caµilalism. Tle µioLlem ol socialism can Le
lell lo lle µiagmalic ingenuily ol µeoµle in lle luluie.
!l is loi llis ieason llal Maixisls liadilionally lave
Lelieved an elaLoiale µosilive noimalive lleoiy was
unnecessaiy. Tle noimalive dimension ol Maixism
las llus µiimaiily lalen lle loim ol lle ciilique ol
caµilalism as a social oidei claiacleiized Ly alien-
alion, exµloilalion, lelislism, mysli•calion, degia-
dalion, immiseialion, lle anaicly ol lle mailel, and
so on. Tle lianscendence ol caµilalism Ly socialism
and, evenlually, communism, was llen µosiled as lle
simµle negalion ol llese lealuies, an imµlicil and
undelended lleoielical uloµia wlicl simµly elimin-
aled all lle moial de•cils ol caµilalism: a sociely
willoul alienalion, exµloilalion, lelislism, and lle
iesl.
Once one aLandons lle oµlimislic µiediclions ol
lisloiical maleiialism, lowevei, lleie is no longei a
lleoielical giounding loi Liacleling lle noimalive
issues. Tle lwenliell cenluiy wilnessed seveial lis-
loiical exµeiimenls ol liying lo Luild socialism in lle
alleimall ol anlicaµilalisl ievolulions willoul a co-
leienl noimalive model ol socialisl inslilulions. !l we
lave leained anylling liom lle lisloiy ol ievol-
ulionaiy sliuggles againsl caµilalism, il is llal anli-
a leasiLle, emanciµaloiy socialisl alleinalive. !n ad-
dilion lo a sociological Maixism wlicl exµloies lle
conliadicloiy ieµioduclion ol class ielalions in
caµilalism, lleieloie, Maixism iequiies a noimalive
lleoiy llal illuminales lle egalilaiian and communi-
laiian ideals ol lle emanciµaloiy µiojecl, lle
dilemmas and conliadiclions in lle aclual lisloiical
allemµls al ciealing socialism, and lle design µiinci-
µles ol leasiLle inslilulions loi iealizing llose eman-
ciµaloiy ideals in lle luluie. Tle luillei develoµmenl
ol llis noimalive lleoiy is one ol lle essenlial lasls loi
Luilding Maixism in lle lwenly-•isl cenluiy.
Í»» ¿´-±: Alienalion, Sociology ol; Caµilalism: GloLal;
Class Consciousness; Class: Social; Socialism; Tleoiy:
Sociological
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M. Buiawoy and L. O. Wiigll
Marxism]Leninism
1. Mar\isn, 1eninisn, or Mar\isn1eninisn°
Sclolaily deLales aLoul MaixismIeninism aie in-
exliicaLly Lound uµ will laigei inlelleclual Lallles
9298
Ó¿®¨·-³ ·² ݱ²¬»³°±®¿®§ ͱ½·±´±¹§
Coµyiigll 2001 Llseviei Science Ild.
All iiglls ieseived.
!nleinalional Lncycloµedia ol lle Social & Belavioial Sciences !SBÞ: 0-08-043076-7