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The 2012 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the XXX Olympiad[2] and commonly known as London 2012,

was a major international multi-sport event celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games, as governed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). It took place in London, United Kingdom, from 27 July to 12 August 2012. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began two days earlier, on 25 July.[3][4] More than 10,000 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated.[5] Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City, Madrid and Paris.[6] London was the first city to host the modern Olympic Games three times,[7][8] having previously done so in 1908 and in 1948.[9][10] Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability.[11] The main focus was a new 200-hectare (490-acre) Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London.[12] The Games also made use of venues that already existed before the bid. [13] The Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military, and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly.[14][15][16] The opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim.[17][18] During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal.[19] Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games.[20] Women's boxing was included for the first time; thus, the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors

Opening ceremony The opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Olympics was held on 27 July and called "Isles of Wonder".[124] Oscar-winning director Danny Boyle was its artistic director, with the music directors being the electronic music duo Rick Smith and Karl Hyde of Underworld.[125] The Games were officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II, accompanied by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[126] It was the second Games the Queen had opened personally, the first being the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. All successive Olympics held in Canada or Australia have been opened by their respective governors-general. A short comic film starring Daniel Craig as secret agent James Bond and the Queen as herself was screened during the ceremony.[127] Live musical performers included Frank Turner, Mike Oldfield, London Symphony Orchestra (accompanied by Rowan Atkinson), Dizzee Rascal, Arctic Monkeys and Sir Paul McCartney, who performed the song "Hey Jude" at the end of the ceremony.[128][129] The official BARB ratings give the opening ceremony a rating of 24.24 million viewers, the highest audience for any British television broadcast since 1996.[130]

Closing ceremony The closing ceremony of the London 2012 Summer Olympics was held on 12 August 2012. In addition to protocol, the ceremony featured a flashback fiesta to British music with The Who finishing out the performance. The ceremony also included a handover of the Olympic flag by Boris Johnson, Mayor of London, to Eduardo Paes, Mayor of Rio de Janeiro, the host city of the 2016 Summer Olympics.[131]

List of Countries Participating in London Olympics 2012:

Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil British Virgin Islands Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi

Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Great Britain Greece Grenada Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati

Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Russia Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Samoa San Marino Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands

Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Congo DR Congo Cook Islands Costa Rica Cte d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland F.Y.R.O. Macedonia France

North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Madagascar Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Mauritius Mexico Micronesia Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger

South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Sweden Switzerland Syria Chinese Taipei Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

Olmpic torch The Torch celebrates the best of British design, engineering and manufacturing talent and reflects the celebratory nature of the Olympic Torch Relay and the Olympic Games.

It has been designed by internationally-acclaimed designers Edward Barber and Jay Osgerby, in partnership with Basildon-based product engineers Tecosim and Coventry-based manufacturers The Premier Group.

At 800mm high and weighing just 800g, the Torch is one of the most lightweight in the history of the Olympic Movement. Its gold-coloured form is perforated by 8,000 small cut-out circles, representing the 8,000 Torchbearers and their stories of personal achievement. The circles, which run the length of the Torch, will also offer a unique level of transparency allowing people to see right into its heart and help keep the Torch cool.

The triangular design has been inspired by the multiples of three identified across the vision and delivery of the Olympic Games. These include the three Olympic Values of respect, excellence and friendship; the fact the UK has hosted the Olympic Games three times; and the vision for the London 2012 Olympic Games to combine three strands of work sport, education and culture.

Sebastian Coe, LOCOG Chair, said: 'The Torch that carries the Olympic Flame during the Olympic Torch Relay is one of the most recognisable and significant symbols of an Olympic Games. Members of the public right across the UK are busy nominating inspiring people to be Torchbearers and I am thrilled we have a beautifully designed, engineered and crafted Torch for them to carry.

'Integral to the design are the 8,000 circles, a lasting representation of the Torchbearer stories of personal achievement or contribution to their local community that will be showcased with every step of the Relay.'

Designers Edward Barber and Jay Osgerby explained: 'As designers, this is quite simply the best project going: to design an icon for the Games. We have worked hard to develop a Torch that celebrates the Relay, and reflects the passion for London and the Olympic Games. We wanted to make the most of pioneering production technologies and to demonstrate the industrial excellence available in the UK it's a Torch for our time.' The LOCOG Moment to Shine Torchbearer nomination campaign aims to find 2 ,012 inspirational members of the public to carry the Olympic Flame on its 8,000 mile journey across the UK next summer.

Mascots The Olympic Mascots, Mandeville (left) and Wenlock (right)

The official mascots for the 2012 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games were unveiled on 19 May 2010.[386] Wenlock and Mandeville are animations depicting two drops of steel from a steelworks in Bolton.[386] They are named after Much Wenlock, a town in Shropshire that holds a forerunner of the current Olympic Games, and Stoke Mandeville, a village in Buckinghamshire where a forerunner of the Paralympic Games was first held.[386] The writer Michael Morpurgo wrote the story concept for the mascots, and an animation was produced.[387] Two stories have been created about the mascots: Out Of A Rainbow and Adventures On A Rainbow.[388] Creative Review magazine liked the mascots,[389] but elsewhere their design was greeted with some disdain. One columnist jested that they were the product of a "drunken one-night stand between a Teletubby and a Dalek".[390] Others have compared them to Izzy, the much disparaged mascot of the 1996 Summer Olympics.[391] Still others have likened them to Kang and Kodos from The Simpsons.[392] However, the mascots' creators claim that young people find the duo appealing.[393]

Approximately 4,700[102] Olympic and Paralympic medals have been produced by the Royal Mint at Llantrisant.[103] They were designed by David Watkins (Olympics) and Lin Cheung (Paralympics).[104] 99% of the gold, silver and copper was donated by Rio Tinto from a mine in Salt Lake County, Utah in the U.S.[105] The remaining 1% came from a Mongolian mine.[106] Each medal weighs 375 400 g (13.214 oz), has a diameter of 85 mm (3.3 in) and is 7 mm (0.28 in) thick, with the sport and discipline engraved on the rim.[107] The obverse, as is traditional, features Nike, the Greek goddess of victory, stepping from the Panathinaiko Stadium that hosted the first modern Olympic Games in 1896, with Parthenon in the background; the reverse features the Games logo, the River Thames and a series of lines representing "the energy of athletes and a sense of pulling together".[108] The medals were transferred to the Tower of London vaults on 2 July 2012 for storage.[107] Each gold medal is made up of 92.5 percent silver and 1.34 percent gold, with the remainder copper. The silver medal (which represents second place) is made up of 92.5 percent silver, with the remainder copper. The bronze medal is made up of 97 percent copper, 2.5 percent zinc and 0.5 percent tin.[109] The value of the materials in the gold medal is about $644, the silver about $330, and the bronze about $4.71 on the current market.[110]