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1. What might the second speaker mean in each of the following dialogues?

Write a paraphrase in each case, and think about how you inferred this meaning. What maxims are not observed? (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Virginia: Do you like my new hat? Mary: Its pink! Maggie: Coffee? James: It would keep me awake all night. Linda: Have you finished the student evaluation forms and the reading lists? Jean: Ive done the reading lists. Phil: Are you going to Steves barbecue? Terry: Well, Steves got those dogs now. Annie: Was the dessert any good? Mike: Annie, cherry pie is cherry pie. A: What do you think about the perpetuation of beauty pageants? B: It's part of the culture - it survives because it survives. (Commentator on the Miss American competition, BBC Radio 4) Husband: I think Jenny is becoming more organised. Wife: Have you seen that room of hers? (about daughter's room) Peter: Have you done your homework? Eleanor: Joanna had her ear pierced today.

2. Suppose you were considering X for a job that needed good writing skills. You have written to his English teacher asking her to assess his performance in this area. You receive the following reply: X has regularly and punctually attended all my classes. All his assignments were handed in on time and very neatly presented. I greatly enjoyed having X in my class. (a) What maxim does the teacher seem to flout? (b) What implicature would you draw about Xs writing skills? (c) Why do you think the teacher phrased her response this way? 3. Speech therapist: So you like ice-cream. What are your favourite flavours? Child with a pragmatic disorder: Hamburgerfish and chips (Adapted from Bishop, 1997, p. 183) Which maxim has the child failed to observe? Would you consider this a case of flouting or violation of that maxim? 4. In each case below decide which maxim has not been observed. Then decide whether this was a case of flouting or violation. Where you think there has been a case of flouting, what implicature might be drawn? Background information is given in square brackets. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Annie: Mike, did you pass the driving test? Mike: No. [Mike knows hes passed the driving test] Annie: Do you want seconds? Mike: gmmm uh mmm [Mikes just had his wisdom teeth extracted] Annie: I really liked that dinner. Mike: Im a vegetarian. Teacher: What time is it? [towards the end of a lecture] Student: Its 10:44 and 35.6 seconds. Student A: How are you? Student B: Im dead. Host: Would you like a cocktail? Its my own invention. Guest: Well, mmm uh its not that we dont not drink. Traffic warden: Is this your car sir? [ to motorist parked on double yellow line] Motorist: I think it's going to rain [looking at the black clouds]

(h) (i) (j)

Customer in stationery shop: Could you tell me where I could buy some felt-tip pens? Shop assistant: Yes, you could get some at Woolworth's. [SA knows she has felt-tips in stock] Mother: Now tell me the truth. Who put the snake in the bathtub? Son [knows who did it]: Someone put it there. Dogs take lead from owner (headline in The Times)

5. The following rhetorical strategies have been considered flouts of Gricean maxims. Which maxim do you think each flouts? Tautology At the end of the day the Church can only afford to pay the number of people it can afford to pay (a bishop speaking on the Sunday programme on BBC Radio 4 when asked whether there would be job cuts in the Church). Metaphor Money doesn't grow on trees but it blossoms at our branches. (Lloyd's Nabk advertisement). Overstatement Now we've ALL been screwed by the Cabinet (Sun headline) Understatement This is not a man who would have been a natural member of the Liberal Democrats (Paddy Ashdown, former leader of the Liberal Democrats, following the death of the Chinese leader Deng Xiao-ping, Today, BBC Radio 4) Rhetorical question How many divisions does the pope have? (attributed to Stalin) Irony The world's most exciting politician (said of the unglamorous Bob Dole, the Republican candidate in the 1996 American Presidential election) 6. Advertisements often flout Manner. Can you say in which way each of the following adverts does this? (1) Ahead of current thinking (National Power advertisement) (2) I cordless technology we have the lead (Black & Decker advertisement) (3) The best 4 x 4 x far (Land Rover advertisement) (4) First and fourmost (Land Rover advertisement) (5) In a glass and half of its own (Cadbury's chocolate advertisement) (6) We take the megahurts out of buying a PC (newspaper advertisement for computers) (7) Walter Wall Carpeting (the name of a chain of carpet stores) (8) They say beauty is in the eye of the beholder. But no eyes are more critical than yours (advertisement for an optician) (9) You just can't help yourself (written message accompanying a television advertisement for McCain pizzas in which the cook takes a piece of pizza for herself before serving her guests and then tries to make it look as though the pizza is still intact) (10) BA better connected person (British Airways advertisement) (11) Acts on the spot (advertisement for an acne preparation)

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