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SelectionofEfficientAppleRootstocksinZnUptake

MohammadE.Amiri ,EsmaeilFallahi2andMasumehSafiSonghorabad1
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Dept.ofHort.,ZanjanUniversity,Iran(mamiri@znu.ac.ir) Dept.ofPl.,Soil,andEnto.Sci.,ParmaRes.andExten.Center,Parma,Idaho83660,USA

INTRODUCTION One of the hypotheses on the mechanisms behind the influence of rootstock on scion vigour and yield is that the rootstock brings aboutitseffectsuponthescionby influencingthe amounts of nutrients taken up and translocated to the scion (Higgs and Jones, 1991).Fallahi etal. (2002) reported thatvigour of rootstock has a significant impact on the scion nutrient status in apples. Amiri et al. (2008) described visualsymptomsofZndeficiencyduringthegrowingseasonofGoldenDeliciousappletrees.Oneofthe possible causes of deficiency is the low rate of mineral uptake by some dwarf rootstocks (Aguirre et al., 2001).Fallahietal.(2002)foundinconsistenteffectsofrootstockonplanttissuemineralconcentrations across different production areas. Therefore, the hypothesis we tested was that dwarfing rootstock (M.9)woulddecreasevegetativegrowth,duetolessrootextensionandpenetrationintothesoil(Aguirre etal.,2001;Webster,2004),whichwillresultinalowerpotentialuptakeofZn,andleadtoZndeficiency. MATERIALSANDMETHODS GoldenDeliciousscionsweregraftedontofourrootstocks(M.9,MM.106,MM.111,andSeedling)in a randomized complete block design with five singletree replications for each scionstock combination. All treated trees were similarly fertigated with essential nutrients in accordance with soil nutrient analyses and with a drip irrigation system twice a week during 20072010. To determine leaf element concentrations,fiftyleavesweresampledandthenrinsedwithdistilledwater,driedinaforcedairdrying ovenat70Ctoconstantweight.Theyweregroundtopassa40meshscreen.Onegramofdriedground leaf sample was dry ashed at 550C for 5 h. The ash was then dissolved in 5 ml of 20% HCl. The samples wereanalyzed forP, K,Fe, Zn and Mnbyatomic absorptionspectrophotometer (Varian, AA20, Australia Swiss). RESULTSANDDISCUSSION The Seedling rootstock produced the highest yield (25.6 kg tree1) and the highest vigour (TCSA), while M.9 produced the lowest vigour and yield (Table 1). There were significant differences in concentrations of Zn in leaves of Golden Delicious/M.9, MM.106, MM.111, and Seedling rootstocks. The highest concentrations of leaf Zn (79 mg kg1) and Fe (144 mg kg1) were recorded in the trees on Seedling rootstock (Table 2). Trees on M.9 had higher leaf N (1.95%), and Mg (0.59%) concentrations than those on other rootstocks (Table 2). Similarly, other workers have reported significant rootstock effects on tissue nutrient concentrations under different environmental conditions (Aguirre et al., 2001; Fallahi et al., 2002). Higher Zn concentrations in the tissues on Seedling suggest that this rootstock is more efficient in uptake and transport of Zn. On the contrary, M.9 rootstock had lower Zn

concentrationsandtheleastcurrentshootgrowth(cmyear1)andyieldpertree(Table1),whichresulted inlessZnuptake. Apple trees on M.9 are more sensitive to Zn and K deficiencies than are those on MM.111 and seedling (Aguirre et al., 2001). Our data support the hypothesis that the efficiency of Zn uptake by dwarfing rootstocks (M.9) is less than more vigorous rootstocks. The concentration of Zn is primarily affected by the rate of uptake by specific rootstocks. It is also substantially dependent on the degree of cropping and the phase of fruit development (Fallahi et al., 2002). The reduction of Zn uptake capacity was associated in M9 with its smaller root system and to the graft union that shows very convoluted xylem vessels that act as filters, hence influencing the balance of different solutes reaching its scion (Webster,2004). Table1.EffectsofrootstockonvegetativeandreproductivegrowthofGoldenDelicious*. fruitNo. Fruitweigh Croploadc Cum.Yieldd yieldefi.b Rootstock CSGa TCSAb 2 (cm (cm ) (No. (No.fruit (kgtree1) (kgcm1 (g) 1 1 1 TCSA ) year ) tree ) TCSA1) M9 38 79 118 117.3 1.50 (kg/tree) (kgcm2) MM106 45 113 150 108 1.33 55.5 0.23 MM111 57 162 168 103.3 1.04 64.8 0.19 Seedling 68 177 190 98.7 1.07 69.4 0.14 LSD 10.3 16.2 15.8 4.0 0.18 74.8 0.13 a 1 b *Eachvalueistheaverageoverfouryears; currentshootgrowth(cmyear ); trunkcrosssectional area(cm2)in2010;ccroploadin2010(asNo.fruitcm2TCSA1);dcumulativeyieldin2010(kgtree1); e yieldefficiencyin2010(kgcm2TCSA1);a(P0.05). Table2EffectsofrootstockonshootleafnutrientconcentrationofGoldenDeliciousapple*. Rootstocks N P K Ca Mg Zn Fe Mn (%) (mgkg1) M9 1.95 0.41 1.43 1.25 0.59 41 104 68 MM106 1.89 0.44 1.46 1.22 0.53 48 134 71 MM111 1.67 0.38 1.40 1.39 0.45 52 115 72 Seedling 1.45 0.41 1.55 1.56 0.38 79 144 74 LSD 0.32 0.06 0.17 0.27 0.15 6.5 8.5 3.5 a (P0.05) REFERENCES Aguirre, P.B., AlHinai, Y.K., Roper, T.R. and Krueger, A.R. (2001). Apple tree rootstock and fertilizer applicationtimingaffectnitrogenuptake.Hort.Sci.36(7):12021205. Amiri, M.E., Fallahi, E. and Golchin, A. ( 2008). Influence of foliar and ground fertilization on yield, fruit quality,andsoil,leaf,andfruitmineralnutrientsinapple.J.PlantNutr.31:365370. Fallahi, E., Colt, W.M., Fallahi, B. and Chun I. (2002). The importance of apple rootstocks on tree growth, yeld, fruit quality, leaf nutrition and photosynthesis with an emphasis on Fuji. Hort. Technol. 12: 38 44. Higgs,K.H.andJones,H.G.(1991).Waterrelationsandcroppingofapplecultivarsonadwarfingrootstock inresponsetoimposeddrought.J.Hort.Sci.66:367379. Webster,A.D.(2004).Vigourmechanismsindwarfingrootstocksfortemperatefruittrees.ActaHort.658: 2941.