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Hadron and NuclearPhysicswithElectromagneticProbes K. Mamyamaand H. Okuno(Editors) 9 2000 ElsevierScienceB.V.All rightsreserved.


Laser e l e c t r o n p h o t o n facility at S P r i n g - 8 T. Hotta ~* , J.K. Ahn ~, H. Akimune b, Y. Asano ~, W.C. Chang d, S. Dat(5~, M. Fujiwara a,f, K. Hicks g, K. Imai i, T. Iwata h, T. Ishikawa i, H. Kawai ~ Z.Y. Kim j, T. Kishimoto m, N. Kumagai ~, S. Makino p, T. Matsumura k'r N. Matsuoka ~, T. Mibe ~, M. Miyabe i, Y. Miyachi h, T. Nakan@, M. Nomachi a, Y. Ohashi e, T. Ooba ~ H. Ookuma e, M. Ooshima f, C. Rangacharyulu 1'~, A. Sakaguchi m, T. Sasaki i, D. Seki i, H. Shimizu ~, Y. Sugaya f, M. Sumihama re'c, T. Tooyama h, H. Toyokawa~, A. Wakai n, C.W. Wang d, S.C. Wang d K. Yonehara b, T. Yorita ~, and M. Yosoia ~Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University,10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan bDepartment of Physics, Konan University, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501, Japan cJapan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Mikazuki, Hyogo 679-5143, Japan dInstitute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan ~Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Hyogo 679-5143, Japan fAdvanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan gDepartment of Physics, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA hDepartment of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan iDepartment of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan JDepartment of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea kDepartment of Physics, Yamagata University, Yamagata, Yamagata 990-8560, Japan 1Department of Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2, Canada mDepartment of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan nCenter for Integrated Research in Science and Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan ~ of Physics, Chiba University, Inage, Chiba 263-8522, Japan PWakayama Medical College, Wakayama, Wakayama 641-0012, Japan
At SPring-8, we built a 2.4 GeV photon beamline with 350 nm laser photon backscattering off the circulating 8 GeV electron beam. A detector system, optimized to carry out the photoproduction of r meson near threshold, is nearly completed.
1. L A S E R E L E C T R O N PHOTON F A C I L I T Y AT S P R I N G - 8

High energy photon beams produced by laser-induced backward Compton scattering off the circulating electrons (laser electron photon) is utilized for nuclear physics studies at various synchrotron radiation facilities in the world [1,2]. SPring-8, the world's highest energy third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, enables us to produce the highest *Corresponding author. E-mail:


8 GeV Electron

Laser Hutch Interaction Region Experimental Hutch 0


Detector 10


Figure 1. The Laser Electron Photon facility at SPring-8 (LEPS).

energy laser electron photon beam. We have constructed the laser electron photon (LEP) facility at BL33LEP, one of the 61 beamlines (Fig. 1). At SPring-8, 8 GeV electron beam is circulating with/max = 100 mA. The laser beam is injected from the Laser Hutch to the straight section. The Compton scattering of the laser photon with an 8 GeV electron produces GeV photons which can be used for the experiments of quark nuclear physics. The maximum energy of the LEP is determined by the electron energy and the laser wavelength. The LEPS facility produces the maximum photon energy of 2.4 GeV with 350 nm Ar laser. At present, SPring-8 is the only facility providing LEP beams above ~,p ~ Cp threshold. When shorter wavelength (200 nm) laser is used in near future, the maximum photon energy becomes higher than 3 GeV. One of the advantages of LEP beam is its flat intensity distribution for the Compton photons. Thus, experiments do not suffer from high intensity low energy background, a common problem with Bremsstrahlung beams. Another feature is high polarization of photons. If laser photons are 100 % polarized, the LEP is also polarized at the maximum energy. The polarization of the photon decreases at lower photon energy. However, by changing the laser wavelength, highly polarized photons in wide energy range can be obtained. The position and polarization of the laser can be monitored on both sides of the interaction region; at the Laser Hutch and the end of the beamline. When the electron energy is high, LEPs are emitted in a narrow cone in the electron beam direction. At the LEPS facility, photons in the energy region of interest (E~ _> 1.5 GeV) are within the scattered angle less than 0.15 mrad, which result in beam size of about 1 cm at the target point in the Experimental Hutch. The energy of the LEP is determined by measuring recoil electron with a tagging system. The bending magnet of the storage ring is used for analyzing the momentum of recoil electron. The tagging system is a position detector located inside the ring at the downstream end (along the electron beam) of the bending magnet. It consists of two layers of 500 #m thick silicon strip detectors with 100 #m pitch and two layers of plastic scintillator array. Photons of 1.5 to 3.5 GeV can be tagged by measuring recoil electron

273 with the momentum range between 6.5 and 4.5 GeV. Simulation results show that the photon energy resolution is expected to be around 15 MeV, and it is mainly determined by energy and angular spread of incident electrons.

2. B E A M


The detailed design of the beamline started in 1997. In 1998, some accelerator components were modified to inject a laser beam against the electron, to extract a LEP, and to utilize the tagging system. The laser injection system was completed by the first quarter of 1999. The first LEP beam at SPring-8 was produced on July 1st, 1999. A PWO calorimeter was used for the measurement of the beam energy. Fig. 2 shows the measured energy spectrum of the beam. The tagging system was also tested. Fig. 3 shows


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Figure 2. The energy spectrum of the LEP measured by PWO calorimeter.

Figure 3. The energy of the LEP measured by PWO versus the hit position of recoil electron at the tagging counter.

the correspondence between the energy measured by the PWO calorimeter and the hit position of recoil electron at the tagging counter. While this measurement shows that there is one to one correspondence between the hit position and the photon energy, the resolution of PWO is not good enough to estimate the tagger energy resolution. We plan to measure the e+e - pair conversion of the LEPS beam with the magnetic spectrometer and the detector system to get an estimate of the tagger resolution. As the first stage of the laser system, The UV multi-line photon of Ar laser (,--,350 nm) was used to produce the LEPs. The integrated intensity at that time was about 2 x 106 photons/sec with 5 W laser power and 100 mA electron beam current, which is about 5 times lower than we expected. We have found some problems on the reflectivity of the mirror and we expect the intensity reaches 1 x 107 photons/sec after the beam commissioning.

3. P H Y S I C S

At the LEPS, many experiments have been proposed and discussed. One of the experiment to be done at the first stage is q5 photoproduction. The photoproduction of vector mesons (VMs) are described by the process that "y fluctuates into VM which is well known as the vector meson dominance. Then the VM is scattered diffractively by Pomeron exchange [3]. In the framework of Regge theory, Pomeron was introduced to describe the universal rise of hadronic cross section at high energies. Nowadays Pomeron exchange can be understood as multi-gluon exchange process [4]. In the ~b photoproduction, the meson exchange process is strongly suppressed by OZI rule and the cross section from threshold to HERA energy region is mainly due to Pomeron exchange [5]. It means that the gluon exchange process at low energy can be studied only by q5 photoproduction. As an example, it is suggested that precise measurement of unpolarized cross section will clarify 0 + glueball contribution [6]. By using polarized photon and/or polarized target; we can study the contributions of different processes, including sg knockout from a nucleon, in terms of helicity amplitudes [7].
4. D E T E C T O R S

SiStrip 7

DipolMagnet e

Figure 4. The LEPS detector.

The LEPS detector setup is shown in Fig. 4. The detector is designed for the measurement of the r photoproduction in the forward direction. It consists of silicon strip vertex detectors (SVTX), multi-wire drift chambers (MWDC), a dipole magnet, and a time-of-flight (TOF) wall.

275 The dipole magnet has 135 cm wide and 55 cm high opening and the length of the pole along the beam is 60 cm. The field strength is 1 T at the center. The SVTX consists of 2 planes (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors (SSDs). The thickness of each SSD is 300 #m and the strip pitch is 120 #m. With the SVTX we measure the positions and energy loss for particle identification. A MWDC (DC1) with 5 planes (x,x', y, y', u) is located upstream and a pair of MWDC (DC2 and DC3) are downstream of the magnet. The sensitive area is 80 cm wide x 30 cm high for the DC1 and 200 cm wide x 80 cm for the DC2 and DC3. Each of the DC2 and DC3 has 5 planes; x, x', y, y' and u (for the DC2) or v (for the DC3). The TOF wall is used to measure times of flight of particles from the target. The TOF wall consists of 40 plastic scintillator bars of dimensions: 4 cm thick x 12 cm wide x 2 m long. The timing resolution of better than a = 100 psec has been achieved. The TOF start signal with ~r = 12 psec is made from an RF signal of 8 GeV storage ring. As a standard setup, the TOF wall is located at 3 m from the dipole magnet and a flight length of a charged particle is about 4 m. In this case, K/Tr separation of up to 2 GeV/c momentum is expected at better than 4or level. Each detector components has been tested separately by using the LEP beam and Bremsstrahlung ~, from the ring. An integrated test of the detector has been just started. For other experiments, a photon calorimeter, made up of 252 lead scintillating fiber detectors of 14 radiation lengths, covers from 3 0 - 100 ~ in laboratory system. Also, a superconducting solenoid magnet is being built for the future development of polarized target.
5. S U M M A R Y

The laser electron photon beam with the maximum energy of 2.4 GeV has been successfully produced at a newly developed beamline, BL33LEP at SPring-8. The beam intensity will be increased up to I x 107/sec after the beam commissioning. The detector system has been constructed and the tests are underway. The first test experiment of r photoproduction is planned for early 2000.

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