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– 4 Credits (Book ID: B0970) (60 Marks) Answer all Questions Each Question 1. Define the concept of equivalence relation. Give at least two examples of equivalence relation. Definition. A relation R on a set A is an equivalence relation if and only if R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. The definition is motivated by observing that any process of “identification” must behave somewhat like the equality relation, and the equality relation satisfies the reflexive (x = x for all x), symmetric (x = y implies y = x), and transitive (x = y and y = z implies x = z) properties. Example. 1. Let R be the relation on the set R real numbers defined by xRy i? x - y is an integer. Prove that R is an equivalence relation on R. Proof. I. Reflexive: Suppose x ? R. Then x - x = 0, which is an integer. Thus, xRx. II. Symmetric: Suppose x, y ? R and xRy. Then x - y is an integer. Since y - x = -(x - y), y - x is also an integer. Thus, yRx. III. Suppose x, y ? R, xRy and yRz. Then x - y and y - z are integers. Thus, the sum (x - y) + (y - z) = x - z is also an integer, and so xRz. Thus, R is an equivalence relation on R. 2. Let R be the relation on the set of real numbers R in Example 1. Prove that if xRx ' and yRy', then (x + y)R(x' + y'). Proof. Suppose xRx ' and yRy '. In order to show that (x+y)R(x'+y'), we must show that (x + y) - (x ' + y') is an integer. Since (x + y) - (x'+ y') = (x - x') + (y - y'), and since each of x-x ' and y -y ' is an integer (by de?nition of R), (x-x') + (y -y ') is an integer. Thus, (x + y)R(x ' + y'). 2. Prove by the method of mathematical induction that Base Step: Let n=0 then the sum of the left side is 0 Since there is nothing to add the expression on the right side is also 0 If n=1 then left side is 1 & right side = Hence the result is true for n=1 Induction Hypothesis: Assume that the result to be true for n=m then Adding the (m+1)th term i.e (m+1)3 to both side of the above equation There for the result is true for n=m+1. Hence the mathematical induction, the given result is true for all positive integer n. 3. Prove that a graph G is connected if and only if it has a spanning tree. Proof: Let G be a connected graph. If G has no circuit, then G is a spanning tree. If G has a circuit, then delete an edge from this circuit. If till leaves the graph connected. If there are more circuits, repeat the operation till an edge from the last circuit is deleted, leaving the graph connected, circuit less, and contains all the vertices of G. Thus the sub graph obtained is a spanning tree of G. Hence every connected graph has at least one spanning tree. 4. Prove that the relation “” is an equivalence relation Consider relation defined above is an equivalence relation on Z. Let a € Z. Reflexive: since m divides a-a=0, we have Symmetric: Let m divides a- b m divides –(a-b) m divides b-a Transitivity: Let a, b, c Z such that , , m divides a-b, and n divides b-c m divides (a-b)+(b-c) m divides a-c Hence the relation is a equivalence relation 5. Explain the concept of a Transition graph. A finite directed labeled graph in which each node or vertex of the graph represents a state and the directed edges from one node to another represent transition of a state. All the edges of the transition graph are labeled as input/output. For example, an edge labeled 1/0 specifies that for a certain initial state if the input is 1, then the output is 0.Consider the following diagram: In the transition graph as shown in the figure, The initial state, q0, of the system is represented by a circle with an arrow pointing towards it. The final state, q1, is represented by two concentric circles. The directed edges from the initial state to the final state are labeled as input/output. carries TEN Marks

Register Number : 521121052

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Step 2: If the outputs corresponding to state qi in the next state columns are same. Step 4: If the output in the constructed state table corresponding to the initial state is 1. Step 3: Rearrange the states and outputs in the format of a Moore machine. then this the Mealy and Moore machines equivalent. Else.MC0082 –Theory of Computer Science 6. Explain the steps of conversion of Mealy machine into Moore machine Conversion of Mealy machine into Moore Machine by considering the following steps: Step 1: For a state qi determine the number of different outputs that are available table of the Mealy machine. The common output of the new state table can be determined by examining the outputs under the next state columns of the original Mealy machine. to convert a given mealy machine into a Moore machine. Register Number : 521121052 Page 2 . the other row elements in this case would remain the same. we either need to ignore the output corresponding to the null string or we need to insert a new initial state at the beginning whose output is 0. then retain state qi as it is. Consider the following example. break qi into different states with the number of new states being equal to the number of different outputs of qi.

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