Towards Race Equality

:

a Liberal Democrat Approach
                            First  report  of  the  Liberal  Democrat  Task  Force  on  Race  Equality:   Race  Equality  in  Education  and  Employment  

 

             

Foreword  

 

  Equality  under  the  law  and  equal  opportunity  is  at  the  heart  of  Liberal  Democracy.  The   preamble  to  the  Liberal  Democrat  constitution  states:  “Upholding  these  values  of  individual   and  social  justice,  we  reject  all  prejudice  and  discrimination  based  upon  race,  colour,   religion,  age,  disability,  sex  or  sexual  orientation  and  oppose  all  forms  of  entrenched   privilege  and  inequality.”     This  commitment  to  equality  underpinned  the  agreement  that  set  up  the  Coalition   Government  in  2010.  As  we  said  in  that  agreement  “The  Government  believes  that  there   are  many  barriers  to  social  mobility  and  equal  opportunities  in  Britain  today,  with  too  many   children  held  back  because  of  their  social  background,  and  too  many  people  of  all  ages  held   back  because  of  their  gender,  race,  religion  or  sexuality.  We  need  concerted  government   action  to  tear  down  these  barriers  and  help  to  build  a  fairer  society.”   Our  party  has  a  proud  history  of  involvement  in  the  fight  against  racism  and,  in  earlier  years,   Apartheid.  Indeed,  some  party  members  joined  the  Liberal  Democrats  and  our  predecessor   parties  in  order  to  play  a  part  in  this  aspect  of  the  party’s  work.  The  commitment  has  been   carried  out  at  every  level  of  the  party,  locally  and  nationally.   It  is  clear,  however,  that  although  36  years  have  passed  since  the  1976  Race  Relations  Act   came  into  being  –  outlawing  racial  discrimination  in  every  public  function  and  service  and   setting  up  the  Commission  for  Racial  Equality  –  race  discrimination  remains  a  problem  in   modern  Britain.     This  report  is  absolutely  right  to  focus  on  education  and  employment.  I  want  to  thank  all   those  involved  in  drawing  up  this  report  for  their  hard  work  in  doing  so,  and  for  their   heartfelt  commitment  to  race  equality.  I  believe  that  the  Liberal  Democrats  are  the  party  of   education,  because  just  as  there  can  be  no  freedom  without  opportunity,  so  there  can  be  no   real  opportunity  without  education.       The  ideas  in  this  report  are  not  Government  policy  or  Liberal  Democrat  policy,  and  I  don’t   necessarily  agree  with  every  individual  recommendation  in  these  pages.  But  the  questions,   challenges  and  issues  that  this  report  raises  are  important  ones  for  all  Liberal  Democrats   that  share  my  goal  of  ensuring  that  we  build  a  fairer  society  in  a  stronger  economy  enabling   everybody  to  get  on  in  life.    

  Nick  Clegg  MP   Leader  of  the  Liberal  Democrats  and  Deputy  Prime  Minister  

Contents  
  Executive  Summary       Terms  of  reference       Part  one:  Race  Equality  and  Education         Early  years                                                                                                     9   9   9   12   18   21   24   26   28   31   31   33   36   37   37   39   42   42   43   46   48   51               Section  one:  Pupils,  students  and  their  families   Primary  and  secondary  education   Punishment  and  exclusions     English  as  a  second  language     Further  and  higher  education     Apprenticeships     Section  two:  the  teaching  profession   Primary  and  secondary  schools   Further  and  higher  education       Part  two:  Race  Equality  and  employment     Pay                           Occupational  segregation   Race  discrimination?     Skills  and  training                       7             4  

Gypsy,  Roma  and  Irish  Traveller  (GRT)  communities    

Access  to  capital  for  business    

Contrast  between  public  and  private  sector  progress   Equality  and  Human  Rights  Commission     Conclusion:  A  new  Liberal  Democrat  approach               Appendix:  List  of  recommendations    

Executive  summary  
  The  Task  Force  focussed  on  education  from  the  point  of  view  of  both  the  pupils  and  their   families,  and  the  teaching  staff.     The  Task  Force  acknowledged  the  importance  of  good  quality  childcare  in  aiding  a  young   child’s  emotional  and  social  development,  but  evidence  suggests  that  BAME  groups  are  less   likely  to  use  registered  childcare  services.  One  contributing  factor  is  that  46%  of  all  BAME   families  in  the  UK  live  in  London  where  childcare  costs  are  up  to  one-­‐third  higher  than   elsewhere  in  Britain  –  so  high  that  they  are  unaffordable  for  many.  The  Task  Force  endorsed   the  proposals  to  make  the  free  childcare  entitlement  more  flexible  to  improve  the  chances   of  gaining  employment  for  unemployed  parents.     While  BAME  educational  achievement  has  gradually  improved  and  for  some  ethnicities  the   achievement  gap  on  first  sight  has  disappeared,  Black  Caribbean  and  Pakistani  pupils  remain   below  average.  Gypsy,  Roma  and  Traveller  children  are  a  long  way  behind.       There  are  many  factors  at  play,  including  class  and  poverty,  and  the  Task  Force  is  concerned   about  the  incorporation  of  the  Ethnic  Minority  Achievement  Grant  into  the  Dedicated   Schools  grant  and  the  weakening  of  schools’  requirements  to  address  equality  and   community  cohesion  as  a  result  of  changing  the  Ofsted  school  inspection  criteria.  The  Task   Force  believes  that  this  is  allowing  cash-­‐strapped  schools  to  divert  the  money  for  other   purposes.  One  key  recommendation  in  this  section  was  for  the  Ethnic  Minority  Achievement   Grant  to  be  maintained  and  that  schools  should  be  made  transparently  accountable  for  their   EMAG  expenditure    in  order  to  give  schools  the  freedom  to  use  the  money  for  its  intended   purposes,  in  the  manner  the  school  determines.       The  Task  Force  endorses  calls  for  all  communities  to  feel  included  in  the  national  narrative   by  ensuring  that  the  school  curriculum  reflects  the  diversity  of  its  population,  both  to  raise   levels  of  engagement  and  attainment  of  BAME  pupils  and  to  promote  a  positive  view  of   racial  equality  and  cultural  diversity  to  all  pupils.     Parents  are  concerned  that  some  teachers  have  lower  expectations  of  BAME  pupils  and   stereotypical  assumptions  about  their  abilities.  The  Task  Force  was  extremely  concerned  at   the  high  rates  of  exclusion  of  Black  Caribbean  boys,  and  the  Dept  for  Education’s  own   statistical  evidence  showing  that  these  pupils  are  more  likely  to  be  excluded  from  schools   where  they  are  a  small  minority,  and  less  likely  when  they  are  in  greater  numbers.  The  Task   Force  noted  that  exclusion  is  used  far  more  frequently  in  Britain  than  it  is  in  mainland   Europe.     The  key  Task  Force  recommendations  here  were  that  the  Department  for  Education  should   implement  the  conclusions  of  the  Children’s  Commission’s  report  into  the  prevention  of  and   positive  alternatives  to  exclusion  from  school.    It  should  also  reinstate  the  right  of  appeals   panels  to  order  that  children  illegally  or  unjustly  excluded  from  school  have  the  right  to  be   returned  to  that  school.       4

The  Task  Force  found  that  in  order  to  address  successfully  BAME  exclusion  and  institutional   racism  it  requires  a  focus  on  cultural  diversity  and  race  equality  during  the  training  of   childcare  providers  and  teaching  staff.  It  also  recommended  that  ethnic  monitoring  was  key   to  measuring  progress  and  to  ensuring  accountability.       On  Gypsy,  Roma  and  Traveller  children  the  key  Task  Force  recommendation  was  for  a  new   creative  national  campaign  to  address  literacy  and  increase  positive  aspirations,  led  by  these   communities  with  government,  local  authority  and  school  support,  to  increase  these   communities’  participation  in  secondary  education.     The  Task  Force  also  recommended  that  key  to  delivering  successful  change  within  education   was  the  necessity  for  ethnic  monitoring  to  measure  progress  and  ensure  accountability.     Turning  to  higher  education,  the  Task  Force  found  that  while  there  has  been  a  rapid  growth   in  the  number  of  BAME  students  at  university,  they  are  concentrated  in  the  post-­‐1992   universities  and  very  few  attend  Russell  Group  universities  –  8%  of  all  Black  university   students  compared  to  24%  of  all  white  students.  This  has  a  substantial  impact  on  their   future  employment  prospects.  In  addition  students  from  some  ethnic  groups  are  far  less   likely  to  leave  university  with  a  first  or  upper  second  degree  –  in  2008/9  nearly  seven  out  of   10  white  students  achieved  this  compared  with  just  under  four  out  of  10  Black  students.     The  Task  Force  recommends  requiring  all  universities  to  be  fully  transparent  about  all  the   selection  criteria  used  to  evaluate  student  applications,  including  for  example,  which  A-­‐level   subjects  are  likely  to  count  for  or  against  a  candidate.  It  recommends  that  the  Equalities  and   Human  Rights  Commission  ensure  that  FE  and  HE  institutions  are  complying  with  race   equality  legislation  and  that  colleges  and  universities  should  adopt  a  zero  tolerance  policy   regarding  racist  behaviour,  and  increase  focus  on  social  inclusion  and  the  student   experience  both  within  and  outside  the  classroom.     On  apprenticeships,  in  2009-­‐10  just  7%  of  all  apprentices  in  England  were  from  an  ethnic   minority  compared  with  14%  of  the  total  working  age  population.  Again,  the  Task  Force   recommended  ethnic  monitoring  of  apprenticeships,  particularly  in  relation  to  application   success  rates,  and  action  be  taken  accordingly.     The  Task  Force  was  concerned  at  underrepresentation  of  BAME  teachers  and  that  their   success  in  number  and  career  progress  was  concentrated  in  schools  with  very  diverse   populations,  with  teachers  reporting  difficulty  in  securing  posts  in  less  diverse  schools.   BAME  teachers  have  reported  that  discrimination  was  a  barrier  to  career  progress.  It   recommends  targets  for  the  recruitment  of  BAME  teachers  and,  again,  equality  monitoring   undertaken  systematically  and  transparently  so  that  progress  can  be  monitored.     The  Task  Force  noted  with  concern  that  no  matter  what  progress  achieved  at  school  and   university,  the  BAME  workforce  faces  discrimination.  Two-­‐fifths  of  people  from  ethnic   minorities  live  in  income  poverty,  twice  the  rate  for  white  people,  and  nearly  all  groups  have   hourly  pay  less  than  white  British  men.  Even  those  groups  with  higher  pay  are  not  free  from   discrimination:  although  Chinese  men  are  one  of  the  highest  paid  groups,  they  are  paid  11%   less  than  would  be  expected  allowing  for  their  qualifications.     5

  Further,  there  is  occupational  segregation  with  BAME  groups  over-­‐represented  in  some   areas  and  under-­‐represented  in  others.  The  Task  Force  notes  that  the  ONS  data  showing   that  out  of  economically  active  16-­‐24  year  olds,  55.9%  of  Black  men  and  39.1%  of  Black   women  were  unemployed,  compared  with  23.9%  of  white  men  and  17.2%  of  white  women.   The  Task  Force  considers  this  to  be  a  situation  that  will  devastate  that  community  unless  it  is   addressed  with  supreme  urgency.     The  Task  Force  acknowledges  a  DWP  study  into  whether  discrimination  was  a  significant   factor  affecting  labour  market  outcomes,  which  concluded  that  ethnic  minorities  had  to   send  16  job  applications  for  one  call  to  interview  compared  to  nine  for  white  applicants.   Further,  they  found  that  4%  of  public  sector  employers  were  likely  to  have  discriminated  on   grounds  of  race  –  compared  with  35%  of  private  sector  employers.       The  Task  Force  endorsed  the  commitment  of  the  Coalition  equality  strategy  to  lift  the   barriers  faced  by  ethnic  minority  businesses  in  accessing  finance.     Acknowledging  that  progress  in  the  private  sector  lags  far  behind  that  of  the  public  sector,   the  Task  Force  recommends  that  government  uses  contract  compliance  with  private  sector   companies  to  promote  workplace  equality.  Further,  the  Task  Force  recommends  that  all   companies  and  third  sector  organisations  in  receipt  of  funding,  grants,  licences  or  other   benefits  distributed  on  behalf  of  the  public,  be  required  to  carry  out  detailed  equality   monitoring  and  send  it  to  their  funder,  regulator  or  commissioner  which  in  turn  is  required   to  publish  this  data  for  each  company  or  licence,  by  name,  annually.  The  government  should   ensure  that  quangos,  regulators  and  other  public  bodies  accept  that  equality  is  part  of  their   remit  and  that  enforcement,  on  behalf  of  the  public,  of  compliance  and  real  accountability   on  the  part  of  the  recipients  is  a  key  part  of  their  role  on  which  they  will  be  measured.     The  evidence  indicated  that  the  adoption  of  the  “holistic  approach”  to  equality  combined   with  a  move  away  from  addressing  the  particular  sets  of  issues  faced  by  each  equality  strand   has  been  at  a  cost  to  the  ethnic  minority  population  which  collectively  has  been  and   continues  to  be  the  target  of  sustained  discrimination  on  the  grounds  of  their  race.  Indeed,   Labour’s  approach  to  equality  appears  to  have  left  ethnic  minorities’  employment  situation,   particularly  in  the  private  sector,  little  better  than  it  was  when  Labour  took  office.     The  Task  Force  concluded  that  there  is  a  long  way  to  go  before  there  could  be  any   justification  for  proposals  to  weaken  the  Equality  Act  and  the  budget  of  the  EHRC.  The  Task   Force  recommends  that  Liberal  Democrats  oppose  all  proposals  that  would  weaken  the   Equality  Act,  and  that  the  party  should  demand  full  implementation  of  the  Act,  including  the   adoption  of  all  statutory  codes  of  practice,  as  envisaged  when  the  Liberal  Democrats  in   Parliament  voted  for  its  passage  into  law.     It  further  recommends  that  the  EHRC  maintains  its  current  remit  and  –  noting  also  the   concern  of  the  United  Nations  that  Britain’s  national  human  rights  institution  is  losing  its   independence  –  that  its  budget  be  maintained  at  2010  levels,  that  action  is  taken  to  ensure   its  independence  from  government,  and  that  meaningful  resources  are  allocated  to  each   equality  strand  within  the  EHRC.   6

 

Terms  of  Reference  
  The  Liberal  Democrat  Task  Force  on  Race  Equality,  set  up  by  Liberal  Democrat  leader  and   Deputy  Prime  Minister  Nick  Clegg  early  in  2012,  was  charged  with  identifying  effective   measures  to  tackle  inequality,  discrimination  and  under-­‐representation  affecting  Black  ,   Asian  and  Minority  Ethnic  (BAME)  communities  and  individuals  –  looking  for  tangible   outcomes  that  bring  fairness  and  equality  to  BAME  communities.       The  members  of  the  Task  Force  are:  Baroness  Meral  Hussein-­‐Ece  (chair),  Baroness  Floella   Benjamin,  Duwayne  Brooks,  Merlene  Emerson,  Issan  Ghazni,  Lester  Holloway,  Anuja  Prashar   and  Ruwan  Uduwerage-­‐Perera.     In  determining  the  focus  of  its  first  report,  the  Task  Force  shared  the  view  of  Liberal   Democrat  leader  and  Deputy  Prime  Minister  Nick  Clegg  that  exclusion  begins  at  the  earliest   age.  It  also  agreed  with  Equanomics  UK  that  there  can  be  no  social  inclusion  without   economic  inclusion;  no  social  integration  without  economic  integration  and  no  justice   without  economic  justice.  The  Task  Force  concluded  that  the  first  focus  of  its  work,  tying  in   with  the  social  mobility  strategy,  should  be  education  and  employment  –  two  crucial  areas   of  life  that  are  intrinsically  linked.       This  report,  therefore,  begins  with  preschool  education,  reviews  the  education  system  and   key  issues  associated  with  it,  also  studying  the  situation  facing  BAME  teachers,  and  then   moves  onto  the  career  path.     The  Task  Force  took  evidence  and  consulted  widely  both  inside  and  outside  the  party.  It  also   took  account  of  the  policy  paper  on  broader  socio-­‐economic  inequality  drawn  up  by  a   working  group  chaired  by  David  Hall-­‐Matthews  and  adopted  by  the  party’s  annual   conference  in  September  2012.       This  resulting  report  will  be  presented  to  the  Federal  Policy  Committee,  Parliamentary  Party   and  Federal  Executive.  It  is  hoped  that  a  motion  arising  from  this  report  will  be  debated  at   the  Spring  2013  Federal  Conference  and  accepted  by  conference  as  party  policy.     The  members  of  the  Task  Force  would  like  to  thank  the  following  organisations  and   individuals  for  their  time,  support  and  suggestions  throughout  this  process:     o Dr  Nicola  Rollock,  Visiting  Research  Associate  &  Associate  Editor  UK  –  Race  Ethnicity   and  Education,  Educational  Foundations  &  Policy  Studies,  Institute  of  Education,   University  of  London   o Professor  Augustine  John,  Chairman  and  Principal  Consultant,  Global  Development   Strategies  UK  Ltd,  Honorary  Fellow  and  Associate  Professor,  Institute  of  Education,   University  of  London   Director/Team  Leader,  Global  Development  Strategies  Ltd   o Jane  Lane,  Advocate  Worker  for  Racial  Equality   7

  The  Task  Force  also  wishes  to  thank  Adam  Pritchard,  Beth  Yamamoto-­‐Knight  and  Janice   Turner  for  their  assistance  with  research  and  preparation.       We  were  unable  to  incorporate  all  the  evidence  provided  to  us  in  this  paper,  but  it  all   informed  our  thinking  and  was  gratefully  received.     The  aim  of  this  paper  from  the  beginning  was  to  implement  actions  which  will  achieve  not   only  equality  of  opportunity  but  also  fairness  of  outcomes.  

o Patrice  Lawrence,  Leader  on  Equality  for  the  Early  Childhood  Unit  of  the  National   Children’s  Bureau   o Meryl  Shepherd,  Visiting  Lecturer,  Roehampton  University   o Dr  Brian  Alleyne,  Senior  Lecturer,  Goldsmiths,  University  of  London   o Barbara  Nea,  ROTA  –  Race  on  the  Agenda   o Anita  Bey,  Early  Years  Trainer  and  Former  Practitioner   o Claire  Herbert,  Senior  Policy  Adviser,  Equality  Challenge  Unit   o Karen  Chouhan,  Director,  Equanomics   o Professor  Ian  Law,  Director,  Centre  for  Ethnicity  and  Racism  Studies,  University  of   Leeds   o Gary  Loke,  Head  of  Policy,  Equality  Challenge  Unit   o Dr  John  Coxhead,  the  European  Gypsy,  Roma  and  Traveller  Research  Cluster   (EGRTRC),  University  of  Derby   o Jamie  Saddler,  Political  Adviser  and  Parliamentary  Researcher   o Vicki  Butler,  Public  Affairs  Manager,  Runnymede  Trust  

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Part  1:  Race  Equality  and  Education  
As  Professor  Gus  John1  told  the  Task  Force,  education  is  a  fundamental  human  right.  It  is  not   a  privilege  to  be  granted  on  the  basis  of  social  class,  racial  or  ethnic  origin,  wealth,  religion   and  belief,  age,  sex  or  physical  ability.  Education  is  not  just  for  acquiring  high  grade   examination  results,  equipping  people  with  skills  for  the  workplace,  or  for  positioning  the   nation  to  be  high  up  in  the  global  league  table  of  economic  competitiveness.     It  is  for  developing  in  people  the  skills  and  competences  to  take  control  of  their  own  lives   and  to  function  as  responsible  social  citizens,  demanding  and  safeguarding  their  own  rights,   having  due  regard  to  and  respect  for  the  rights  of  others,  and  embracing  their   responsibilities  to  themselves,  their  families  and  to  society.     In  state-­‐funded  primary  schools  27.6%  of  pupils  (of  compulsory  school  age  and  above)  are   classified  as  being  of  minority  ethnic  origin,  an  increase  from  26.5%  in  2011.  In  state-­‐funded   secondary  schools  23.2%  of  pupils  (of  compulsory  school  age  and  above)  are  classified  as   being  of  minority  ethnic  origin,  an  increase  from  22.2%  in  2011.       In  this  section,  the  Task  Force  looks  at  education  from  two  perspectives:  the  pupils  and   students  and  their  families,  and  the  teaching  staff.      

Section  one:     Pupils,  students  and  their  families  
Early  years    
The  first  five  years  of  a  child’s  life  are  the  foundation  that  shapes  their  future,  including  their   learning  achievement  at  school  and  beyond.  Liberal  Democrats  acknowledge  the   importance  of  good  quality  childcare  in  aiding  a  young  child’s  emotional  and  social   development.  By  ensuring  high  quality  early  years  education  for  our  children,  we  are  setting   them  up  to  manage  the  transition  to  school  and  to  make  better  progress  at  primary  school   than  would  otherwise  have  been  the  case.       The  period  of  early  years  education  provides  an  invaluable  opportunity  for  education   professionals  to  observe  the  lines  along  which  friendship  groups  are  drawn  and  to   encourage  better  integration  amongst  young  children  of  different  ethnic  backgrounds.  The   Day  Care  Trust  states  that  for  children  from  non-­‐English  speaking  families  it  also  offers  a   chance  to  learn  English.  Pupils  at  risk  of  under  achievement,  including  refugee  and  asylum  
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Professor  Augustine  John,  Chairman  and  Principal  Consultant,  Global  Development  Strategies  UK  Ltd,   Honorary  Fellow  and  Associate  Professor,  Institute  of  Education,  University  of  London  

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seeker  pupils,  can  benefit  most  from  access  to  childcare  and  support  during  the  early  years   of  a  child’s  life.2       The  Early  Years  Foundation  Stage  profile  looks  at  the  percentage  of  children  in  England  who   are  reaching  a  good  level  of  development  at  the  age  of  five.  It  covers  children’s  physical,   intellectual,  emotional  and  social  development.  The  proportion  achieving  a  good  level  of   development  on  this  measure  varies  between  different  ethnic  groups:  Irish,  Indian,  White   British  and  mixed  white/Asian  pupils  were  above  the  national  average  compared  with  all   pupils,  while  those  from  Black  and  Pakistani  ethnic  groups  did  not  perform  so  well.  Pupils   eligible  for  free  school  meals  –  used  as  a  rough  measure  of  parental  low  income  and  social   class  –  did  not  perform  as  well  as  those  who  were  ineligible  (35%  to  55%).     The  Task  Force  believes  that  access  to  high  quality  childcare  is  a  key  issue.  BAME  groups  are   less  likely  to  use  registered  childcare  services.3  While  it  must  be  acknowledged  that  some   women  actively  choose  not  to  work  when  their  children  are  very  young,  the  cost  of   childcare  is  nevertheless  a  major  factor:  46%  of  all  BAME  families  in  the  UK  live  in  London,   where  childcare  costs  are  up  to  a  third  higher  than  elsewhere  in  Britain,  so  high  that  they   are  unaffordable  for  many  parents.4       The  Task  Force  heard  evidence  that  the  Sure  Start  programme  had  had  a  positive  impact  in   deprived  communities.  It  had  been  set  up  to  deliver  better  childcare,  early  education,  health   and  family  support  in  those  areas  that  most  needed  it.  There  was  an  emphasis  on  outreach   and  community  development.  The  Sure  Start  children’s  centres  were  set  up  in  these   communities  and  open  to  all  families  living  in  these  areas,  and  there  are  now  more  than   3,000  in  existence.     The  Task  Force  was  concerned  that  funding  cuts  are  reducing  the  effectiveness  of  these   centres:  some  are  merging  to  save  money  and  services  are  being  reduced.  Staffing  cuts   appear  to  be  reducing  the  effectiveness  of  some  centres  in  reaching  the  families  they  were   set  up  to  assist.  The  Task  Force  heard  anecdotal  evidence  that  in  some  inner  city  areas   middle  class  parents  and  even  nannies  were  taking  children  to  these  centres,  while  fewer   working  class  children  were  participating.       Children’s  Trusts  are  another  positive  development  –  local  partnerships  bringing  together   the  organisations  responsible  for  services  for  children,  young  people  and  families  in  a  shared   commitment  to  improving  children’s  lives.  The  Trusts  develop  a  strategy  most  appropriate   to  local  circumstances  and  can  focus  on  particular  issues.       Surveys  of  BAME  parents  into  their  experiences  of  childcare  have  indicated  that  they  have   had  negative  experiences  with  childcare  providers  and  been  left  with  a  perception  that  they   were  not  welcome5.  The  Task  Force  heard  evidence  indicating  that  it  is  extremely  important   to  raise  the  standards  and  qualifications  of  those  working  in  the  early  years  workforce.  Early  
2

http://www.daycaretrust.org.uk/data/files/Projects/London_project/BAME_briefing_formatted_14910.pdf  The  Experience  of  Black  and  Minority  Ethnic  Communities  with  HMRC  Services.  A  Study  Conducted  for  HM   Revenue  &  Customs  Ipsos  MORI,  2010.  p.10  http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/research/report116.pdf     4 http://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Tackling%20childcare%20affordability%20-­‐22%202%20MW.pdf     5 http://www.daycaretrust.org.uk/data/files/Projects/London_project/BAME_briefing_formatted_14910.pdf
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Years  Trainer  Anita  Bey  stated  that  hardly  any  work  was  done  to  prepare  people  for  the   international  world  we  are  living  in,  and  that  equalities  training  had  entirely  fallen  off  the   agenda.  Patrice  Lawrence,  Leader  on  Equality  for  the  Early  Childhood  Unit  of  the  National   Children’s  Bureau,  voiced  support  for  the  Black  Voices  Network  whilst  encouraging  people   to  create  focus  groups  so  experiences  regarding  issues  could  be  voiced.  Meryl  Shepherd,   Visiting  Lecturer,  Roehampton  University,  felt  that  training  in  equality  needed  to  be   implemented  across  all  fields  and  not  just  in  the  school  curriculum.  There  have  been   improvements:  early  years  training  has  been  given  professional  status  which  has  allowed   early  years  staff  to  obtain  better  qualifications,  but  there  needs  to  be  more  training  and   teaching  promoting  skills  and  integration  skills.  Jane  Lane,  Advocate  Worker  for  Racial   Equality,  pointed  to  the  work  of  Lambeth  Council  in  creating  groups  integrating  those  with   qualifications  with  those  who  have  experience  but  not  the  qualifications.  She  emphasised   that  ethnic  monitoring  is  imperative  to  gauge  the  success  over  time  of  any  changes  and  to   do  this  suggested  working  with  carers  and  parents.  There  was  a  strong  view  that  working   groups  at  government  and  council  level  should  be  representative  of  those  they  are  trying  to   assist.       Increasing  a  family’s  income  through  employment  helps  to  reduce  child  poverty:  children   living  in  poverty  are  more  likely  to  be  in  poor  health,  struggle  at  school  and  live  in  poverty  as   adults.       It  is  therefore  important  that  those  BAME  families  that  live  in  inner  cities  on  low  to  middle   incomes  are  provided  the  advice  and  the  support  necessary  to  ensure  that  they  have  access   to  childcare  and  early  years  education  and  that  childcare  provision  is  accessible  in  these   localities.  In  particular  the  Task  Force  welcomes  the  recent  announcement  by  Nick  Clegg  of   changes  to  the  free  entitlement  to  childcare,  particularly  that  the  entitlement  can  be  taken   over  a  minimum  of  two  days  per  week  rather  than  three,  as  this  could  offer  a  better  solution   for  working  parents  and  those  prevented  from  working  by  current  childcare  hours.  The  Task   Force  also  welcomes  Nick  Clegg’s  announcement  of  £100m  to  support  the  extension  of  free   childcare  to  130,000  of  the  most  disadvantaged  two-­‐year-­‐olds  from  September  2013,  rising   to  around  £260,000  (about  40%  of  two-­‐year-­‐olds)  in  September  2014.     Recommendation  1     Noting  that  the  first  five  years  of  a  child's  life  shapes  his  or  her  future,  it  is  essential  to  ensure   adequate  provision  of  affordable  and  accessible  childcare  including  through:   Further  training  for  those  wishing  to  enter  the  Early  Years  Workforce,  this  training  should   include  a  clear  focus  on  cultural  diversity  and  race  equality  and  on  the  need  to  ensure  that   the  more  disadvantaged  communities  have  equal  access.   Supporting  changes  to  the  free  childcare  entitlement  to  create  a  more  flexible  offer  that  in   turn  could  improve  the  chances  of  BAME  parents  of  obtaining  employment.    

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Primary  and  secondary  education  
In  state-­‐funded  primary  schools  27.6%  of  pupils  (of  compulsory  school  age)  were  classified   as  being  of  minority  ethnic  origin,  an  increase  from  26.5%  in  2011.  In  state-­‐funded   secondary  schools  23.2%  of  pupils  (of  compulsory  school  age  and  above)  were  classified  as   being  of  minority  ethnic  origin,  an  increase  from  22.2%  in  20116.  There  has  been  substantial   progress  over  the  last  10  years  towards  closing  the  achievement  gap  and  achievement  gaps   for  some  ethnic  minorities  have  disappeared.  However,  there  are  differences  in   achievement  levels  for  different  ethnic  groups.  Those  that  tended  to  do  well  and  perform   above  the  national  average  include  those  from  mixed  white  and  Asian,  Indian,  Irish  and   white  British  backgrounds.  Pupils  from  Black  or  Pakistani  ethnic  groups  performed  badly  in   comparison.  Girls  significantly  outperformed  boys  for  all  ethnic  groups.  7     The  national  level,  and  the  percentage  of  white  British  pupils  achieving  5  A*-­‐C  grades   including  maths  and  English,  is  58%.  This  compares  to  around  45%  in  2006/07.  Chinese   students  are  the  highest  attaining  group,  with  78.5%  achieving  5  A*-­‐C  grades  including   maths  and  English.  This  compares  to  70%  in  2006/07.     Indian  students  are  the  second  highest  attaining  group,  with  74.4%  achieving  5  A*-­‐C  grades   including  maths  and  English.  This  compares  to  around  62%  in  2006/07.  Bangladeshi  pupils   now  have  a  slightly  higher  attainment  rate  than  white  pupils,  with  59.7%  5  A*-­‐C  grades   including  maths  and  English.  This  is  a  massive  improvement  given  that  only  around  40%   achieved  this  2006/07,  which  was  5%  less  than  white  pupils  and  the  national  level.     There  has  also  been  an  improvement  for  Black  African  pupils,  with  57.9%  achieving  5  A*-­‐C   grades  including  maths  and  English,  compared  to  just  over  40%  achieving  this  in  2006/07.  A   similar  level  of  improvement  can  be  seen  for  mixed  white  and  Black  African  pupils.     However,  Pakistani  and  Black  Caribbean  young  people  still  have  lower  attainment  levels   compared  to  the  national  level,  with  52.6%  and  48.6%  respectively  achieving  5  A*-­‐C  grades   including  maths  and  English.  This  has,  however,  improved  from  around  35%  for  Pakistani   and  34%  for  Black  Caribbean  pupils  in  2006/07.       Travellers,  Gypsies  and  Roma  are  still  the  lowest  achieving  groups,  with  17.5%  of  Irish   Travellers  and  10.8%  of  those  from  Gypsy  or  Roma  backgrounds  achieving  5  A*-­‐C  grades   including  Maths  and  English.  This  has  improved  from  2006/07  when  only  5%  of  these  groups   combined  achieved  the  required  grades.8     English  Baccalaureate  attainment   Inequalities  are  more  pronounced  when  looking  at  those  who  achieved  the  English   Baccalaureate  measure  of  attainment.  This  requires  5  A*  -­‐  C  grades  in  GCSE  maths;  English;   two  science  subjects;  a  foreign  language;  and  either  history  or  geography.  The  2010/11  data   is  as  follows:     34.6%  of  Chinese  students  and  25.8%  of  Indian  students  achieve  the  English  Baccalaureate  
6 7

 http://www.education.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s001057/index.shtml    http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/triennial_review/how_fair_is_britain_ch10.pdf 8  http://www.education.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s001057/index.shtml  

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15.4%  of  White  students  achieve  the  measurement   11.2%  of  Black  African  and  11.1%  of  Pakistani  pupils  achieve  the  English  Baccalaureate     The  rate  is  9.9%  for  Bangladeshi  pupils  and  7.6%  for  Black  Caribbean  pupils   Traveller  and  Roma/Gypsy  pupils  have  the  lowest  attainment,  with  2.2%  and  0.5%   respectively  achieving  the  measurement.9     Data  from  the  Equality  and  Human  Rights  Commission  found  that  “Achievement  is  higher   for  those  pupils  whose  first  language  is  English  when  compared  to  pupils  who  have  English   as  an  additional  language.  54%  of  pupils  whose  first  language  is  English  achieve  a  good  level   of  development  compared  to  42%  of  pupils  for  whom  English  is  an  additional  language.”10       Poverty   The  EHRC  also  reports  that  the  gap  between  students  from  different  socio-­‐economic   backgrounds  remains  wide,  with  students  eligible  for  free  school  meals  only  half  as  likely  to   have  good  GCSE  results  as  those  who  are  not.  The  combination  of  being  eligible  for  free   school  meals  and  being  part  of  another  group  with  a  lower  probability  of  obtaining  good   qualifications  leads  to  extremely  low  results.  The  Task  Force  welcomes  Nick  Clegg’s   establishment  of  a  Child  Poverty  and  Social  Mobility  Commission.     The  Task  Force  also  recognises  that  the  Coalition’s  flagship  policy,  the  Pupil  Premium,  which   brings  a  school  a  specific  additional  amount  of  annual  funding  per  child  on  FSM,  is  a  crucial   intervention  given  the  link  between  class  and  the  lower  achievement  of  some  ethnic  groups.   The  2012-­‐13  allocation  per  child  is  £600.  Schools  are  free  to  use  this  money  as  they  see  fit.       The  Task  Force  notes  that  Ofsted11  has  criticised  some  schools  for  failing  to  disaggregate  the   Pupil  Premium  from  their  main  budget:  in  some  schools  it  was  clear  to  inspectors  that  the   spending  was  not  all  focussed  on  the  needs  of  the  specific  groups  for  whom  it  was  intended.   The  Head  of  Ofsted,  Sir  Michael  Wilshaw,  has  said  it  was  a  real  worry  if  cash  was  being   diverted  to  ‘tarmacking  playgrounds’.  A  further  Ofsted  report  published  in  February  201312   was  more  upbeat.  While  the  same  criticism  was  made  of  school  that  were  less  successful  in   spending  the  funding,  the  report  also  highlighted  many  examples  of  where  well-­‐thought-­‐out   targetted  approaches  were  making  a  difference.  Ofsted  stated  that  many  of  the  success   stories  were  concentrating  on  the  core  areas  of  literacy  and  numeracy  to  break  down  the   main  barriers  to  accessing  the  full  curriculum.       This  situation  has  been  made  more  difficult  by  ending  the  ringfencing  of  the  Ethnic  Minority   Achievement  Grant  (EMAG),  the  origins  of  which  date  back  to  1966,  and  which  has  provided   an  important  incentive  for  schools  to  buy  back  resource-­‐intensive  Ethnic  Minority   Achievement  and  English  as  an  Additional  Language  services  from  local  authorities.  Local   authorities  have  taken  a  leading  role  in  the  provision  of  these  services.    
9

 http://www.education.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s001057/sfr03-­‐2012.xls    http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/triennial_review/how_fair_is_britain_ch10.pdf   11  http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/pupil-­‐premium   12 http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/pupil-premium-how-schools-are-spending-funding-successfullymaximise-achievement
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The  decision  by  the  Dept  for  Education  to  incorporate  the  EMAG  funding,  from  2011/12,   into  the  Dedicated  Schools  Grant  has  given  schools  complete  freedom  to  decide  the  use  of   this  money  and  ended  the  requirement  on  schools  to  ensure  that  the  funding  is  in  fact  used   for  supporting  the  needs  of  BAME  pupils  or  those  for  whom  English  is  a  second  language.       This  new  method  of  disbursement  –  direct  to  each  school  instead  of  via  the  local  authority  –   has  also  in  practice  resulted  in  less  local  coordination  of  action  under  the  EMAG.  For   example,  one  school  could  have  a  substantial  number  of  non-­‐English  speaking  pupils   speaking  the  same  foreign  language,  and  a  school  nearby  might  have  just  one  or  two  such   pupils.  Under  the  previous  system  the  local  authority  could  employ  teachers  which  both   schools  could  hire  in  to  supply  appropriate  amounts  of  tuition.  Under  the  current  system,   the  first  school  may  have  enough  EMAG  funding  to  support  a  teacher  to  address  the  pupils'   needs,  but  the  second  school  would  be  unable  to  do  this.       The  Task  Force  was  concerned  at  reports  from  the  organisation  Show  Racism  the  Red  Card,   the  UK’s  anti-­‐racism  educational  charity,  that  these  local  authority  support  structures  for   teachers  and  schools  in  promoting  equality  and  tackling  racism  have  been  abolished  or  are   rapidly  being  dismantled.  SRRC  reported  that  local  authorities’  Ethnic  Minority  Achievement   Service  teams,  able  to  provide  expert  advice  and  resources  for  schools,  are  now  rapidly   disappearing  partly  due  to  local  authority  cuts  but  also  due  to  the  changes  regarding  the   EMA  grant.  Further,  as  the  Task  Force  was  preparing  this  report,  it  noted  that  a  consultation   on  the  future  of  the  EMAG  itself13  had  not  yet  presented  its  conclusions.       Another  factor  is  the  change  in  Ofsted's  school  inspection  criteria  which  has  weakened  the   requirements  to  address  race  equality.  Under  the  arrangements  from  2009  school   inspectors  had  to  give  particular  priority  to    "assessing  how  well  schools  promote  equality  of   opportunity,  and  how  effectively  they  tackle  discrimination".14  Inspectors  were  to  make   eight  main  judgements  relating  to  the  effectiveness  of  the  leadership  and  management  of   the  school,  and  the  framework  stated:  "Where  a  school  is  judged  to  be  inadequate  in   relation  to  the  quality  of  the  school’s  procedures  for  safeguarding  and/or  the  extent  to   which  the  school  promotes  equality  and  tackles  discrimination,  inspectors  treat  these  as   ‘limiting’  judgements  and  the  school’s  overall  effectiveness  is  also  likely  to  be  judged   inadequate."   Another  of  the  eight  judgements  was  the  effectiveness  with  which  the  school  promotes   community  cohesion.     This  changed  with  the  new  framework  from  September  2012.    There  is  no  longer  any   priority  given  to  assessing  how  well  schools  promote  equality  of  opportunity.    Inadequacy  in   promoting  equality  is  no  longer  a  limiting  judgement  –  it  would  no  longer  result  in  the  likely   judgement  of  a  school  as  inadequate  –  and  there  is  no  longer  a  judgement  on  the   effectiveness  of  the  school's  promotion  of  community  cohesion.15  
13

http://www.cambridgeassessment.org.uk/ca/digitalAssets/200053_brief_summary_of_Government_policy_i n_relation_to_EAL_Learners.pdf 14 The Framework for School Inspection in England under Section 5 of the Education Act 2005, from September 2009, Ofsted 15 The Framework for Inspecting Schools in England under Section 5 of the Education Act 2005 (as amended) Dec 2012, Ofsted

14

This  means  that  in  practice  a  school  could  be  judged  good  or  outstanding,  with  greater   numbers  of  pupils  achieving  five  good  GCSEs,  even  if  its  black  pupils  were  falling  further   behind.         The  Task  Force  is  concerned  that  all  these  changes,  at  a  time  of  severe  pressure  on  funding,   will  undermine  the  progress  on  closing  the  achievement  gap.       The  Task  Force  noted  that,  due  to  the  efforts  of  Liberal  Democrat  peers  during  the  passage   of  the  Education  Bill,  there  remains  a  duty  on  schools  to  cooperate  with  their  local  authority   and  act  in  accordance  with  the  Local  Children  and  Young  People's  plan  drawn  up  by  the  local   authority.       Recommendation  2:   The  Task  Force  recommends  that  Ofsted  continue  to  monitor  expenditure  of  the  Pupil   Premium  to  ensure  that  it  is  used  for  the  purposes  for  which  it  was  intended  and  that  all   schools  are  properly  and  transparently  accountable  for  its  use.     The  Task  Force  further  recommends  that  in  order  to  prevent  a  reverse  of  the  progress  made   in  recent  years  towards  closing  the  ethnic  minority  achievement  gap,  the  Ethnic  Minority   Achievement  Grant  is  maintained,  that  schools  are  held  transparently  accountable  for  its   expenditure  and  that  the  Ofsted  inspection  framework  be  revised  to  reinstate  the   requirement  to  judge  schools  on  their  promotion  of  equality  of  opportunity  and  community   cohesion.   The  Task  Force  believes  that  local  coordination  of  action  is  essential  and  in  the  best  interests   of  children  in  local  communities  with  regard  to  the  use  of  the  Ethnic  Minority  Achievement   Grant.  It  therefore  recommends  that  if  this  inter-­‐school  coordination  is  lacking  then  local   authorities  utilise  their  powers  under  the  Local  Children  and  Young  People's  plan  to  ensure   that  proper  coordination  takes  place.         Other  issues   We  all  want  the  best  for  our  children,  and  want  to  make  sure  their  education  experience  is   as  enjoyable  as  possible  while  ensuring  they  are  able  to  reach  their  full  potential.  Evidence   shared  with  the  Task  Force  suggests  that  BAME  parents  have  several  concerns  regarding  the   mainstream  education  experience  of  their  children.     Research  by  Ian  Law  and  Sarah  Swann16  states:  “The  UK  experience  shows  that  despite   significant  achievements  in  developing  integrated,  non-­‐discriminatory  educational  systems   persistent  patterns  of  hostility,  segregation  and  inequality  remain.”  This  research  also   challenges  any  connection  between  ethnicity  and  low  educational  aspirations,  apart  from   the  case  of  Gypsies,  Roma  and  Travellers  where  high  dropout  and  high  levels  of  disaffection   with  school  are  particularly  marked.        
16

 Law,  Ian  and  Swann,  Sarah  Ethnicity  and  Education  in  England  and  Europe,  gangstas,  geeks  and  gorjas,   Ashgate  2011  

15

Inclusion  of  all  communities  in  the  curriculum   The  Task  Force  discussed  the  role  of  the  curriculum  in  ensuring  that  children  from  all   communities  feel  a  part  of  the  national  narrative.  The  Dept  for  Education  itself  has   published  a  report  on  good  practice  which  underlines  the  effectiveness  of  such  teaching,   and  the  Black  Manifesto  2010  also  calls  for  the  school  curriculum  to  reflect  the  diversity  of   the  school  population,  both  to  raise  the  levels  of  engagement  and  attainment  of  minority   ethnic  pupils  and  to  promote  a  positive  view  of  racial  equality  and  cultural  diversity  to  all  its   pupils.       Recommendation  3   In  line  with  the  policy  outlined  in  “Black  Manifesto  2010”,  the  school  curriculum  should   properly  reflect  the  ethnic  diversity  of  the  country.  In  order  to  promote  understanding,  an   impartial  teaching  of  the  history  of  cultural  diversity  in  the  UK  as  well  as  Britain’s  historical   global  role  should  be  taught.     Stereotyping   A  study  by  the  Institute  of  Education  at  the  University  of  London  found  that  one  of  the   major  concerns  for  middle  class  Black  parents  was  that  teachers  generally  had  a   predetermined  view  of  the  kind  of  pupils  who  were  capable  of  academic  success.  The  study   suggested  that  some  teachers  had  lower  expectations  of  BAME  students.  The  identified  that   there  were  signifiers  that  teachers  used  to  ascertain  whether  a  pupil  would  succeed   academically;  some  of  these  signifiers  are  contained  in  the  table  below:     More  likely  to  succeed   Less  likely  to  succeed  17   Girls   Boys   Conforming  to  Uniform  Standards   Adapting  Uniform   Doesn’t  partake  in  ‘Black’  Culture   Partakes  in  ‘Black’  Culture   Middle  Class   Working  Class   Two  Parent  Home   Single  Parent  Home     The  report  by  the  Institute  for  Education  found  that  52-­‐53%  of  newly  qualified  teachers   (NQTs)  did  not  feel  qualified  to  teach  BAME  pupils.  Members  of  the  Task  Force  echoed   these  sentiments  and  confirmed  that  they  themselves  had  also  been  subjected  to  low   expectations  from  their  teachers.     Studies  have  shown  that  preconceived  notions  of  how  different  ethnic  groups  and  genders   are  likely  to  perform  can  influence  marking:  when  Leeds  University  introduced  name-­‐blind   marking  the  scores  of  Black  students  and  women  increased  by  12%.  This  level  of  difference   affects  whole  careers.     The  Runnymede  Trust  states  that  there  is  a  range  of  evidence  suggesting  that  school   decision  making  and  selection  processes  about  access  to  course  and  qualification  routes  in   schools  work  against  the  interests  of  Black  students.  “For  example,  evidence  suggests  that   Black  pupils  are  more  likely  to  be  entered  for  lower  tier  exams,  meaning  that  these  students  
17

 Rollock,  N.  (2007)  Legitimising  Black  academic  failure:  deconstructing  staff  discourses  on  academic  success,   appearance  and  behaviour.  International  Studies  in  Sociology  of  Education,  17:3,  275-­‐287  

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are  only  able  to  able  to  achieve  a  maximum  grade  of  a  C  or  D,  and  other  evidence  has  found   that  Black  Caribbean  and  African  students  are  less  likely  to  be  indentified  for  gifted  and   talented  programmes”.     Evidence  also  suggests  that  Chinese  and  Indian  students  are  more  likely  to  be  entered  into   higher  sets.  Setting  can  be  problematic  given  that  a  pupil's  set  is  decided  at  a  young  age,  and   evidence  suggests  that  teacher  assumptions  that  Black  students  will  achieve  poorly  and   Chinese/Indian  students  highly  may  result  in  children  being  put  in  an  inappropriate  set,  and   thus  effectively  pre-­‐determine  how  high  a  grade  it  is  possible  for  them  to  achieve.       There  is  also  a  phenomenon  in  inner  cities  for  some  schools  to  have  a  far  higher  proportion   of  BAME  pupils  than  would  be  expected  from  the  diversity  of  the  catchment  area  –  the  Task   Force  heard  of  a  school  with  90%  BAME  pupils  in  an  area  where  the  BAME  community  was   30%  –  due  to  white  parents  sending  their  children  elsewhere.     It  is  clear  that  there  is  a  long  way  to  go  before  race  equality  in  schools  is  no  longer  a   problem.  It  is  therefore  a  mistake  for  the  government  to  have  decided  not  to  proceed  with   the  statutory  code  of  practice  on  the  Public  Sector  Equality  Duty  and  statutory  codes  of   practice  for  schools  and  the  further  and  higher  education  sector,  and  instead  have  the   Equality  and  Human  Rights  Commission  issue  non-­‐statutory  guidance  which  in  practice  can   be  widely  ignored.  The  Task  Force  agrees  with  the  EHRC  that  rather  than  creating  a   regulatory  burden,  statutory  codes  have  a  valuable  role  to  play  in  making  clearer  to   everyone  what  is  and  is  not  needed  in  order  to  comply  with  the  Equality  Act.       Recommendation  4   That  teacher  training  should  be  improved  in  order  to  equip  teachers  to  deal  with  issues  of   race  and  help  them  recognise  their  own  potential  unconscious  biases.     Failure  to  address  issues  of  race   The  Task  Force  regrets  that  up  to  this  point,  the  opportunity  has  not  been  grasped  to   address  issues  surrounding  race  as  a  fundamental  component  of  teacher  training  and  that   many  NQTs  are  under-­‐prepared  to  deal  with  issues  involving  race.     One  case  highlighted  by  the  IoE  report  gives  the  example  of  a  mother  whose  son  was  victim   to  overt  racism  by  his  peers  at  a  private  school.  The  school  was  unresponsive  to  the   situation  and  fearing  for  the  child’s  wellbeing,  his  mother  took  him  out  of  the  school.  The   report  explains  that  the  school’s  senior  management  refused  to  give  the  mother’s   complaints  any  legitimacy,  only  becoming  more  entrenched  in  their  position  when  she   explicitly  named  racism  as  the  cause  of  her  son’s  problems.                     17

 

Punishment  and  exclusions  
A  report  by  the  Centre  for  Social  Justice  states  that  in  2009/2010  there  were  an  estimated   5,740  permanent  exclusions,  and  331,380  fixed-­‐term  exclusions,  amongst  a  pupil  population   of  approximately  8-­‐million.18       The  Runnymede  Trust  states  that  in  2007-­‐8  the  8,130  permanent  exclusions  represented   approximately  0.11%  of  all  pupils  while  5.14%  of  the  school  population  experienced   temporary  or  fixed  term  exclusions  during  the  same  period.  While  white  boys  represented   0.18%  of  the  permanently  excluded  pupils,  Black  Caribbean  boys  represented  0.53%.     According  to  the  EHRC,  the  lowest  permanent  exclusion  rates  were  among  the  South  Asian   community,  with  five  out  of  every  10,000  pupils  being  excluded,  followed  by  children  with   one  white  and  one  Asian  parent.  “The  highest  rates  of  permanent  exclusions  among  ethnic   minority  groups  were  found  among  Black  Caribbean  pupils  (30  per  10,000  pupils),  pupils   from  Irish  Traveller  backgrounds  (30  per  10,000  pupils)  and  Gypsy/Roma  pupils  (who  had   the  highest  rate  at  38  per  10,000  pupils).  Taken  together  these  rates  are  between  three  and   four  times  the  overall  exclusion  rate,  although  caution  is  needed  in  using  these  estimates   due  to  the  possible  under  recording  of  pupils  from  the  Gypsy/Roma  and  Irish  Traveller   groups,  and  the  small  population  sizes.”19     The  rate  at  which  Black  Caribbean  pupils  are  excluded  from  school  has  declined  over  the   past  few  years.  However,  the  latest  figures  suggest  that  Black  Caribbean  pupils  are  still  three   times  more  likely  to  be  excluded  from  school  than  all  pupils  nationally.       The  Children’s  Commissioner  for  England’s  inquiry  into  school  exclusions  requested  that  the   Dept  for  Education  undertake  an  analysis  of  the  correlation  between  the  proportion  of  a   school’s  population  who  come  from  those  ethnic  groups  which  have  above-­‐average   exclusion  rates  in  the  national  statistics,  and  the  likelihood  of  those  children  to  be  excluded.   The  report,  published  in  March  2012,  found:  “Children  from  the  relevant  ethnic  groups  were   much  more  likely  to  be  excluded  when  they  were  in  a  small  minority  in  a  school  than  when   they  were  with  larger  numbers  of  children  from  the  same  ethnic  group  as  themselves.”20     If  there  was  an  inherent  issue  with  the  behaviour  of  Black  Caribbean  pupils,  then  the  more   such  pupils  there  are  in  a  school  the  more  exclusions  there  would  be.  The  statistical   evidence  from  the  Dept  for  Education  shows  that  the  opposite  is  the  case.  The  Inquiry  heard   evidence  to  suggest  that  this  related  to  the  reluctance  to  directly  address  issues  of  race  in   the  education  system,  with  either  pupils  or  professionals.     The  effect  on  the  lives  of  those  excluded  is  profound.  With  only  15%  of  permanently   excluded  young  people  reintegrated  into  mainstream  school,  exclusion  has  an  enormous   impact  on  the  possibility  of  a  student’s  successful  transition  into  adulthood  and  
18 19

http://www.centreforsocialjustice.org.uk/client/downloads/CSJ_Educational_Exclusion_WEB_12.09.11.pdf    http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/triennial_review/how_fair_is_britain_ch10.pdf   20  They  never  give  up  on  you  -­‐  Office  of  the  Children’s  Commissioner  School  Exclusions  Inquiry   http://www.childrenscommissioner.gov.uk/content/publications/content_561  

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employment.21  Being  excluded  from  school  has  a  massive  impact  on  a  pupil’s  attainment   levels.  For  example,  research  by  David  Gillborn  and  David  Drew  found  that  excluded  pupils   are  four  times  more  likely  to  finish  their  education  without  having  gained  academic   qualifications.  Subsequent  access  to  higher  education  and  employment  is  therefore  limited.   Furthermore,  if  a  child  has  lower  academic  achievement  they  are  more  likely  to  become   involved  in  criminal  activity.       A  problem  exists  within  the  education  system  where,  too  often,  punishment  and  expulsion   are  seen  as  the  only  course  of  action.  The  Centre  for  Social  Justice  states  that  the  use  of   referrals,  part-­‐time  time  tables,  managed  moves  and  dual  registration  should  all  be  taken   into  account  when  estimating  the  exclusion  rate  as  these  are  not  counted  in  official  figures,   however  they  can  be  used  as  a  proto-­‐exclusionary  tactic.     The  Children’s  Commissioner’s  report  also  states  that  while  exclusion  is  a  sanction  used  in   England,  it  is  not  used  much  in  mainland  Europe.  The  inquiry  found  evidence  of  illegal   activity  by  some  schools  in  their  use  of  unofficial  exclusion,  and  heard  accusations  that   academies  are  attempting  to  avoid  scrutiny  of  their  exclusions  by  external  independent   appeal  panels,  and  refusing  to  hear  appeals  from  parents.  The  inquiry  also  set  out   alternatives  to  exclusion  currently  in  use  in  schools  which  included  implementing  the   ‘restorative  justice’  approach,  dealing  with  underlying  behavioural  issues  rather  than  simply   ‘parking’  them,  ensuring  curriculum  continuity  and  allowing  students  to  be  more  easily   reintegrated  into  the  mainstream  when  their  issues  have  been  addressed.  Belinda  Hopkins,   the  Director  of  Transforming  Conflict,  also  made  the  Task  Force  aware  of  the  work  of  the   Pan-­‐London  Back  On  Track  Project  and  its  successful  pilot  of  restorative  approaches  in  Pupil   Referral  Units.     The  evidence  presented  to  the  Task  Force  showed  strong  opinions  on  the  rights  given  to   children  who  has  been  unjustly  or  illegally  excluded  from  school.  The  Task  Force  heard  a   number  of  examples  of  children  who  had  essentially  been  illegally  excluded  and  had  no  right   to  appeal  or  to  challenge  this  decision.  The  Task  Force  felt  that  it  is  entirely  against  natural   justice  for  Independent  Appeals  Panels  to  be  debarred  from  returning  to  a  school  a  child   who  is  found  to  have  been  unjustly  or  illegally  excluded  by  that  school.       While  in-­‐school  centres  are  better  than  sending  children  to  Pupil  Referral  Units  elsewhere,   there  remains  a  concern  that  ethnic  minority  pupils  could  be  disproportionately  referred  to   these  centres  just  as  they  already  are  to  the  units.       Recommendation  5   Noting  that  exclusion  of  pupils  from  school  is  used  far  more  widely  in  England  than  it  is  in   mainland  Europe,  the  Task  Force  recommends  that  the  Department  for  Education  implement   the  Children’s  Commissioner’s  report  into  the  prevention  of  and  positive  alternatives  to   exclusion.  It  should  also  develop  guidance  on  this.     The  Task  Force  further  recommends  that  the  Education  Act  should  be  amended  to  reinstate   the  right  of  appeals  panels,  when  they  find  that  a  school  has  unjustly  or  illegally  excluded  a  
21

Joseph  Rowntree  Foundation.  School  exclusion  and  transition  into  adulthood  in  African-­‐Caribbean   communities.  http://www.irr.org.uk/pdf/JRF_exclusions.pdf  

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child,  to  have  the  power  to  order  the  child’s  return  to  the  school  from  which  they  were   excluded.     The  Task  Force  also  recommends  the  introduction  of  a  Schools  Ombudsman  to  deal  with   issues  of  discipline  and  to  enforce  a  proportional  response  by  schools  when  dealing  with  all   pupils  including  those  from  BAME  backgrounds.  This  could  be  accompanied  by  more   advocates  for  children  in  general.  Expelled  students  should  also  be  afforded  access  to  a   trained  advocate  to  ensure  that  they  are  properly  represented.     Peer  group  pressure   A  study  into  ethnicity  and  education  in  England  and  Europe  stated  that  more  than  70%  of   pupils  from  all  ethnic  groups  strongly  recognise  that  education  is  a  key  means  of  improving   life-­‐chances  and  despite  widely  varying  home  backgrounds  and  school  experiences   aspirations  were  high.  However  over  a  quarter  of  pupils  did  not  take  this  view  and  this   educational  disaffection  across  all  groups  needs  addressing.22     There  is  pressure  within  certain  peer  groups  for  young  people  to  shun  the  “overt  prestige”   of  academic  achievement  and  the  plaudits  that  come  with  it  and  to  instead  seek  “covert   prestige”  by  distancing  themselves  from  academic  achievement  and  those  that  seek  it,  in   favour  of  being  seen  to  be  “cool”  instead  of  a  “geek”.23     Currently  it  seems  that  in  some  cases  peer  groups  are  having  more  of  an  influence  than   teachers  on  the  attitude  of  children  to  school:  “…boys  are  often  balancing  the  desire  to  do   well  and  satisfying  the  expectations  of  peer  pressure  to  be  seen  as  ‘cool’  and  ‘popular’,  with   the  epitome  of  hegemonic  masculinity  involving  ‘hardness,  sporting  prowess,  coolness,   casual  treatment  of  schoolwork  and  being  adept  at  cussing’”.24     Some  young  working  class  people  in  urban  areas  harbour  daily  fears  for  their  safety  and   even  their  lives.  The  national  education  system  has  to  recognise  that  attendance  and   behaviour,  to  say  nothing  of  future  prospects,  are  secondary  concerns  to  young  men  and   women  in  this  situation.       Within  the  catchment  area  for  some  inner  city  schools  there  may  be  several  “postcode   boundaries”  which  serve  as  indicators  of  the  turf  of  rival  gangs,  many  of  whom  are  or  have   been  extremely  violent.  Thus  it  is  important  to  recognise  that  where  members  of  rival  gangs   are  attending  the  same  school,  the  potential  for  antagonism  and  conflict  must  be  something   teachers  are  made  aware  of  and  trained  to  deal  with.25      

22

 Law,  Ian  and  Swann,  Sarah  Ethnicity  and  Education  in  England  and  Europe,  gangstas,  geeks  and  gorjas,   Ashgate  2011.  p.  140   23  Law,  Ian  and  Swann,  Sarah  Ethnicity  and  Education  in  England  and  Europe,  gangstas,  geeks  and  gorjas,   Ashgate  2011   24  Sarah  Finney,  Ian,  Law  and  Sarah  Swann  Searching  for  autonomy:  young  Black  men,  schooling  and   aspirations  2012   25  Home  Office,  2011.  Statutory  Guidance:  Injunctions  to  prevent  gang-­‐related  violence.  http://www.official-­‐ documents.gov.uk/document/other/9780108511288/9780108511288.pdf  

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English  as  a  second  Language  
Last  year  statistics  released  by  the  Department  for  Education  showed  that  nearly  1-­‐million   students  in  England  speak  English  as  a  second  language.  A  recent  study  found  that  Punjabi   was  the  most  frequently  spoken  language  among  pupils  who  did  not  have  English  as  a  first   language.  After  that  the  most  common  languages  were  Urdu,  Bengali,  Gujarati,  Somali,   Polish,  Arabic,  Portuguese,  Turkish  and  Tamil.     Differences  in  basic  skills  by  ethnic  group  largely  disappear  if  those  whose  second  language   is  English  are  excluded.  The  low  level  of  the  wholly  English-­‐speaking  Black  African/Caribbean   population  is  the  main  exception  to  this.  The  EHRC  report  concludes  therefore  that  ethnic   differences  are  partly  but  not  wholly  related  to  the  significant  number  of  people  in  ethnic   minority  groups  who  speak  English  as  a  second  language.26   While  there  has  been  controversy  over  the  rise  in  children  speaking  English  as  an  additional   language  (EAL),  there  is  data  to  suggest  that  the  figures  reported  in  the  media  may  be   misleading.  First,  some  of  the  children  described  as  speaking  English  as  a  second  language   come  from  families  which  speak  fluent  English  but  choose  to  speak  to  their  children  at  home   in  their  native  tongue.  Secondly,  data  suggests  that  EAL  students  go  on  to  outperform  those   later  on  in  their  schooling.  Finally,  there  have  been  suggestions  that  those  who  grow  up   speaking  more  than  one  language  successfully  go  on  to  learn  additional  languages  later  on   in  their  school  career27.     However,  the  Task  Force  recognises  that  support  for  English  language  can  be  a  hugely   important  tool  of  social  mobility.  Currently  the  Coalition  provides  extra  funding  to  schools  to   help  them  teach  children  with  English  as  an  additional  language.  Pupils  learning  EAL  are   generally  taught  in  the  mainstream  class  alongside  their  peers.  Newly  arrived  pupils  are   usually  given  additional  help  in  learning  English  by  specialist  teachers  or  by  bilingual   classroom  assistants.     Much  of  the  cost  of  this  has  come  from  the  Ethnic  Minority  Achievement  Grant,  outlined   above.  The  consultation  noted  that  between  2006  and  2011  the  percentage  of  EAL  learners   reaching  the  expected  levels  at  Key  Stage  1  had  increased  from  77.6%  to  82%  in  reading;   from  74%  to  78%  in  writing,  and  from  84.9%  to  86%  in  maths.  At  Key  Stage  2  over  the  same   period  the  percentage  of  EAL  pupils  reaching  the  expected  level  in  English  and  maths   combined  increased  by  more  than  eight  percentage  points,  from  61.9%  to  70%.28     The  Task  Force  believes  that  given  that  the  proportion  of  pupils  with  English  as  a  second   language  is  increasing,  this  is  not  the  time  to  reduce  this  funding  nor  to  risk  earmarked   funds  being  used  for  other  activities.   The  Government  is  also  supporting  English  Language  courses  in  Further  Education  and  in   March  2012,  they  announced  £10m  of  extra  funding  for  Further  Education  colleges  to   provide  English  Language  courses  for  non-­‐native  speakers.  The  funding  is  targeted  at   helping  those  who  are  not  in  employment  and  are  unable  to  afford  normal  course  fees.  A  
26 27

http://www.education.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s001012/index.shtml   http://www.cambridgeassessment.org.uk/ca/digitalAssets/200053_brief_summary_of_Government_policy_i n_relation_to_EAL_Learners.pdf  
28

 http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/triennial_review/how_fair_is_britain_ch10.pdf

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high  proportion  of  those  identified  being  in  need  of  support  are  women  with  children  living   in  areas  already  facing  significant  cohesion  challenges.29  The  Task  Force  welcomes  this   funding.     Positive  action  in  schools   The  Task  Force  heard  much  evidence  that  positive  role  models  are  vital  in  a  pupil’s  journey   through  the  schooling  system  and  that  mentoring  can  be  a  valuable  support.       Role  models  can  provide  a  valuable  service  to  children  from  BAME  backgrounds:  “A   longitudinal  study  of  young  adolescents  revealed  that  students  who  reported  having  at  least   one  race-­‐  and  gender-­‐matched  role  model  at  the  beginning  of  the  study  performed  better   academically  up  to  24  months  later,  reported  more  achievement-­‐oriented  goals,  enjoyed   achievement-­‐relevant  activities  to  a  greater  degree,  thought  more  about  their  futures,  and   looked  up  to  adults  rather  than  peers  more  often  than  did  students  without  a  race-­‐  and   gender-­‐matched  role  model.”30       The  Task  Force  was  also  made  aware  of  a  number  of  good  mentoring  schemes  for  ethnic   minority  children  currently  operating  throughout  the  UK,  assisting  pupils  with  their   schooling  and  generally  raising  the  level  of  aspiration  amongst  pupils  from  a  BAME   background.  Organisations  like  Mosaic  are  setting  the  standards  which  other  mentoring   programmes,  nationwide,  should  follow.     The  Task  Force  further  welcomes  the  announcement  by  Nick  Clegg  of  further  funding  to   secondary  schools  to  enable  them  to  provide  intensive  catch-­‐up  tuition  for  all  Year  Seven   pupils  who  start  secondary  school  without  having  achieved  the  required  levels  in  English   and  maths.  Only  30%  of  those  not  achieving  Level  4  in  reading  at  the  end  of  primary  school   go  on  to  achieve  5  A*  to  C  at  GCSE.  For  pupils  on  free  school  meals  this  drops  to  7%.  The   new  catch-­‐up  premium  is  likely  to  assist  almost  110,000  pupils  this  year.       Recommendation  6   Schools  should  maintain  links  with  ex-­‐pupils  and  invite  successful  ex-­‐pupils  from  across  all   ethnicities  to  visit  and  talk  to  students.     Recommendation  7   The  Department  for  Education  should  establish  a  central  database  of  the  mentoring   programmes  operating  nationally  and  create  the  conditions  for  communications  between   the  programmes  to  share  examples  of  best  practice.  Best  practice  for  mentoring   programmes  of  this  nature  should  stress  the  importance  of  providing  race-­‐  and-­‐  gender   matched  role  models  for  BAME  children  in  the  education  system.      
29 30

 http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/communities/pdf/2092103.pdf  http://www.mills.edu/academics/faculty/educ/szirkel/02tcr.pdf  Sabrina  Zirkel,  Is  there  a  place  for  me?  Role   models  and  academic  identity  among  white  students  and  students  of  colour,  Teachers  College  Record,  (Vol.   104,  No.  2,  2002).  

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Recommendation  8   The  government  should  talk  to  pupils  and  students  about  their  education  experience,  they   should  use  these  conversations  to  produce  standard  language  regarding  what  pupils  can   expect  and  are  entitled  to  with  regard  to  their  educational  experience.  This  “Learners   Charter”  will  be  the  basis  by  which  all  pupils  can  expect  to  be  treated  and  will  have  direct   feed  in  from  those  learners  consulted.  This  document  should  be  updated  every  couple  of   years. Recommendation  9   The  Government  to  set  aside  a  certain  amount  of  research  funding,  from  the  general   education  research  budget,  for  research  specifically  of  race  issues.     Recommendation  10   Monitoring  be  employed  on  a  national  scale  to  track  the  success  of  policies  designed  to  bring   about  racial  equality.  Monitoring  enables  us  to  identify  inequalities  in  educational  practice   and  to  target  support  appropriately.       Recommendation  11   We  should  celebrate  every  aspect  of  British  culture  and  not  just  the  diverse  aspects.  Being   British  and  celebrating  that  means  celebrating  traditional  British  culture  on  an  equal  level  as   diverse  British  culture  and  BAME  culture  within  the  UK,  creating  an  equal  platform  and  an   area  in  which  all  of  British  culture  can  engage  and  communicate.   Supplementary  schools   The  Task  Force  has  welcomed  the  growing  acknowledgement  by  Children’s  Trusts,  the  Dept   for  Education  and  other  agencies,  of  the  value  of  supplementary  schools31.  These  schools,   set  up  by  voluntary  groups,  run  in  the  evenings  or  at  weekends  and  offer  a  range  of  learning   opportunities,  including  national  curriculum  subjects  (English,  maths,  science  and  others),   religious  studies,  mother-­‐tongue  classes,  cultural  studies  and  a  range  of  extra  activities,  such   as  sport,  music,  dance  and  drama.       While  the  roots  of  the  supplementary  school  began  with  the  traditional  “Sunday  school”,   many  such  schools  have  been  set  up  by  minority  communities  who  have  felt  that  the  regular   school  system  has  let  down  their  children  or  because  they  want  to  ensure  that  their  children   maintain  linguistic  and  cultural  ties  with  their  heritage.  These  schools  have  enabled  children   to  be  fluent  in  their  community’s  mother-­‐tongue  language  and  culture  which  has  enhanced   their  identities  in  positive  ways.  Bilingualism  has  also  been  shown  to  help  children’s  learning   as  it  allows  them  to  think  about  ideas  in  two  different  languages.  It  also  gives  them  an   advantage  in  an  increasingly  global  employment  market.       These  schools  can  be  a  very  positive  influence  within  communities,  particularly  when  other   institutions  engage  positively  with  them.  Frith  Manor  Primary  School  in  Finchley,  for   example,  has  about  70  Japanese  families  in  the  school.  It  hosts  the  Japanese  school  at   weekends  and  its  positive  and  imaginative  approach  to  diversity  has  led  to  Frith  Manor  

31

 http://www.continyou.org.uk/what_we_do/supplementary_education/  

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putting  Japanese  language  learning  on  the  curriculum  which  not  only  fosters  a  more  closely   knit  community,  but  also  enhances  the  education  of  all  pupils.       The  Task  Force  welcomes  the  shift  in  the  approach  that  the  authorities,  including  children’s   trusts,  are  now  taking  to  supplementary  schools  and  further  welcomes  the  growing   partnerships  between  mainstream  primary  and  secondary  schools  with  supplementary   schools.  

Gypsy,  Roma  and  Irish  Traveller  communities  (GRT)
The  Task  Force  felt  it  necessary  to  put  a  spotlight  on  one  particular  ethnic  group  whose   children  have  fallen  way  behind  their  peers  in  educational  outcomes.  The  Council  of  Europe   has  suggested  there  were  around  300,000  Gypsies  and  Travellers  in  the  UK  in  2002.32  Of  all   minority  ethnic  groups  discussed,  educational  take  up,  especially  secondary  education,  is   especially  low  amongst  the  GRT  communities.33     Educational  attainment  is  lower  than  the  national  UK  average.  In  2011,  just  12%  of  Gypsy,   Roma  and  Traveller  pupils  achieved  five  or  more  GCSEs,  including  English  and  Maths,   compared  with  58.2%  for  all  pupils34.  In  primary  schools,  just  a  quarter  achieved  national   expectations  in  English  and  Maths,  compared  with  three-­‐quarters  of  all  pupils.  Well  over   40%  of  Gypsy,  Roma  and  Traveller  pupils  are  eligible  for  free  school  meals  –  rising  to  57.5%   in  Special  Schools.     The  Coalition  Government  has  announced  several  policies,  such  as  the  Pupil  Premium  and   the  free  provision  of  early  years  childcare,  that  should  be  directly  beneficial  to  children  from   traveller  backgrounds.  However,  more  must  be  done  to  assess  take  up,  especially  from  this   community.     Some  local  initiatives  have  shown  that  entrenched  patterns  of  school  non-­‐attendance  can   be  substantially  transformed  with  effective  outreach  programmes  but  they  remain  marginal   and  insecure  and  it  is  vital  to  build  on  the  success  of  targeted  initiatives  such  as  the   Achievement  Service  programmes  and  Early  Years  Outreach  teams  and  also  that  schools   show  positive  leadership  and  do  not  turn  away  these  children  due  to  concerns  over  absence   figures.  Empowerment  of  GRT  community  organizations,  adult  mentors  and  securing   involvement  of  families  and  parents  is  also  vital  in  achieving  this  objective.35         The   Coalition’s   Inter-­‐Ministerial   Working   Group   on   Tackling   Inequalities   in   the   Gypsy   and   Traveller   Community,   led   by   Lib   Dem   Race   Equality   Minister   Don   Foster   MP,   has   identified  
32

 McNamara,  O  et  al  (2009)  The  leadership  aspirations  and  careers  of  Black  and  ethnic  minority  teachers   TDA/NASUWT:  Nottingham   33  Rollock  (2009)  School  Governors  and  Race  Equality  in  21st  Century  schools  Runnymede  Trust:  London   www.runnymedetrust.org   34  Source:  Dept  for  Education   http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/pupilsupport/inclusionandlearnersupport/mea/improvingachievement/ a0012528/gypsy-­‐roma-­‐and-­‐traveller-­‐achievement     35  Law,  Ian  and  Swann,  Sarah  Ethnicity  and  Education  in  England  and  Europe,  gangstas,  geeks  and  gorjas,   Ashgate  2011  

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many  of  the  problems  affecting  this  group,  particularly  in  the  area  of  education.  We  welcome   the   Coalition’s   resolve   to   tackle   some   of   these   issues,   in   particular   tackling   bullying,   exclusion   and   poor   attendance.36   The   Virtual   Headteachers   Pilot   Scheme   is   an   innovative   project   which   has   potential   to   be   rolled   out   more   widely,   and   we   strongly   support   the   recognition   of   the   Gypsy,  Roma  and  Traveller  Community  as  a  vulnerable  group  under  the  Ofsted  Framework.   However,  we  believe  there  is  still  much  more  work  that  needs  to  be  done.     Recommendation  12     Launch  a  new  creative  national  campaign  to  address  literacy  and  generate  aspirational   capital  amongst  these  communities,  led  by  these  communities  with  government,  LEA  and   school  support,  in  order  to  increase  the  participation  of  Gypsy,  Roma  and  Traveller  (GRT)   children  in  secondary  education  as  they  feel  particularly  disenfranchised  from  the  education   system.     Recommendation  13   It  is  vital,  when  teaching  children  about  tolerance  and  racial  diversity,  that  Gypsy,  Roma  and   Irish  Travellers  are  included.    Any  teacher  training  aimed  to  improve  understanding  of   cultural  diversity  must  also  give  a  holistic  view  of  the  issues  surrounding  GRT  children.  The   Department  for  Education  should  commission  a  study  to  see  what  outreach  programmes,  for   example  home  visits,  have  been  shown  to  be  the  most  effective  interventions.    

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http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/pupilsupport/inclusionandlearnersupport/mea/improvingachievemen t/a0012528/gypsy-­‐roma-­‐and-­‐traveller-­‐achievement

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Further  and  higher  education
The  recording  of  ethnicity  data  is  compulsory  only  for  UK-­‐domiciled  students  and  so  the   data  used  in  this  section  is  restricted  to  British  students  living  in  the  UK.  In  the  2008/09   school  year,  ethnicity  data  was  known  for  95%  of  UK  domiciled  first-­‐year  undergraduates.   The  proportion  of  students  from  ethnic  minority  groups  has  been  rising  fairly  steadily  over   the  last  12  years.  In  the  2008/09  intake,  ethnic  minorities  constituted  20%  of  all  first-­‐year  UK   domiciled  students  of  known  ethnicity  studying  for  their  first  undergraduate  degree.37   According  to  analysis  conducted  for  the  National  Equality  Panel,  all  ethnic  minority  groups   have  seen  a  rise  in  their  share  of  the  total  student  population,  with  the  largest  increase   being  among  Black  students  who  rose  from  3.6%  in  1995  to  5.7%  in  2007  of  the   undergraduate  population.38       However,  it  is  important  to  note  the  crucial  fact  that  nearly  half  of  all  Black,  Pakistani,   Bangladeshi  and  Indian  graduates  attended  post-­‐1992  universities  or  former  polytechnics,   compared  to  a  third  of  other  ethnic  groups.  This  is  despite  the  fact  that  Indian  students  are   the  second  highest  achieving  ethnic  group.     All  minority  ethnic  groups,  with  the  exception  of  students  from  Chinese  backgrounds,  are   more  likely  to  be  at  ‘new’  institutions.  There  are  more  students  of  Black  Caribbean  origin  at   London  Metropolitan  University  than  at  all  the  Russell  Group  universities  put  together.39       Students  from  different  minority  ethnic  groups  have  different  outcomes  when  studying  for   their  first  degree,  with  students  from  some  minority  ethnic  groups  far  less  likely  to  leave   university  with  a  first  or  upper  second  class  degree  than  others.  In  2008/09  White  students   were  most  likely  to  achieve  this  level  with  nearly  7  in  10  (67%)  compared  to  just  fewer  than   4  in  10  Black  students  (38%).40       Over  the  past  seven  years,  the  percentage  of  UK-­‐domicile  leavers  achieving  a  first  class  or   upper  second  class  honours  degree  has  steadily  increased  for  most  ethnic  groups.   For  UK-­‐domicile  qualifiers,  the  difference  between  the  proportion  of  White  qualifiers  who   obtained  a  first  class  or  upper  second  class  honours  and  that  of  BAME  qualifiers  (the   attainment  gap)  increased  from  17.2%  in  2003/04  to  a  peak  of  18.8%  in  2005/06  and  is  now   at  18.6%  in  2009/10.41     Minority  ethnic  students,  however,  are  only  achieving  these  outcomes  after  overcoming   additional  barriers.  A  study  by  the  National  Union  of  Students42  states  that  “that  a  simple   explanation  for  the  attainment  and  satisfaction  gap  of  Black  students   does  not  exist;  it  is  a  complex  issue  with  a  range  of  causal  factors.  Although  the  Black  
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 http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/triennial_review/how_fair_is_britain_ch10.pdf    ibid   39  Runnymede  Trust,  2007   40  http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/triennial_review/how_fair_is_britain_ch10.pdf   41  ibid   42  Race  for  Equality:  a  report  on  the  experiences  of  Black  students  in  further  and  higher  education  -­‐  NUS

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student  population  is  a  highly  heterogeneous  group,  our  research  identifies  and  highlights   common  concerns  among  Black  students,  which  are  clearly  linked  to  their  attainment  and   overall  satisfaction  yet  often  overlooked  by  institutions.”     However  the  NUS  survey  of  almost  1,000  BAME  students  concluded  that  institutional  racism   was  a  key  factor,  that  many  students  felt  alienated  and  excluded,  and  felt  as  if  they  were   ‘invisible’  to  lecturers.  34%  stated  they  felt  unable  to  bring  their  perspective  as  a  Black   student  to  lectures  and  tutor  meetings.  “A  running  theme  through  both  the  survey  and   focus  group  data  was  a  frustration  that  courses  were  designed  and  taught  by  non-­‐Black   teachers,  and  often  did  not  take  into  account  diverse  backgrounds  and  views.”     The  report  also  found  that  schooling  and  college  education  had  a  direct  impact,  with  BAME   students  commented  that  being  from  a  low  socio-­‐economic  background  meant  that  they  did   not  have  access  to  a  high  standard  of  education  in  their  school  years  and  that  they  did  not   have  the  same  academic  skills,  such  as  study  skills  and  understanding  theoretical  debate,  as   their  white  peers.     As  reported  in  the  earlier  section  on  schools,  some  respondents  also  reported  that  they  had   encountered  widely  held  stereotypes  based  on  race  and  attainment  from  teachers  while  at   school  and  college.     The  Task  Force  discussed  the  work  of  the  group  Aimhigher  in  assisting  students  from  ethnic   minority  backgrounds  to  attend  higher  education.     Dr  Brian  Alleyne,  Senior  Lecturer  at  Goldsmiths,  University  of  London,  told  the  Task  Force   that  he  felt  more  effort  should  be  focussed  on  engaging  the  BAME  community  with  science   education.  Careers  in  this  field  have  not  historically  been  undertaken  by  people  from  BAME   backgrounds,  resulting  in  young  people  from  these  communities  not  viewing  those  careers   as  realistic,  regardless  of  whether  or  not  they  have  the  necessary  qualifications  and  falling   back  into  careers  they  see  as  more  in  line  with  their  culture.       Which  university?   A  study  by  the  ECU  found  that  post-­‐graduation  employment  showed  wide  margins  between   ethnicities.  The  study  found  that  in  2009/10,  12.6%  of  BAME  students  leaving  university,   particularly  Chinese  (14.7%)  and  Black  (14.3%)  leavers,  were  more  likely  to  be  assumed  to   be  unemployed  than  white  leavers  (6.2%)43  The  study  explained  that  “Post-­‐graduation   employment  may  be  linked  in  part  to  the  institution  students  attended  (some  institutions   are  more  prestigious  and  appealing  to  employers  than  others)  and  the  degree  classification   that  students  are  awarded.  Many  graduate  jobs,  and  often  funding  for  postgraduate   courses,  have  criteria  that  applicants  should  have  a  2:1  or  above,  which  impacts  on  BAME   students  as  they  are  less  likely  to  be  awarded  a  2:1  or  above.”     As  stated  earlier,  the  Runnymede  Trust  has  also  reported44  that  whilst  the  proportion  of  
 Data  source:  ECU  publication  ‘Equality  in  higher  education:  Statistical  report  2010.’    Runnymede  Trust  submission  to  the  Work  and  Pensions  Select  Committee  Inquiry  into  Youth  Employment   and  the  Government’s  Youth  Employment  Contract
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university  places  taken  by  minority  ethnic  students  has  increased  from  13%  of  students  in   1994/95  to  23%  in  2008/09,  a  figure  broadly  proportionate  to  their  size  in  the  young   population,  these  students  are  more  likely  to  attend  less  prestigious  institutions  which  have   lower  employment  rates.  “For  example,  at  least  44%  of  all  Black,  Pakistani,  Bangladeshi  and   Indian  graduates  attended  post-­‐1992  universities,  or  former  polytechnics  compared  to  34%   of  other  ethnic  groups.  In  addition,  8%  of  all  Black  university  students  attend  Russell  Group   universities  compared  to  24%  of  all  White  students.  In  2009  only  one  Black  Caribbean   student  was  accepted  to  study  on  a  course  at  Oxford  University.”     These  trends  have  an  impact  on  graduate  employment  prospects  and  earnings.  Minority   ethnic  graduates  are  more  than  twice  as  likely  to  be  unemployed  after  graduation  compared   to  White  students.  Many  of  the  universities  with  the  highest  minority  ethnic  populations   have  the  lowest  employment  rates,  and  given  the  currently  poor  prospects  for  graduates   generally,  this  is  likely  to  have  an  adverse  effect  on  minority  ethnic  employment.  Studying  at   a  Russell  Group  University  has  been  found  to  boost  a  graduate’s  earnings  by  between  3  and   6%  compared  to  studying  at  a  ‘new’  university.     Recommendation  14   Require  the  Equality  and  Human  Rights  Commission  to  ensure  that  institutions  of  further  and   higher  education  are  enforcing  compliance  with  race  equality  legislation  in  further  and   higher  education.     Recommendation  15   Require  all  universities  to  be  fully  transparent  about  all  the  selection  criteria  used  to  evaluate   student  applications  for  places,  including  for  example  which  A-­‐level  subjects  are  likely  to   count  for  or  against  a  candidate.     Recommendation  16   Colleges  and  universities  should  adopt  a  zero-­‐tolerance  policy  regarding  racist  behaviour,   incorporate  race  awareness  more  effectively  into  staff  training,  and  increase  focus  on  social   inclusion  and  the  student  experience  both  within  and  outside  the  classroom.   Recommendation  17   The  Russell  Group  universities  should  improve  their  outreach  to  BAME  students  in  order  to   improve  their  under-­‐representation  in  these  institutions.  

    Apprenticeships  

  The  Ethnic  Minority  British  Election  Study  (EMBES)  estimates  that  unemployment  was  a  key   election  issue  for  minority  voters.  The  report  points  out  that  half  of  young  Black  people  are   unemployed,  as  well  as  31%  of  young  Asian  people45  (See  later  section  on  employment).   Members  of  the  Task  Force  are  concerned  that  if  unchecked  these  trends  will  persist,  

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http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/EMBESbriefingFINALx.pdf

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thereby  creating  an  ever-­‐increasing  racial  segregation  within  the  working  populations  of   young  people.46       To  stamp  out  discrimination,  Liberal  Democrats  have  pledged  to  ensure  that  every  company   that  employs  more  than  100  people  should  have  its  pay  arrangements  examined  with  a   Diversity  audit  and  an  Equal  Pay  Audit.  Under  these  proposals,  companies  would  be   required  to  compare  the  pay  people  doing  equal  work.  Any  pay  gaps  identified  that  cannot   be  satisfactorily  explained  would  require  the  company  to  produce  plans  to  eliminate  them,   giving  everyone  a  fair  deal.     The  Runnymede  Trust’s  report  also  found  that  students  who  do  not  have  parental   connections  to  industry  were  less  likely  to  be  able  to  get  a  work  placement,  which  was   essential  to  progress  in  a  given  career.  The  research  found  that  ‘there  are  deeply  embedded   notions  of  the  ‘ideal  student’  and  ‘ideal  work  placement  candidate’,  which  favour  middle-­‐ class,  white,  male  and  non-­‐disabled  students’47     The  Trust48  has  also  noted  that  ethnic  minorities  are  under-­‐represented  on  apprenticeship   schemes.  Data  highlighted  from  the  Black  Training  and  Enterprise  Group  last  year  showed   that:       • Of  all  apprentices  in  England  in  2009/10,  7%  were  from  an  ethnic  minority;  1.6%   were  of  mixed  ethnicity,  2.9%  were  Asian,  2%  Black  and  0.5%  Chinese  or  other  ethnic   minority  (The  Data  Service,  2011).     • In  comparison,  14%  of  the  working  age  population  in  England  is  from  an  ethnic   minority.     In  addition  there  remains  a  gap  in  the  information  about  how  many  applicants  for   apprenticeships  are  from  an  ethnic  minority,  and  what  proportion  of  these  are  successful  in   comparison  with  overall  success  rates.       The  Task  Force  shares  the  Trust’s  concern  that  government  action  is  not  been  taken  quickly   enough  to  address  these  concerns  and  that  statements  from  Conservative  ministers  appear   to  be  taking  a  ‘colour-­‐blind’  approach  which  in  effect  means  failing  to  address  race  issues.   For  example  there  appears  to  be  the  view  that  the  "Get  Britain  Working"  measures  which   provide  support  to  all  eligible  unemployed  job  seekers  according  to  their  needs,  irrespective   of  ethnicity,  are  an  adequate  response  to  the  fact  that  half  the  economically  active  black   population  between  18  and  24  are  unemployed.  No  targeted  intervention  is  deemed  to  be   necessary.       Recommendation  18   The  government  should  undertake  more  ethnic  monitoring  of  apprenticeships,  particularly  in   relation  to  application  success  rates.    
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 http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/EMBESbriefingFINALx.pdf      Data  source:  ECU  publication  ‘Equality  in  higher  education:  Statistical  report  2010.’   48  Runnymede  Trust  submission  to  the  Work  and  Pensions  Select  Committee  Inquiry  into  Youth  Employment   and  the  Government’s  Youth  Employment  Contract

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The  government  should  provide  an  update  on  findings  and  next  steps  following  the   completion  of  its  diversity  pilots,  and  should  act  in  response  to  embed  the  learning  from  the   pilots  to  apprenticeships  nationally.       The  government’s  apprenticeships  review  should  include  a  focus  on  increasing  the  numbers   of  under-­‐represented  groups  on  apprenticeships  schemes.       Mentoring  and  careers  advice   Some  sectors,  such  as  the  legal  profession,  have  been  taking  advantage  of  mentoring   schemes  with  varying  degrees  of  success  for  some  years.  Fields  like  science  and  engineering   on  the  other  hand  have  not  exploited  mentorship  to  its  full  and  mutually  beneficial  capacity.   Mentorship  schemes,  especially  in  areas  of  misrepresentation  are  needed,  but  this  needs   long-­‐term  investment  and  after  potentially  exploring  the  options  for  local  pilots  the  Task   Force  believes  such  a  scheme  should  be  rolled  out  nationally.     There  has  been  little  research  into  effective  independent  careers  advice  and  guidance  that   young  people  from  BME  communities  need  in  order  to  access  a  wider  range  of  universities   or  the  labour  market  on  graduation.  Work  to  explore  whether  careers  advice  is  resulting  in   some  ethnic  groups  (such  as  Indian  students)  choosing  less  prestigious  universities  or  low   paid/over-­‐competitive  careers,  is  needed.     Recommendation  19   Create  a  well  structured  and  financed  national  mentorship  and/or  shadowing  scheme.        

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Section  two:   The  teaching  profession  
Introduction  
In  a  multiracial  society  the  aim  must  be  to  achieve  a  diverse  and  integrated  workforce  in   every  profession,  so  that  no  part  of  our  industry  is  ever  considered  off-­‐limits  to  any   community.  But  achieving  this  is  of  particular  importance  in  the  teaching  profession.   Teachers,  by  definition,  collectively  have  a  profound  impact  on  our  children’s  world  vision   and  on  their  future  progress.  It  is  not  an  exaggeration  to  say  that  the  teaching  profession   shapes  the  development  of  our  society.     A  report49  by  the  teaching  union  the  NASUWT  states  that  the  reasons  most  commonly  cited   for  the  importance  of  representativeness  in  the  teacher  workforce  in  relation  to  the   demographics  of  the  population  are:  BAME  teachers  could  act  as  inspirational  role  models   for  students  with  similar  backgrounds  and  thus  improve  their  achievement;  that  a   correspondence  between  the  ethnic  composition  of  the  teacher  workforce  and  local   community  was  desirable.  Third,  that  they  can  help  to  dispel  stereotypical  beliefs  held  by   the  majority  group  about  the  minorities.  And  fourth,  that  it  is  of  course  a  legitimate  right  of   ethnic  minorities  to  have  fair  opportunities  for  employment  in  this  profession.   So  how  representative  is  the  teaching  profession?    

Primary  and  secondary  schools  
In  2009,  12.9%  of  pupils  in  England  were  from  BAME  backgrounds,  yet  the  percentage  of   teachers  from  BAME  backgrounds  was  just  over  2.4%.50  Almost  20  years  ago  the  Rampton   Report  expressed  concern  about  the  under-­‐representation  of  ethnic  minorities  in  the   teaching  population  of  England  and  Wales.  While  there  have  been  major  strides  towards   better  representation,  the  statistics  show  that  there  are  still  steps  that  need  to  be  taken  to   address  the  issue.51   Progress  in  high  BAME  representation  amongst  teachers  has  been  greatest  in  the  areas  with   the  highest  concentration  of  pupils  from  minority  backgrounds  and  slowest  where  ethnic   minority  pupils  make  up  a  much  smaller  proportion  of  the  school  population.  Fewer  than  2%   of  teachers  in  the  North  East  and  South  West  are  from  minority  backgrounds,  compared  
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 The  leadership  aspirations  and  careers  of  black  and  minority  ethnic  teachers,  Prof  Olwen  McNamara,  Prof   John  Howson,  Prof  Helen  Gunter  and  Andrew  Fryers,  NASUWT  and  National  College  for  Leadership  of  Schools   and  Children’s  Services   50 House  of  Commons  Education  and  Skills  Committee.  Secondary  Education:  Teacher  Retention  and   Recruitment.  Fifth  Report  of  Session  2003-­‐04.  p.18   http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmeduski/1057/1057.pdf     51  http://www.sec-­‐ed.co.uk/cgi-­‐bin/go.pl/article/article.html?uid=42649;type_uid=2

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with  around  20%  in  London  schools.52  There  are  studies  which  show  that  whilst  those   trained  in  England  can  find  posts  in  areas  with  ethnically  diverse  populations,  BAME   teachers  are  deterred  from  seeking  teaching  posts  in  other  parts  of  the  country  and  in   higher  achieving  schools,  by  real  or  perceived  racist  attitudes  towards  them.53  However,   NASUWT  consultations  with  BAME  members  have  found  that  BAME  teachers  do  apply  for   jobs  in  schools  with  low  BAME  representation,  but  often  report  difficulties  in  securing  posts   in  these  schools.     Another  concern  that  was  raised  by  the  evidence  gathered  by  the  Task  Force  was  the  lack  of   support,  training  and  funding  for  BAME  teachers.  In  past  years,  much  of  this  had  been  tied   to  organisations  and  quangos,  some  of  whom  have  ceased  to  exist  or  cut  down  their   activities  due  to  changes  in  Government  policy.54       Dr  Nicola  Rollock55,  previously  the  Head  of  Education  for  the  Runnymede  Trust  as  well  as  the   developer  of  a  training  programme  on  engaging  with  cultural  and  ethnic  diversity  in   teaching,  highlighted  statistics  about  the  number  of  NQTs  who  felt  prepared  to  teach   students  from  BAME  backgrounds.  Dr  Rollock  raised  her  concerns  that  over  50%  of  people   did  not  feel  prepared  to  teach  students  from  BAME  backgrounds.56     A  report  by  Show  Racism  the  Red  Card,  supported  by  the  National  Union  of  Teachers,57   included  a  questionnaire  in  which  83%  of  respondents  indicated  that  they  had  witnessed   racist  behaviour  amongst  their  pupils  and  many  felt  there  were  strong  racist  attitudes     amongst  the  pupil  cohort.  Racist  behaviour  was  also  evidenced  amongst  teachers,  the   report  stated,  from  the  use  of  racist  terminology  and  telling  of  racist  jokes  to  lower   expectations  of  BAME  pupils.       However,  less  than  two-­‐thirds  of  respondents  had  received  training  on  how  to  tackle  racism   and  only  about  a  third  had  had  training  in  relation  to  support  the  needs  of  travellers,   refugees  and  asylum  seekers.       In  the  2000-­‐  2001  intake,  6%  of  primary  school  teacher  trainees  and  8%  of  secondary  school   teacher  trainees  were  from  minority  ethnic  communities.  This  is  equivalent  to  7.8%  in  total.   The  national  target  set  for  the  2005-­‐2006  intake  was  9%.  From  the  ethnic  monitoring  data   collected  by  various  Universities  and  the  Teacher  Training  Association,  it  can  be  estimated   that  graduates  from  Black  and  minority  ethnic  communities  are  around  three  times  less   likely  to  enrol  in  teacher  training.  58      
52 53

 http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6055206    https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/RB853.pdf   54  ibid   55 Visiting  Research  Associate  &  Associate  Editor  UK  –  Race  Ethnicity  and  Education,  Educational  Foundations  &   Policy  Studies,  Institute  of  Education,  University  of  London 56  ibid   57  The  Barriers  to  Challenging  Racism  and  Promoting  Race  Equality  in  Education  in  England’s  Schools,  Show   Racism  the  Red  Card,  supported    by  the  National  Union  of  Teachers   58  Runnymede  Trust.  Black  and  Minority  Ethnic  issues  in  teaching  and  learning.  Briefing  Paper.  p.5   http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/projects/education/BMEissuesDiscussionPaper.pdf    

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The  NASUWT  2009  research  found  ‘Discrimination’,  ‘my  ethnicity,’  ‘recruitment  policies  /   procedures’  and  ‘attitude  of  senior  colleagues’  all  featured  in  the  overall  top  ten  barriers   and  were  almost  all  cited  by  all  groups  of  respondents.  Male  BAME  teachers  perceived   discrimination  as  their  greatest  barrier  compared  to  their  female  counterparts  who  ranked  it   sixth.59     BAME  senior  leaders  were  also  found  to  be  disproportionately  concentrated  in  urban   schools  with  high  proportions  of  BAME  pupils  and  BAME  staff.  70%  of  BAME  teachers  and   school  leaders  said  they  believed  it  was  harder  for  BAME  teachers  to  secure  leadership   posts  than  for  other  teachers.60       Since  1997  there  have  been  efforts  made  to  attract  teachers  from  BAME  backgrounds  into   the  teaching  profession.  Underlying  official  discourse  in  this  sphere  is  the  assumption  that   the  ‘targeted  recruitment’  of  male  or  ethnic  minority  teachers  will  provide  much-­‐needed   ‘role  models’  in  schools  for  those  groups  most  likely  to  experience  educational  failure  and   disaffection.61  There  is  anecdotal  evidence  to  indicate  that  some  BAME  teachers  feel   pigeonholed  into  working  in  diversity-­‐related  areas  rather  than  having  the  choice  of  working   in  other  fields  instead.     The  key  message  from  the  NASUWT  research  was  that  the  profession  as  a  whole  is  not   perceived  by  the  majority  of  BME  teachers  to  be  inclusive.  Further  concern  has  been   expressed  that  many  academies  or  free  schools  out  of  local  authority  control  which  now   form  the  majority  of  secondary  schools  –  have  a  false  understanding  of  their  obligations   under  the  Equality  Act,  for  example  assuming  that  the  public  sector  equality  duty  under  the   Equality  Act  does  not  apply  to  them.     The  NASUWT  study  reports  that  ethnic  monitoring  of  the  teacher  workforce  is  haphazard   and  should  be  undertaken  at  a  more  systematic  fashion  at  school,  local  authority  and   national  levels.    

 

Teaching  staff  in  further  and  higher  education  
The  proportion  of  UK  national  academics  who  were  BAME  increased  from  5.9%  in  2003/04   to  7.0%  in  2009/10.  The  proportion  of  UK  national  Black  academics  who  were  professors   was  particularly  low  (3.6%).  UK  national  Chinese  (12.3%),  other  Asian  (11.6%)  and  white   (11.1%)  academics  were  most  likely  to  be  professors.  A  higher  proportion  of  white  academic   staff  earn  over  £50,000  (28.9%)  than  BAME  academic  staff  (25.5%).  Similarly  for  professional   and  support  staff,  5.2%  of  white  staff  and  3.1%  of  BAME  staff  earn  over  £50,000.  UK   national  BAME  academic  staff  were  more  likely  to  be  employed  on  fixed-­‐term  contracts   (33.5%)  than  white  staff  (28.1%).  For  non-­‐UK  national  academic  staff  this  difference  was  

59

http://www.nasuwt.org.uk/consum/groups/public/@equalityandtraining/documents/nas_download/nasuwt _005377.pdf     60  ibid 61  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02680930305573  

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wider,  54.5%  of  BAME  staff  were  on  fixed-­‐term  contracts  compared  with  41.2%  of  white   staff.62     As  described  above,  there  was  concern  expressed  by  many  who  submitted  evidence  to  the   Task  Force  on  the  lack  of  teacher  training  and  awareness  of  issues  around  race,  culture  and   identity.  As  Anuja  Prashar,  a  member  of  our  Task  Force,  explained,  it  is  a  matter  of  what  she   termed  cultural  dexterity.  There  remain  persistent  concerns  that  teacher  training  focuses   too  heavily  on  punishment  as  the  best  way  to  deal  with  unruly  pupil  behaviour,  rather  than   confronting  and  engaging  with  the  root  causes  of  that  behaviour.  Concerns  were  raised   within  the  University  of  London  Institute  for  Education’s  report  that  Black  parents  are   reluctant  to  raise  issues  of  race  with  teachers  as  experience  tells  them  that  the  term  ‘racism’   is  likely  to  be  met  with  resistance  and  antagonism  by  teachers,  tutors  and  school  staff.       Recommendation  20   That  equality  monitoring  be  undertaken  at  a  systematic  level  at  school,  local  authority  and   national  levels.  Particular  monitoring  should  be  carried  out  of  BAME  teachers’  progress  on   the  leadership  scale.         Recommendation  21   Future  early  year  worker  and  teacher  training  programmes  should  ensure  that  there  is   proper  training  on  how  to  deal  with  students  from  different  ethnic  backgrounds  and  are   comfortable  with  issues  such  as  cultural  identity  and  equal  opportunities.  The  ability  to   display  an  understanding  of  the  issues  surrounding  cultural  diversity  and  race  equality   should  be  essential  in  order  to  pass  teacher  training.  Ensure  that  the  continued  professional   development  of  teachers  is  geared  towards  creating  a  better  understanding  of  issues   associated  with  pupils/students  from  different  ethnic  backgrounds  and  further  issues  like   cultural  identity  and  equal  opportunities.       Recommendation  22   Based  on  evidence  submitted  by  the  Runnymede  Trust,  the  Task  Force  recommends  that  the   Teaching  Agency  should  conduct  a  widespread  audit  of  the  needs  of  all  teacher  training   institutions  in  the  area  of  race  equality.  The  audit  should  include  the  assessing  of  the  needs   of  those  involved  in  teacher  training,  including  trainers,  lecturers  and  trainers.   The  Teaching  Agency  as  well  as  Ofsted  will  be  responsible  for  oversight  of  the  race  equality   teacher  training.  Both  bodies  will  appear  before  the  Education  Select  Committee  to  discuss   the  success  of  the  training  programme  and  to  identify  areas  for  improvement.   In  order  to  encourage  more  BAME  students  to  consider  a  career  in  teaching,  a  programme   should  be  developed  in  which  successful  BAME  educational  professionals  are  encouraged  to   visit  neighbouring  schools  to  tell  pupils  what  it  is  they  love  about  teaching,  how  they  got  into   it  and  the  levels  of  success  they  have  achieved.  
62

 Equality  in  higher  education:  statistical  report  2011,  ECU  

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    Recommendation  23   The  Teaching  Agency  should  reintroduce  targets  to  recruit  ethnic  minority  teachers   (previously  organised  by  the  Training  and  Development  Agency  for  Schools)      

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Part  Two:     Race  equality  and  employment  
  Introduction   More  than  40  years  have  passed  since  race  discrimination  in  employment  was  first   outlawed,  and  no  doubt  it  was  hoped  –  perhaps  believed  –  back  in  1968  that  by  now  this   pernicious  injustice  would  have  been  eradicated.  It  is  therefore  shocking  that  after  all  this   time  employment  discrimination  continues  to  be  of  major  concern  to  BAME  workers.     This  concern  is  supported  by  overwhelming  statistical  evidence.  The  60/76  report63,   published  in  2007,  was  the  work  of  the  Business  Commission  set  up  by  the  National   Employment  Panel  under  the  Department  for  Work  and  Pensions.  The  commission   members  included  top  executives  from  major  companies  such  as  those  from  RBS,  Co-­‐ Operative  Group,  ITV,  WH  Smith,  Skanska  UK  plc  and  top  officials  from  HM  Treasury  and  the   DWP.    

Employment  rates  

Their  report  quoted  Labour  Force  Survey  2007  data  showing  that  there  was  a  16  point  gap   between  the  chances  of  ethnic  minority  workers  having  a  job  and  those  of  the  white   workforce:  “60%  is  the  ethnic  minority  employment  rate;  76%  is  the  white  employment   rate”.     The  report  also  shows  that  there  are  distinct  variations  between  ethnic  groups  and  gender   The  situation  had  changed  little  since  1999:  a  Cabinet  Office  report  stated  that  80%  of  white   men  were  in  employment  in  1999  compared  with  65%  of  ‘non-­‐white’,  while  for  women  it   was  70%  to  49%64.       This  is  shown  in  more  detail  in  the  Equality  and  Human  Rights  Commission’s  Triennial   Review,  201065  in  which  it  quotes  Labour  Force  Survey  data  showing  that  the  employment   rate  for  men  of  Chinese  heritage  was  64%,  Indian  78%  and  white  British  79%  while  for   women  of  Chinese  heritage  it  was  60%,  Indian  61%  and  white  British  it  was  72%.     The  employment  rate  was  lowest  for  Black  Caribbean  men  (67%),  Pakistani  men  (66%)  and   Bangladeshi  men  (62%).  For  women  the  picture  was  more  bleak,  with  26%  of  Pakistani   women  and  23%  of  Bangladeshi  women  in  employment.      
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The  60/76  report,  the  Business  Commission  on  Race  Equality  in  the  Workplace  –  a  report  by  the  National   Employment  Panel,  published  by  the  Department  for  Work  and  Pensions,October  2007,   www.dwp.gov.uk/docs/buscommissionreport.pdf   64  Improving  Labour  market  achievements  for  ethnic  minorities  in  British  Society  –  scoping  note,  July  2001,   Performance  and  Innovation  Unit,  Cabinet  Office   65  How  Fair  is  Britain?  Equality,  Human  Rights  and  Good  Relations  in  2010.  The  First  Triennial  Review  (Equality   and  Human  Rights  Commission)  http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/key-­‐projects/how-­‐fair-­‐is-­‐britain/full-­‐ report-­‐and-­‐evidence-­‐downloads/  

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Pay  
For  those  in  work,  a  larger  proportion  of  BAME  workers  are  concentrated  in  low  paid  jobs.  A   report  for  the  Joseph  Rowntree  Foundation  in  2007  stated  that  around  two-­‐fifths  of  people   from  ethnic  minorities  live  in  income  poverty,  twice  the  rate  for  white  people.  66   In  particular  “Among  those  in  working  families  [families  where  at  least  one  adult  is  in  paid   work],  around  60%  of  Bangladeshis,  40%  of  Pakistanis  and  30%  of  Black  Africans  are  in   income  poverty.”     They  state:  “Low  pay  is  certainly  much  more  prevalent  among  most  minority  ethnic  groups.   For  example,  up  to  half  of  Bangladeshi  workers,  a  third  of  Pakistanis  and  a  quarter  of  Black   Africans  were  paid  less  than  £6.50  an  hour  in  2006  compared  with  a  fifth  of  the  other  ethnic   groups.”    

Pay  penalties  

Another  measure  of  inequality  is  in  the  difference  in  pay.  The  report  by  the  London  School   of  Economics  for  the  Government  Equalities  Office,  titled  An  Anatomy  of  Economic   Inequality  in  the  UK67,  stated  that  “When  employed,  nearly  all  other  groups  have  hourly  pay   less  than  white  British  men”  …  “Women  from  nearly  all  ethno-­‐religious  backgrounds  have   pay  between  a  quarter  and  a  third  less  than  a  white  British  Christian  man  with  the  same   qualifications,  age  and  occupation.”       This  is  echoed  in  the  report  Pay  Gaps  across  Equalities  Areas68  for  the  Equality  and  Human   Rights  Commission,  where  it  states:  “All  groups  of  ethnic  minority  women  and  men,  except   Indian  and  Chinese  men,  experience  pay  gaps  relative  to  white  British  men.”   The  LSE  report  also  makes  clear  that  higher  pay  does  not  mean  that  the  relevant  group  is   free  of  discrimination.  It  states:  “Although  Chinese  men  are  one  of  the  highest  paid  groups,   they  are  paid  11%  less  than  would  be  expected  allowing  for  their  qualifications.”      

Occupational  segregation  
The  Business  Commission  reports  that  ethnic  communities  are  concentrated  in  particular   fields  of  work.  “These  include  public  administration,  health,  distribution  and  hospitality.   Outside  these  sectors  they  are  under-­‐represented  in  both  private  and  public  sectors.  Across   all  sectors  many  ethnic  minority  employees  feel  underemployed  given  their  skills  and   qualifications.  Progress  in  improving  ethnic  minority  employment  rates  is  the  same  for   public  and  private  sector,  although  in  the  public  sector  promotion  prospects  are  better  for   people  from  ethnic  minorities.”    
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 Poverty  among  ethnic  groups:  how  and  why  does  it  differ?  By  Peter  Kenway  and  Guy  Palmer,  New  Policy   Institute,  for  the  Joseph  Rowntree  Foundation  http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/2042-­‐ethnicity-­‐relative-­‐ poverty.pdf   67  An  Anatomy  of  Economic  Inequality  in  the  UK,  The  Centre  for  Analysis  of  Social  Exclusion,  London  School  of   Economics,  Report  of  the  National  Equality  Panel  for  the  Government  Equalities  Office,  2010,   http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/case/_new/publications/NEP.asp   68  Pay  Gaps  across  Equalities  Areas,  Simonetta  Longhi  and  Lucinda  Platt,  Institute  for  Social  and  Economic   Research,  University  of  Essex,  Research  Report  9,  Equality  and  Human  Rights  Commission   http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/pay_gaps_accross_equalities_areas.pdf

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This  has  been  borne  out  in  the  audiovisual  industries  where  levels  of  employment  of   minority  ethnic  workers  vary  depending  on  sector  and  on  occupation.  While  there  is  over-­‐ representation  in  low-­‐paid  grades  such  as  cleaners,  in  other  areas  there  is  serious  under-­‐ representation,  particularly  in  radio  broadcast,  post-­‐production  and  film.  While  this   averages  out  at  a  figure  equivalent  to  the  minority  ethnic  working  age  population  (7%),  half   of  the  industry’s  workforce  is  London-­‐based  where  the  percentage  of  the  minority  ethnic   working  age  population  is  24%  and  so  the  disproportionate  numbers  in  the  industry  are   even  more  evident.  69     Further  research70  concluded  that  minority  ethnic-­‐led  production  companies  felt  labelled,   pigeon-­‐holed  or  “ghettoised”  into  producing  programmes  and  films  for  minority  ethnic   audiences  or  involving  minority  ethnic  writers  and  actors.  BAME  actors  have  left  the  UK  to   develop  their  careers  in  the  USA  as  they  have  believed  that  they  would  find  more   opportunity  and  less  discrimination.  In  the  film  industry,  representation  is  so  poor  in  film   production  that  at  current  rates  of  progress  it  would  take  more  than  a  century  for  the   diversity  of  the  London  film  industry  workforce  to  match  that  of  London’s  overall  workforce.     Management   There  is  a  long  way  to  go  before  Britain’s  diversity  is  appropriately  represented  in   boardrooms.  A  report  for  the  Government  Equalities  Office71  states  that  only  27  out  of  the   FTSE  100  companies  had  any  ethnic  minority  directors  and  there  is  little  ethnic  diversity  in   UK  corporations  in  general.  Only  4.7%  of  FTSE  100  directors  were  BAME.  They  find  that   while  disparities  are  also  apparent  on  boards  of  directors  in  the  public  sector,  these  boards   tend  to  have  better  representation.  Of  about  18,500  public  appointments,  as  of  March  2008   about  5.7%  were  BAME.     Overseas-­‐qualified  ethnic  minority  senior  staff   These  figures  are  however  an  overestimate  of  the  progress  made  by  the  UK’s  BAME   community  into  top  jobs.  A  further  report72  states  that  a  review  of  the  FTSE  100  found  that   while  the  4.7%  figure  for  BAME  directorships,  an  increase,  “is  good  news  it  is  heavily   dependent  on  the  recruitment  of  ethnic  minority  directors  from  overseas.  There  are  eight   BAME  women  in  total  on  FTSE  100  Boards  ...  However,  all  hold  non-­‐executive  positions  and   only  one  woman  is  a  British  national.”     This  issue  can  also  be  found  in  the  NHS.  Health  and  Social  Care  Information  Centre  data   indicated  that  of  39,088  consultants  in  NHS  employment  in  England  in  September  2011   about  30%  were  known  to  be  ethnic  minority.  But  when  all  those  who  qualified  overseas  are  

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 Move  on  Up,  evaluation,  Dr  Iona  Jones,  Imagine  Associates    Researching  the  independent  production  sector:  a  focus  on  minority  ethnic  led  companies  Emma  Pollard,   Elaine  Sheppard,  Penny  Tamkin  and  Robert  Barkworth,  report  produced  for  PACT  and  the  UK  Film  Council,   http://www.employment-­‐studies.co.uk/pdflibrary/pactukfc.pdf   71  Increasing  diversity  on  public  and  private  sector  boards  Dr  Ruth  Sealy,  Elena  Doldor  and  Prof  Susan   Vinnicombe,  International  Centre  for  Women  Leaders,  Cranfield  School  of  Management,  for  the  Government   Equalities  office   72  Race  to  the  Top:  the  place  of  ethnic  minority  groups  within  the  UK  workforce  Race  for  Opportunity,  Business   in  the  Community

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taken  out  of  these  figures,  the  number  of  UK  qualified  BAME  consultants  is  under  10%73.  Of   1,055  Black  or  Black  British  consultants  only  197  were  UK  qualified74.     Progress?   The  comparison  of  recent  research  and  experiences  with  those  of  a  decade  ago  or  longer   shows  that  the  issues  identified  then  are  the  same  as  those  identified  now,  and  the   statistical  evidence  indicates  that  insufficient  overall  progress  has  been  made.     There  are  ominous  signs  that  not  only  is  progress  coming  to  a  halt,  but  the  recession  is   devastating  some  communities  far  more  than  others.  This  was  emphasised  in  March  2012   by  the  publication  of  data  from  the  Office  of  National  Statistics  revealing  that  out  of  the   economically  active  16-­‐24  age  group  55.9%  of  Black  men  and  39.1%  of  Black  women  were   unemployed  compared  with  23.9%  of  white  men  and  17.2%  of  white  women.     For  half  of  a  community’s  economically  active  young  people  to  be  unemployed  will   devastate  that  community  for  generations  unless  it  is  addressed  with  supreme  urgency.    

Is  this  race  discrimination?    

Is  race  discrimination  really  the  cause  of  this  inequality?  The  Department  for  Work  and   Pensions  commissioned  a  study75  “to  collect  factual  evidence  to  test  the  assertion  that   discrimination  is  a  significant  factor  affecting  labour  market  outcomes  for  members  of   ethnic  minorities”.  The  study  was  a  field  experiment  in  which  matched  pairs  of  job   applications  were  submitted  in  response  to  job  advertisements  in  the  public  sector  and   private  sector  in  seven  British  cities.  Ethnic  identity  was  conveyed  using  names  widely   associated  with  the  ethnic  groups  included  in  the  survey.  These  names  were  randomly   assigned  to  each  application.  The  employers’  responses  were  monitored  with  the  key   positive  outcome  being  a  call-­‐back  for  interview.     The  survey  found  that,  looking  at  the  pairs  of  applications  in  which  either  or  both  were   called  to  interview,  39%  of  BAME  applicants  got  through  compared  with  68%  of  white   applicants.  Put  differently,  10.7%  of  the  987  “white”  applications  received  a  positive   response  compared  to  6.2%  of  the  1,974  “ethnic  minority”  applications.  They  concluded   that  ethnic  minorities  had  to  send  16  applications  for  one  successful  outcome  compared  to   nine  for  white  applicants.       The  difference  between  the  public  and  private  sectors  was  even  more  shocking.  The  survey   found  that  4%  of  public  sector  employers  were  likely  to  have  discriminated  on  the  grounds   of  race  –  compared  with  35%  of  private  sector  employers.     The  report  added:  “The  level  of  racial  discrimination  was  found  to  be  high  across  all  ethnic   groups.  Although  there  was  some  variation  in  the  level,  ranging  from  21%  for  
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excluding dental specialties excluding dental specialties 75  A  test  of  racial  discrimination  in  recruitment  practice  in  British  cities  –  research  report  no  67  Martin  Wood,   Jon  Hales,  Susan  Purdon,  Tanja  Sejersen  and  Oliver  Hayllar,  National  Centre  for  Social  Research  on  behalf  of   the  DWP  http://research.dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd5/rports2009-­‐2010/rrep607.pdf  

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Pakistani/Bangladeshi  names  to  32%  for  Indian,  Chinese  and  Black  Caribbean  names,  the   differences  between  the  groups  were  not  statistically  significant.”     There  was  a  high  level  of  discrimination  for  applications  of  both  genders,  though  somewhat   higher  among  male  applicants  –  32%  to  26%  for  women.     The  survey  noted  that  where  the  employer’s  own  form  had  been  used  there  was  virtually  no   net  discrimination,  compared  to  38%  where  a  CV  had  been  sent.  They  comment  that  this   may  relate  to  employer  forms  often  being  designed  so  that  personal  details  could  be   detached  before  the  sifting  process.  These  measures  may  also  be  associated  with   organisations  with  dedicated  HR  functions  and  well-­‐developed  procedures.     The  survey  concludes:  “The  random  assignment  of  names  to  convey  ethnicity  in  applications   in  this  correspondence  test  means  there  are  no  plausible  explanations  for  the  difference  in   treatment  found  between  white  and  ethnic  minority  names  other  than  racial   discrimination.”  It  continued:  “Candidates  were  denied  access  to  a  range  of  jobs  in  a  range   of  sectors  across  British  cities  as  a  result  of  having  a  name  associated  with  an  ethnic   minority  background.”     Types  of  discrimination   The  authors  of  the  report  raised  the  possibility  that  a  great  deal  of  ethnic  disadvantage  in   the  private  sector  is  unintentional  and  unrecognised  by  senior  management.   The  Business  Commission  report  concurs  with  this.  It  states  that  discrimination  takes  one  of   several  forms:   -­‐  Straightforward  racial  prejudice  at  the  level  of  individual  managers;   -­‐  Less  specific  kinds  of  harassment  or  victimisation  that  drive  ethnic  minorities  to  resign  or   prevent  their  application;   -­‐  Workplace  cultures  that  unintentionally  result  in  discrimination.  In  particular  informal,   word  of  mouth  recruitment  practices  including  hiring  “who  you  know”  rather  than  casting   the  net  wider.  It  is  a  well-­‐researched  phenomenon  that  people  prefer  to  hire  others  in  their   own  image,  so  in  the  absence  of  any  formal  application  process  diversity  is  not  going  to   progress.     -­‐  Stereotyping  and  preconceived  notions  about  ethnic  minorities.  The  Cranfield  report  for   example  noted  that  employers  attributed  lack  of  ethnic  minorities  at  board  level  to  a  lack  of   skills  or  qualifications  to  be  on  boards.  The  researchers  found  no  evidence  that  any  skills  or   qualification  deficit  existed.  Stereotyping  also  serves  to  exacerbate  the  concentration  of  the   BAME  workforce  in  certain  areas  and  underrepresentation  elsewhere.       Informal  recruitment  practices  and  stereotyping  have  been  widely  recognised  in  the   broadcasting  industry  for  example,  and  the  success  of  media  and  entertainment  union   BECTU’s  industry-­‐wide  Move  on  Up  diversity  initiative  for  example  has  been  attributed  to  its   focus  on  breaking  down  stereotypes  and  cultivating  personal  contacts  for  minority  ethnic   professionals  with  industry  executives.  In  nine  events  over  10  years  BECTU  –  in  partnership   primarily  with  the  BBC  but  also  with  sector  skills  council  Creative  Skillset  and  a  wide  range  of   private  sector  organisations  including  ITV,  Sky  and  independent  production  companies  –  has   set  up  more  than  5,000  one-­‐to-­‐one  meetings  between  more  than  1,000  minority  ethnic   professionals  and  500  industry  executives  who  had  been  sent  their  CVs  in  advance.    

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This  has  led  to  many  people  going  on  to  obtain  jobs,  programme  commissions  and  other   opportunities  and  boosting  their  confidence.  Hundreds  of  executives,  some  of  whom  had   thought  that  the  BAME  workforce  was  very  small  and  overwhelmingly  young  and   underqualified,  discovered  that  the  BME  workforce  has  in  fact  a  large  cadre  of  mature,   highly  experienced  and  well  qualified  professionals.     The  Business  Commission  also  concludes  that  employers’  response  to  this  issue  has  been   “inadequate”.  Their  survey  of  1,000  businesses  revealed  that  42%  could  not  articulate   reasons  for  their  company  to  take  steps  to  promote  race  equality;  61%  did  not  recognise  a   connection  between  diversity  and  business  performance;  83%  did  not  believe  they  would   face  formal  investigation  of  their  employment  practices  or  that  an  employee  would  ever   take  them  to  a  tribunal.     Among  the  rationales  they  heard  for  why  companies  were  not  taking  any  action  was  that   race  equality  is  not  an  issue  because  they  do  not  have  any  ethnic  minority  employees;  white   staff  resent  measures  to  tackle  race  inequality;  and  that  all  they  want  to  do  is  “hire  the  best”   and  in  promoting  race  equality  they  are  being  asked  to  lower  standards.     Other  issues   The  Task  Force  endorses  the  conclusions  of  the  Liberal  Democrat  working  group  on   inequality  which  indicate  that  class  is  a  major  factor  driving  inequality.  Class  can  be  seen  to   be  underlying  the  disparity  in  employment  and  income  of  different  ethnic  groups:  while  all   minority  ethnic  groups  have  been  shown  (above)  to  suffer  discrimination,  the  damage  is   greater,  and  different,  for  those  where  a  greater  proportion  are  working  class.     For  example,  statistics  show  that  Britain’s  Indian  community  has  higher  levels  of  educational   outcome,  employment  and  pay  than  most  other  ethnic  minority  groups.  Research76  traces   the  roots  of  this  to  British  immigration  policy  in  the  mid-­‐20th  century  and  the  failure  of  the   education  system  to  train  sufficient  numbers  for  the  newly  expanding  NHS.  Faced  with   shortages  of  doctors,  the  government  recruited  professionally  qualified  personnel  primarily   from  India,  which  had  a  health  system  that  mirrored  that  of  Britain  and  whose  qualifications   were  transferable  to  the  NHS.       The  emigration  of  British-­‐trained  doctors  –  at  one  point  estimated  at  30-­‐50%  of  medical   graduates  –  to  other  countries  where  pay  was  higher  than  the  NHS,  increased  the  inward   migration  of  medical  professionals  from  India  and  to  a  lesser  extent  Pakistan.  By  1971  31%   of  all  doctors  working  in  the  NHS  in  England  were  born  and  qualified  overseas.  Half  a   century  later,  the  legacy  for  the  British-­‐Indian  community  is  to  have  a  larger  proportion  in   the  middle  class  than  other  minority  communities.    

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 Immigration  and  the  National  Health  Service:  putting  history  to  the  forefront  by  Stephanie  Snow  and  Emma   Jones,  Wellcome  Research  Associates  in  the  Centre  for  the  History  of  Science,  Technology  &  Medicine,   University  of  Manchester,  http://www.historyandpolicy.org/papers/policy-­‐paper-­‐118.html  

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  The  Task  Force  has  identified  three  other  factors  affecting  ethnic  minority  employment:    

Skills  and  training    

Research  has  shown77  that  workers  in  the  lowest  paid  jobs  have  poor  access  to  training,  so   BAME  workers  who  are  concentrated  in  these  jobs  are  likely  to  be  disproportionately   affected.  In  addition,  earlier  TUC  research78  showed  that  employees  in  non-­‐unionised   workplaces  were  far  less  likely  to  ever  have  been  offered  training  than  those  in  unionised   areas.  36%  of  non-­‐union  BAME  employees  have  never  been  offered  training  compared  with   just  16%  in  unionised  workplaces.       However,  further  research  into  participation  in  adult  learning  indicates  that  overall  ethnic   minority  groups  are  more  likely  to  participate  in  taught  learning  than  the  white  population   (as  opposed  to  self-­‐directed  learning).  Black  and  mixed  origin  communities  have  higher  rates   of  participation  in  adult  learning  (54%  compared  with  34%  of  economically  inactive  white   people)  and  are  more  likely  to  be  benefiting  from  taught  learning,  and  learning  towards  a   qualification.  There  is  anecdotal  and  other  evidence  to  suggest  that  many  Black  students   who  feel  they  have  been  let  down  by  the  school  system  (see  above),  on  reaching  adulthood   go  back  into  learning  as  mature  students  in  order  to  achieve  the  outcome  they  had  been   denied79.    

Access  to  capital  for  business  

The  Task  Force  agrees  with  the  feedback  made  to  the  government’s  Ethnic  Minority   Advisory  Group  in  201280  which  observed  that  there  is  a  perception  of   discrimination/prejudice  in  decision  making;  many  minority  ethnic  potential  applicants  do   not  believe  they  will  be  successful  at  securing  finance;  and  poor  take-­‐up  of  professional   business  support,  linked  with  a  perception  that  the  business  lack  cultural  understanding.   The  Bank  of  England81  acknowledges  that  some  ethnic  minority  businesses  perceive  that   they  are  treated  adversely,  and  “whether  or  not  discrimination  exists,  the  steps  that  need  to   be  taken  by  banks  and  other  finance  providers  to  counteract  either  actual  or  perceived   discrimination  are  the  same  in  both  cases”.     The  Task  Force  endorses  the  commitment  in  the  government’s  equality  strategy  to  lift  the   barriers  faced  by  ethnic  minority  businesses  in  accessing  finance  and  the  work  of  Liberal   Democrat  minister  Don  Foster  in  taking  this  forward  and  urges  that  this  policy  is  given  full   support.      
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 The  EHRC  Triennial  Review:  Developing  the  Employment  Evidence  Base  Deborah  Smeaton,  Maria  Hudson,   Dragos  Radu  and  Kim  Vowden,  Policy  Studies  Institute   78  Workplace  Training:  A  race  for  opportunity,  TUC   79  Equality  and  Human  Rights  Commission  Triennial  Review:  Education  (Lifelong  Learning),  Participation  in   Adult  Learning  Peter  Jones,  School  of  Education,  University  of  Southampton   80  http://www.dwp.gov.uk/docs/emag-­‐minutes-­‐190412.pdf   81  The  Financing  of  Ethnic  Minority  Firms  in  the  United  Kingdom:  a  special  report   http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/Documents/financeforsmallfirms/ethnic.pdf

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Contrast  between  public  and  private  sector  progress  
The  Task  Force  notes  that  the  level  of  discrimination  faced  by  BAME  workers  is  substantially   greater  for  those  in  the  private  sector  than  it  is  in  the  public  sector.  The  Task  Force  believes   this  is  due  to  the  greater  legal  requirements  placed  on  the  public  sector  not  only  to  avoid   discrimination  but  to  actively  take  steps  to  increase  diversity  and  inclusion.  These   requirements,  set  out  in  the  “public  sector  duty”  enshrined  in  the  Equality  Act,  are  absent  in   the  private  sector.  The  result  could  be  seen  from  the  responses  to  the  Business  Commission   survey  in  which  almost  half  were  unable  to  say  why  they  should  promote  race  equality  and   nearly  all  assumed  that  they  would  never  face  legal  challenge  over  their  employment   practices.     An  additional  reason  for  the  greater  equality  in  the  public  sector  is  that  the  greater  level  of   trade  union  recognition  in  the  sector  has  allowed  unions  to  campaign  successfully  for  the   introduction  of  fairer  employment  policies  and  stronger  anti-­‐discrimination  measures.     Current  Conservative  proposals   The  Conservatives’  moves  to  weaken  key  parts  of  the  Equality  Act  2010  arise  from  the  belief   that  aspects  of  the  Act  are  “unnecessary  or  disproportionate  burdens  on  business”.  All  the   evidence  leads  the  Task  Force  to  conclude  that  this  is  completely  the  wrong  approach.       The  proposals,  contained  within  the  Enterprise  and  Regulatory  Reform  Bill,  include  repealing   the  protection  from  third  party  harassment.  This  protection  makes  the  employer  liable  for   repeated  racist,  sexist  or  other  prejudice-­‐based  harassment  of  staff  by  third  parties,  where   the  employer  has  failed  to  take  reasonable  steps  to  protect  them.  The  Task  Force  is  well   aware  of  the  need  for  ethnic  minority  workers  particularly  in  public-­‐facing  roles  to  have  this   protection.  Employers  looking  after  their  staff  properly  should  have  no  reason  to  oppose   this  protection.     The  proposals  seek  to  abolish  the  new  power  that  enables  employment  tribunals  to   recommend  that  an  employer  found  guilty  of  unlawful  discrimination  should  take  specific   steps  to  prevent  others  suffering  similarly.  Surely  a  government  that  wishes  to  prevent   unlawful  discrimination  should  be  actively  supporting  this  measure  rather  than  abolishing  it.     They  also  seek  to  repeal  the  statutory  discrimination  questionnaire  procedure  which   enables  an  individual  who  believes  they  have  been  discriminated  against  to  seek   information  from  their  employer.  This  legislation  has  been  in  place  since  before  the  last   Conservative  government  took  office  in  1979  and  has  stood  the  test  of  time.  The   government  says  that  it  wishes  to  encourage  early  settlement  in  order  to  avoid  the  need  for   tribunals;  the  use  of  the  questionnaire  prevents  ill-­‐founded  litigation  and  can  promote  early   settlement.  83%  of  those  responding  to  the  government’s  consultation  opposed  repeal   including  the  President  and  Regional  Employment  Judges  of  the  Employment  Tribunals,   stating  that  this  would  be  a  retrograde  step.     The  Task  Force  notes  that  the  proposals  came  in  the  wake  of  the  Red  Tape  Challenge  public   consultation  which  sought  to  remove  burdensome  bureaucracy.  It  also  notes,  however,  that  

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the  7,000  responses  to  the  consultation  were  overwhelmingly  supportive  of  the  Equality   Act.  The  proposals  are  therefore  not  reflective  of  the  consultation  responses.       The  plans,  coupled  with  the  new  charges  of  £250  to  initiate  a  discrimination  claim,  £950  for   a  hearing  and  further  fees  as  the  claim  progresses,  would  have  the  effect  of  reversing   progress  towards  diversity  and  integration  in  the  workplace  and  indeed  in  society  at  large   and  making  it  more  difficult  for  ordinary  people  to  obtain  redress.       Of  great  concern  to  the  Task  Force  was  the  plan  to  review  the  Public  Sector  Equality  Duty.  It   should  be  remembered  that  the  establishment  of  the  Public  Sector  Equality  Duty  was  the   direct  result  of  the  Macpherson  Inquiry  into  the  Metropolitan  Police  Service’s  failure  to   properly  investigate  and  prosecute  the  racist  murder  of  Stephen  Lawrence.  The  report   identified  that  institutional  racism  affected  the  MPS,  and  it  was  defined  as  “The  collective   failure  of  an  organisation  to  provide  an  appropriate  and  professional  service  to  people   because  of  their  colour,  culture  or  ethnic  origin.”       In  2002  a  positive  duty  was  placed  on  public  authorities  requiring  them  to  have  “due   regard”  to  the  need  to  prevent  unlawful  race  discrimination,  to  promote  racial  equality  and   to  foster  good  relations  in  all  that  they  do.  It  meant  that  organizations  had  to  take  a   proactive  and  collective  approach  rather  than  merely  reacting  to  individual  complaints  of   discrimination  when  they  occurred  and  could  be  proved.     The  Public  Sector  Equality  Duty,  as  shown  above,  has  been  particularly  effective  in  ensuring   that  the  public  sector  does  not  merely  try  to  avoid  discrimination  but  takes  active  steps  to   foster  diversity.  The  DWP  2009  investigation  has  demonstrated  that  it  has  indeed  changed   attitudes.       Liberal  Democrats  are  and  should  remain  committed  to  upholding  the  Public  Sector  Equality   Duty.         Recommendation  24   The  Task  Force  endorses  Nick  Clegg’s  statement that  “Our  equalities  legislation  is  considered   the  best  in  Europe  and  has  transformed  discrimination  in  the  workplace.  The  Equality  Act  is  a   cornerstone  of  the  UK’s  culture  of  fairness.  It  isn’t  there  for  employers  to  pick  and  choose   from.  And  it  is  not  going  away.”       We  recommend  that  Liberal  Democrats  oppose  all  attempts  to  weaken  the  Equality  Act,  and   further  to  demand  full  implementation  of  the  Act,  including  the  adoption  of  all  Statutory   Codes  of  Practice,  as  envisaged  when  the  Liberal  Democrats  in  Parliament  voted  for  its   passage  into  law.  These  include  Statutory  Codes  of  Practice  on  the  Public  Sector  Equality   Duty  and  on  Schools  and  the  Further  and  Higher  Education  sector,  which  are  currently  set   out  merely  as  technical  guidance.     Recommendation  25   The  Task  Force  endorses  Nick  Clegg’s  acknowledgement  that  there  has  been  insufficient   progress  in  the  private  sector.     44

  Further,  the  Task  Force  notes  the  recommendation  of  the  Business  Commission  in  2009   which  stated  that  the  government  should  assess  in  2012  whether  the  private  sector  has   made  enough  progress  in  promoting  race  equality  to  support  the  goal  of  reducing  the  ethnic   minority  gap  to  12  percentage  points  by  2015,  reports  its  findings  publicly,  and  if  it  finds   insufficient  progress  has  been  made,  brings  in  legislation  that  obliges  private  sector   employers  to  promote  workplace  race  equality.”       The  Task  Force  recommends  that  the  government,  through  its  position  as  the  UK’s  major   purchaser,  uses  its  leverage  over,  and  relationships  with,  private  sector  companies  to   motivate  the  private  sector  to  promote  race  equality.     This  can  be  achieved  through  contract  conditions  to  ensure  suppliers  improve  their  practices,   and  we  recommend  that  government  establish  a  public  sector-­‐wide  procurement  policy  to   use  more  robust  pre-­‐qualification  questions  and  contract  conditions  to  promote  race   equality  in  the  workplace.  It  should  do  this  in  a  way  that  does  not  impose  undue  burdens  on   small  companies.       The  Task  Force  believes  that  our  party  through  its  democratic  framework  should  be  given   the  opportunity  to  debate  whether  the  Equality  Duty  currently  applicable  to  the  public   sector  should  be  extended  to  the  private  sector  as  a  duty  to  promote  workplace  equality,  as   envisaged  by  the  Business  Commission.     The  Task  Force  endorses  the  commitment  in  the  Liberal  Democrat  2010  Manifesto  requiring   name-­‐blind  job  applications  to  reduce  discrimination  in  employment,  initially  for  every   company  with  over  100  employees.     Transparency   The  Task  Force  applauds  and  endorses  the  commitments  to  transparency  in  the   Government  Equality  Policy:  “Shining  a  light  on  inequalities  and  giving  individuals  and  local   communities  the  tools  and  information  they  need  to  challenge  organisations  that  are  not   offering  fair  opportunities,  and  public  services  that  are  not  delivering  effectively  for  all  the   people  they  serve.”     The  Task  Force  is  aware  of  ample  evidence  to  show  that  equality  monitoring,  particularly  in   relation  to  private  sector  recipients  of  public  funding  and  other  benefits,  is  patchy,  and  even   where  it  is  required  there  has  been  a  tendency  to  refuse  public  access  to  it.  The  Task  Force   believes  that  the  public  has  the  right  to  know  how  well  those  in  receipt  of  public  money  and   other  benefits  are  reflecting  the  diversity  of  our  society.     Recommendation  26   The  Task  Force  recommends  that  all  private  sector  companies  and  third  sector  organisations   that  are  in  receipt  of  money,  licences  or  other  benefits  awarded  on  behalf  of  the  public  –   whether  funding,  broadcasting  licences  or  former  public  sector  contracts  –  be  obliged  to   carry  out  equality  monitoring,  send  this  to  the  funding  body,  regulator  or  commissioner  

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which  in  turn  shall  be  required  to  publish  this  data  for  each  named  company  or  licence  on  an   annual  basis.     Increase  effectiveness  at  government  level   The  Task  Force  endorses  the  Coalition’s  commitment  “Embedding  equality:  leading  by   example  and  embedding  equality  in  everything  we  do  in  government  as  an  integral  part  of   our  policies  and  programmes”.     Recommendation  27   The  Task  Force  recommends  the  implementation  and  embedding  of  this  policy  into  the  quasi-­‐ non-­‐governmental  organizations,  regulators  and  other  public  bodies.  In  particular  they   should  ensure  that  these  organizations  understand  and  accept  that  equality  is  part  of  their   remit  and  that  enforcement,  on  behalf  of  the  public,  of  contract  compliance  and  real   accountability  through  transparency  on  equality  of  funding  recipients,  licencees  and   contractors  is  a  key  part  of  their  role  on  which  they  will  be  measured.     Recommendation  28   The  Task  Force  endorses  the  Coalition’s  work  in  setting  up  the  Ministerial  Group  on   Equalities.  It  recommends  that  the  group  assign  responsibility  for  each  equality  strand  to   ensure  that  no  strand  is  left  behind  and  that  each  strand  has  its  own  plan  of  action.     Recommendation  29   The  Task  Force  recommends  adoption  of  the  long  term  policy  ambition  of  eradicating  the   ethnic  minority  employment  gap  within  25  years  and  to  have  begun  to  see  a  closing  of  this   gap  by  the  next  election.        

Equality  and  Human  Rights  Commission  

The  Task  Force  is  concerned  about  proposals  currently  making  their  way  through  Parliament   which  make  changes  to  the  Equality  Act  and  the  EHRC.  They  would  remove  the  EHRC’s   specific  duty  to  foster  good  relations  in  society;  end  its  grants  programme  without  which   thousands  of  victims  of  discrimination  will  find  it  more  difficult  to  obtain  legal  advice.  Its   helpline,  which  has  dealt  with  over  40,000  calls  a  year,  has  been  privatised.    Since  2009  the   EHRC  has  provided  £14-­‐million  in  grant  funding  to  285  frontline  organisations  including  the   Citizens’  Advice  Bureaux,  Law  Centres,  Race  Equality  Councils  and  the  Disability  Law  Service.       The  government  is  also  cutting  the  budget  of  the  EHRC  to  such  a  vast  degree  that  its  budget   is  likely  to  be  lower  than  that  of  the  former  Commission  for  Racial  Equality  –  though  the   EHRC  covers  the  entire  equality  remit  plus  human  rights.  Regional  offices  of  EHRC  are  being   closed  in  response  to  budget  cuts  which  will  reduce  the  quality  of  service  to  the  public   outside  London.     The  swingeing  cuts  to  its  budget,  coupled  with  the  EHRC’s  accountability  to  the  Government   Equalities  Office  rather  than  Parliament,  has  serious  implications  for  the  independence  of   this  body  which  has  a  role  of  standing  up  to  government.  The  EHRC  is  recognised  by  the   United  Nations  as  a  national  human  rights  institution  with  the  highest  “A”  status,  but  this  is   46

contingent  upon  the  EHRC  retaining  its  independence  and  not  being  subject  to  financial   control  that  might  compromise  its  independence.  Indeed,  the  correspondence  revealed  in   October  between  the  Home  Secretary  and  the  United  Nations  indicates  that  the   Conservative  Home  Secretary’s  proposals  could  result  in  the  EHRC  losing  its  top  rating  and   therefore  the  UK  could  no  longer  engage  fully  in  the  UN  Human  Rights  Council.  The  Task   Force  believes  that  this  new  evidence  increases  the  case  for  the  current  proposals  to  be   dropped.     Recommendation  30   The  Task  Force  recommends  maintaining  the  wider  role  of  the  EHRC  to  enable  the   organisation  to  play  a  leading  role  in  changing  attitudes,  and  we  endorse  the  Business   Commission  recommendation  that  the  EHRC  conduct  two  sector-­‐based  reviews  each  year,  to   result  in  agreed  action  plans  for  improving  performance  in  ethnic  minority  recruitment,   retention  and  promotion.  Where  companies  or  sectors  who  sign  up  to  action  plans  do  not   take  necessary  steps,  then  as  a  last  resort  the  EHRC  should  use  its  powers  to  conduct  formal   investigations.     The  Task  Force  further  recommends  reinstating  funding  to  the  EHRC  to  2010  levels  and  that   meaningful  resources  are  allocated  to  each  equality  strand  within  the  EHRC  to  ensure  that   attention  is  focussed  on  all  strands.     The  Task  Force  further  recommends  that  action  is  taken  to  ensure  that  the  EHRC’s   independence  from  government  is  upheld  and  not  undermined.     Effectiveness  of  the  EHRC  is  even  more  important  if  the  duty  to  promote  equality  is  not   extended  to  the  private  sector.    

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  Conclusion  
The  Task  Force  concludes  that  while  substantial  progress  has  been  made  towards  closing   the  attainment  gap  in  the  education  system,  serious  problems  remain.  The  incorporation  of   the  Ethnic  Minority  Achievement  Grant  funding  into  the  Dedicated  Schools  Grant,  coupled   with  downgrading  equality  and  community  cohesion  in  the  Ofsted  school  inspection  critera,   creates  a  danger  of  the  gap  widening  again.  And  while  race  equality  legislation  brought   about  some  progress  within  the  public  sector,  the  Labour  government  failed  to  act  to  ensure   that  equivalent  progress  was  made  in  the  private  sector.       The  adoption  of  the  “holistic  approach”  to  equality  combined  with  a  move  away  from   addressing  the  particular  sets  of  issues  faced  by  each  equality  strand  has  been  at  a  cost  to   the  ethnic  minority  population,  which  collectively  has  been  and  continues  to  be  the  target   of  sustained  discrimination  on  the  grounds  of  their  race.     The  government’s  equality  strategy  extends  Labour’s  policy,  even  echoing  former   Conservative  Prime  Minister  Margaret  Thatcher’s  view  that  “there  is  no  such  thing  as   society”  in  its  description  of  the  strategy  as  “one  that  moves  away  from  treating  people  as   groups  or  ‘equality  strands’  and  instead  recognises  that  we  are  a  nation  of  62-­‐million   individuals.”82     This  move  has  allowed  governments  to  focus  on  preferred  areas  of  equality.  For  example   there  has  been  a  very  welcome  long  running  campaign  by  both  the  Labour  and  the  Coalition   governments  to  achieve  more  women  in  boardrooms.  But  the  Task  Force  has  noted  that   there  has  been  no  similar  call  for  more  minority  ethnic  directors.       The  government’s  Equality  Strategy  aims  to  ensure  that  all  England’s  very  diverse   communities  –  demographic,  economic,  social,  religious  and  ethnic  can  flourish.  However,   the  Task  Force  is  extremely  concerned  that  ‘integration’  is  not  allowed  to  become  conflated   with  the  concept  of  ‘assimilation’  which  insists  upon  a  conformity  that  negates  diversity   instead  of  celebrating  it.  Liberal  Democrats  do  not  believe  that  “multiculturalism  is  dead”  as   some  in  the  media  and  other  political  parties  would  have  us  believe.  Whilst  it  is  important  to   unite  around  the  many  things  we  have  in  common,  it  remains  important  to  celebrate  our   different  cultures  and  embrace  diversity  not  smother  it.     The  loss  of  focus  on  race,  according  to  the  Runnymede  Trust,  has  even  led  many  to  believe   that  that  the  “race  issue”  has  been  resolved.  The  Task  Force  believes,  on  the  contrary,  that   there  is  now  an  even  greater  need  for  real  action.     A  new  Liberal  Democrat  approach   The  Task  Force  believes  that  the  information  presented  in  this  report  shows  not  only  the   weaknesses  contained  in  the  Labour  and  Conservative  approaches,  but  also  that  there  are  

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 The  Equality  Strategy  –  Building  a  Fairer  Britain  HM  Government  2010  

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overwhelming  grounds  for  a  new  Liberal  Democrat  approach  which  builds  on  its  successful   social  mobility  agenda.       The  Liberal  Democrats  exist  to  build  and  safeguard  a  fair,  free  and  open  society  in  which  we   seek  to  balance  the  fundamental  values  of  liberty,  equality  and  community,  and  in  which   no-­‐one  shall  be  enslaved  by  poverty,  ignorance  and  conformity.  This  creed,  set  out  in  the   preamble  to  the  party’s  constitution,  goes  on  to  say:  “We  champion  the  freedom,  dignity   and  well-­‐being  of  individuals,  we  acknowledge  and  respect  their  right…  to  develop  their   talents  to  the  full.  We  aim  to  disperse  power,  to  foster  diversity  and  to  nurture  creativity.   We  believe  that  the  role  of  the  state  is  to  enable  all  citizens  to  attain  these  ideals”.     In  furtherance  of  this,  the  Task  Force’s  30  recommendations  are  designed  to  ensure  that   real  action  is  taken,  that  in  line  with  the  Coalition  Agreement  public  bodies  and  private  and   third  sector  organisations  in  receipt  of  money  or  other  benefits  awarded  on  behalf  of  the   public  are  held  to  account  through  enhanced  transparency;  that  quangos,  regulators,   funding  bodies  and  other  arms’  length  public  organisations  are  made  to  understand  that   race  equality  and  contract  compliance  are  within  their  remit  upon  which  they  will  be   measured.       In  these  straitened  times  it  is  crucial  that  within  education  the  funding  earmarked   specifically  to  address  race  equality  and  the  needs  of  the  underprivileged  are  used  for  these   purposes,  ensuring  that  the  decisions  on  how  to  use  these  resources  remain  local,  within   the  power  of  schools.  It  is  also  clear  that  urgent  action  is  necessary  to  address,  as  quickly  as   possible,  the  pressing  problems  within  education  such  as  the  under-­‐representation  of  BAME   teachers  including  at  senior  level;  and  what  is  emerging  in  some  schools  as  over-­‐reliance  on   exclusion  as  a  disciplinary  tool  and  the  discriminatory  use  of  it  against  Black  Caribbean   pupils.     The  Task  Force’s  recommendations,  particularly  with  regard  to  employment,  build  upon  the   approach  of  our  party  leader  Nick  Clegg  who  in  the  Scarman  Lecture  2011  referred  to   “another  front  in  the  war  on  race  inequality  that  is  too  often  neglected:  economic   opportunity.”       We  applaud  his  recognition  that  “We  must  not  confuse  diversity  and  tolerance  with  a  real   level  playing  field  where  opportunities  are  open  to  all.  They  are  not  the  same  thing.  The  real   lesson  from  the  last  30  years  is  this:  It  is  not  enough  for  a  society  to  reject  bigotry.  Because   real  equality  is  not  just  the  absence  of  prejudice.  It  is  the  existence  of  fairness  and   opportunity  too.     “Greater  fairness  in  the  public  sector  is  an  important  achievement.  But  it  is  not  enough.  Real   equality  means  equality  of  opportunity  across  the  whole  of  the  economy,  the  whole  of   society.  Labour  tried  to  compensate  for  inequality  in  the  section  of  society  they  could   control  rather  than  trying  to  eliminate  it  across  the  board.”     Finally,  the  Task  Force  acknowledges  the  estimate  by  the  National  Audit  Office  that  the   overall  cost  to  the  economy  from  failure  to  fully  use  the  talents  of  people  from  ethnic   minorities  could  be  around  £8.6-­‐billion  annually.     49

  The  Task  Force  applauds  the  statement  by  Nick  Clegg  that  “If  we  tapped  into  the  full   potential  of  our  Black  and  ethnic  minority  communities,  just  imagine  the  benefits  and   prosperity  that  would  bring  for  society  as  a  whole.  If  all  workplaces  and  professions  were   open  to  Black  and  Asian  ideas  and  skills.  If  all  Black  entrepreneurs  and  businesses  could   borrow,  compete  and  grow  on  equal  terms.  Our  whole  economy  would  grow  faster.   Jobs  would  be  created  in  every  community.       “So  now  is  the  moment  to  unleash  Black  talent,  ethnic  minority  talent,  for  the  good  of  us  all.   We  must  aim  for  nothing  less  than  real  equality  of  opportunity  across  the  whole  of  our   society,  where  race  does  not  determine  destiny,  where  you  determine  your  destiny.  You   have  the  power  and  freedom  to  forge  your  own  path  instead.”    

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Appendix  
Recommendations  contained  within  the  report  are  as  follows:     Recommendation  1     Noting  that  the  first  five  years  of  a  child's  life  shapes  his  or  her  future,  it  is  essential  to  ensure   adequate  provision  of  affordable  and  accessible  childcare  including  through:   Further  training  for  those  wishing  to  enter  the  Early  Years  Workforce,  this  training  should   include  a  clear  focus  on  cultural  diversity  and  race  equality  and  on  the  need  to  ensure  that   the  more  disadvantaged  communities  have  equal  access.   Supporting  changes  to  the  free  childcare  entitlement  to  create  a  more  flexible  offer  that  in   turn  could  improve  the  chances  of  BAME  parents  of  obtaining  employment.   offer  that  in  turn  could  improve  the  chances  of  BAME  parents  of  obtaining  employment     Recommendation  2:   The  Task  Force  recommends  that  Ofsted  continue  to  monitor  expenditure  of  the  Pupil   Premium  to  ensure  that  it  is  used  for  the  purposes  for  which  it  was  intended  and  that  all   schools  are  properly  and  transparently  accountable  for  its  use.     The  Task  Force  further  recommends  that  in  order  to  prevent  a  reverse  of  the  progress  made   in  recent  years  towards  closing  the  ethnic  minority  achievement  gap,  the  Ethnic  Minority   Achievement  Grant  is  maintained,  that  schools  are  held  transparently  accountable  for  its   expenditure  and  that  the  Ofsted  inspection  framework  be  revised  to  reinstate  the   requirement  to  judge  schools  on  their  promotion  of  equality  of  opportunity  and  community   cohesion.   The  Task  Force  believes  that  local  coordination  of  action  is  essential  and  in  the  best  interests   of  children  in  local  communities  with  regard  to  the  use  of  the  Ethnic  Minority  Achievement   Grant.  It  therefore  recommends  that  if  this  inter-­‐school  coordination  is  lacking  then  local   authorities  utilise  their  powers  under  the  Local  Children  and  Young  People's  plan  to  ensure   that  proper  coordination  takes  place.     Recommendation  3   In  line  with  the  policy  outlined  in  “Black  Manifesto  2010”,  the  school  curriculum  should   properly  reflect  the  ethnic  diversity  of  the  country.  In  order  to  promote  understanding,  an   impartial  teaching  of  the  history  of  cultural  diversity  in  the  UK  as  well  as  Britain’s  historical   global  role  should  be  taught.     Recommendation  4   That  teacher  training  should  be  improved  in  order  to  equip  teachers  to  deal  with  issues  of   race  and  help  them  recognise  their  own  potential  unconscious  biases.   Recommendation  5   Noting  that  exclusion  of  pupils  from  school  is  used  far  more  widely  in  England  than  it  is  in   mainland  Europe,  the  Task  Force  recommends  that  the  Department  for  Education  implement   the  Children’s  Commissioner’s  report  into  the  prevention  of  and  positive  alternatives  to   exclusion.  It  should  also  develop  guidance  on  this.     51

The  Task  Force  further  recommends  that  the  Education  Act  should  be  amended  to  reinstate   the  right  of  appeals  panels,  when  they  find  that  a  school  has  unjustly  or  illegally  excluded  a   child,  to  have  the  power  to  order  the  child’s  return  to  the  school  from  which  they  were   excluded.       The  Task  Force  also  recommends  the  introduction  of  a  Schools  Ombudsman  to  deal  with   issues  of  discipline  and  to  enforce  a  proportional  response  by  schools  when  dealing  with  all   pupils  including  those  from  BAME  backgrounds.  This  could  be  accompanied  by  more   advocates  for  children  in  general.  Expelled  students  should  also  be  afforded  access  to  a   trained  advocate  to  ensure  that  they  are  properly  represented.     Recommendation  6   Schools  should  maintain  links  with  ex-­‐pupils  and  invite  successful  ex-­‐pupils  from  across  all   ethnicities  to  visit  and  talk  to  students.     Recommendation  7   The  Department  for  Education  should  establish  a  central  database  of  the  mentoring   programmes  operating  nationally  and  create  the  conditions  for  communications  between   the  programmes  to  share  examples  of  best  practice.  Best  practice  for  mentoring   programmes  of  this  nature  should  stress  the  importance  of  providing  race-­‐  and-­‐  gender   matched  role  models  for  BAME  children  in  the  education  system.     Recommendation  8   The  government  should  talk  to  pupils  and  students  about  their  education  experience,  they   should  use  these  conversations  to  produce  standard  language  regarding  what  pupils  can   expect  and  are  entitled  to  with  regard  to  their  educational  experience.  This  “Learners   Charter”  will  be  the  basis  by  which  all  pupils  can  expect  to  be  treated  and  will  have  direct   feed  in  from  those  learners  consulted.  This  document  should  be  updated  every  couple  of   years. Recommendation  9   The  Government  to  set  aside  a  certain  amount  of  research  funding,  from  the  general   education  research  budget,  for  research  specifically  of  race  issues.     Recommendation  10   Monitoring  be  employed  on  a  national  scale  to  track  the  success  of  policies  designed  to  bring   about  racial  equality.  Monitoring  enables  us  to  identify  inequalities  in  educational  practice   and  to  target  support  appropriately.       Recommendation  11   We  should  celebrate  every  aspect  of  British  culture  and  not  just  the  diverse  aspects.  Being   British  and  celebrating  that  means  celebrating  traditional  British  culture  on  an  equal  level  as   diverse  British  culture  and  BAME  culture  within  the  UK,  creating  an  equal  platform  and  an   area  in  which  all  of  British  culture  can  engage  and  communicate.       52

Recommendation  12   Launch  a  new  creative  national  campaign  to  address  literacy  and  generate  aspirational   capital  amongst  these  communities,  led  by  these  communities  with  government,  LEA  and   school  support,  in  order  to  increase  the  participation  of  Gypsy,  Roma  and  Traveller  (GRT)   children  in  secondary  education  as  they  feel  particularly  disenfranchised  from  the  education   system.     Recommendation  13   It  is  vital,  when  teaching  children  about  tolerance  and  racial  diversity,  that  Gypsy,  Roma  and   Irish  Travellers  are  included.    Any  teacher  training  aimed  to  improve  understanding  of   cultural  diversity  must  also  give  a  holistic  view  of  the  issues  surrounding  GRT  children.  The   Department  for  Education  should  commission  a  study  to  see  what  outreach  programmes,  for   example  home  visits,  have  been  shown  to  be  the  most  effective  interventions.   Recommendation  14   Require  the  Equality  and  Human  Rights  Commission  to  ensure  that  institutions  of  further  and   higher  education  are  enforcing  compliance  with  race  equality  legislation  in  further  and   higher  education.     Recommendation  15   Require  all  universities  to  be  fully  transparent  about  all  the  selection  criteria  used  to  evaluate   student  applications  for  places,  including  for  example  which  A-­‐level  subjects  are  likely  to   count  for  or  against  a  candidate.     Recommendation  16   Colleges  and  universities  should  adopt  a  zero-­‐tolerance  policy  regarding  racist  behaviour,   incorporate  race  awareness  more  effectively  into  staff  training,  and  increase  focus  on  social   inclusion  and  the  student  experience  both  within  and  outside  the  classroom.     Recommendation  17   The  Russell  Group  universities  should  improve  their  outreach  to  BAME  students  in  order  to   improve  their  under-­‐representation  in  these  institutions.   Recommendation  18   The  government  should  undertake  more  ethnic  monitoring  of  apprenticeships,  particularly  in   relation  to  application  success  rates.   The  government  should  provide  an  update  on  findings  and  next  steps  following  the   completion  of  its  diversity  pilots,  and  should  act  in  response  to  embed  the  learning  from  the   pilots  to  apprenticeships  nationally.     The  government’s  apprenticeships  review  should  include  a  focus  on  increasing  the  numbers   of  under-­‐represented  groups  on  apprenticeships  schemes.     Recommendation  19   Create  a  well  structured  and  financed  national  mentorship  and/or  shadowing  scheme.    

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  Recommendation  20   That  equality  monitoring  be  undertaken  at  a  systematic  level  at  school,  local  authority  and   national  levels.  Particular  monitoring  should  be  carried  out  of  BAME  teachers’  progress  on   the  leadership  scale.       Recommendation  21   Future  early  year  worker  and  teacher  training  programmes  should  ensure  that  there  is   proper  training  on  how  to  deal  with  students  from  different  ethnic  backgrounds  and  are   comfortable  with  issues  such  as  cultural  identity  and  equal  opportunities.  The  ability  to   display  an  understanding  of  the  issues  surrounding  cultural  diversity  and  race  equality   should  be  essential  in  order  to  pass  teacher  training.  Ensure  that  the  continued  professional   development  of  teachers  is  geared  towards  creating  a  better  understanding  of  issues   associated  with  pupils/students  from  different  ethnic  backgrounds  and  further  issues  like   cultural  identity  and  equal  opportunities.     Recommendation  22   Based  on  evidence  submitted  by  the  Runnymede  Trust,  the  Task  Force  recommends  that  the   Teaching  Agency  should  conduct  a  widespread  audit  of  the  needs  of  all  teacher  training   institutions  in  the  area  of  race  equality.  The  audit  should  include  the  assessing  of  the  needs   of  those  involved  in  teacher  training,  including  trainers,  lecturers  and  trainers.   The  Teaching  Agency  as  well  as  Ofsted  will  be  responsible  for  oversight  of  the  race  equality   teacher  training.  Both  bodies  will  appear  before  the  Education  Select  Committee  to  discuss   the  success  of  the  training  programme  and  to  identify  areas  for  improvement.   In  order  to  encourage  more  BAME  students  to  consider  a  career  in  teaching,  a  programme   should  be  developed  in  which  successful  BAME  educational  professionals  are  encouraged  to   visit  neighbouring  schools  to  tell  pupils  what  it  is  they  love  about  teaching,  how  they  got  into   it  and  the  levels  of  success  they  have  achieved.     Recommendation  23   The  Teaching  Agency  should  reintroduce  targets  to  recruit  ethnic  minority  teachers   (previously  organised  by  the  Training  and  Development  Agency  for  Schools)           Recommendation  24   The  Task  Force  endorses  Nick  Clegg’s  statement that  “Our  equalities  legislation  is  considered   the  best  in  Europe  and  has  transformed  discrimination  in  the  workplace.  The  Equality  Act  is  a   cornerstone  of  the  UK’s  culture  of  fairness.  It  isn’t  there  for  employers  to  pick  and  choose   from.  And  it  is  not  going  away.”       We  recommend  that  Liberal  Democrats  oppose  all  attempts  to  weaken  the  Equality  Act,  and   further  to  demand  full  implementation  of  the  Act,  including  the  adoption  of  all  Statutory   Codes  of  Practice,  as  envisaged  when  the  Liberal  Democrats  in  Parliament  voted  for  its   passage  into  law.  These  include  Statutory  Codes  of  Practice  on  the  Public  Sector  Equality   Duty  and  on  Schools  and  the  Further  and  Higher  Education  sector,  which  are  currently  set   out  merely  as  technical  guidance.  

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  Recommendation  25   The  Task  Force  endorses  Nick  Clegg’s  acknowledgement  that  there  has  been  insufficient   progress  in  the  private  sector.     Further,  the  Task  Force  notes  the  recommendation  of  the  Business  Commission  in  2009   which  stated  that  the  government  should  assess  in  2012  whether  the  private  sector  has   made  enough  progress  in  promoting  race  equality  to  support  the  goal  of  reducing  the  ethnic   minority  gap  to  12  percentage  points  by  2015,  reports  its  findings  publicly,  and  if  it  finds   insufficient  progress  has  been  made,  brings  in  legislation  that  obliges  private  sector   employers  to  promote  workplace  race  equality.”       The  Task  Force  recommends  that  the  government,  through  its  position  as  the  UK’s  major   purchaser,  uses  its  leverage  over,  and  relationships  with,  private  sector  companies  to   motivate  the  private  sector  to  promote  race  equality.     This  can  be  achieved  through  contract  conditions  to  ensure  suppliers  improve  their  practices,   and  we  recommend  that  government  establish  a  public  sector-­‐wide  procurement  policy  to   use  more  robust  pre-­‐qualification  questions  and  contract  conditions  to  promote  race   equality  in  the  workplace.  It  should  do  this  in  a  way  that  does  not  impose  undue  burdens  on   small  companies.   Recommendation  26   The  Task  Force  recommends  that  all  private  sector  companies  and  third  sector  organisations   that  are  in  receipt  of  money,  licences  or  other  benefits  awarded  on  behalf  of  the  public  –   whether  funding,  broadcasting  licences  or  former  public  sector  contracts  –  be  obliged  to   carry  out  equality  monitoring,  send  this  to  the  funding  body,  regulator  or  commissioner   which  in  turn  shall  be  required  to  publish  this  data  for  each  named  company  or  licence  on  an   annual  basis.     Recommendation  27   The  Task  Force  recommends  the  implementation  and  embedding  of  this  policy  into  the  quasi-­‐ non-­‐governmental  organizations,  regulators  and  other  public  bodies.  In  particular  they   should  ensure  that  these  organizations  understand  and  accept  that  equality  is  part  of  their   remit  and  that  enforcement,  on  behalf  of  the  public,  of  contract  compliance  and  real   accountability  through  transparency  on  equality  of  funding  recipients,  licencees  and   contractors  is  a  key  part  of  their  role  on  which  they  will  be  measured.     Recommendation  28   The  Task  Force  endorses  the  Coalition’s  work  in  setting  up  the  Ministerial  Group  on   Equalities.  It  recommends  that  the  group  assign  responsibility  for  each  equality  strand  to   ensure  that  no  strand  is  left  behind  and  that  each  strand  has  its  own  plan  of  action.     Recommendation  29   The  Task  Force  recommends  adoption  of  the  long  term  policy  ambition  of  eradicating  the   ethnic  minority  employment  gap  within  25  years  and  to  have  begun  to  see  a  closing  of  this   gap  by  the  next  election.       55

Recommendation  30   The  Task  Force  recommends  maintaining  the  wider  role  of  the  EHRC  to  enable  the   organisation  to  play  a  leading  role  in  changing  attitudes,  and  we  endorse  the  Business   Commission  recommendation  that  the  EHRC  conduct  two  sector-­‐based  reviews  each  year,  to   result  in  agreed  action  plans  for  improving  performance  in  ethnic  minority  recruitment,   retention  and  promotion.  Where  companies  or  sectors  who  sign  up  to  action  plans  do  not   take  necessary  steps,  then  as  a  last  resort  the  EHRC  should  use  its  powers  to  conduct  formal   investigations.     The  Task  Force  further  recommends  reinstating  funding  to  the  EHRC  to  2010  levels  and  that   meaningful  resources  are  allocated  to  each  equality  strand  within  the  EHRC  to  ensure  that   attention  is  focussed  on  all  strands.     The  Task  Force  further  recommends  that  action  is  taken  to  ensure  that  the  EHRC’s   independence  from  government  is  upheld  and  not  undermined.    

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