and in that case no turning of the belt is needed. 7. S. Laws Considering magnetism as the phenomena of a "magnetic circuit. MAGNETIC RELUCTIVITY By Charles P. Instability and creepage. that is. General Electric Company This article is a review and discussion of magnetic reluctivity under the following headings: 1. and S — B therefore the magnetizability. In the absence of rational laws most of the (c) 1 = -^ = saturation coefficient. In the magnetic circuit. Reluctivity at low fields. the inward bend. from 1 to a few thousands. 3. The critical points or bends in the reluctivity line of commerical materials. the still available increase of flux density over that existing. but varies with the flux density. in which case the power is taken off a pulley installed below the revolving field. as salt water: the current or flux can not be carried to any distance. etc. and energy is merely empirical.m. "leaks" or "strays." the magnetic flux density. are proportional in most cases. Steinmetz Consulting Engineer. Unhomogenuity of the material as cause of the bends in the reluctivity line. and the rising magnetic characteristic as part of an unsymmetrical hysteresis cycle. The alternating magnetic characteristic. or constrained in a "conductor. current and e. a vertical shaft turn in the belt. ÆTHE RF ORCE . 6.f. Gradual approach to the stable magnetization curve. Indefiniteness of the B-H relation. = ab a 1 (T For B = 0. The magnetic circuit thus is analogous to an uninsulated electric circuit immersed in a fairly good conductor. Editor. though the starting of a magnetic circuit requires energy. belted exciter may be used. while the maintenance of a magnetic circuit does not require the expenditure of energy. that is. while the range of electric conductivities covers a range of 1 to 10^*. the previous history. and over an idler pulley so as to permit of a quarter field is 135 However. a is the reciprocal of the magnetic permeability at zero flux density. by substituting: where B is M=H and re-arranging B (2) B= where <T H a-\-aH (3) In the electric circuit. From (1) there follows. Frohlich's and Kennelly's laws. magnetic calculations therefore have to be made by taking numerical values from curves or tables.MAGNETIC RELUCTIVITY within the quadrtipod which supports the bearing. Inother cases the exciter may be belt-driven. in the materials of high permeability.m. The linear reluctivity law of the stable magnetic characteristic. the resistance is constant and the circuit can therefore be calculated theoretically. as shown in Fig. to increase the moment of inertia of the entire revolving element and improve the governing material of may the waterwheel. The only rational law of magnetic relation which has not been disproven is Frohlich's (1882): (a) The maintenance of an electric circuit requires the expenditure of energy.f. If the exciter is an ordinary horizontal shaft machine. and the range of magnetic permeabilities is therefore narrow. This extra be very easily and effectively added to the rotor rim. that is. Sometimes extra weight is wanted in the rotor. m. the "reluctance" or magnetic resistance is not constant. the relation between flux." All materials are fairly good carriers (6) of "The permeability magnetizability . Instability of extreme values." but divides. 4. the exciter belt is usually brought out through the base ring of the alternator. Production of stable values by superposition of alternating field." the foremost differences between the characteristics of the magnetic circuit and the electric circuit are: Frohlich's and Kennelly's 1. A magnetic circuit therefore can remain "remanent" or "permanent. The area of B-H relation. the reciprocal of the saturation value 5 of flux density B. 2. is proportional to the (1) ' ^x = a(S-B) magnetic flux. which are the most important carriers of the magnetic flux. equation juo (1) gives: 1 =a5= a= l_ (4) Mo that is. 5 the saturation density. and « = —r. 5.

and thereby the initial is =0. When investigating flux densities !> = (). 1 shows an average magnetization curve of good standard iron with field intensity as abscissae and magnetic induction B as ordinates. however. but curved due to the inward bend of the magnetization curve B in this range. The latter then is usually called the metallic magnetic density or ferromagnetic density. the linear law of reluctivity (5) and (3) is rigidly obeved bv the metallic induction Bo. cobalt.' -= —=- ^ y '» J" / J^ ' / / ^ ^— " _ / ' ^ / 1 ^ ^ ^' ' pure magnetic materials. The 2. / J /^ ^- --J ^ ^y y ^ y ^ ^ y' ^ <^ c. p is not a straight line. ' 1 O // ^ -r 1 " _ — — -.. Ps.— — - I C3 -J. bend occurs in the reluctivity marked by jKunt and above this ])oint // . #» f f '3 s« s^ ««" ' == w" =! = '._ ——— _ -. and in tens of B]. change. which will be discussed later) in perfectly A very convenient form of this law has been found by Kennelly (1893) by introducing the reciprocal of the permeability. \. 3<//< . Bq may be considered as the magnetic flux carried by the molecules of the iron or other magnetic material. at.S"i= IS giving an a])])arcnl saturation \'alue: 10. the reluctivity follows the ecjiiation p. reluctivity curves for the three scales of abscissae are plotted as pu p^. The best evidence seems to establish the fact that. the abscissae in units for H I // f^ Y 4 ^ ^^ and in hundreds for B3. B. and that therefore Frohlich's and Kennelly 's laws apply not to B but to Bq. in addition to the space flux H. The straight line law is reached at the point Ci. in milli-units. which characteristic of the "magnetic hardness" of the material. and the metallic induction in dotted lines. however. it was found that B does not reach a finite saturation value but increases indefinitely. H 1 A y r 1 y 1 1 1 1 \. which can be derived from p (3) by transjKJsition Below // = 3.i c-i. it is called the coejjicient of magnetic hardness. or flux carried by space independent of the material in space. y 1^/ % / / y /y 1 i / ^ y ^^ ^ In the more or less impure commercial materials. while a straight line. in the form.102 + 0. (). the p — relation. tlial.")<)// (7) rate of rise of the magnetization curve. at // = ii.o:)lS// !S< //< SO (8) very high field intensities //. The ordinates are given in kilolines per cm"-^. and the reluctivity is then expressed by llie linear is = a + bll (5) law: pi for: As a dominates the reluctivity at lower magnetizing forces.lS + 0.950 At line. iron. for: giving an ap])ar(Mit satiu"ation value: 52=1S. in tens for B2. often has one and occasionally two points where its slope. ^ y ^ J* ^ ^ ^ X ^y ^ i> ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^V ^ ^^ y ^/ ^ y' ^ ' r-' 1^1 Fig.")0 = B-n (G) ÆTHE RF ORCE . etc. nickel. which with iron is usually not far from 20 kilolines ])er cm^._. as reluctivitv p: \ H B __ 1 — ^ __ — — "" % .2.136 GENERAL ELECTRIC REVIEW reaches a finite saturation value 5. 1 7 8 • 9 /O II 12 13 14 IS milli-units.. with the exception of very low field intensities (where the customary magnetization curve usually has an inward bend. and thus the values of a and a. The 4 5 6 H Fig. The total induction is shown in drawn lines. Critical Points or of Bends in the Reluctivity Line Commercial Materials = IS. in tenths of milli-units.

that is. and would therefore give the observed effect.'/ f / / / / / 2 1 / magnetic. and above this point.0477 ÆTHE RF ORCE . (8). if the magnetic material is a conglomerate of fraction p of soft material of reluctivity pi (ferrite) = :/' Pi+gp2= (/'«i + <7a2) + (pcri + (7 0-2) U (12) If we assume the same saturation value o" for both materials.059 = 0. — — '*' ^ ~ ~ •- Point Co is ^ »' =^' . but each represents it very accurately within its range. The first equation (7) probably covers the entire industrially important range. as the flux carr>4ng material fills only part of the space. giving low a. -^ / / Unhomogenuity of the Material as Cause Bends in the Reluctivity Line 3.-. magnetic characteristics: silicide. B-2 and Bs representing magnetization curves calculated from the three linear reluctivity equations (7).70 + 0. the flux goes through both materials.. and as the change of direction of the reluctivity general greater. all Z 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II IZ 13 14 15 Fig.0477// (9) ^ «i I Oj/^ (11) for: p p 70 p 80 90 100 110 H>SO giving the true saturation value iU - 10 20 ^ 30 40 50 60 120 130 140 ISO 5 = 20. the increase of flux in the harder material gives a greater increase of total flux density and a greater .70 Pi-ai+(7i//\ /. and the dotted curves Bi. cementite.'-r . but as po is very high compared with Pi the latter flux is negligible and is: Pi = 0... Fig. up to saturation. magnetite) silicide.MAGNETIC RELUCTIVITY At // = S0. Thus. '' ^ ~i 1 -^ " ' ^ ' __ —— L 15 J 1 1 f 4 . The flux density therefore rises rapidly.p. it is: p"^qa. 2 H At high values of H.saturation value. (9). of the 1 H If f 1 / < / 1 ( ^ r-' 1 As these critical points Co and Cs do not 1 1 H f^ ^ ^ seem to exist in perfectly pure materials. either on the surface as scale or in the body as inglomerate. marked by point fs. higher value of a. the presence. / ^ . ' -.960 frequently absent. At low field intensities the harder material carries practically no flux._ — . gives: = 0. the cause seems to be lack of homogenuity of the material. but also a greater hardness as the resultant of both materials. that is. 1 't 3 ^ ^ .1 i I I have a much greater hardness. and while in the softer material the flux increases at a lesser rate. As seen."" I . = 0. with increase of impurity of the material. more or less in series. but tends towards an apparent low saturation value. for instance (7) and (9) into (11) and (13) respectively.'— •.' ' ^ ' A 1 ^ / / ^ / 1 / r/ / (I / i . 137 At low values of H the part p of the section carries flux by pi and the part q carries flux by po.102 P p' and q=l—p of hard material of reluctivity p2 (cementite. the reUiclivity follows the equation: p.1. 2 g^ves once more the magnetization curve (metallic induction) as B.-{-aH (13) Substituting.. -• ^ / /. At higher field intensities the harder material begins to carry flux. and neglect a\ compared with Oil. another bend occurs in the relucti\nty line.. neither of the equations represents B even approximately over the entire range. f 1 ' ' -• " — _ = a. and thus p" is: the flux being carried by the soft material. Such materials .x q a2 o- = 0. of maline is in terials of different / 1 t7 / / .

/ Y ^^-'^ ~^^\ y y -.Si below H = 2.4i and . Such bends in the reluctivity line have been artificially produced by Mr. that is. " are best shown ("Engineering Mathematics. We do not return on the same magnetization curve Bi. the saturation coefificients a of the two materials probably are usually not equal.20: /? Hence p.S0: g = 0. The ri. 3. but which when combined gave a curve showing the characteristic bend. 2d edition. 3: increase of R = 7. as with this slope curve shapes such as the inward bend of .15 we stop the increase of H.5+0. and then again reverse. svich that the rising magnetization curve B' starting from Aq.-^E ifr '- &/ 'fr i 1 ''u-2^. p. 3. = 3. (Fig.. -Z -1 1 z t\ 3 ^— " t S 1 € '"\ -^ — = =i ^ — " T-^.^:^'T *} > . Where the magnetic circuit 1 contains an «-^--«-^ . I ' igt^^^ ^^^v ^^^_ '"'^ ^^Z± i^i-^e' -^tl-^X -L"^ -! /^ 1 / ^^ ^ u ^ -7 / / ^ B observed by the throw of the galvanometer needle.42. 280). that is. 'f s i. the decreasing magnetic characteristic B/ is very much nearer to the increasing one Bi than in the closed magnetic circuit of Fig. the "decreasing magnetic characteristic. it is obviously the decreasing characteristic. the calculation of the regulation of a generator (the decrease of voltage under increase of load). and thereby runs into the curve Bi. Suppose now that at some point i?o= 13. Ball in coml)ining by superposition two difi"erent materials which separately gave straight line p curves. and the magnetization curve in Fig. passes through the point f/ = (). = 0.138 GENERAL ELECTRIC REVIEW = 0." and at H = we are not back to B = 0..r^ /_ yl' 1 >\ air gap. between .12 and i?=— 1.4o. and the hysteresis ])oint. to the point Ai. Suppose we continue 5/ into negative = l." The first part of this curve is reproduced as Bi in Fig. the Inward Bend.0477 // However.<- X y. except the incident that Bi passes through zero. for instance. as in the field circuits of electrical ^ .4). B = 0.o values of H. of field intensity however. or standard magnetic chtiracteristic detennined by the ste])-by-ste]) method. There must thus be a jjoint . cycle ])asses through tlie zero ÆTHE RF ORCE . and practically coincides for higher values of H. the result of a second and magnetically harder material beginning to carry flux. of the reluctivity equation by the change of slope c-i and cz thus probably only apparent. has an inward bend which gives a rise of p with decreasing //. the straight line law of reluctivity apparently fails.0. rather than the decreasing characteristic Bi'. which = at a negative remanent magpasses netism. as residual or remanent flux is left. by the stej)-Vjy-ste]) method. which is determining. (" Xfrt^^ t ^^^rr 1 -. // is increased in successive stejjs. traversed between sucli limits -\-Bn and — A» that the rising branch of the _^ 2^i-''^ ?o-T ::r — -4 -3 -z Figs.0477 H p. and decrease again to 0. at the critical points B=— H H H Very impure materials. and is the outward appearance of a change of the flux carrier in an unhomogeneous material.082 + 0. but on another curve Bi. In many engineering applications.42. may give throughout a curved reluctivity line. John D. There appears no theoretical reason why the rising characteristic Bi should be selected as the representative magnetization curve. machinery. Suppose we stop at point . For very low values 3). This curve is taken by ballistic galvano1 (H< meter. Low Fields.sing magnetization curve. in twice the abscissae and half the ordinates so as to give it an average slope of 45 degrees. It is thus a "rising magnetization curve. where //=— 1. is thus nothing but the rising branch of an ujisymnietrica! hysteresis cycle. get a rising magnetization curve B". 3 -I and 4 The deviation from a straight is line. the rising mag= () at netization curve B'" then passes a positive remanent magnetism. where and We 4. Reluctivity at like cast-iron. and the Rising Magnetic Characteristic as Part of an Unsymmetrical Hysteresis Cycle 4. Hi. Bi'.

but gradually creeps up to higher values. however. and still other curA'es for other starting points of the decreasing characteristic. thus lies between that is.^"^ ^' « ^-__S-= = one extreme.-' -. is left on the ever. H determined by the method of reversals. and Bo. however. the zero point is fairly close to The B for the so at low values of H. ' -J j L^ ' H 1 / f 1 j '} t \ <• / / / J 1 1 f f f 1 1 - - - / / / / / / at stop the increase of we would get the Bo". 3.'. . It differs from the "rising magnetic character- characteristic shape of a hysteresis cycle is a loop. 5.---io of Fio. 6. the relation between magnetic flux density B and magnetic field intensity is not definite. It has. It is reproducible and independent of the previous history of the magnetic circuit. and for some distance outside thereof. and in view of its engineering importance as representing the conditions in the alternating magnetic field. and the / / 9 ^-- inflexion point. . It is shown istic" Bi in giving lower values of same //—materially — P rr^ " _.. but any point between the var- H is as curve Bi in Fig.-^ tf^ y y' ^' /' r ^^ V •* ' //•>/ ^ / ''!/ . : _ — _. It is interesting to note that Bz does not show an inw^ard bend. ^Iagnetic characteristics are frequently H (from H= ?> and its reluctivity line At higher values of upwards) B^ and Bi both 6. ^ / St/' branch which is used as the "magnetic characteristic" Bi.*-" ^ '"1 T -''' 5*' \iA :-^^ --. 5 Thus. decreasing magnetization curve Bi". If we traverse the hysteresis cycle between the unsymmetrical limits -\-Ao and —Bo. ' ' / /. 5. "il -. characteristic of the hysteresis loop. on that part of the / / r f . To a lesser extent the same thing occurs with the values of curve Bi. or by using an alternating current for field excitation and observing the induced alternating voltage. by reversing the field intensity H and observing the voltage induced thereby by a ballistic galvanometer. pointed at either end and thereby having an inflexion point about the middle of either branch.4o.^/ / -^ .='-' "^ " . howalternating flux density Bi = 2.'.-=. H / ^' / Z. It shows the inward bend at low fields still more pronounced than Bi does.'" _ Fig. In the iinsvnimetrical loop +£o.. Bi". Bi has the characteristic that it passes through the zero point. given as pi in Fig.r= . we should rising ^ / f t / ^ / f 1 J ^/ .^' /' ^ f y ^--- yK m^ . but it is not the only characteristic which does this.Q. Creepage . except perhaps at extremely low values of H. Fig.MAGXETIC RELUCTIVITY Indefiniteness of the ing 139 current B-H Relation.'). an alternating field B. Magnetic Characteristic. as shown in Fig.62 = 2. . that is. Instability The Alternatand design of alternating apparatus.— 1 ^^ :. has the same feature as Bi.6. H=l ÆTHE RF ORCE . the disadvantage that it Thus in represents an unstable condition. is a possible B — relation. apparently is a straight line. which has always been so puzzling. The alternating characteristic Bi is not a branch of any hysteresis cycle. given as ps in Fig. and the reluctivity curve of B3. 4. preferably by the oscillograph to eliminate wave shape error. ious rising and decreasing characteristics B". it would appear the most representative magnetic characteristic and is commonly used as such.->. B.. This ''alternating magnetic characteristic" is the one which is of consequence in the coincide with the curve Bo representing the straight line reluctivity law. thereby producing the inward bend in the magnetization curve at low fields. especially in the presence of mechanical vibrations or slight pulsations of the magnetizing current. = \ gives an If. this field strength magnetic circuit the flux does not remain at . If. we see that its decreasing branch B3 passes through the zero point. Bu B'". h } /f 1 / 1/ 1 1 .

Any ])oint //. B within the area 5 as B' — B" of this loo]) between B' and B" of Fig. -n \ -1 -1— —— ~ ~—— ' ~ _ ^ _ r-' 0.3 0. may give any vahic . This gives the magnetic cycle shown in Fig. of the Stable Magnetic Characteristic the magnetic range is from +7'^o=lL2. such as H=\. and the linear law of relucally — H Correctly. Thus. to vc. o.6 0.S B = 10. The Linear Reluctivity Law 7.X-\ /h '\ _ - _—--- —. a demagnetizing coil.. approach. Pi. This then would give the true magnetic characteristic the stable physical relation between B and H. are not equally stable. beyond the first critical point Ci.u'li permanent condition. represents the stationary and permanent relation between and H. Below C]. and with magnetically hard materials for manv vears. and therefore is given by all the methods of determining magnetic characteristics.--« r" ~S ^ ^ ^ »> ~ ^ . the range of possible values is so large and the final approach to the stable value so slow as to B Suppose a hysteresis cycle is performed between infinite values of field intensity: i/= ±00. cannot. by gradual change of //. Bo. by an tivity applies. between The Area of B-H Relation. Instability of Extreme Gradual Approach to the Stable Magnetization Curve Values.-s ' — ' If* Po 1 n t 5 J ^i- H — r y «- 7 Fig.4.5 0.r. Bo coincide there. Production of Stable Values by Superposition of Alternating Field.-_ —. _ __ would rapidly change with a decrease in flux density to Po." that is. 5.decreasing amplitude. Thus steel B H between B^ —4. practically. The same |)r()('C(liirc can be ai)plicd to any other ])()iiil of the magnetization curve. but the values near the limits B' and B" are very unstable 01 0. 5.8 x/O ~ ~ " Fig.B = 13.1 \ . Hence the curves Bi. that is. The different values of B corresponding to the same value of H in the magnetic area. slower to P2. At higher field intensities. Px. Bv. 5.140 GENERAL ELECTRIC REVIEW At very low and to a greater extent with B3. is superimposed ÆTHE RF ORCE . 6 structures in the terrestrial magnetic field show immediately after erection only a small part of the magnetization which they finally assume after many years. whatever may be the — y\^o =— 11.H = 2. it thus follows that somewhere between the extremes B' and B". such Q. and where very much lower values j)robably give practically the same curve). but area.000 have been reached. the ])oints Pi.2 For H = 0. (). the permanent value is zero.ni. Thus the alternating characteristic Bi. and towards this stable value Bo all other values would gradu- " h- towards the interior of the B B and H. Tims foi.4 ~ _ -^ ' ~ / / \- ^ " and area. ])lacing the material into a ])owerful alternating field. As seen from Fig.6..25 and // = +3. for instance from ])oint Fo. there must be a value of B which is stable. that is. between very high values. etc. a given value of field intensity. dcscM-ihing a large nunil)er of cycles with gradiiall\. The method of reaching the ])ermanent value. be considered as representing the true physical relation Thus the relation of point Pi. become more stable 7 _ V r/ . densities this creepage due to instability of — relation may amount to hundreds the of per cent and continue to an appreciable extent for minvites. this stable condition is ra]3idly reached. is well known. while from point P3 _ _ the flux density would gradu10 9 9 ally creep up. an iiltiTnatini. such as the zero point. 5 then rejjresents a ])ossible condition of the magnetic circuit. make it difficult of detcrminati<jn.//^ I. however important in electrical engineering. may result from any value of field intensity between H— —0. the relation between B and thus cannot be expressed by a curve. are reached on the curves shown in the dotted lines in Fig.— — <d ^ -' _^ =» "^ i£ '^ c^ / 0. of flux density 13.6 and B = -{ and a given value of flux density. and can be reached V)y starting from any other ])oint //o. ni. however. and then still _ slower.2 0. that is. to It remanent magnetism. any more than can the branches of hysteresis cycles B\ and B^. and gradually reducing this field to zero. which are most unstable.. owing to its instability.. for instance such as are given by the isthmus method of magnetic testing (where values of // of over 40. Fig. is by "demagnetizing.

In unhomogeneous materials. This superimposes a circular alternating ÆTHE RF ORCE . the inward bend of the magnetic characteristics. or Kennelly's linear law of reluctivity. material over the entire range down to and the inward bend of the magnetic characteristic for low field intensities and corresponding increase of reluctivity p is the persistance of a condition of magnetic instability. B — H. that upon the continuous length flux and permits observations while the circular alternating flux exists. In approaching stable conditions by the superposition of an alternating field. these successive cycles of decreasinv:. and the magnetic characteristic assumes a shape like curve Bq.MAGNETIC RELUCTIVITY upon H =\ and gradually decreased to zero. at which the flux path changes by reason of a material of greater magnetic hardness beginning to carry flux. the flux flux 141 density »:. this field can be applied at right angles to the unidirectional field. in the form of remanent or permanent magnetism. over the entire range from zero to infinity. by the straight line law of relucti^'ity. that the initial alternating field must be higher than any unidirectional field to which the magnetic circuit had been exposed. by the linear equation relation of reluctivity: H H p = a-\-a- H where p applies to the metallic magnetic induction. amplitude.) This seems to be the value given by curve is. At low field intensities the range of unstable values of B is very great. as by passing an alternating current lengthwise. In other words. represents the permanent or stable relation between B and H. since the latter does not induce in the exploring circuit of the former. the slope of the reluctivity line changes at one or more critical points. (The only requirement is. through the material of the magnetic circuit. To conclude. the inward bend of the magnetic characteristic practically vanishes. and the approach to stability so slow that considerable deviation of B from its stable value can persist. Some twenty years ago Ewing showed that under these conditions the hysteresis loop collapses. in the direction of the lines of magnetic force. just as are remanent and permanent mag- netism. it is probable that: Frohlich's equation. Bo. some times for years. that is. etc.. with //= 1 as mean value. that is. it is probable that in pure homogeneous magnetic materials the stable between field intensity and flux density B is expressed. the true magnetic characteristic of the = 0. and durint.radually approaches its per- manent or stable value.

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