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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRENTH OF

LATEX MODIFIED FIBRE REINFORCED


CONCRETE

BY

A.DEVI PRASADH

MANUEL MARTIN

NANDAKUMAR

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


HINDUSTAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
(AFFILIATED TO ANNAUNIVERSITY)
CHENNAI-603103

SYNOPSIS
Latex modified mortar and concrete provide a good workability, water
retention over conventional cement mortar & concrete .In contrast to
ordinary cement mortar and concrete which are apt to cause bleeding
and segregation, the resistance of latex modified mortar & concrete to
bleeding and segregation is excellent in spite of their larger flow ability
characteristics. Setting time of latex modified mortar & concrete is
delayed in some extent. In concrete the tensile & flexural strengths are
improved over a normal concrete but in compressive strength there is
no improvement.
The polymer-cement ratio has more pronounced effect on the strength
than the water cement ratio. When the sand-cement ratio increases, the
flexural and compressive strength of latex-modified mortars are
remarkably reduced, and the effect of the latex - cement ratio on the
strengths gradually becomes smaller.

In the present work concrete has been modified using latex as the
polymer .In addition steel fibres have been added to check combined
properties of concrete.

In general there is increase in compressive, tensile & flextural strength


with increase in fibre and latex.

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INTRODUCTION

Engineering achievements have always been closely associated with


the availability of suitable materials for construction. Further progress
of engineering will depend on continuous development of all forms of
construction developed of all forms of construction.

Polymer concrete composites were developed during 1960’s in U.S.A.


In INDIA it is widely used for rehabilitation of structures. The
popularity gained by the materials is justified by its extra-ordinary high
strength, lower unit weight, total water impermeability and unmatched
chemical resistance.

Engineers are trying to improve its quality, strength, etc.against adverse


condition. For satisfactory utilization of this alternative material, the
various phases of examination to check its:

• Technical feasibility
• Durability of processed concrete
• Economic feasibility

With the ongoing research being done to develop appropriate


technology and field trials to monitor the performance ad assessment of
economic feasibility, the use of this alternative material will become
more viable.

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ADMIXTURES USED IN CONCRETE:

Admixture is defined as the material other than cement water and


aggregates that is used as an ingredient of concrete and is added to
batch immediately before or during mixing. Additive is a material
which is added at the time of grinding cement clinker at the cement
factory.

As per the report of ACI committee 212, admixtures have been


classified into 15 groups according to type of materials constituting the
admixture, or characteristic affect of the use. When ACI committee 212
submitted the report in 1954, plasticizers and super plasticizers, as we
know them today, did not exist.

These days concrete is being used for wide varieties of purposes to


make it suitable in different conditions. In these conditions ordinary
concrete may fail to exhibit the required quality performance or
durability. In such cases, admixture is used to modify the properties of
ordinary concrete so as to make it more suitable for any situation.

Admixtures have been traditionally used to improve the properties of


concrete. There are two types of admixtures: chemical admixtures and
mineral admixtures. Examples of chemical admixtures are high range
water-reducing admixtures such as super plasticizers which constituted
a major break through in the development of High performance
concrete (HPC).its use can drastically reduce the water cement ratio
(w/c) from 0.5 or higher to 0.3 or low , while providing rheological
control of the concrete , given proper mixture proportioning and
materials selection.

The reduction in w/c yields denser paste matrix and strengthen paste
aggregate bonding on the micro structural level. Mineral admixtures
such as silica fume, fly ash, slag, rice-husk, ash also provide benefits in
concrete.

The improved rheology and cohesiveness, lower heat of hydration,


lesser thermal shrinkage, and higher resistance to sulphate attack
emerged over the years on the use of different minerals admixtures. It is
therefore true to say that the combined use of chemical and mineral
admixtures has resulted in a new generation of concrete called HPC,
which was already within the construction industry.

POLYMER BONDING AGENTS:

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It is one of the well known facts that there will not be perfect bond
between the old concrete and the new one. Quite often new concrete or
mortar is required to be laid on old concrete surface. For example, for
providing an overlay on existing pavement, in providing a screed over
the roof for waterproofing or repair work etc... The bonding
characteristics can be greatly improved by providing a bond between
the old concrete and the new concrete surface or mixing the bonding
agent with the new concrete or mortar. The use of bonding agent
distinctly improves the adhesion of new concrete or mortar to old
surface. The mixing of bonding agents with concrete or mortar
improves the workability also at lower water cement ratio and thereby
reduces the shrinkage characteristic. It also helps in water retention in
concrete to redcap the risk of early drying. It further improves the water
proofing quality of treated surface.

POLYMER MODIFIED MORTAR FOR REPAIR AND


MAINTAINTENCE:

Sometimes concrete surfaces require repair. The edge of a concrete


column may get chipped off; or ceiling of concrete roof may get peeled
off, or a concrete floor may get pitted in course of time. Hydraulic
structures often require repairing. Prefabricated members such as pipes,
poles posts and roofing elements often get chipped off while stripping
formwork, handling and transportation. In the past cement mortar was
used for any kind of repair and as universal repair materials. Cement
mortar is not the right kind of material for repair. Now there are many
kinds of repair materials, mostly polymer modified, available for
effective repair. They adhere very firmly to the old concrete surface on
account of greatly improved bond characteristics. These materials are
often stronger than the parent materials. They are also admixed with
some other materials which make them set and harden very rapidly.

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ROLE OF FIBRES:

When the loads imposed on concrete approach that for failure cracks
will propagate, sometimes rapidly; fibres in concrete provide a means
of arresting the crack growth. Reinforcing steel bars in concrete have
the same beneficial effect because they act as long continuous fibres.
Short discontinuous fibres have the advantage, however, of being
uniformly mixed and dispersed throughout the concrete.
Fibres are added to a concrete mix which normally contains cement,
water and fine coarse aggregate. Among the more common fibres used
steel, glass, asbestos and polypropylene.

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:

Resistance of fibre-reinforced concrete to environmental factors such


as frost action depends on the quality of the concrete. Fibres can be
effective, however in reducing frost damage because of their crack-
arresting properties. Care should be taken to ensure that an adequate
amount of entrained air is incorporated in the mix additional resistance
to freezing and salt corrosion.
Other environmental problems such as acid attack, sulphate attack and
alkali-aggregate reaction are generally not augmented by the presence
of fibres unless there is a chemical reaction between the fibre and the
concrete.

OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT:

To experimentally study compressive, tensile and flexural strength of


latex-modified fibre reinforced concrete of M40 grade.
And these results are compared with conventional concrete of M40
grade.

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LITERATURE REVIEW:

Attempts to increase Compressive strength of concrete have been


successful. But tensile strength and ductility not modified.
Modification of concrete with latex is the answer today with improved
ductility.
Special applications are in the seismic areas and structures subjected to
dynamic loads.

 Latex modified concrete improves durability of concrete.

 Latex also reduces the permeability of concrete.

Latex modified mortar and concrete provide a good workability, water


retention over conventional cement mortar & concrete. Latex used here
is manufactured by FOSROC chemicals (India) pvt, Ltd under the
chemical name NITOBOND SBR.
In contrast to ordinary cement mortar and concrete which are apt to
cause bleeding and segregation, the resistance of latex modified mortar
& concrete to bleeding and segregation is excellent in spite of their
larger flow ability characteristics. Setting time of latex modified mortar
& concrete is delayed in some extent. In concrete the tensile & flexural
strengths are improved over a normal concrete but in compressive
strength there is no improvement.

MATERIALS USED:

The ingredients used in the test are as follows:


1. 53 grade ordinary Portland cement (IS 12269-1987) passing
through IS90 microns sieve.
2. Fine aggregate passing through 2 mm sieve
3. Coarse aggregate passing 20 mm sieve
4. Latex solution manufactured by FOSROC chemicals under the
brand name Nitobond SBR.
5. Corrugated Steel fibres with aspect ratio of 0.8

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MIXTURE PROPERTIES:

WORKABILITY:
Generally , latex-modified mortar and concrete provide a good
workability over unmodified cement mortar and concrete .This is
mainly interpreted in terms of improved consistency due to the ball
bearing action of polymer particles and entrained air and the dispersing
effect of surfactants in the latexes .This tendency is more significant at
smaller sand-aggregate ratios at large unit cement content.

WATER RETENTION:
Latex-modified mortar and concrete have a markedly improve water
retention over unmodified cement mortar and concrete. The water
retention is dependant on the polymer-cement ratio.

The reasons for this can probably be explained in terms of the


hydrophilic colloidal properties of latex themselves and the filling and
sealing effects of impermeable polymer films formed. Accordingly, a
sufficient amount of water required for cement hydration is held in the
mortar/concrete, hence dry cure is preferable rather than wet or water
cure. The water retention generally increases with rising polymer-
cement ratio, and becomes nearly constant at a polymer cement ratio of
5 to10%.Such excellent water-retention of the latex modified mortars is
most helpful to inhibit dry-out phenomena in thin layer linings or
coatings on highly water – absorbable substrates such as dried cement
mortars.

BLEEDING AND SEGREGATION:

In contrast to unmodified cement mortar and concrete, which are apt to


cause bleeding and segregation, the resistance of latex-modified mortar
and concrete to bleeding and segregation is excellent in spite of their
larger flow ability characteristics. This is due to the hydrophilic
colloidal properties of latexes themselves and the air-entraining and
water-reducing effects of the surfactants contained in the latex.

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SETTING BEHAVIOUR:
In general the setting of latex-modified mortar and concrete is delayed
to some extent in the comparison with unmodified cement mortar and
concrete, and this trend is dependant ion the polymer type and cement
ratio. The slower setting does not cause inconvenience in practical
applications. Natural rubber modified mortar (NR) causes the most
delay in setting. Usually, the reasons for the setting delay are the
surfactants such as alklylbenzene, sulfonates and caseinates contained
in the latexes inhibit the hydration of cement. Rheological studies on
polyvinyl acetate - modified concrete is that the hydration of cement is
inhibited by the adsorption of the surfactants on the binder surface.

STRENGTH:

The strength properties of the latex-modified mortar and concrete are


influenced by various factors, which tend to interact with each other.
The main factors are the nature of materials used such as latexes,
cement, aggregates and controlling factors for mix properties (e.g.:
polymer-cement ratio, water cement ratio, binder-voids ratio, cutting
methods and testing methods etc).

Latex –modified mortar and concrete show a noticeable increase in the


tensile and flexural strengths but no improvement in the compressive
strengths. Thus in this investigation steel fibre is added in addition to
latex to increase certain amount of compressive strength and to
improve crack resistance.

EFFECTS OF CONTROL FACTORS FOR MIX


PROPORTIONS:

The binder of latex-modified mortar and concrete consists of polymer


latex and inorganic cement, and their strength is developed as a result
of an interaction between them. Low polymer-cement ratio of 5 % or
less also not effective because of little improvement in the strength.
Consequently the polymer cement ratio range of 5 to 20% is used in
practice. Most latex-modified mortars and concretes cured under
favorable conditions have effective strength properties at polymer
cement ratios up to 20% and the strength may be reduced at polymer-
cement ratios exceeding 20%.

EFFECTS OF SAND-CEMENT RATIO:

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When the sand-cement ratio increases, the flexural and compressive
strengths of latex-modified mortars are remarkably reduced, and the
effect of the polymer-cement ratio on the strengths gradually becomes
smaller.

EFFECTS OF CURING CONDITIONS:

Favorable curing condition requirements for latex-modified mortar and


concrete differ from those for ordinary cement mortar and concrete,
because their binder consists of two ordinary cement phases of latex
and hydraulic cement with different properties. Optimum strength in
the cement phase is developed under wet conditions such as water
immersion and high humidifies , where strength development in the
latex phase is attained under dry conditions .It is evident that optimum
strength in most latex modified mortars and concrete is obtained by
achieving the reasonable extent of cement hydration under wet
conditions at early ages, followed by dry conditions , such curing
conditions are most suitable sensitive for the mortars than for the
concretes because of a difference in the retention due to their specimen
sizes.

RELATION BETWEEN SURFACE HARDNESS AND


COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH:

The surface hardness of latex-modified systems is generally improved


to some extent over ordinary cement systems, depending on the
polymer type and the polymer-cement ratio. A definite correlation
between the surface hardness and compressive strength of most latex-
modified systems is recognized.

SRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP, MODULUS OF ELASTICITY


AND DUCTILITY:

Most latex-modified mortars and concretes provide a higher


deformation, ductility and elasticity than ordinary cement mortar and
concrete, their magnitude depending on polymer type and polymer-
cement ratio. The maximum compressive strain at failure increases
with rising polymer-cement ratio, even though there is no pronounced
change in the modulus of elasticity in compression. The maximum
compressive strain at a polymer-cement ratio of 20% increases to 2 to 3
times that of unmodified mortar.

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The polymer-cement ratio is raised, the modulus of elasticity in tension
decreases, and the elongation increase and is 2 to 3 times grater than
that on unmodified concrete. This is explained by considering that the
polymer films formed in the concrete effectively halt propagating
micro cracks through their high tensile strength and elongation. The
modulus of elasticity tends o decrease with the rise in the polymer-
cement ratio.

SHRINKAGE, CREEP AND THERMAL EXPANSION:

The drying shrinkage increases with additional dry curing period , and
becomes nearly constant at a dry curing period of 28 days regardless to
polymer type and polymer cement ratio generally , the 28th day drying
shrinkage tends to decrease with increasing polymer cement ratio
PVAC , NR and Chloroprene rubber(CR) modified mortars have a large
shrinkage compared to that of unmodified mortars evaporation of the
large amount of water absorbed in polymer phase due to the low water
resistance of the polyvinyl acetate itself.

WATER PROOFNESS AND WATER RESISTANCE:

Latex-modified mortars and concrete have a structure in which the


large pores can be filled with polymer with continuous polymer films.
These features are referred in reduced water absorption water
permeability and water vapour transmission as a result; latex-modified
mortars and concrete have improved water proofness over ordinary
mortars and concrete.

ADHESION OR BOND STRENGTH:

A very useful accepts of latex-modified mortars and concrete is their


improved adhesion or bond strength to various substrates compared to
conventional mortars and concrete. The development of adhesion is
attributed to the high adhesion of polymers. The adhesion is usually
affected by polymer-cement ratio and the properties of the substrates
used. The data of adhesion often shows considerable scatter, and
many vary depending on the testing methods, service conditions or
porosity of substrates. The adhesion of most latex-modified mortars
tend to increase with rising polymer cement ratio; although for a few
types there is optimum polymer-cement ratios.

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The mix proportions also influence the adhesion, namely, the strength
of the mortar substrates in 1:2 mix substrates through rather than
through the interface. However it appears that the adhesion than the
flexural strength

IMPACT RESISTANCE:
Latex-modified mortars or concrete has an excellent impact resistance
in compression with conventional mortars and concrete this is because
of polymer they have high impact resistance. The impact resistance
generally increase with rising polymer-cement ratio. The data of the
impact resistance vary markedly between the testing methods .the
impact resistance of the latex-modified mortars with elastomers is
superior to the mortars with thermo plastic resins. The impact
resistance SBR –modified mortars with polymer cement ratio of 20% is
about 10 times greater than that of the unmodified mortars.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE:

Most latex modified mortars and concrete are attacked by inorganic or


organic acid and sulphates since they contain hydrated cement that is
no –resistance to these chemical resistance is generally rated as good to
fats and oils, but to organic solvents.

PROPERTIES OF FIBRES:

Concrete lends itself to a variety of innovative designs as a result of its


many desirable properties. Not only can it be cast in diverse shapes; but
it also posse’s high compressive strength, stiffness, low thermal and
electrical conductivity and low combustibility and toxicity.
Two characteristics, however, have limited its use it is brittle and weak
tension. Recently, however the development of fibre-reinforced
composites in the plastics and aerospace fields has provided a technical
basis for improving these deficiencies.

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PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED
FIBRES

TYPE DIAMETER SPECIFIC FAILURE MODULUDS TENSILE


OF µm GRAVITY STRAIN% OF STRENGTH,
FIBRE ELASTICITY, GPa
GPa

Steel 5-500 7.8 3-4 200 1-3

Glass 9-15 2.6 2-3.5 80 2-3

COMPOSITE PROPERTIES:

Fibres can improve the toughness, the flexural strength, or and are
chosen on the basis of their availability, cost and fibre properties.

Fibres also generally reduce creep strain, which is defined as the time-
dependant deformation of concrete under a constant stress. For
instance, steel-fibre-reinforced concrete can have tensile creep values
50 to 60 percent of those for normal concrete. Compressive creep
values, however, may be only 10 to 20 % of those for normal
concrete.
Shrinkage of concrete, which is caused by the withdrawal of water
from concrete during drying, is lessened by fibres. Shrinkage of glass-
fibre-reinforced concrete is decreased by up to 35% with the addition
of 1.5% y volume of fibres.
Other properties of concrete, such as compressive strength and
modulus of elasticity, are not included in the tables since they are
affected to a much lesser degree by the presence of fibres.
Innovations in engineering design, which often establish the need for
few building materials, have made fibre-reinforced cements very
popular. The possibility of increased tensile strength and impact
resistance offers potential reactions in the weight and thickness of
building components and should also cut down resulting from shipping
and handling.
Although ASTM C440-74a describes the use of asbestos-cement and
related products, there are, at this, no general ASTM standards for
fibre-reinforced cement, cement, mortar and concrete. Until these
standards become available, it will be necessary to rely on the
experience and judgment of both the designer and the fibre
manufacturer.

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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

INTRODUCTION
The aim of this experimental work is to compare the strength of
conventional concrete with concrete with steel fibres and also to
compare the first crack load, ultimate load, and crack pattern and
deflection response of plain concrete beam and with latex-modified
fibre reinforced concrete beam. Test for finding out the compressive
strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength was
conducted. In order to find out the compressive strength, concrete
cubes having a size of 150x150x150mm were cast and tested using
UTM. For finding out the spilt tensile strength concrete cylinders
having 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height were cast and tested with
UTM with the diameter horizontal. In order to find out the flexural
strength concrete prism having size 100x100x750mm were casted and
tested in UTM

MATERIALS USED AND THEIR SPECIFICATIONS:


The materials used and their specifications are as follows

CEMENT:

The type of cement used was ordinary Portland cement and its specific
gravity is 3.15. The cement was confirming to IS 269-1976

FINE AGGREGATE:

Locally available sand without debris was used, tests were conducted
as per IS2386 (PART I).
Specific gravity of fine aggregate is 2.64

COARSE AGGREGATE:

Crushed granite stone aggregates of maximum size of 20 mm was used


tests were conducted as per IS 2386(part III) of 1963.
Specific gravity of coarse aggregate is 2.69

WATER:

As per IS 456-2000 recommendations, potable water was used for


mixing of concrete

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CONCRETE MIX PROPOTION:

Concrete was designed as per IS 10262-1982. The target strength of the


mix was 40N/mm² of cube at the age of 28 days. The mix adopted is
1: 0.85: 2.24 by weight with water cement ratio of 0.35

STEEL FIBRES:

The corrugated steel fibres were used with aspect ratio 60 (36/0.6)
Length of the fibre 36 mm
Thickness of fibre 0.6mm
The tensile strength of fibre is in the range of 1-3 Gpa

THE MIX:
Latex added is 5% of weight of cement
Steel 1.5% of volume of concrete

CASTING AND CURING OF SPECIMENS:

The materials were weighed carefully using the balance for the ordinary
concrete fine aggregate and cement were weighed and mixed thoroughly, the
coarse aggregate was then added and mixed with above. Steel fibres were
then added following latex and water are added and mixed thoroughly to get
a good mix.

For preparing the specimen for determining the compressive, tensile,


flexural strength permanent steel moulds of standard size 150x150x150mm,
150mm diameter 300 mm height , 150x150x750 mm respectively.
The sides and bottom of all the moulds were properly oiled for ease
demoulding. Then the fresh was filled layer by layer and then compaction
was done by table vibrator.

Before mixing the concrete the mould and other materials were kept ready.
The fresh concrete was filled in the mould. Care should be taken to see that
the concrete was compacted perfectly. The compaction was carried out
manually and the top surface was leveled and finished. All the moulds were
demoulded 24 hrs after casting, cured in water for another 27 days. They
were tested on 28th day as per IS 456-1978.

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TESTING OF SPECIMENS

CUBE COMPRESION TEST:

The test was conducted as per IS 516-1959. the cube of standard size
150x150x150mm were uses to find the compressive strength of concrete
specimens were placed on the bearing surface of UTM, of capacity 1000
tonnes without eccentricity and a uniform of loading of 140 kg per cm^2 per
minute was applied till the failure of the cube at failure, the failure of the
maximum load was noted and the compressive strength was calculated.
Cube compressive strength (σcc) in Mpa = Pf/Ab
Where Pf= failure load (N)
Ab = bearing area of the cube (mm²).

SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE:

This test was conducted as per IS 5816-1970. The cylinders of standard size
150mm diameter and 300 mm height was placed on the UTM, with the
diameter horizontal at the top and bottom two strips of wood where placed
to avoid the crushing of concrete specimen at the points where the bearing
surface of the compression testing machine and the cylinder specimen
meets. The maximum load was noted down.
The spilt tensile strength (Tsp) = 2P/пdl (Mpa)
Where P is maximum load (N)
d = measured diameter of specimen (mm)
l = measured length of specimen (mm)

FLEXTURAL STRENTH TEST:

This test is conducted as per IS516-1959.prisms of standard size


150x150x750mm were used. Tests were carried in UTM the loads were
applied at 190mm from either ends. Uniform loading was applied and
maximum loading was noted.
The modulus of rupture was calculated
The modulus of rupture (fb) =3Pa/bd²
Where P = load (N)
d=depth of the prism mm
b= breath mm
a= distance between support and the point load

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DISCUSSIONS AND COMPARSION OF TEST RESULTS

COMPARSION OF COMPERSSIVE STRENGTH:

Percentage Percentage Compressive Compressive Compressive Percentage Percentage Percentage


of Fibre of latex by strength strength strength increase in increase in increase in
by weight volume of 3days 7 days 28 days 3 days 7 days 28 days
of cement concrete (N/mm²) (N/mm²) (N/mm²)

0 0 23 31.4 57.5 78.5

Percentage Percentage Compressive Compressive Compressive Percentage Percentage Percentage


of Fibre of latex by strength strength strength increase in increase in increase in
volume of 3days 7 days 28 days 3 days 7 days 28 days
concrete (N/mm²) (N/mm²) (N/mm²)

0 1.5 23.33 34.23 58 85

Percentage Percentage Compressive Compressive Compressive Percentage Percentage Percentage


of Fibre of latex by strength strength strength increase in increase in increase in
volume of 3days 7 days 28 days 3 days 7 days 28 days
concrete (N/mm²) (N/mm²) (N/mm²)

5 1.5 23.76 34.88 59 87

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COMPARSION OF SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH

Percentage Percentage Compressive Compressive Percentage Percentage


of Fibre of latex by strength strength increase in increase in
volume of 7 days 28 days 7 days 28 days
concrete (N/mm²) (N/mm²)

0 0 3.00

Percentage Percentage Compressive Compressive Percentage Percentage


of Fibre of latex by strength strength increase in increase in
volume of 7 days 28 days 7 days 28 days
concrete (N/mm²) (N/mm²)

0 5 3.35

Percentage Percentage Compressive Compressive Percentage Percentage


of Fibre of latex by strength strength increase in increase in
volume of 7 days 28 days 7 days 28 days
concrete (N/mm²) (N/mm²)

1.5 5 3.50

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CONCRETE DESIGN MIX

INTRODUCTION:
Concrete Mix Design is a process by which we determine the relative
proportion of the various materials of concrete with an aim to achieve a
certain minimum strength and durability, as economically as possible.
Basically two factors are involved in concrete design mix. We have to
achieve a certain minimum strength, and we have to do it as
economically as possible. Two kinds of costs are involved in the
making of concrete; namely cost of materials and cost of labor. The
labor cost, which comprises of formwork, batching, mixing,
transporting and curing is nearly the same for good concrete as well
bad concrete. Among the material costs in conventional concrete, the
cost of cement, which binds the aggregate together, is far higher than
the costs of the other ingredients. Therefore the mix design aims at
selecting as little cement as possible, consistent with the requirement of
strength and durability.
The ingredients of concrete can be broadly classified into (1) aggregate
and (2) paste. The paste lubricates the concrete and is responsible for
its workability. The lubricating effect of the paste is directly
proportional to the dilution of the paste. But more dilute the paste, less
strong it will be. It is be noted that the strength of concrete is limited by
the strength of the paste, because the mineral aggregate, with rare
exceptions are for stronger than the paste, because compound. Also the
permeability of concrete is determined by the quality and continuity of
the paste, since little water flows through the aggregate either under
capillarity. Further, the predominant contribution to drying shrinkage of
concrete is that of paste.

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DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY FOR FINE
AGGREGATE:

This test is used to determine the specific gravity of the sand.


 Specific gravity test is conducted by using Balance & Pyconometer.
 The pyconometer is cleaned for presence of dust , or moisture inside
and its empty weight is taken
 A small quantity of dry sand is put inside the pyconometer so as to
fill about one fourth of the pyconometer and the weight of
pyconometer with sand is taken
 The pyconometer is then filled, completely with distilled water. Any
entrapped air shall be eliminated by rotating the pyconometer in its
side
 The pyconometer shall be topped up with distilled water to remove
any forth from the surface, dried on the outside and weighed.
 The pyconometer is refilled with distilled water to the same level as
before, dried on the outside and weighed.

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULOATIONS;

For 100% riverbed sand:


Weight of empty pyconometer (w1) =
Weight of pyconometer and dry sand (w2) =
Weight of pyconometer, sand and water (w3) =
Weight pyconometer and water (w4) =
Specific gravity, G = (w2-w1)/ [(w2-
w1)-(w3-w2)]

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