The Afro-Asiatic Languages

Classification and Reference List
Roger Blench 8, Guest road, Cambridge CB1 2AL United Kingdom Tel/ fax 00-44-(0)1223-560687 Email: r.blench@odi.org.uk

CIRCULATED FOR COMMENT Cambridge, 22 August, 2000 This is a preliminary list circulated to interested researchers, with a view to establishing a standard order and system of data entry and presentation of lexical data. The present version of the list has benefited from the comments of a number of scholars, in particular Giorgio Banti, Václav Blaz&ek, Hal Fleming, Dick Hayward, Hermann Jungraithmayr, Rudolf Leger, Alan Kaye, Naima Louali, Fabrizio Pennachietti and Helmut Satzinger to whom I am grateful. Nonetheless, there are still many problems and I would be grateful for further additions and emendations. All comments should be sent to the address above. In many cases the status of individual lects is unknown. This presentation usually follows the sources in presenting members of a cluster or chain of languages as lects. A problem is created by epigraphic languages, which change over time. I hope to present these languages in chronological trees in a future version.

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Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft Family I. OMOTIC North Branch/Group Ometo Subgroup North Language Wolaitta (=Welamo) Dache Dorze Laha Gamo Gofa Kullo-Konta Malo Oyda Ganjule Zala Balta? Gidicho Kachama Dokka Doko-Dolo Misketto (=Basketto) Gatame (=Haruro) Zayse Koorite (Koyra) (=Badittu) Maale Ch'ara Benc Non Mer She Yem (=Yemsa) Kafa Mocha Shinasha (=Bworo) Amuru ? Anfillo Guba? Wambera ? Dizi Nayi (=Na'o) Sheko Lects/Dialects Highlands Lowlands Kucha East South Unclassified Gimira Yem Kefoid Zergula Fofa Toba Bonga Manjo Dizoid Jeba Adikas Dorsha Bulla (=Daan) of Bambeshi of Didessa Mao Mao Hozo Sezo Ganza ? Hamer Aari -1- South (=Aroid) Karo Banna Bako Biyo .

. «mbaro (=Qabena) Alaba Leemo Libido Soro Yaaku-Dullay Yaaku Dullay Lohu Mashole Lowland Afar-Saho Saho -2- Northern Central Aussa Ba’adu Asawurta etc. CUSHITIC Beja Agaw (=Central) Southern Northern Western Northeastern Eastern Highland Beja (=Bedauye) Awngi Kunfäl Kemant Qara† Xamir Xamta Bilin Burji Sidamo Darasa Gedeo Kambata Hadiyya Unclassified Agamja Maraqo Shashago Yaaku Dihina Dobase Gaba ? Gawwada Gergere Gollango Gorrose Harso Tsamako Afar Hadareb Bisharin Hadendowa Dime Bosha † Kambata T .Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft Galila Gozza Laydo Seyki Shangama Sido Ubamer Zeddo Unclassified II.

Irob Omo-Tana Macro-Somali Sam Somali1 Dasenech Elmolo Arbore Bayso Rendille Aweer (=Boni) North-Central Benaadir Northern Southern Ashraaf Maay (=Jabarti) Digil Jiiddu Yibir ? Midgaan? Girirra Western Shewa Eastern Southern Northern Darood Lower Juba Abgaal Ajuraan Gaaljacal Xamari Bimaal Shingaani Lower Shebelle Northern Buur Hakaba Southern Garre Tunni Dabarre Unclassified Oromoid Maca Tuulama Arsi Harar Ajuran Borana Gabra Garreh Munyo Orma Sakuye Waata Konsoid South Rift East Bussa (=Mossiya) Mashile Turo Gato D'iraassh (Gidole) Konso Asax † Kw'adza † 1 The classification of Somali generally follows Lamberti (1984) although I am aware that this is controversial and a different view is presented in Ehret and Nuuh Ali (1984) -3- .Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft Minifire etc.

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft West Unclassified III. Mupun inc. CHADIC 1. Doka Kofyar Mernyang Doemak Kwagallak Bwol Gworam Jipal Bole-Angas Angas Angas Mwaghavul (=Sura) Cakfem-Mushere Miship (Chip) Jorto Kofyar cluster Gerka Ron Bole North Goemai Koenoem Pyapun Tal Montol Yiwom Bokkos Daffo-Butura Sha Kulere Karfa Shagawu Fyer Tambas? Mundat? Karekare Gera Geruma Deno Bure Kubi Giiwo Galambu Daza Bole -4- . West Hausa Iraqw Gorowa Alagwa (=Wasi) Burunge Boon (ex Lamberti) Dahalo Ma'a Hausa Gwandara Karshi Cancara Toni Gitata Koro Nimbia inc.

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft South Bade/Warji Bade group Warji group Ngamo Maagha (=Maaka) eele Pali Kwaami Pero Piya-Kwonci Kholok Nyam Goji (=Kushi) Kutto Tangale Dera (=Kanakuru) Bade &uwai Ngizim Auyok † Shira † Teshena † Diri Pa'a Warji Vinah« (=Kariya) Mburku Miya Zumbun Siri Ciwogai Bolu Geji Zaranda Zul Baram Dir Buli. Langas (=Lundur) Polci Zeem. Boto Zari (=Kopti) Sigidi Zaar Zangwal -5- South Bauchi Zaar group Barawa cluster Geji cluster Polci cluster Zeem cluster Das cluster Zari cluster Saya cluster Guruntum . Danshe Lushi Lukshi Durr-Baraza Zumbul Wandi Dot Zakshi.

Higi) Hya (=GhyE?) Bana Bacama Bata (=Gbwata) PsikyE Zl«N« Wula Bata (=Gbwata) Zumu Malabu Koboci Wadi Ribaw Demsa Garoua Jirai Gude (of Mubi) Gude D«r«b«s Uroovin (=Fali of Vimtim) Bahuli (=Fali of Bahuli) Madzarin (=Fali of Muchella Uramºwiin (Fali of Bagira) Tsuvan Sharwa Gude Fali cluster -6- . Central Tera Bura-Higi Bura No data Higi Tala Ju Guruntum-Mbaaru Boghom Kir-ala Jum Mangas Jimi Luri Poki Tera Pidlimdi (=Hinna) Jara Ga'anda Gabin Boga Ngwaba Hwana Bura-Pabir Kyibaku (=Chibbuk) Nggwahyi Huba (=Kilba) Putai Margi Babal South Margi Kofa Kamw« (= PsikyE.Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft Boghom Unclassified 2.

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft Ulan Mazhilv«n (Fali of Jilbu) Jimjim«n (=Jimi) Gudu Holma Njanyi Yedina South Ms«r (=Kousseri) Mser Kalo Gawi Huluf Kabe Maslam Sahu Douguia Dro Malgbe Mara Bodo Digam Mpad« Shoe Wulki Yedina Mandage North Lagwan (=Logone) Afaë« Maslam Malgbe (=Gulfey) Mpad« Unclassified Daba group North South Jilbe Buwal (=Gadala) Gavar (=Kortchi) Besleri (=Hina) Daba Besleri J ö Nj ö N Gamdugun Daba Mazagway (=Musgoy) Nive Pologozom Tpala (=Kola) Wandala Mura Malgwa (=Gamergu) Kamburwama Masfeima Jampalam Zlogba Mazagwa Gwanje Mb«dam Wandala-Mafa Wandala East Wandala Central West -7- Glavda (=G«lvaxdaxa) Par«kwa (=Podoko) G«voko Guduf-Gava Guduf .

Mofu N. Roua) d) -8- . Tur) Mabas Vemgo Lamang Taghwa (=Z«l«dv«) Ghumbagha Ghud«v«n Vizik (?) P«lasla (=Gwendele) Ndreme (Vame) Mb«rem (VameMbreme) D«mwa Hurza Mafa Sukur Northeast Woga Sakwun (=Sukur) P«lasla Northwest South a) Mbuko Gaduwa Matal (=Muktele) Wuzlam (=Ouldémé) Muyang Maë a M«lokwo Z«lgwa-Minew Gemzek &ugwr Merey Mikere Giziga N. Giziga S. Mofu S.Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft Gava Cineni Cikide Dghweë e X«di (=Hide. Mbazlam (=Baldamu) Cuvok Mefele Shügule Mafa b) c) Maroua Dogba Tchéré Lulu Muturwa Mijivin Duvangar Durum Wazang Gudur Mokong Zidim Mefele Sirak Muhura West Central East (Soulede.

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft East-Central Kaëa Munjuk Mida'a Kaë a (=Gidar) Muzuk† (=Musgum) Mpus Beege (=Jafga) Vulum (=Mulwi) Mbara Jina Lam Maj«ra 3. East A Branch Peve Tari Lame Batna Cimiang Dz«paw (=Lamé) Sorga-Ngete Heë e-Rong Sibine (=Sumrey) Tumak Mawer Ndam Sarwa Gadang Mod -9- Sibine Ndam Ndam Dik . Masa North Masa Jina Muxule Sarassara Sede Majera Kajire-'Dulo Hwalem Gumay Bayga Yagwa Domo Marao Walia Gizay = Guisey Bongor Hara Buguë um Masa Zumaya MuseyAzumeina Musey (=Banana) Zumaya † Jaraw-Domo Bongor-Jodo-Tagal-BeremGunu Pe-Holom-Gamé Marba Kolong Lew Zime Bero Zamre Azumeina South Zime Peve-Kaë o Peve Lamé 4.

Egyptian Kujarke (?) Buso ? Achmimic . Branch Mokilko Mokilko Dangla Dangla Birgit Migama Bidiya Jegu Mogum Mubi Masmaje Kajakse Toram Sokoro Mahwa Barain Saba Kujarke Ancient Egyptian † Demotic † Coptic † -10- Sokoro Sokoro Bedanga Unclassified IV.Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft Nancere Miltu Mire Nancere Lele Tobanga Gabri S. cluster Kimré Kaba Lai Kera Kwang Buruwa Darbe Moonde Kimruwa Bordo Tchéré-Aiba Aloa Cakin-Ngam Mobu Modgel ? Doliki Gugiko Mezimko Mokilko Moriko Seginki Migama Doga Gamiya Garawgino Jekkino Bigawguno Nalguno 'Oboyguno ?Jonkor BourmaTaguil Mogum Abu Deia Mogum Melfi Kofa Monjul Kwang B.

Soqotri Mehri Bat .h . arsu#si Ho#byo#t -11- .Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft Bohairic Fayyumic Lycopolitan Old Coptic Saidic V. ari H . Semitic East Central Aramaic Old Aramaic † Achmenaean † Middle Aramaic West † East Eblaic (?)† Akkadian † Deer Alla † Ugaritic † Assyrian Babylonian Ya’udic Assyrian Tel Fekkeriye Nabatean Palmyrean Syriac Talmudic Hatrean Mandaean Malula Baxa ubbadiin Turoyo Sureth Jewish dialects neo-Mandaean Classical Hebrew † Hebrew Phoenician Punic Neo-Punic Classical Arabic Eastern Arabic Western Arabic Chadian Arabic Shuwa Arabic Neo-Aramaic West Central East Canaanite Hebrew Phoenician † Arabic Arabic* South Semitic Epigraphic Modern Arabian Maltese Jakati Epigraphic South Arabian Sabaean † Minaean Qatabanian Hadramautic S.

Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft Jibba#li (=Shahri) Ethio-Semitic Geez Tigre Tigrinya Amharic Argobba Harari Gafat† East Gurage Kurya Murya islands Selt . VI. Berber Guanche East Numidian Berber Eastern Twareg Western Northern Atlas Kabyle Zenati Guanche† East Numidian † (=Old Libyan) Siwa Awjila Sokna Ghadames Zurg (=Kufra) Fezzan Tmessa Al-Fojaha Tawellemet Abalagh (=East) West Tayir t Ingal . Gofat Tamesgrest Azerori Tafaghist Tahaggart (=Ahaggar) Ghat Zenaga Tachlit (=Shilha) Tamazight Kabyle Riff cluster Shawiya Tidikelt Tuat Tariifit (=Riff) -12- .i Wolane Zway Caha Endegeø Ennemor Ezha Gyeto ?Mesmes Soddo Gogot Muher Mäsqan Ulbarag .nnäqor Azärnät-Mugo Gura Ennär Mägär ?Gumär West Gurage North Gurage Gurage unclass.

Arguments over this language continue since the claim by Mous that it is a ‘register’ and that Ma’a contains many Eastern as well as Southern Cushitic lexical items. Ethiopia). (1992). -13- . Omotic Bosha. For description see Kirk (1905). A language related to Highland East Cushitic cited by Haberland & Lamberti (1988). Wambera listed only in Ethnologue. Cushitic Alaba. See Fleming et al.c. This may possibly be Afroasiatic but it is better to regard it as unclassified. p. Yibir. Midgan. Numerous lects have been described for Arabic. A language spoken in Somalia. This language is spoken in Eastern Sudan and only 49 words have been recorded. This language is elsewhere listed as unclassified. Guba. Bender (1990) argues the case for its Omotic affiliation. Queries: Ongota.Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft Mzab-Wargla East Zenati Ghmara Tlemcen Sheliff Basin Gurara Mzab Wargla Ghardaia Tugurt Seghrušen Figig Senhaja Iznacen Tmagurt Sened Jerba Tamezret Taujjut Nefusi Zrawa *Arabic. (Gemu-Gofa. Ganza. Recent work has suggested that this language might be East Cushitic or even another branch of Cushitic (Václav Blaz&ek. Boon. Whether this differentiation is in the nature of a code or these represent distinct languages remains unknown. For a more comprehensive listing see Ethnologue. spoken respectively by magicians and hunters among the Somali are said to differ substantially in lexicon from standard Somali. Dahalo. These lects. but Ethnologue says it is a lect of Kafa. Lamberti (1986) has recorded fragmentary materials making final classification impossible.) Ma’a. Not the same as Boni.

A. Buso. Yilma. in contrast to earlier sources. SIL. J. A language presumably of the Bole-Tangale group recently reported by Rudolf Leger. (E. This language.. Berber Guanche. Wagner. Mitiku. Wagner and Vanderkooi (1992) report that Ngam and Tchaguine are essentially the same lect. Kirk. 1992). 1905. Zumaya. In the light of its geographical position it is presumably West Chadic. 1992. Dulbu. R. Kofa.W.. 1983).Roger Blench Preliminary Classification of Afroasiatic Circulation Draft Chadic Luri. P. Dallas. R. Second Edition. but no data is available. although no information is available to confirm this. (Masa. The Berber affiliation of this extinct language is questioned by some scholars. S. Mikesh. It was apparently part of the Masa group. This language. Lame. H.. Y. Selected Sources: Crozier. & Vanderkooi. (ed) 1992. Grimes. Chadic) This language is known only from a few words recorded from the last speaker. -14- .. Kwang. There appear to be two different but related languages with this name. An unclassified language of the Mandage (Kotoko) group recently reported. D. A language mentioned by Alio and Jungraithmayr as related to Bidiya. Hayward. ms. Jilbe. is in fact Jarawan Bantu. Chadic) is very remote fom other languages in this group and may be another type of language with a high proportion of Chadic loanwords (see Doornbos and Bender. Dallas. spoken near Song in Nigeria. Miyawaki.C. Nigeria. Cambridge University Press. has been recorded as Chadic (unclassified) (Crozier & Blench. Another language mentioned in this report. SIL. SIL.M. spoken in Bauchi State. Rapport sur une Enquête Sociolinguistique parmi les Kwang du Tchad. and that Modgel is simply a village name.M. Texas. A language mentioned by Campbell & Hoskison (1972) in Bauchi State.F. and Blench.3:181-225. is said to be related to Bura. A Grammar of the Somali Language with examples in Prose and Verse and an account of the Yibir and Midgan dialects. B. Index of Nigerian Languages. A. Ongota or Birale: a moribund language of Gemu-Gofa (Ethiopia). Pali. Chadic).C. Nigeria. Journal of Afroasiatic Languages. Fleming. 3. The more well-known one is here given the name Dz«paw as the head-name. Poki. 1992. Ethnologue. Only mentioned in Ethnologue. not Chadic. M. Kujarke (E. 1992. J. N’Djamena. Kofa. Cambridge. and Seelig.