Home Mechanic









26 City



Hall Place.








They are made "or '^boiled." ''Cold made" soaps are compounds of grease and alkali^ produced wholly by mechanical agencies. The elements are poured into
vats and stirred until the grease is apparently, but, in point of fact, never saponified. To accomplish this partial saponification, an excess of alkali is necessary. When, therefore, this soap is dissolved in the wash-tub, this excess of alkali not only dissolves the dirt on the clothes, and make^ washing easier, but it also attacks the fabric and ''rots" it. Boiled soaps are also made of grease and alkali. These are placed into large vats in proper proportions, and are thoroughly boiled. Under the influence of heat, a much less quantity of alkali is required to produce perfect saponification. After this saponification has taken place, the compound is allowed to cool in the vat. The pure soap rises to the top, and all the impurities settle The value of boiled soaps of course deto the bottom. pends greatly on the quality of the materials used. This accounts for the difference in price and quality. The purest materials, such as clean tallow or pure oils, thoroughly saponified, yield the most valuable soaps, costing more per pound, but they are cheaper in the end. A good soap is a perfectly neutral compound, and will in no case injure the most delicate fabrics. The simplest

Family soaps are made of grease and alkali.




of testing soap is by tasting. If it is sharp and biting on the tongue, there is an excess of alkali ; but if it leaves no unpleasant sensation on the tongue, there is not the least danger that it will rot or otherwise injure clothes in washing.


Soap, in the popular sense, is a combination of fat with an alkaline lye, that is, the solution of caustic soda or potash in certain proportions, which, when properly manipulated, produces either a soft or a hard soap, both being employed in domestic economy. The fat is decomposed by proper contact with the alkali, which has the property of removing the glycerine combined in the fat, and to take its place in the remaining constituents of the fatty matter, while the glycerine so displaced is retained in the watery liquid remaining after the separation of the soap from the underlying liquid. Eats are always a combination of glycerine with fatty acids, and when an alkali is brought in proper contact with the fatty matter, the glycerine of the fair is disengaged, and the alkaline lye then combines with the fatty acids, and forms a saponaceous salt commonly known as soap as, for example a stearate of soda, when tallow is made to combine with caustic soda. In other words, tallow is changed into stearic acid, having lost its glycerine, and uniting with the soda, is transformed into a stearate of soda. Stearic acid is not the only constituent of fat. It is there combined with other similar acids, as the margaric and oleic acids ; but in tallow the stearic is the most abundant, while in lard, margaric acid predominates, and oleic acid in the fatty oil of commerce. Potash produces, in its caustic state, the same kind of When potash is used, the alteration as caustic soda. fatty acids combine with it, and form stearates, margaOne peculiarity, however, rates or oleates of potash. of potash, is that its use produces soaps less consistent or



hard in their nature than soda but in order to diminish the hardness of some soda soap, some potash is used in their manufacture and conversely soda, in some form, is also used to modify the soft tendency of pure potash soaps, when it is desirable to have them in condition to be transformed into bar soap. Potash is mostly obtained from the ashes of hard woods, which, being leached, yield a crude potash by evaporation of the water in iron boilers. It is also obtained from felspar, a mineral found in various localities, containing it in combination with alkaline earths or salts, from which it is separated by chemical processes for the purposes of commerce and manufactures. Soda is obtained from the ashes of various kinds of sea-weeds, which, being burned into ashes, are leached as the ashes of hard wood, and the resulting product is soda ash or barilla, an impure kind of soda which, however, is further purified, and rendered caustic for the This has been, till a compurposes of soap-making. paratively recent period, the chief source of supply of But with increased wants bountithe soda of commerce. ful Providence has provided other sources of supply to mankind. In common salt, a compound of soda with chlorine, is found an illimitable supply. By a series of chemical processes, chlorine is set free, and soda, in the form of sal-soda, and also in the state of caustic soda, is obtained, both in great use in many arts and manufactures.

Again another source of supply has been recently discovered in a mineral substance named kryolite, found abundantly in Greenland. Soda is combined in it with an oxide of aluminum, a pure clay, which being separated from their combination by chemical art, enables us to apply them to their respective uses.






Animal fat, such hand of all other

as tallow, is the substance most at fatty matters for soap-making, al-

or else it may be poured in a common washtub. sunflower. firkin three pounds of good quicklime * . and also rosin. olive and other oils.440 THE HOME MECHANIC. is most extensively employed in the manufacture of domestic soap. this is a convenient and suitable process Dissolve sal-soda. It sometimes happens that caustic soda is not within reach. SOAP FROM HOME-MADE CAUSTIC SODA. it is heated to the temperature of boiling water. For this purpose. . in two gallons of warm water. larger by at least one-third than the whole mixture. . are used in soap-making occasionally. say Slack in a three pounds. To transform this material into a suitable lye for soap-making. about one quart of the melted fat being first ladled into it. then as much or more of the hot lye. castor. common soda (the carbonate) makes . potash. from whence it is transferred on boards. a tight box. and generally at a lower cost than most of the oils above enumerated. in water called the lye the whole is gradually transferred into an iron pot. previously soaked in water to prevent adhesion to the tub. or upon a table to dry and be cut in bars for use. after being freed of skin by boiling. and there allowed to harden for a few days. thongh vegetable oils. add to it the : * Quicklime added to caustic soda. by means of an annealed wire. the ladling kept on alternately till all the lye and fat are mixed together the stirring to be kept up on a moderate fire till the mixture boils. and is allowed to boil some ten or fifteen minutes. such as palm. the mixture constantly stirred on the fire till a sort of creamy matter is formed. in which muslin has been placed overhanging the box. or both. straining and remelting. . and mixed on the fire with a hot solution of either soda. and yet sal-soda is to be had. but tallow being more easily obtainable. so that the soap may be afterward more easily drawn out of it for the purpose of drying it. cocoa-nut. according to the strength of the lye employed it is then transferred from the boiler into a form.

and cut into bars. To get the lye to a uniform strength. by ladlefuls at a time. and water poured thereon and allowed to filter through and trickle out from the point into a proper vessel. it is fit for use. boiler placed on the fire. and Pour off the clear liquor in a clean iron let it settle. boards and lined with straw. in other words. Soap thus made is an excellent hard soap for family use . and stir into it six pounds of clarified grease. . . and one proper for soap-making. and add two gallons of boiling water stir again. 441 stir the whole thoroughly with a stick. OR SOAP FROM THE LYE OF LEACHED ASHES. is placed. as stated above. it extracts more potash from the ashes. Hot water poured upon the ashes makes a stronger lye than cold . Let it boil slowly till it gets thick and ropy (about ten minutes boiling). shaped thus. after drying a month or so in a dry-room. To leach the ashes properly for this purpose. The lye will not be of uniform strength. to give proper causticity to the potash in solution which the lye conThe ordinary process is to have a receptacle tains. of lime should be added. running lye fresh wood ashes mixed with a little lime. into a kettle two-thirds full of lye. and pour it into a tub or tight box. the of made through at the bottom. and to make soap from the lye of leached ashes than from a soda lye. In most parts of this country it is as convenient. stirring carefully and rapidly until a ring made of the much cheaper. Upon the straw. and stir until it is creamy now begin to add the salt by small handfuls. This is the farm wife's specific gravity test. soda solntion . boil it until a sound potato will float upon its surface. Then. and two ounces of powdered borax. from two to five per cent. . in with your melted fat. and it is as accurate as any sold by the opticians.THE HOME MECHAITIO. COUNTRY SOAP-MAKING.

Soft soap is made in the same way without the salt. over the soap goes. and the soap to harden. I take some weaker lye and the clean part of that which is left in the bottom of the soap kettles. When the soap is cold it can be cut out in cakes. and with it settle to the bottom. and let it boil up with the soap once. allow the fire to go out. in a little less than the necessary amount of grease. The soap thus made is whiter. skins of the hogs. if the lye is not strong enough to eat the feather off a quill. soapy matter on the stirring stick. Then take a bucket of weak lye. and a little darker. Some. The kettle must not be full. but will wash the dirt out that was in the grease. and then while boiling. hot or cold. A correspondent of the American Agriculturist gives the following method of making soap for family use in the country I start the lye to boiling. growing fairer and fairer. and no amount of boiling will take up an excess of grease. bacon rinds. or the lye can be poured off by tipping the kettle. and will be very troublesome . but pass the limit. instead of putting in lye to wash the dirt out of the soap. until the kettle is about two-thirds full. remains visible. and enough to half fill one of the kettles or more. but It is apt to be too stiff to use easily in the wash-tub. setting it in some convenient place outdoors. and the like. for with the least bit It is better to put too much fire. This will not disturb the already made soap. Exposure to the air will soften it down until it is of about the consistence of mush. from which it may be lifted when hard. I put a stick of wood on Then : . whereas a little too much lye will sink to the bottom when the soap comes. makes excellent ball soap for washing dirty hands. Lye and grease combine in certain proportions. and put in grease. a little fire only is required to keep it boiling. let the kettle be a little more than one-third full of lye. put in salt and water. It will remain on top.442 THE HOME MECHANIC. It usually gathers on the top of the spent lye. When it will just eat the feather. If the proportions are good. meat fryings. and in a few hours it is done. boil it down until it is.

and allow it to pour off the clear liquid . previously dissolved in the four gallons of hot water . which last is needful merely upon the most soiled portions. and I have by fall a half kettle of decent soap. does not injure the linen. and lay another stick on top to keep the roof in By lifting one of the boards a little. This preparation answers very well for family washand saves soap considerably. adding one quart of clean soft water. three quarters of a pound. Slack the lime in sufficient boiling water . I facilitate the I remove the cover and stir the lye. . and melt thoroughly. 443 the north side of the top of the kettle. making a roof which is easily managed to shed rain. and boil the clothes in it (it is better to boil the water before adding the . FLUIDS. stir the whole thoroughly. and stir in one tablespoonful real white wine vinegar two large tablespoonf uls of hartshorn. and no trouble with soap-fat in hot weather. Another excellent one is as follows : Take two pounds of the best brown soap cut it up and put it in a clean pot. family through the summer. bottle it in rest and settle To two pails of clean bottles. Set over the fire. I can put in place. Best unslacked lime. four gallons. stirring it up from the bottom occasionally. business a little in this way. three pounds. water add one pint of washing fluid. etc.THE HOME MECHAKIC. and diminishes the amount of soap and rubbing considerably. Sal-soda. lay on some boards. such as wrist- bands. Then take from the fire. fluid). collars. . This preparation in the proportions given. add to it the sal-soda. and seven . and cork tight for use. Hot water. from time to time whatever soap-fat is gathered in the Whenever the sun shines. WASHING ing.

moving them about in the water occasionally. and put it into a large iron pot of three or four gallons^ capacity. . rinse well in this. Heat the fat in another iron pot quite hot. SOFT SOAP. put the mixture immediately into a stone jar . The double rinsing is important. with hot boiling water to nearly fill it. lest the hartshorn evaporate. and by following the above directions the washing mixture will save much time and labor. Put in as many white clothes as the water will cover . Then take out and throw into a tub of cold water . previously cleaned and ready for use. as hot as you can bear your hand in. clothes after the mixture is well stirred. and render the clothes beautifully white. and lastly put into a second tub of rinsing water. Crack the potash in small lumps.444 THE HOME MECHANIC. melted and clarified fat. and add to it two Put in the tablespoonfuls of the washing mixture. stirred the ingredients well together. It will only be necessary to rub with the hands such parts as are badly soiled . eight pounds . and stir in two large tablespoonf als of the mixture. without injury. and ladle in it alternately the hot fat and hot lye . slightly blued with the indigo bag. nearly fill a six or eight gallon tub with soft water. let them soak about an hour. Wring out and rinse well through two cold waters. Next put into the wash kettle sufficient water to boil the clothes (it must be cold at first). the ordinary dirt will soak out. not more. Having large tablespoonfuls of spirit of turpentine. When going to wash. cover without delay. For one barrel take potash. and gradually add enough hot water to fill the barrel stir again the whole. Put three or four gallons of hot water in the barrel. Keep it always closely covered. eight pounds. stir the whole briskly for a while before more lye and fat are ladled in. after each ladle of hot water. and boil them half an hour. till the .

. AND RENDERING IT SUITABLE FOR SOAP-MAKING. 445 whole becomes a creamy mass. PROCESS FOR PURIFYING SOAP GREASE. ten or fifteen minutes strain while hot let it remain quiet for twenty-four hours. The purpose of the permanganate of potash is to remove the rank odor of the grease. HOW IT TO PREPARE NEW FAT. or till the water poured out is colorless.THE HOME MECHANIC. That is poured off after two or three hours of contact and stirring occasionally. on the fire (about three times as much water as of the grease). it is strained through a cloth. or in the pot in which it is to be remelted for transformation into soap. . it should be put in a boiler with water. place or cellar. . with one-third of its weight of water. The fresh fat or tallow is cut up in thin slices and stirred in a barrel with three to five times as much cold water. AND SEPARATE FROM THE SKINS IN WHICH IT IS HELD. For one hundred pounds of fat. put into the water four ounces of alum in fine powder. uniform in its appearAllow it to rest for three months in a temperate ance. a small quantity (say ateaspoonful for five to ten pounds of grease) of permanganate of potash added. which otherwise would contaminate the soap also. The fat is then transferred into a clean iron pot or copper kettle heated slowly. and take out the tallow cake to further wash it in cold clean water till no salt or alum taste is perceptible then melt it over in a clean boiler . and after the mixture has cooled a little. WHICH MAKES IT SO LIABLE TO BECOME RANCID. when the cake of fat is taken out and put in a cool place. to the whole. and eight ounces of salt . add one-quarter of a pound of benzoin in . The same is twice repeated over with new clean cold water. and allowed to rest. If the grease is very foul in smell. boil it along with the fat. by stirring.

when melted. one-half pound of salt this is boiled air. powder carefully into clean firkins or crocks.ell. To concentrate the same odor. the sweet and strong-scented flowers are put in a vessel. . with about a water skim it from time to time.446 THE HOME MECHANIC. will require a larger proportion than of the oils. . almond or castor oil to make it less firm and of more convenient use for the purpose above set forth. and the whole allowed to remain in contact at a temperature sufficient it is to keep the sweet fat liquid for forty-eight hours then strained. melt again at a low heat under the lid the same fat . . for use. and pour the clear prepared fat boil the . and boiling it in water containing for every one-hundred pounds of fat (water. Tallow. rank sm. and allow gallon of the water to evaporate almost completely on the fire let the whole settle. can be employed instead of the oils already mentioned. This can be prevented by cutting it in slices. one-quarter of a pound of alum. by being first melted over a slow fire . add another quantity of the same flowers. properly covered and kept in a cool cellar. to make the pomade of a suitable consistency. but being rather thicker. whole gently with care. and proceed as before. A NEW WAY TO PREPARE ANIMAL FAT FOR SOAPMAKING. and it has acquired the odor of the flowers placed in contact with it. . one-quarter to one-third of a pound of fine olive. such as the tuberose and others. and also will take up the smell of sweet-scented flowers. Fat thus prepared will keep sweet and be suitable for cooking purposes. closed by a lid. thirty -five to forty pounds). Lard purified and prepared by the first process employed for the preparation of tallow. This scented fat can be softened for using as a flower pomade by adding to it. in the melted state. . TO KEEP IT SWEET AND FACILITATE GREATLY ITS TRANSFORMATION INTO SOAP. when exposed at common temperature in the gradually acquires an unpleasant.

while the grained fat in suet may be preserved sweet for soapm^aking purposes for years. twenty-five pounds. and to this water add about ten per cent. and before it is cold. is then trans- ferred and packed in firkins. the method of working the Grained Tallow on the large scale will also be given hereafter. TO MAKE SOAP FROM GRAINED TALLOW. then remelted at a low heat and poured into a barrel containing twice as much water (by measure) as of the melted grease. Although this plan is best adapted to persons wishing to make their own soap without an expensive apparatus as is required in the usual manufacturer's boiling soap pan system. and producing a soap free of rank smell. 447 together and strained . and keep up a brisk stirring for an hour or more . if thoroughly dried before packing away. the water not to be more than blood-heat. Hot lye. to twenty gallons. and the temperature of the grease about The whole is thoroughly stirred with a broad the same. and finally dried in a current of dry air.THE HOME MECHAN^IC. completely drained. stick till cold. the cake of strained fat taken up and washed in clean water . when it is allowed to rest and separate from the water. six pounds two pounds. stir in it the grained tallow . Grained fat thus prepared. Take of grained tallow. then allow it to rest. to set. is kept sweet. crocks or barrels. and the fat remaining. in a granular state. . in consequence no doubt of its grain-like state. potash. of good clear sweet soap compared to the amount of grease. add the balance of hot lye. which enables the alkali in the lye to act upon a greater surface at once without requiring the boiling of the fat with the lye. and is also acted on by the lye with far greater ease and rapidity. which is afterward withdrawn. pour it into a frame or tub as before stated. of the hot lye into a clean barrel . prepared with soda ash. Hot water seventeen Put a portion .

can be satisfactorily repaired whereas the others are altogether useless. The following diagram represents the vertical section of a pan for soap sides are The hoiling. H. and is inafford to space tended for the soap to rise. and furnace. A. when burned through. by the grate. half round the side of the pan into the chimney. in such a manner that the brick work of the upper part projects to about three feet above the floor. This is made accessible by the door the soot is the room into the pit L. They also. PREPARATION OF DOMESTIC SOAP BY PAN ON THE OPEN FIRE.448 THE HOME MECHAN'IC. B. The whole of the pan is sunk into the floor of the boiling house. in contact with the fire. A. cast and sheet iron kettles are used. tube with a cock. but the latter is the best they will last longer than cast iron. P F F F. stone or iron. The fireplace. E. . expands in the form of an inverted cone. . Here Eoman which never comes X . The upper part. composed of brick work erected. is separated from the ashpit. leads from the lowest part of the pan for the removal of the under lye. The fire. passes by the flue^ T T T. Wood. and lined with cement. after having heated the bottom of the pan. which is made of planks.

2d. experience having shown that this is the best method for obtaining a good draft. it is burn. Hard coal is then to be — openings through which the products of combustion pass and enter the chimney. judiciously heated soap from burning. in order that the heat may be thrown back below the bottom of the kettle. and carefully cleaned after each operation. for if it is allowed to circulate around the sides. That the grate be placed in the center of the hearth. then. and counter sunk. riveting the pieces. from fifteen to twenty pounds of soda ash (or caustic soda) is required. 3d. should be inserted evenly with the bottom. in the lower third part leakage. For transforming one hundred pounds of fat into soap (the yield in soap is about one hundred and sixty-five to one hundred and seventy pounds to the one hundred pounds of fat). will last five years and more without needing repairs. the bottom pan being from three-eighths to onequarter of an inch thick. and vertically below the kettle. and effecting a complete combustion of the fuel. previously deprived of the carbonic acid gas it naturally 29 preferred. so that no openings are left for The rivets. to prevent the of a T) Such a boiler. 4th. In kettles designed for soap boiling. That the inside of the fireplace be built of fire bricks. should possess together the same surface as the grate. the heat must be confined to the bottom. and the sides from three-sixteenths to one-quarter of an inch in thickness. 449 again the soft sheet h'on of the first quality should be selected.— THE HOME MECHANIC. necessary 1st. moreover. accordMuch attention should be paid to ing to dimensions. to circumscribe the heat. the materials inside would inevitably In order. The fuel employed to be that which produces the most heat and the least flame. according to the purity of the alkali the purer it is the less it requires and about one hundred and thirty gallons of pure water. otherwise the workman cannot go smoothly and thoroughly over with his crutch (a long stirrer the shape a necessary part of the process. The — — .

having taken out the stirring rod or crutch. when again tasted as before. is added gradually under constant stirring. which in heating gradually becomes clearer. and the soap is substantially made. and requires greater experience in conducting the operation than the following mode of proceeding. . producing a transparent. the fire should be forthwith reduced. a couple of pounds of soap shavings thrown in will assist the progress of the operations. Should saponification progress slowly. the soapy parts no This longer run from it. holds in solution by boiling by increasing the dose of soda-ash this extra labor may be avoided. it soon forms a milky cream. clear mass. By this means a slight separation of the soap from the In all cases lye is produced. 450 THE HOME MECHAT^IC. and becoming overWhen this heated. but slide down in long threads. it may be separated from the watery portion containing the glycerine and an excess of alkaline salts by slowly boiling the mass down till the soap separates from the liquid below it but this is more tedious. pure salt. When about one-fourth of the lye has been added and mixed with the hot fat in the pan. occurs. and the mischief arrested.. At this stage. . until the whole is put in. adheres to the bottom of the pan. liquid should be put on the tongue if there is still some uncombined lye in it. burns and produces a smoky vapor. in which is to be seen neither fat nor lye. a burning or tingling sensation will be felt. the contents of the kettle are modified into a uniform. and a few gallons of strong lye added to prevent further mischief. soapy liquid. while another workman agitates the soapy . in which case the boiling must be continued until a sweetish taste replaces the other impresThen more lye sion. W^hen all the lye has been made to combine with the fat. with oily drops inFrom time to time a drop of the pasty termingled. the operation described above is complete when. By heating with an open fire it sometimes happens that a portion of the soapy matter. when it thickens. one workman gradually adds dry. is called the spinning of the soap. called ^'^the salting process. ^^ The soap is kept gently boiling.

on a small scale. the soap is ladled out into wooden frames to set. and the froth breaks up into roundish. however. and when placed on the hand and rubbed with the fingers. The glycerine in that liquid can be separated and collected for use in the arts. but for the process. and be afterward cut in bars. furthermore. in which there is not the soft appearance of froth. On the whole. and afterward the watery liquid underneath drawn off through the faucet below.THE HOME MECHAN^IC. splits into several fields. the whole should be allowed to remain undisturbed for several hours. massive. The salting process being completed. and separating by common salt as before stated. XX. 549. distinct from each other and from the watery portion. but of dry slabs. it hardens into scaly . and it is probably the best use it can be put to by such manufacturers in the country. sinks. The fire should then be put out. been added. which was always covered with froth and bubbles. grain-like matter. From 12 to 16 lbs. After the withdrawal of the watery part. of fat changed into soap. The separation is perfect when the watery portion is observed to run off from the curdy mass when a sample is taken up with a knife it is not sticky while hot. It may. The soap as thus prepared is called grained soap.* it could not be rendered practicable. separated from one another by deep furrows. the soap water waste can be usefully thrown over the compost pit for manuring purposes. be further purified for fine toilet soaps by re-dissolving it in an alkaline lye. During this lumps. after one-half has the whole salt at a time. * See American Journal of Pharmacy. when the soap in the main. and should be put in in the proportion of about one eighth of However. is needed for 100 lbs. The surface of the soap. . with profit. upwards. 451 mass with a crutch from below. the soap should be allowed to boil for about ten minutes before more is added.. as given by a French chemist. which slowly arrange themselves above one another by the force of the escaping hot vapor from below.

and hence it become^. and mixed with clear. and immediately afterward about one ounce of sulphate of n-on. that can be imparted to the grained soap by adding to it as soon as it is completely separated. previous to its being put in contact with the lye. of rosin. ROSIN SOAP. If the mottled red and gray appearance of castile soap is desired. Fifteen per cent. Both soaps in the hot state are to be thoroughly incorporated. and the whole passed through a wire sieve before transferring to the frames. as the mixture easily rises. nor is . Twelve gallons of strong lye (30° to 36° Beaume) are needed for 100 lbs. of rosin can be saponified with potash or soda lye. and the soap combines with more water. .452 last process. is often added . thirty-three per cent. The black oxide of iron is precipitated. and therein also well stirred with the crutch. will much improve the appearance of such a soap. become gradually red in consequence of the conversion of the black oxide. which. when saponified along with the tallow. weaker. should be ground fine. it necessary that it not be too rapidly increased. another should be constantly occupied in stirThe heat must ring it in. Some palm oil. but such soaps remain soft and clammy. by stirring and beating intimately for half an hour. by exposure to the air. THE HOME MECHANIC. Some soap-makers melt it with the fat in the commencement of the boiling of the soap. made in a separate kettle. although to a good purpose for the cheapest grade of soaps. a fresh portion of lye. and are unsatisfactory to the consumer. and while one workman is occupied in throwing it into the boiler containing the hot lye. but purer and whiter. any remaining impurities subside. but experience has shown that it is best to prepare a pure tallow soap first. first produced by the lye changing into red oxide of iron through the action of the oxygen in the air. warm tallow soap more would deteriorate it. and gives rise to dark colored streaks. and afterward mix with it the rosin soap. The rosin.

but merely kept near tlie boiling point but it is indispensable to keep stirring the mixture all the time. and from there into molds of any given form for purposes of sale. pipe and faucet at the bottom into a kettle. and less. where it is rapidly perfumed with essential oils. not warmer than blood heat. Saponification will be completed in about two hours. . as above described. for future operations.). FOR SOAP-MAKING BY THE COLD WAY. The fat and the lye should be persistently stirred with a broad wooden spatula. These are stirred in strong alcohol (sp. TRANSPARENT SOAPS Are usually prepared from good tallow and rosin soap thoroughly dried and cut into thin shavings. and not more than tepid in temperature. 453 should boil all tlie time. and rounded at its upper. Three and a half to four gallons of alcohol are usually employed in dissolving 50 lbs. which can be purchased of any manufacturer of thermometers. while the soap is discharged from its boiler through a . Beaume *) to 80 lbs.THE HOME MECHANIC. — * Pronounced Bo-may.. having sharp edges at its lower end. heated in a still to the boiling point in a water-bath or steam jacket arrangement a stirring rod being connected with the still the soap is promptly dissolved. of fat. for easy handling. .. of soap in shavings. of strong lye (about 36°. and the alcohol condensed in a worm and recipient. The lye should be perfectly clear. The fat is melted at a low heat. and then it may be added to the fat about being converted into soap. The paddling should be kept up until a ring drawn with the spatula remains visible a short time. gr. By the use of this word we mean Beaume's hydrometer. otherwise caking of the rosin will interfere with the progress of the operation. and the lye gradually added 40 lbs. 849.even should the lye be stronger still.

at that point that the coloring matters if any are wanted. Under the influence of this action the various constituent principles in the mass. as it would be when exclusively made of hard tallow and soda lye. while a coil is introduced into the interior of the kettle. and the simplest method for the employment of either is with an open kettle with double walls. and burning the soap is entirely avoided. The whole should be left for about one day to rest in a mild temperature. In large for the manufacture of soap. especially when mutton tallow is mostly employed with soda for the lye. is the steam and stirring apparatus of Morfit. where the temperature rises spontaneously to sometimes over 175° F. and per- fumes are added. the soap resulting from that addition not being brittle when dry. with the margin of the muslin. at the same time it increases its solubility and quality. to 100 lbs. The parts should then be run into frames. Between these double walls of the kettle the steam may be used.454 It is THE HOME MECHANiC. The use of it injures the vessels used less than fire. and also fitted with a modern cover. The yield of such soap is about 150 lbs. the complete change or saponification completing itself in the frames. of fat. and cut up in bars to dry. and well closed. At the expiration of twentyfour hours the soap may be taken up from the frames. previously lined with muslin so carefully that no folds be formed at the edges of the box. including the glycerine. manufactories steam is now employed . Each frame should be entirely filled with the soap. through which steam is also passed. Both exhaust and live steam are used. It will be easily understood by examining the illustration that B is a hollow or pipe shaft passing through the SOAP-MAKING BY STEAM. one-tenth of potash is added. Still better. to diminish the hardness of the soap . which is delineated in the figure annexed. and a soap produced almost resembling that of boiled soaps. according to G-erman authorities. Sometimes. become further combined.

455 .

and thus acts as a stirrer. The soap and spent lye are withdrawn by means of cocks connecting with a jDipe running through the collar of the vessel. C C. and movable perpendicularly by tbe motion of tbe cogged wlieel D. According to Mouveau. The temperature in this is allowed to reach about 150° Centigrade (302° F.). while at the same time it communicates the heat needed to carry on the process. box at H. provided with a collar. to wit ress of the mixture toward saponification cannot be ex: . the wheel D is moved. which is then closed. The latter arrangement of pipes moves horizontally in the mixed lye and fat. Attached to B are two sets of pipes. the motion is communicated to E. The apparatus of Mouveau consists of a kettle provided with a manhole. a safety-valve. The fat and lye are introduced at the beginning of the operation by the man-hole. and a stirring apparatus. . the steam enters it. the pipe B being perforated. the safety-valve is also closed. The steam passes along F into the stuffing box at H here. labor and fuel. SOAP-MAKING IN CLOSED VESSELS. It is well to say. It is. it will hardly answer for olive and more refractory fats. and consequently to B and C. however.456 stuffing THE HOME MECHAI^IC. that though exhaust steam may just answer to produce soap in this apparatus from the easily saponified palm and cocoa-nut oil. After the air is well expelled by the heat. bent as delineated. wbich motion is directly communicated to tbe wheel E. and passes down into C 0. F is a pipe from the boiler for tbe introduction of steam. the closed vessel But there is gives an economy of time. Further charges of lye or fat are driven into the vessel by a force pump. The effort to use steam in closed vessels under pressure has been tried with a partial success only. moreover. the progthis drawback connected with its use. through which steam or cold water may be passed as required. IN^ow by a crank.

The use of exhaust steam in direct contact with the much water into the soap. the cause being the ready condensation of the exhaust steam. and such operations as salting cannot be nicely and easily performed. 457 amined. or through coils.THE HOME MECirAXTC. Live steam is applied directly to the grease and lye by various One method is simply to introduce the machines. SOAP BOILING WITH LIVE STEAM USED DIRECT. steam by a cock into an open kettle containing the materials. The use of steam indirectly by the medium of double walled kettles.ade in England. fluids carries too A . Another method is with the closed vessel. leads to a loss of heat. and many of the best soaps are so m.

and B B. and the cock closed again. ordinary steam. A —the saponifying process a steam gauge and safety-valve. having a perforated pipe. . 31) exhibits the super-heating coil. At S is a man-hole for the insertion and withdrawal of the materials. and has connection with . the cover to the man-hole at S being securely fastened. macliine patented in England by E. Hodgson and C. coil. G. The first figure (p. At T a spigot. The second etc. are composed of cast-iron . but. It is a cylinder resting as depicted (p. adapted to this method. and of controlling its passage. previous to being admitted to the coil. steam cock at F gives control of the passage of the steam. 32) shows the coil in the furnace. E. through which steam is admitted to the soapy mass in the cylinder. continuation or prolongation of the central steam pipe passes through a stuffing box.. BOILING WITH SUPER-HEATED STEAM.permits the flow of the super-heated steam Super-heated steam may be used like to the soap kettle. to let off the water of condensation. the joints with the curved piping. There is almost a necessity in these cases of withdrawing the partially formed soap into an open boiler. K. This apparatus has the same fault as all closed vessels cannot be closely examined. Holden. The figures will exhibit the process of superheating the steam. and finishing the process. we here give a diagram and description of. to which is attached a cock. the cylinder is turned so that T comes uppermost the cock is opened the air allowed to escape. passes through the condensing chest.458 THE HOME MEOHAN-IC. 29). . the middle portions of which. the open kettle accompanying A is preferable. are made steam-tight in the usual way. The best method of employing steam in large manufactories. and movable on its axis. etc. is to use it in a super-heated condition. plays only directly upon the cast-iron portions of the The steam.. A. The fire figure (p. as previously stated. D. C. When steam is first admitted.

459 The coil should be heated previous to the admission of steam from half an hour to an hour. the use of super-heated steam commends itself to the large manufacturer of soap as the readiest nomical devised.THE HOME MECHAXIC. gradually raising it to a height of 150° or 160°. there can be no boiling over. of the steam being fully under control by means of the cock at F. and in short. and most ecomethod yet ADULTERATION SOAP. OF Soap is not exempted from the manipulation of fraud. Its external prevents the often unpracticed eye from appearance detecting the impurities ther examination. without fur- . it may contain. and the temperature of steam passing the may be comparatively low in the early portion of the process. There is no danger of burning the soap. The admission Centigrade.

460 .

although such a soap may leave no sediment in a solution of it in hot water but it is unsafe to employ it for washing fine fabrics. This article has inferior fats. a tained: common Soap largely admixtured with soluble glass (a solution of flint or silica in an excess of caustic soda) is very common in the market.) added to the soap in the proportion of 1 lb. If a part of soap in ten of water. and will usually show at once the probability of such an admixture. This substance (Glauber salts. Soap is also sometimes contaminated with lime this renders it partially insoluble in water. of the salt to 20 lbs. and stirred actively until thoroughly mixed. would otherwise be too soft. The mottled appearance given to uncolored soap is produced by watering the nearly finished soap with strong . which. MOTTLED SOAP. as it is apt to weaken them on account of the excess of alkali it imparts to the soap with which it is mixed. on allowing hot water^ one clay will be found at the botsolution the the to rest. of the silicate of soda is genThe soap feels somewhat hard and gritty in use. proportion in the soap ascerand its tom of the vessel. 10 to 30 per cent.THE HOME MECHANIC. . and makes it unfit for the laundry or the toilet. erally added. made from been used to harden soaps. China clay is 461 addition made to soap to insoap containing it be dissolved in crease its bulk. . of the soap. Its weight is much greater than that of soap in its unadulterated state. is said to remedy the defect. and to make a hard and sound soap out of what would otherwise be too soft for economical use. melted on a shovel or otherwise. The soluble glass is introduced gradually into the pan after all the grease is in. From FUSED SULPHATE OF SODA.

hard. of soda. etc. Curd soap is a nearly neutral soap of pure soda and fine tallow. as imported from Spain. those which These are again are soft are prepared with potash. FROM PIESSE'S ART OF PERFUMERY. is a soda soap of tallow. while the interior is black-marbled. soda lye. containing a great excess of alkali. decomposition of the salt takes place. as it forms the basis of all the highly-scented soaps. of lard. The solution of the salt being added to the soap after it is manufactured. is an uncolored combination of olive oil and soda. but is colored by protosulphate of iron. by means of a watering can furnished with a rose spout. TOILET SOAPS. is a similar combination. hence. . Yellow soap etc. close grain. from the presence of alkali. Oil soap. and much water combination. When the soap is cut up into bars. Marine soap is a cocoa-nut oil soap. and exposed to the air. Some castile soap is not artificially colored. a section of a bar of castile soap shows the outer edge red-marbled. Castile soap. divisible into varieties. rosin. and contains but little water in combination. as made in England. also according to the proportion of alkali. The most important of these to the perfumer is what is termed curd soap. : The primary soaps are divided into hard and soft soaps the hard soaps contain soda as the base . but a similar appearance is produced by the use of a barilla or soda containing sulphuret of the alkaline base. according to the fatty matter employed in their manufacture.462 THE HOME MECHANIC. giving the familiar marbled appearance to it. and protoxide of iron is diffused through the soap of its well-known black color. and at other times from the presence of an iron salt.. the protoxide passes by absorption of oxygen into peroxide .

retaining. and hence the thickness of the slabs from the bars. Naples soft soap is a fish oil (mixed with Lucca oil) and potash. with potash. . a few ounces of fore. the thin slabs are placed perpendicularly all round the side of the pan . or by a water bath. iferous principle of palm oil resembling that from orrisroot. or what is in the vernacular called '^ rounds. on account of soap being one of the worst conductors of heat. to '^^ : . It must be either quite inodorous or have a pleasant aroma. heated by a steam jacket. can be dissolved out of it by tincturation with alcohol like ottos generally. which are mixed and remelted according to the following formula The remelting process is exceedingly simple. thereproduce such an article is the object of the perfumer in his remelting process. of various sizes. The soap is cut up into thin slabs. It must not leave the skin rough after using it. The above soaps constitute the real body or base of all the fancy scented soaps as made -by the perfumers.THE HOME MECHAN-IC. 463 Palm soap is a soda soap of palm oil. This cutting wire (piano wire is the kind) is made taut upon the bench. The bar soap is first cut up into thin slabs. capable of holding from 28 lbs. because it would be next to impossible to melt a bar whole.''^ that is. it remains intact in the presence of an alkali. The public require a soap that will not shrink and change shape after they purchase it. and. by pressing them against a wire fixed upon the working bench. colored brown for the London shavers. The soap is put into the pan by degrees. its unsophisticated fishy ^^ odor. retaining the peThe odorculiar odor and color of the oil unchanged. . principally olive oil of the commonest kind. These screws regulate the height of the wire from the bench. when pure. Fig soft soap is a combination of oils. to 3 cwt. hence soap made of palm oil retains the odor of the oil. The melting pan is an iron vessel. by being attached to two screws. l^one of the above soaps possess all these qualities in union. It must make a profuse lather during the act of washing.

. water are at the same time introduced. etc. it is from time to time " crutched. but each round must consist only of one kind. When different soaps are being remelted to form one kind when finished.464 THE HOME MECHANIC. it is cool enough to cut into slabs of the size of the lifts or sections of the frame these slabs are set up edgeways to cool for a day or two more it is then barred by means of a wire. and then the perfume is added. As the soap melts. the various sorts are to be inserted into the pan in alternate rounds. the easier is it melted . in order to mix it. The which more water a soap contains. and to break up lumps. . The pan being covered nj). the steam of assists the melting. curved to fit the curve of the pan. a long handle with a short cross an inverted T. the whole being thoroughly incorporated with the crutch. soap. in order that it can be takpieces. The soap is then turned into the ^^ frame. it is then colored. . en to so that the soap can be cut up when cold the sections or '^^ lifts" are frequently made of the width of the intended bar of . and so continued every half hour until the whole " melting " is finished. in about half an hour the soap will have " run down/' Another round is then introduced. The density of the soap being .'' The frame is a box made in . hence a round of marine soap. . if so required. — sections. to insure uniformity of condition. Frame and Stab Gauge.''' The ^^ crutch '^ is an instrumenb or tool for stirring up the soap its name is indicative of its form. Two Or three days after the soap has been in the frame. or of new yellow soap will run down in half the time that it requires for old soap. The lifts the guage of the frame regulate the widths of the bars regulates their breadth. When the soaps are all melted.

the gauges are made so that the soapcutter can cut up the bars either into fours. either eights into quarters of four. which in very large establishBarring Gauge. The grotesque form and fruit shape are also obtained by the press and molds. in France. 30 . sixes. are great economizers of labor . Latterly. six. ical arrangements have been introduced for soap-cutting. and are then colored according to artificial fruit-makers^ rules The '^ variega- Soap Scoop. after leaving the mold. — Squaring Guage.^" made of brass or ivory.THE HOME MECHANIC. being. but in England the '^ wire " is still used. or eight to the pound weight. ments. For making tablet shapes the soap is first cut into squares. are dipped into melted wax. are cut by hand. with the aid of a little tool called a '' scoop. 465 pretty well known. and finally under a press a modification of an ordinary Balls die or coin press. Balls are also made in a press with a mold of appropriate form. various mechan. a* ring-shajoed knife. and is then put into a mold. approj^riate The fruit- shaped soaps. in fact. or that is. SUCh aS thoSC at Marseilles.

Pineau(of Paris). is . . remaining When the whole . 1 cwt. and finish with the curd. A Imon d Soap. by some persons supposed to be — made of ^^ sweet al- mond and Soap Press. otto of caraway. otto of almonds.^'' and by others to be a mystic combination of sweet bitter almonds. otto of cloves. these colors are but slightly crutched in. 1-^. such as smalt and vermilion. . Grosnell. turning it into the frame. 14 lbs. finest marine. it being far cheaper than the true otto of almonds . finest oil soap. is well melted. that it has been abandoned by Messrs. crutch in the mixed perfume. ted " colored soaps are produced by adding the various colors. hence the streaky appearance or particolor of the soap . Gibbs. this kind is also termed '^ marbled ^^ soap. 14 lbs. to the soap in a melted state . and others who used it. when this is well crutched. -J lb. and just before Molds.466 THE HOME MECHANIC. This soap. By the time that half the curd soap is in reality constituted ^^^^ Einest curd soap. but the application has proved so unsatisfactory in practice. ed oil . . previously mixed with water. oil. Some of the soap ^^ houses^' endeavored to use Mirabane or artificial essence of Almonds (Benzole) for perfuming soap. i lb. . then add the soap. the marine soap is to be add.

Curd soap. — Fuller s earth (baked).ond oil. then sift it.. each. 467 otto of rosemary.. 7 lbs. Camphor Soap. of cassia. Sand Soap. the object desired is attained. The variously named soaps. 2 oz. however. — Curd soap. 1 oz. or lessening the quantity. sion. . 1 cwt. otto of origanum. otto of citronella. of French lavender. otto of thyme. Still lower qualities of scented soap are made by using greater proportions of * Burned sugar. 14 lbs. marine White Windsor Soap. fig soft soap. 20 per cent. . 1 cwt.. 7 lbs. 14 lbs. . otto of French lavender. using the crutch for mixing. lb. of petit grain. The above forms are indicative of the method adopted for perfuming soaps while hot or melted. ^ lb. otto of thyme. soap. oil soap. perfumed cold. f cwt. . Broivn Windsor Soap. of thyme. otto of cassia. of cassia. . with the addition of an ounce or more of alm. of caraway. Eeduce the camphor to powder l-gby rubbing it in a mortar. Curd soap. marine Fuller's Earth \ cwt. of cloves.. Where cheap soaps are required. — . . .. 10^ lbs. each. sifted silver sand. rest assured that he has lost nothing by their omissoap. Curd soap. The recipes given produce only the finest quality of the article named. . in order to avoid the loss of scent. 3-g- lbs. otto of caraway.. ^ cwt. 2 oz. each. 14 lbs. of French lavender. 1^ lb. . Best yellow soap. however. of rosemary. marine soap. not much acumen is necessary to discern that by omitting the expensive perfumes. marine soap. be expected to notice the reader may. 21 lbs. cloves. of course. add the camphor and rosemary. from the sublime '^ ^u\tana^'' to the ridiculous '^^Turtle^'s Marrow ^^ we cannot. camphor. THE HOME MECHANIC. Curd soap. of — . . 1^ lb. — . each. of perfume being evaporated by the hot process.. All the very highly scented soaps are. l-^. Y lb. oil soap. brown coloring (caramel *).. — . Honey Soap. ^ lb. i pint otto of caraway. ^ cwt. 28 lbs. 28 lbs. yellow soap. When the soap is melted and ready to turn out.

so that when placed over the mortar it remains firm and not easily moved by the parallel pressure of the soap against its projecting blade. but that we soap the plane. and must have from one to three ounces of distilled water sprinkled in the shaving for every pound of soap employed. Things being thus arranged.. Soap as generally received from the maker is in the proper condition for thus working but if it has been in stock any time it becomes too hard.. involving merely mechanical labor. and a good marble mortar. The plane is now laid upside down across the top of the mortar. yellow soap. and must lay fine shavings. . To commence operations. of the bars of the soap that it is intended to perfume. SCENTING SOAPS COLD. With very highly scented soaps. hence the adoption of the plan of scenting soaps cold. common curd. but woods the saw. . and employing a very ting the oil soap altogether. In the previous remarks.^" who does not saw the wood. the methods explained of scenting soap involved the necessity of melting it. 14 lbs. or 21 lbs.4G8 THE HOME 3IECHAKIC. The high temperature of the soap under these circumstances involves the obvious loss of a great deal of perfume hy evaporation. and lignum vitae pestle. omit- SCENTING SOAPS HOT. we take first 7 lbs. The woodwork of the plane must be fashioned at each end. so it will be perceived that in this process we do not plane the soap. the shavings of which fall lightly into the mortar as quickly as produced. the whole of the soap is to be pushed across the plane until it is all reduced into Like the French " Charbonnier. the tools required being simply an ordinary carpenter^s plane. and with perfume of an expensive character^ the loss of ottos is too great to be borne in a commercial sense . This method is exceedingly convenient and economical for scenting small batches.

each piece being left in this condition.'^ the soap is generally expected to be free from streaks. any mechanical apparatus that answers for mixing paste and crushing lumps will serve pretty well for blending soap together. is now to have the perfume well stirred into it.. to dust them over with a little starch powder. and have the scent and color stirred in . before placing the cakes of soap in the press. and to be of one uniform consistency. it is then weighed out in quantities for the tablets required. which is the same as that previously mentioned. Before going into the mill. and what it intended they should cost. or else to very slightly oil the mold . after leaving it. sell it is determined what to is the cakes of soap are what they are for. separately laid in rows on a sheet of white paper. 469 hours to be absorbed before the size When to be. The soap being in a proper physical condition with regard to moisture. or a flake cocoa-nut mill . It is usual. After a couple of hours of " warm exercise. either of these plans prevents the soap from .THE HOME MECHAI^IC. the soap is to be reduced to shavings. then set to The pestle is work for the Soaping the Plane. dries sufficiently in a day or so to be fit for the press. For perfuming soap in large portions by the cold process. and molded by the hand into egg-shaped masses . then the maker can measure out his perfume. etc. process of incorporation. it is more convenient and economical to employ a mill similar in construction to a cake chocolate-mill. instead of using the pestle and mortar as an incorporator. perfume for at least twenty-four is added to it. the flakes or ribands of soap are to be finally bound together by the pestle and mortar into one solid mass .

. .. . Mix the perfumes. Curd soap. 1 oz. . otto of bergamot. stir them in the soap shavings. etc. otto of 2 oz."*^ lemon soap. Curd soap..— a 470 THE HOME MECHAI^'IC. 7 lbs. curd soap with caramel. i oz. Blue soap. burned : — The body of sugar. \ lb. ground in water. of bergamot. otto of citron. Curd soap (previously colored with vermilion). otto of lemon. Pale brown-colored curd soap. well-struck tablet. 4^ lbs. Brown soap. Green soap is a mixture of palm oil soap and curd soap. e. with the quan- tity of coloring. otto of santal.oz. Some kinds of soap become colored or tinted to a sufficient extent by the mere addition of the ottos used for scenting. i. 7 Santal-wood Soap. otto of berga- Citron Soap. . 3|. then add it to the soap. all the fine soaps mentioned below should the finest consist of and whitest curd soap. which become of a beautiful pale lemon color by the mere mixing of the perfume with the curd soap. 7 oz. curd soap colored with smalt. of course. otto . . otto of ^"^ '^'^ — — — neroli. grain musk. adhering to the letters or embossed work of the mold condition essential for turning out a clean. .. fib. Otto of Rose Soap. otto of santal. \ oz. . thoroughly incorporated when the soap is melted. lbs. or of a soap previously melted and colored to the required shade. 2y lbs. and beat together. The intensity of color varies. -^ . mot. otto of verbena (lemon grass). Orange Flower Soap. thus Eose-colored soap is curd soap stained with vermilion. to which is added powdered smalt ground with water. \ oz. 6 lbs. Tonquin Musk Soap. . . 2 oz. — — lbs. otto of geranium. oz. otto of rose. spirituous extract of musk. Curd soap. 5 lbs. Eub the musk with the bergamot. . . 14 Spermaceti Soap. bergamot. 1 oz. and beat up. — Curd soap. (An expensive kind of soap). and not very hot. such as "spermaceti soap.

^ oz. — SOAP POWDERS. These preparations are sold sometimes as a dentrifice. civet. ^ oz. ing them mill. Clarified lard. Melt the lard in a porcelain vessel by Manipulation. — . it will. SAPONACEOUS CREAM OF ALMONDS. agitating the whole time . Curd soap (previously colored light brown). Rypophagon Soap. then thoroughly dry. is One of the made. and at others for shaving they are made by reducing the soap into shavings by a plane. however. assume that appearance by long trituration in a mortar. gradually adding the alcohol. . otto of paPatchouly Soap. but it cannot be stirred. when about half the lye is in. become so firm that The creme is then finished. equal parts melted together. . . The preparation It soap of lard. 471 best of fancy- otto of lemon. of caustic potash). otto of neroli. 2 oz. 7 lbs. however. otto of santal. 1 oz. in a warm situation. of vitivert. tchouly. . 4-J lbs. mix. it will.THE HOME MECHANIC. and beat in the usual manner. sold under this title is a potash soft has a beautiful pearly appearance. it is an article of no inconsiderable consumption by the perfumer. \ oz. otto of santal. 4 oz. 7 lbs. rectified spirit. l-J oz. or by a steam heat under 15 lbs. very slowly. . Perfume with anise and . 5. . 2 drachms. Curd soap. . the mixture begins to curdle . is not pearly . \ oz. It is made thus potash lye (containing 26 per cent.oz. 3f lbs. . pressure . citroneUa. and has met with extensive demand as a shaving soap. afterward grinding in a then perfuming with any otto desired. otto of rose. Being also used in the manufacture of Emulsines. then run in the lye. otto of almonds. : . Rub the civet with the various ottos. each. — Best yellow soap. a salt water bath. 3 oz. in which has been dissolved the perfume. soaps that — . fig soft soap. otto of vitivert. Frangipanni Soap.

Color the grease very strongly with alkanet root. and carefully washed off the This soap has lately been much following morning. pour off the waste . particularly on the conIt is tinent. and stir actively until creamy. — thought that the — A — . oringeat. after the customary manner. — liquor. beat chloride of lime (dry and good). reduce the potash lye to one half its bulk by continued boiling. cocoa-nut oil or lard. such as almond or olive oil. holding in them to a mass with rectified spirit. Juniper Tar Soap. s. . or in fine tallow. used for eruptive disorders. and with varying degrees of success. The cream colored in this way has a blue tint when it is required of a purple color. AMBROSIAL CREAM. mix. mixed with a little water. caustic soda. etc. melt the oil. This soap is made from the tar of the wood of the Juniperus communis. water for the lye . it possesses great advantage over the common tar ointment used for itch. 7 gallons of Salt Water Soap. q. 1 oz. and forming a soap by means of a weak soda This yields a moderlye. Now proceed as for the manufacture of saponaceous cream. which may be readily used by application to parts affected with eruptions. 5 lbs. 1 lb. efficient element in its composition is a rather less impure hydro carburet than that known in Paris under the name '' huile de cade. 11 Chlorinated Soap. Ph. . From castile soap (in powder).''^ On account of its ready miscibility with water. Perfume with otto of . . Perfume to taste. we have merely to stain the white saponaceous cream with a mixture of vermilion and smalt to the shade desired. olive oil. oz.472 THE HOME MECHANIC. then proceed as for the manufacture of saponaceous cream. at night. make the helps salts to proportion of fused Glauber soap harden. Transparent Soft Soap. Before commencing to make the soap. ately firm and clear soap. as it is sometimes called . After standing a few days. and introduce the lye very small gradually. 25 lbs. Solution caustic potash (Lond.). by dissolving it in a fixed vegetable oil. 6 lbs.

they should be made . train oil. — . 7 lb. EMULSINES. It is the most powerfully known agent against infection from contagious diseases A i oz. . and holding in solution otto In itch and various other of roses. over a water Excellent in various skin diseases . Soft soap. they are an exceedingly interesting class of compounds. iodide Iodine Soap. melt them together in a glass or porcelain vessel. Bolntion oil of verbena or of ginger grass. also as a combath. Used by farriers. Sulphur etted Soap. . 3 fl. as might be expected from their composition. which are classed together under one general title as above. — —A . other small animals. 1 gallon . admirably adapted for hospital use. of rectified spirit strongly colored with alkanet root. of each. cutaneous diseases. 10 or 12 drops. powdered camphor. . and for removing stains from the skin and rendering it white. sheet gutta percha. boil to a proper consistence. . made into a paste with Used to preserve the skins of birds and water. Being prone to decomposition. \ oz. 4 oz. q. s. Chemically considered. beaten to a smooth paste in a marble mortar with 1 or 2 fl. 1 lb. 473 form the mass into flat tablets. f oz. sublimed sulphur. lastly. mon soap for scrofulous subjects. crude soft soap. . Arsenical Soap. . q. From white soap. 12 oz. . Black Soap. and are well worthy of study. 1 oz. .: THE HOME MECHANIC. s. white arsenic. to color. of potassium. water. for the reason that all cosmetiques herein embraced have the property of forming emulsions with water. charcoal. oz. white soap and air-slaked lime. From carbonate of potash. From soaps proper we now pass to those compounds used as substitutes for soap. . dr. and wrap these in thin most excellent detergent and communicated by From castilesoap (sliced) 1 lb. 2 oz. dissolved in water. adding ivory black or powdered — contact. made of fish oil and but the following mixture is usually sold for it potash . stimulant soap in various affections.

however. indeed. . a tin or glass vessel at the bottom of which is a small faucet and spigot. white soft soap. the perfume having been previously mixed with the oil. This liability to "go off increases as the amandine nears the finish . 1 oz.. the whole process be gone through again. using up the greasy mass as if it were pure oil.'' unless. ^^ that is. of distilled water. e.f 1 oz. ^^ and may be considered as " done for.oz. or if the temperature of the atmosphere be above the average of summer heat. or saponaceous cream. — creme d^Amande. the result will If. otto of almonds. when the mass becomes bright and of a crystalline luster.* 4 oz. -J. . i. . then the paste becomes ^^ oiled. t It is made of lard and potash. the oil is put into ^'a runner. hence extra caution and plenty of '' elbow grease " must be used during the addition of the last two pounds of oil. it will be almost impossible to get the whole of the oil given in the formula into combination . a minute in one . only in small portions. . simple syrup. * Simple syrup consists of 3 lbs. . or tap. otto of cloves. and free from a damp atmosphere. 1 oz. and so long as this takes place. The oil being put into this vessel is allowed to run slowly into the mortar in which the amandine is being made. with the soft soap until the mixture is homogeneous. otto Eub the syrup of bergamot. always have a jelly texture to the hand. In the manufacture of amandine (and olivine) the difficulty is to get in the quantity of oil indicated. then rub in the oil by degrees . Amandine. just as fast as the maker finds that he can incorporate it with the paste of soap and syrup . imperial. it will be well to stop the further addition of oil to it. 7 lbs. starting off with fresh syrup and soap. boiled for pint. Fine almond oil. without which it does not assume that transparent jelly ap- To attain pearance which good amandine should have. While in stock they should be kept as cool as possible. or at least only in quantities to meet a ready sale.474 THE HOME MECHANIC. the oil be put into the mortar quicker than the workman can blend it with the paste. If the oil be not perfectly fresh. of loaf sugar. this end.

will do very well and turn the jar gently round. Rub the eggs and honey together first. 1 lb. . 16 oz. — — . olive green oil. or piece of an " old saw. 1 oz. 2 lbs.THE HOME MECHANIC. 1 oz. otherwise the almonds quickly burn to the bottom of the pan. otto oil. and impart to the whole an empyreumatic odor. ^ lb. the mixture is to be placed in the runner. Before potting this paste. When the amandine is filled into the jars. with a slow and steady heat. . . each. . . otto of cloves. Place the ground almonds and one pint of the rose-water into a stewpan . 1 oz. and well rubbed with the pestle then the perfume and spirit are added. ) Bitter almonds. each. honey. of cloves. . . 3 oz. . renders it essential that the operator should avoid the vapor as much as possible. honey. — . in number. finally the paste is put into a mortar. blanched and ground. the remaining water is to be added . blanched and ground. otto of bergamot. yolk of eggs. 6 oz. .^^ place the marker on the amandine. Rub the gum and honey together until incorporated. being serrated with an angular file. then gradually add the oil. . the top or face of it is marked or ornamented with a tool made to the size of half the diameter of the interior of the jar. . Olivine. (Pate d'Amande au Miel. and finally the ground almonds and the perfume. 475 This and similar compounds should be potted as quickly as made. alcohol (60 o. otto of bergamot. -J drachm. cook the almonds until their granular texture assumes a pasty form.). 1^ 1^ pint . When the almonds are nearly cooked. in a similar way to a saw a piece of lead or tortoise-shell. lb. in powder. ^ oz. then add the soap and Qgg. ^ oz. otto of bergamot. 8 almond oil. and the process followed exactly as indicated for amandine. . 1 lb. otto of thyme of lemon. in number. constantly stirring the mixture during the whole time. — . and cassia. Gum acacia. Having mixed the green oil and perfumes with the olive oil. 3 oz. 2 oz. . Almond Paste. rose-water. yolk of eggs. . and the lids of the pots banded either with strips of tin-foil or paper. 5 white soft soap. . . Honey and Almond Paste. The large quantity of otto of almonds which is volatilized during the process. p. to exclude air. Bitter almonds.

^ oz. . ^Ib. otto of lemons \ oz. Pistachio Nut Meal. best jasmine oil. . wheat flour. to insure — . honey. White soft soap. spermaceti and almond oil. 1 lb. Almond Meal. 5 or 6 drops. orris powder. etc. 1 oz. which does not dry on the face. Saponaceous cream. ^ drachm. Pistachio nuts (decorticated as almonds are bleached). White wax. Pate de Cocos. honey paste. these preparations are expensive. as is the com- — — -J- mon practice. .|. proper method of using them is to smear a minute quantity over the beard. melt. otto of lemon. Emulsin a le Violette. . — . simalmond oil. of each. spermaceti and salad syrup of violets. ^ oz. or any otlier Nut. Emulsin an Jasmin. and then to apply the wetted shaving brush. Other meals. 1 oz. . 2. 1 drachm . . and are prepared as the foregoing. and stir until nearly When properly precold. 3. Pate de Guimauve. of each. are prepared in a similar manner to the above. \\ oz. 1 lb. such as Pate de Pistache. . Naples soap (genuine). It may be scented at will. — . On account of the high price of the French oils. and to ^' render the medium fine sieve. best violet oil. powdered castile soap. . — . . skin pliant. Saponaceous cream. 1 lb. 2 oz. oz. 4 oz. . orris-root powder. 1^ lb. Other pastes. of each. 1 lb. Shaving Paste. it should be passed through a uniformity of texture. beat in 2 squares of Windsor soap previously reduced to a paste with a little rosewater. otto of almonds. ." ple syrup. 1 lb. Preparation 1. Ground almonds. especially as almonds do not grind kindly. . but they are undoubtedly the most exquisite of cosmetiques. melt them together. 1 oz. are occasionally in demand. . otto of neroli. such as perfumed oatmeal. perfumed bran. . . 4 oz. 1|. these pastes produce a good lather with either hot The or cold water. soft and fair. and while warm. pared. essence of ambergris and oils of cassia and nutmegs.476 as well as THE HOME MECHANIC. and not to pour water on them. All the preceding preparations are used in the lavatory process as substitutes for soap.oz.

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