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the States of California,
Nevada, and Territories of Washington and
the mere important bodies of the Public Lands en the Pacitic
Slope, Facilities for Settlement, Markets, Health, etc.
BOOK AND JOB
while the few hills and fewer mountains to be seen. after it has lain one or two months. and where there is no great amount of large timber. the soil being loose and the main roots near the top of the ground. the ground for which had never been after which. HOW TO MAKE A FARM. divided only by slightly undulating ground. hitching on to the top of these stubs and "snake" them out. The small growth is first cut. it is not so difiicult. We saw at one place on the Chehalis Kiver two patches of excel-. or the larger growth may be girded and left standing. whereon to erect some stream where there is some bottom or bench land." 39 miles in length. usually near . Our directions here will apply to the timbered and brushy sections which we have recommended. after which the larger growth is felled on top of it. lent wheat. Some cut the vine maple off about six feet from the ground. fire is set to it in different places. The immigrant usually selects a favorable spot to commence where there is but little large timber. when the sap is at its highest. having an axe close at hand to cut any root that may hold fast. are covered with the most luxuriant grass. take a yoke of cattle and chain. the best time to do this is through June and July. felling it all one way as much as possible. he clears off a space his cabin. too rugged for cultivation. being the usual mode adopted in those sections.
after which some pitch fagots are lit and introduced into the upper hole. one above the other. leaves the tree a shell. when it comes down with a terrible crash that can The usual price often be heard for miles around. One of the patches (a few acres) referred to was volunteer. and not burning while green. the outside. without any pitch. acting something like a blow pipe. or the second year without sowing. The larger forest trees are felled in this wise Take a long shanked auger. the flame causing a suction of air from the lower hole. and was then headed out nicely and promised a good crop. much of this surplus timber may be turned to a profitable account in the way of ships* . and in a short time appears and roars like a huge furnace. the sap is chipped through on the side it is desired to fall. That portion of the tree inside of the sap being more or less of a pitchy nature. being watery. The proprietor stated that after " snak- ing" out the grubs and sowing the wheat. and can often be heard at a con: siderable distance. Where one is situated near tide water and shipping. the ground being mellow. or sap. for slashing is from eight to twelve dollars per acre. cutting all down (except the large growth) ready for burning. bore two holes. he took a yoke of cattle and dragged a large brush over it to smooth it down and cover the wheat.40 ploughed. after the inside of the tree is pretty well burned through. at an angle so they will meet some distance inside. burns with great rapidity.
high that are now estimated at a add a few acres every year and not be out very in many parts of this coast that much. One may value. that had never . but these timbered lands are not adapted for going into farming on a large scale. which takes readily on these burns. The most available mode of opening up these woody sections is by fire. there is some picking up and grubbing to be done before the ground is ready for the plough. etc. and unless one goes to a be some large stumps But then. will produce more than one hundred acres of land great expense. as the fall rains are pretty sure to stop it. this is very effectual where it is desired to fire set destroy the brush. etc. ash and myrtle lumber. fire set in the most available and desirable places in the dry season can do no great harm.41 knees. and prevents. brings a high price in the San Francisco and other markets. elders. where good meadow lands were set in this way. The out in a dry time (say about the last of August) will usually clear off the ground sufficiently for the purpose of sowing grass seed. many places in this coast country. We have seen the growth of brier. and in a few years have a considerable sized farm. the maple. small farming in connection with stock raising on a limited scale. dead timber. there will still we could name. ten acres of these lands in the ground. which may be enlarged as these lands become opened up and set in tame grass. After burning the brush. to a great extent. At the start.
Second this is the natural soil and climate for the pea. on which hogs fatten finely. and hence it is sown where it is liable to be covered with water. and con_ excessively is sow in every month (unless prevented by bad weather) till July. or Iowa. First if the right breed of hogs are obtained. HOG This coast country of hogs. and also comes earlier grown in this coast country. The grass seed should be sown soon after the burn. We — — making plenty sows his tinues to first of money out of it. they will keep in good growing condition on clover and other grasses that keep green here nearly all the year. We once put in about thirty acres of timothy in this way with a very small amount of labor. Illinois. red-top is thought to stand overflow better than other grasses. The first crop ready about the last of May and continues on . too. and make very good pork. the first fall rains making the new grass appear in a very few days. but timothy is the most commonly lands. Orchard grass is very suitable for high timbered and being shaded better' than other grass. well adapted for the raising it is not entered into contend that a pound of pork can be produced here with less labor than in Missouri. He usually crop of peas in February. is RAISING. We give the process adopted by a farmer who is now it is and strange more largely.42 been ploughed nor harrowed. stands tramping.
Another great advantage in this process is. the fence moved in a little. but be- green. and so on. the whole length of the eastern slope of the Cascade Range of Mountains. and while the vines are «till is thrown around a portion turns in his hogs. After they have cleaned is out the first patch. a moveable fence of the field. As soon as the pods of the pea are pretty well fore they are ripe. till the fall. there is found the best of summer range. Eastern WashThere are parts of ington and Idaho Territory. and another. peas. large quantities are now shipped here from the Western States. as there is a great demand in the mining regions of the Pacific Coast for pork and bacon. that the ground is all the while getting richer. amount of labor in proportion to This business cannot very easily be overdone. when he and vines. pod. and at the same time let the how they grow. but through the winter months it is mostly covered with snow. they eating all. taking in another patch. but the Through larger part huve little or no stock on it. and it would astonish any one to see The field is so arranged as to hogs have free access to the water.43 till the July crop coming in October. takes a very small the results. filled. The best and most extensive stock range is now found throughout Eastern Oregon. the grass being . STOCK EANGE AND STOCK RAISING. those districts that are now fully stocked.
there should be provender provided to feed at least one or two months. stock has been kept for many years without any feed being provided for them. but we do not consider it right or safe to do so. where feed able. the bunch grass gi'ows of a sufficient length to cut for hay. and also. but there is an abundance of table land where timothy or grain can be raised. we think. In the low country adjoining the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Along the coast of ritory. THE FUTURE DAIRY DISTRICT. in sheep raising. including a strip Oregon and Washington Terfrom thirty to forty miles . would give the range in the low country a chance to grow up for winter This plan. for winter range. scattering timber. all covered with the best of grass. The eastern slope of these mountains is mostly open. In some parts of Eastern Washington and near the Idaho line. this section affords We could be provided. the climate favor- grand openings for dairyavailable plan would be most the think ing. but in most parts it is too short for that purpose. by which they might be kept in almost unlimited numbers. with an abundance of pure cold water. would work admirably use. to keep stock through the winter months. to have a place in the low country. By having a place in the low country and taking the stock to the mountain range in summer. with prairies of considerable size.44 generally green through the summer months.
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