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Appendix C

Detailed Geological Descriptions

1 Detailed Descriptions of Geological Units


1.1 Murihiku Supergroup (200 145 Million yrs)
Comprises the fossiliferous Apotu and Huriwai Formations as discussed below.
1.1.1 Apotu Group (IJa)

Weak to very strong indurated fossiliferous siltstones and conglomerate sequences (greywacke). The distinctive red-brown weathering of the conglomerates are comprised of rounded volcanic and angular sandstone and siltstone clasts in a sandstone matrix with interbedded grit and minor siltstone. The Apotu group consists of a 1,500 2,500 m thick sequence, is exposed mainly east of the Kaimanga Syncline and produces steeply inclined (30 - 50) slopes.
1.1.2 Huriwai Group (IJh)

Extremely weak to moderately strong carbonaceous sandstone, siltstone and conglomerate with some thin mudstones, and rare thin coal seams. Plant beds and tree stumps in positions of growth are found locally. The Huriwai Group is up to 1,300 m thick, is exposed southeast of Port Waikato and slopes are steeply inclined (30 - 50). This unit is observed to have a weathered profile of up to 12m comprising soft to very stiff clayey silts interbedded with sandy silts.

1.2

Te Kuiti Group (34 23.8 Million yrs)

Comprises a transgressive sequence of rocks ranging from coal measures and freshwater siltstones and grades up into marine sandstones and limestones. The Group is up to 500 m thick and comprises the following units oldest to youngest.
1.2.1 Mangakotuku Formation (Otm)

Typically occurs as a weak blue-grey siltstone with muddy glauconitic green sandstone in its lower part. The siltstone is rich in montmorillonite and weathered outcrops are prone to slumping when wet. This unit is up to 90m thick in the Glen Massey area, and thins to 40m in the Raglan district and produces moderately inclined to gently inclined (10 - 15) slopes; steeply inclined slopes (30) within the unweathered material.
1.2.2 Glen Massey Formation (Otg)

The Glen Massey Formation makes an appearance throughout the windfarm site and usually consists of three distinct units in vertical succession: a. Elgood Limestone - A thin flaggy, crystalline sandy limestone, and/or calcareous glauconitic sandstone, up to 27m thick and occurs at the base of the Formation. This unit commonly is eroded and has tomos (dolines) and caves; forms very steeply inclined bluffs (60 -70). b. Dunphail Siltstone - grey calcareous siltstone usually 3-6m thick, with graded upper and lower contacts; forms gently inclined slopes (10- 15). c. Glen Massey Sandstone - grey-white massive fine to medium calcareous sandstone that is between 24-75m thick and forms very steeply inclined bluffs (60 - 70). The sandstone dominates the formation forming prominent bluffs displaying honeycomb weathering and solution grooves.

1.2.3

Whaingaroa Formation (Oti)

Comprises massive light grey to blue-grey glauconitic, calcareous siltstone with a thin basal glauconitic muddy fine grained sandstone to sandy siltstone up to 20m thick. The siltstone is prone to frittering and conchoidal fracturing, which forms piles or gravels < 5 mm at the base of cuttings. Upper and lower contacts are gradational and the unit is up to 150m thick in places. The Whaingaroa Formation has lateral relationships with the Glen Massey and Aotea Formations and forms gently inclined slopes (10- 15).
1.2.4 Aotea Formation (Ota)

The Aotea Formation is lithologically variable in the vicinity of the project comprises the Waimai Limestone Member, which is a cross bedded, flaggy, crystalline limestone, 6m thick and forms steeply to very steeply inclined (50 - 70) conspicuous bluffs near the coast between Port Waikato and Matira.
1.2.5 Te Akatea Formation (Ott)

The Te Akatea Formation comprises a very weak to weak light grey-white calcareous, massive or weakly bedded siltstone to silty fine grained sandstone, which varies from 30m to 60m thick. This unit forms gently inclined to steeply inclined slopes (60 - 10). The upper contact is irregular and usually comprises a bored weathered surface.
1.2.6 Waitomo Sandstone (Oto)

Occurs in the southern half of the wind farm site and comprises massive muddy calcareous fine to medium sandstone with shells, up to 15m thick.

1.3

Waitemata Group (21.7-19 Million yrs)

In the region of the wind farm the Waitemata Group consists of two distinct Members.
1.3.1 Waikawau Sandstone (Mww)

A massive to well -bedded grey calcareous glauconitic fine to medium sandstone, commonly has calcareous concretionary beds near the base. This unit is up to 50m thick and may contain some thin siltstone interbeds with steeply inclined (30 - 35) slopes.
1.3.2 Koheroa Siltstone (Mwk)

The Koheroa Siltstone overlies the Waikawau Sandstone and has a graded contact. This unit is light grey to blue-grey massive to well bedded sandy siltstone commonly with sandstone beds up to 2m thick. The siltstone is up to 75m thick and forms gently inclined (10 - 15) slopes when weathered; moderately inclined (30) slopes when unweathered.
1.3.3 Amokura Formation (Mwa)

East of the windfarm along the transmission line route is the Amokura Formation, which consists predominantly of alternating 0.2 1.0 m thick graded sandstones and 0.05 - 0.2 m thick laminated mudstones. Carbonaceous fragments are common throughout.

1.4

Pliocene and Quaternary Rocks (5.3 Million yrs to Recent)

These units can be divided into the following three Groups, including the Kaihu Group, Tauranga Group and the Kerikeri Volcanic Group.

1.4.1

Kaawa Formation (Pk) (5.3 1.8 Million yrs)

The Kaawa Formation comprises light grey to purplish yellow pumiceous sandstone underlain by a shelly calcareous sandstone layer and unconformably overlies Waitemata Group Rocks. This unit is restricted in outcrop locally between the Kaawa and Waikaretu Streams where it is observed to be 13m thick. This unit is confirmed to be a prolific water source if encountered.
1.4.2 Awhitu Group (Pad) (2.4-1.63 Million yrs)

The Awhitu Group outcrops along the coast and overlies an irregular erosion surface above about 20m elevation. It is over 120m thick in the west but thins rapidly to the east. Gentle to steeply inclined (up to 45) slopes are formed in this unit. The observed profile is observed to comprise 1m3m of firm sandy silts and silts overlying loose to dense weakly cemented fine to medium sand with minor lignite and carbonaceous layers.
1.4.3 Karioitahi Group (eQd) (126,000 yrs-Recent)

Early Pleistocene to Holocene grey weakly consolidated to loose coastal medium sand deposits of shallow marine, beach and dune origins. This unit is observed to be capping hills up to 150m in elevation producing moderately inclined slopes (30), and its overall thickness is unknown. This unit also comprises the Bothwell, Hood and Mitiwai Sands. a. Recent Mobile Dunes (Q1d last 14,000 yrs) Loose coastal mobile dune sands are up to 60m thick.
1.4.4 Kerikeri Volcanic Group

a.

Ngatutura Basalt (Qvn) (1.83-1.54 Million yrs)

Comprises a lava sheet of fine grained olivine basalt, agglomerates and tuff. Fresh basalt is rarely exposed. Outcrops and cutslopes of the Ngatutura Basalts are gently to moderately inclined (10-30). Comprisesi very strong to strong moderately weathered to slightly weathered basalt, with olivine crystals up to 30 mm. The basalt is often overlain by up to 10m of highly weathered scoriaceous boulders with weathering rinds up to 100 mm, overlain by a up to 12m weathered breccia comprising dark red clayey silt with angular basalt and sedimentary gravels up to 100 mm. b. Franklin Basalt (Qvs) (1.6-0.5 Million yrs) Restricted to the eastern corridor of the proposed transmission line near the Tee in area. Comprises a lava sheet of fine to medium grained basalt.
1.4.5 Tauranga Group (1.8 Million yrs - Recent)

Consists of a series of terrestrial (volcanic and loess), alluvial, and marine deposits consisting the following:

Puketoka Formation (2 Million yrs to 340,000 yrs) (Pup) - Pumiceous alluvium interbedded with peat horizons and volcanic ash deposits, forms elevated dissected terraces near the Waikato River. Walton Subgroup (1.8 Million yrs to 340,000 yrs) (eQa) comprises pumiceous alluvium and colluvium dominated by primary and reworked non-welded ignimbrite, forms elevated terraces adjacent streams. Observed to occur as up to 4m of soft to firm silts and clayey silts, overlying very soft to soft allophanic sandy silts, loose silty sands.

Karapiro Formation (500,000-150,000 yrs) - (eQk) - Highly weathered pumiceous, coarse-grained rhyolitic sands and current bedded grits interbedded with peat. Volcanic Ash Horizons ( Hamilton Ash Formation) (340,000-Recent), these soils are not mapped in the area but are observed to form distinctive coverbeds mantling hill tops and infilling lower lying areas greater than 4m thick in places. Comprises interbedded strongly weathered tephra beds (allopahnic clayey silts) interbedded with paleosols (firm to stiff clayey silts) interbedded with allophanic sandy silt-clay beds. Recent Alluvium (Q1a) (last 14,000 yrs) consisting of pumiceous alluvium and swamp deposits that infill low lying areas and form recent floodplains and comprises unconsolidated sand, silt, mud and clay with local gravel layers and thin peat beds and overlies older alluvial deposits and in places shelly estuarine deposits of previous interglacial periods. The alluvial and estuarine sequence is observed to be up to 20m thick in places.

Appendix D

Site Photographs & Observations

Waikato Windfarm Geotechnical Appraisal

Ponding of water on top of the impermeable Te Akatea siltstone initiating creep and instability.

Evidence of historical slope instability and rockfalls exposing outcrops and scarps of the Waimai limestone due to failure on the underlying weaker siltstone of the Te Kuiti Group.

Shallow movement within easily erodible Awhitu Group.

Gentle Creep

View East Picture Summary Recent surfical erosion and slope instability within the overlying Awhitu Group is noted amongst the surrounding topography. Water is ponded on top of the siltstone. A perched water table lies on the impermeable Te Akatea siltstones and saturates soils initiating creep instability. Historical slope instability at site is represented by the grassed hummocky ground and scarps within the Te Akatea siltstone and Waimai limestone. Historical and recent rockfalls were also present.

Shallow movement within easily erodible Awhitu Group.

Scarp and outcrop of Te Akatea siltstone from surfical instability and erosion of the overlying Awhitu Group.

View North

Evidence of historical slope instability and rockfalls exposing outcrops and scarps of the Waimai limestone due to failure on the underlying weaker siltstone of the Te Kuiti Group.

Ponding of water on top of an impermeable siltstone of the Te Kuiti Group, initiates creep.

Shallow movement within easily erodible Awhitu Group.

LEGEND recent shallow movement/ slope instability. historical and gentle creep/ debris flow/rockfalls of the coarse units. hummocky ground (indication of slope movement)

View North West

Slope instability viewed from Waimai Hill


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Site Photograph D1

Waikato Windfarm Geotechnical Appraisal

Dune Formation withn Awhitu Group

Recent slope instability of Awhiti Group sands exposing the underlying Te Kuiti Group

Basalt Quarry

Shallow slumping

Picture Summary (above and right): Recent surficial erosion and slope instability (creep and flow slides) within the overlying Awhitu Group was noted as well as historical slope instability. Picture Summary (below): Hummocky ground and surface ponding in the area suggests historical slope instability. Some recent surfical erosion is present but is localized to zones of saturation within the Awhitu and Karioitahi Groups. Note the gentle dip slope towards the west, of the hills comprising Te Kuiti Group.

West of Pukerewa Road - Basalt Quarry

LEGEND recent shallow movement/ slope instability. historical and gentle creep/ debris flow/rockfalls of the coarse units. hummocky ground (indication of slope movement)

North of Rangikahu, view north, towards Waimai Stream (bottom) Accreting sand dune Gentle dip slope of the Kuiti Group hills.

Hummocky ground

Surface ponding of water

Slope instability west of Pukerewa Road and near Rangikahu


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Site Photograph D2

Waikato Windfarm - Geotechnical Appraisal

Coastal erosional terraces initiated by headward erosion of a stream.

Loose Awhitu Group sands interbedded with cemented layers. Loose sands erode back to cemented horizons

Modern accreting sand dune migrating inland at the Waimai Valley.

Awhitu Group erosion and accreting sand dunes


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Site Photograph D3

Waikato Windfarm Geotechnical Appraisal

AWHITU GROUP Shallow surficial erosion

TE AKATEA FORMATION

Failure of weak siltstone due to over-saturation from water percolating through the overlying Awhitu Group sandy deposits initiating creep movement and debris flows.

AOTEA FORMATION TE KUITI GROUP Exposed limestone and sandstone bluffs due to erosion of underlying siltstone. Blockfalls occur due to rafting and/or failure of the underlying siltstone.

WHAINGAROA FORMATION

GLEN MASSEY FORMATION

MANGAKOTUKU FORMATION

MURIHIKU SUPERGROUP Shallow instability and erosion of steeper slopes are common. The unit is distinctively bedded and cut slopes are prone to wedge failures and blockfalls.

Drawing not to scale

Cross Section showing instability within the Te Kuiti Group


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Site Photograph D4

Appendix E

Substation Sites & Investigation Locations

Waikato Windfarm Geotechnical Appraisal

Mww

Ott

Mww Q1a

Ott

Geology based on Edbrooke (2001 & 2005). Figure Not to Scale.

Legend Transmission Line Transmision Line Corridor Historical instability including gentle creep/ debris flow and rockfalls Proposed substation location Lithology boundary

Geology Tauranga Group Q1a - Recent alluvium Waitemata Group Mww - Waikawau Sandstone Te Kuiti Group Ott - Te Akatea Siltstone

Proposed Limestone Downs Substation


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Figure E1

Waikato Windfarm Geotechnical Appraisal

Qvn

Pad

Ott

Geology based on Edbrooke (2001 & 2005).

Figure Not to Scale.

Legend Transmission Line Transmision Line Corridor Historical instability including gentle creep/ debris flow and rockfalls Proposed substation location Lithology boundary

Geology Pad - Awhitu Group Kerikeri Volcanic Group Qvn - Ngatutura Basalts Te Kuiti Group Ott - Te Akatea Siltstone

Proposed Matira Substation


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Figure E2

Waikato Windfarm Geotechnical Appraisal

Mwk k Ott

Geology based on Edbrooke (2001 & 2005). Figure Not to Scale.

Legend Transmission Line Transmision Line Corridor Historical instability including gentle creep/ debris flow and rockfalls Proposed substation location Lithology boundary

Geology Waitemata Group Mwk - Koheroa Siltstone Te Kuiti Group Ott - Te Akatea Siltstone

Proposed Te Akau Substation


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Figure E3

Waikato Windfarm Geotechnical Appraisal

Q1a

Mwa

Mwa

eQk

eQk

Geology based on Edbrooke (2001). Figure Not to Scale.

Legend Transmission Line Transmision Line Corridor Historical instability including gentle creep/ debris flow and rockfalls Proposed substation location Lithology boundary

Geology Tauranga Group Q1a - Recent Alluvium eQk - Karapiro Formation

Waitemata Group Mwa - Amokura Formation

Proposed Orton Switching Station


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Figure E4