You are on page 1of 16

SAFETY FEATURES IN CARS Name : Nurfarah Nadia Bt.

Othman Class : 4 Theta Title : Safety Features In Cars Subject : Physics Teacher : Mrs. Sharifah Sofea

INTRODUCTION From the very beginning of mechanised road vehicles development, car safety has become a renowned issue regarding to the subject. Industrial safety can be defined as the ability to manage the risks inherent to operations or related to the environment. It is not a dislike of risks; it is rather a commitment to identify them in relation to production operations, assess them in terms of quality and quantity and hence, manage them.

Safety Features Anti Lock Brakes or ABS The main objective of anti-lock brakes is to prevent a car's wheelsfrom locking during panic braking. By allowing the car to slowdown in a more controlled manne r, the driver can maintain a better steering control and avoid unnecessary accidents. There is also a link to physics behind the design of the ABS. But let's skipthe discussio n of static friction and summarise this point bysaying that the ABS system allow s cars to slow down faster than"skidding." All new cars sold today with ABS have four-wheel anti-lockbrakes. Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) and light trucks are soldwith either two-wheel (rear wheels) or four-wheel ABS.

Electronic Stability Control or ESC

Electronic Stability Control is designed to help drivers to maintaincontrol of t heir cars during times of intense steering maneuvers. ESC helps by preventing a car from spinning out by constantlymonitoring and appl ying braking force to one or more wheels asneeded.

Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS)

Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) use a warning light onthe dashboard to a lert the driver if one of the tyres is significantlyunder-inflated. Tires in thi s condition are much more prone to tirefailure (a blow out). The standard for th is warning to signal iswhen the tire pressure is 25% below the tyre manufacturer 'srecommended inflation pressure.

For example, if the tyre is supposed to be inflated to 30 psi ofpressure, the TP MS will alert the driver when the tyre pressuredrops below 22.5 psi. All cars ma nufactured after September 1st, 2007 are subjected to have TPMS. Daytime Running Lights or DRL Daytime Running Lights (DRL) turn on the car's headlights everytime the vehicle is being driven. By turning on the headlights even at daytime -the ability of other drivers to see your car isgreatly enhanced.

Seat Belts / Safety Belts

Car Seat Belts

Baby Seat Belts Seat belts are considered the most important safety feature to beacquired by you r car, compared to other hundreds of safetyfeatures available. These belts are d esigned to keep you in yourseat, which helps you to avoid hitting the steering w heel, dashboard or windshield. While purchasing a car, sit in thevehicle and put on th e seat belt. Check to make sure the fit is

comfortable. Many cars today offer a variety of ways to adjustthe seat belt to o btain a better fit. All new cars are required to provide a warning light and audiblesignal that last s for at least eight second if the driver does nothave a seat belt engaged. Air Bags The original air bags deployed in cars were placed in the steeringwheel and they were designed to protect the driver, especiallyduring panic brakes which give a superbly dangerous impact onthe driver himself. The success of air bags in prot ectingpassengers has lead to their deployment in several new ways. Frontal Air Bags

Frontal air bags for drivers and passengers have been standardequipment in all c ars since the model year 1998. These bags aredesigned to prevent the driver or f ront seat passenger fromcolliding with the windshield, dashboard or steering whe el, whichsurely will give collateral damage, especially to head proneareas. Fron tal air bags are usually hidden in the steering wheeland/or the dashboard itself . Advanced Air Bag Systems By September 1st, 2006, all new automobiles were required to befitted with advan ced air bag systems. This advanced system isdesigned to deploy air bags in such a way as to balance theprotection of the passenger with the force by which the b ag isdeployed. The advanced system can help protect some adults, and especially small children, from the harmful effects of an airbag that deploy s with too much force. Air Bag On / Off Switches Nearly all vehicles that do not have a rear seat now include anon/off switch tha t can deactivate a frontal air bag. For example, an on/off switch might be commonly found in pickup trucksallowing the passenger side air bag to be turned off whentransporting a small child. Side Air Bags

Side air bags are designed to offer additional passengerprotection from side imp act collisions. These types of bags takeseveral forms: Curtains/Tubular -these air bags deploy downward from the car's roof. Combination -these air bags deploy upward from the seat back andprovide both hea d and chest protection. Side Air Bag Out of Position Test There has been a recent movement to test side air bags for safetywhen a passenge r is out of position -such as a child or adultsleeping with their head resting o n the inside of a car's door. If the vehicle has passed a series of tests for safety under theseconditions, it wi ll be noted in the car's safety literature. Rollover Air Bags Rollover air bags are designed to keep passengers inside avehicle when a special rollover sensor activates. These rollover air bags are side air bags that perform this safety function bystaying inflated for a longer period of time.

Vehicle Weight The next car safety feature to be mentioned has to do with thevehicle's weight. Once again this has to do with physics (inreality, quite a bit of a car's behavi or can be explained throughphysics) but the rule of thumb here is that heavier v ehicles offerpassengers a greater level of safety. But this rule of thumb comesw ith one of those cautions. Statistically, some of the heavier vehicles on the road today aretrucks and SUVs . Because of the typical dimensions of SUVs, itscenter of gravity is higher off the ground compared to a passenger car. This makes SUVs more prone to rolling over. So while an SUV offers passengers the advantage of being aheavier vehicle, this advantage can be negated by their tendencyto roll over.

Adaptive Cruise Control

Adaptive cruise control is the technologically advanced version ofthe convention al cruise control system. It helps the driver tomaintain the car speed in accord ance to the traffic situations. Italso helps the driver to maintain a pre-set di stance behind thevehicle ahead by using the throttle and brakes. If in case thed river increases the car's speed, it automatically reduces theengine performance until a safe gap with other vehicles isrestored. Some of the potential advantages of adaptive cruise control are toreduce acciden t rates, reduce the driver's fatigue, and alsoincrease fuel efficiency. Active Head Restraints

Active head restrains play its role when the car is struck from therear. In such a case, it causes a sudden movement of the occupant's back against the seat. It consists of a pressure plateand a pivot sys tem in the seat back properly positioned behindyour head. In case of an accident when the body of the passengermoves into the seat back it directly contacts the pressure plateand triggers the active head restraint. This provides a constants upport for the head.

Conclusion It is proved that even the most up-to-date cars are equipped with the newest and most important safety features of all and not designed and purchased just based on style only. Remember, whilst searching for a car to buy, always check for the safety systems that the car provides and is equipped with. Therefore, it is necessary for us to be conscious of the safety features that we can provide our cars with. No matter how old our car may be, if it is embedded with the most finest and crucial safety features of all, it will still be as new as the most up-to-date cars, so long as it is not on the verge of breaking to pieces.