CHAPTER ONE 1.

0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background The cost of fuel production is very expensive that is why product accountability is very much important to every fuel handling establishment. It also important to ensure that safety standards are upheld so as to protect the product, properties and human resource (personnel) which has been engaged to render essential services. There is several oil companies in the world and each of them have their peculiar missions, objective and targets. Basically, they are categorized into two (2) groups, thus; downstream and upstream oil sectors. The focus of the downstream sector is to ensure that petroleum product is accessible at the retail point; here it is made possible by limited liability companies privately owned by individuals/groups of investors such as bulk oil distributors like fuel trade, oil channel, first deep water, trafigura, Cirus, to mention a few through government established institutions like the Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), Ghana National Petroleum Company Limited (GNPC) and Bulk OIL Storage and Transportation Company Limited (BOST). TOR’s core mandate is to procure crude oil and refine, GNPC also does explorations as well as procurement of crude in large quantities whiles BOST focuses on strategic fuel reserves, including logistics for effective storage and transportation of petroleum product.

The upstream is basically, companies such as Tullow oil and FPSO whose main engagement is to drill and find oil in large quantities for either export or for domestic consumption. The upstream operations are done offshore (deep seas) where the drilling equipment has been installed; and staff (engineers and technician) normally go there by either helicopter/chopper or by boat. Their activities are of great importance since it

Josiah K. Attah, BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 1

generates a lot of revenue for government to embark on developmental projects as there is readily market demand for fuel worldwide.

Much as their work is appreciated, it is important also that products which are drilled from the oil fields are accounted for. It has been established that the product from FPSO is not properly or accurately measured to ascertain the actual quantities before they are dispatched to the world market.

FPSO, an upstream player in the industry has failed in this direction and it is absolutely unacceptable to allow these challenges to persist in this day and age of technological regime. As engineering requires that existing systems are improved to enhance productivity, efficiency and effectiveness, I have been motivated by the issues confronting FPSO in respect of product measurement and wish to design a metering system to curtail the problems, it will also ensure that the vessels are filled to the recommended capacities (quantities) whiles putting safety on the top indentation of operations.

1.2 Statement of the Problem FPSO drills crude oil in commercial quantity in Ghana for onward exportation to the oil market through GNPC. The mode of measurement is inflicting product loss on the economy since the mode of obtaining true quantity of product released into vessels is not just outmoded, but also not safe; this as resulted in loss of revenue to the state.

The bulk of the oil vessels have been calibrated, but need level surface to obtain perfection in measuring; a system which is a challenge on sea due to unevenness surface nature of the sea the vessels berth to receive product into them.

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The mode of ascertaining the product quantity released from the field is mainly the use of measuring bars/level indicators which more often than not ends up resulting in inaccuracies.

Finally, it is not safe for this mode of operation to continue because product spillage can occur and this would endanger aqua culture and pollute the sea as a whole.

1.3 Objectives The main objective of this project is to highlight the enormous benefit of the implementation of the use of oil volume metering system which is to be designed as the main source of instrument in the determination of product quantity instead of the ancient existing ways of measurements and discharge of crude oil where the monitoring leaves much to be desired and consequently human factors come into play.

Furthermore, to highlight the effectiveness of this monitoring system of which huge savings is achieved for FPSO in particular and the nation as a whole.

The system to be implemented is to allow the operators to effectively and efficiently monitor the product flow rate and the level in the vessel /tanker. It will enable the operator to plan adequately and also to curtail the risk of crude oil spillage to the barest minimum whiles ensuring that sanity and fairness prevails in the oil industry. 1.4 Scope of study This project when completed will minimize the issue of over delivery/under delivery of petroleum products produced by both upstream and downstream petroleum sector.

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to monitor. vessels. secondly.It will also enhance the product accountability to optimize the proceeds of the oil emanating from the oil fields or product being delivered to the market by the oil marketing companies as well as refineries.6 Limitations of the study This project when completed is to be used for the metering of fluid such as kerosene. 1. tankers etc. crude oil etc. indicate and regulate the volume depending on the calibration of the system. Attah. it will eliminate the incidence of accident in the cause of determining levels and human errors. This metering system is very safe and conducive to work with since it is not risky to adopt. pressure and velocity. 1. gasoline.5 Significance of Study The significance of this project is to enhance the process of loading vessels at FPSO oil fields in respect of monitoring and controlling product levels in vessels to avoid over delivery/under delivery and also in the avoidance of spillage which will affect nature adversely. fuel oil. Finally. it will improve revenue generation and reduce overhead cost of crude delivery to the world market. For this reason it will encounter challenges when it is applied for bitumen or semi-liquid substances. premix fuel. barges. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 4 . Metering systems would be installed at the source from where the product originates. water. liquefied petroleum gas. It is highly sensitive equipment which is designed so as not to exceed the required temperature. gas oil. Josiah K. It can be on the pipelines. aviation turbine kerosene.

and a secondary device that translates this signal into a motion or a secondary signal for the indicating. cubic meters per second. Positive displacement flow meter 4. Measurement is accomplished by a variety of means. Attah.CHAPTER TWO 2. or open channel. pounds per hour). Velocity flow meter 2. cubic feet per minute). The most common types of fluid metering systems are: 1. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 5 . Open channel flow meters Josiah K. or gas. controlling. vapour. depending upon the quantities. Other devices indicate or totalize the flow directly through the interaction of the flowing fluid and the measuring device that is placed directly or indirectly in contact with the fluid stream.1 Introduction The determination of the quantity of a fluid. recording.2 Flow Metering System There are numerous types of flow metering system. gallons per minute. [1] 2. Many industrial process flow measurements consist of a combination of two devices: a primary device that is placed in intimate contact with the fluid and generates a signal. either a liquid. or in terms of a total volume or mass flow (integrated rate of flow for a given period of time). duct. flow rates. Differential pressure flow meters 3. that passes through a pipe. Flow may be expressed as a rate of volumetric flow (such as litres per second. or totalizing the flow. Mass flow meters 5. mass rate of flow (such as kilograms per second. and types of fluids involved.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.

000. the rotating blades generate a frequency signal proportional to the liquid flow rates. Attah. Most velocity-type meter housings are equipped with flanges or fittings to permit them to be connected directly into pipelines.2. [3] Josiah K. their range ability is greater. which is sensed by the magnetic pickup and transferred to a readout indicator. where the pressure drop and the further measured signal is a function of the square of the flow speed. Figure 2. free spinning and permeable metal rotor housed in a non-magnetic stainless steel body. In operation. Velocity meters have minimum sensitivity to viscosity changes when used at Reynolds numbers above 10. Because there is no square-root relationship (as with differential pressure devices). BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 6 .2.2 Differential Pressure Flow Meter In a differential pressure flow meter the flow is calculated by measuring the pressure drop over an obstruction inserted in the flow.1 Velocity Flow Meter 2.1 shows a turbine flow meter that consists of a multiple-bladed. [2] Figure 2.1 Velocity Flow Meter These instruments operate linearly with respect to the volume flow rate.2. The differential pressure flow meter is based on the Bernoulli’s Equation.

2 Rotary-Piston Meter Josiah K.2 shows an oscillating piston meter that operates on a magnetic drive principle so that liquid will not come in contact with parts. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 7 . which is coupled to a follower magnet on the outside of the chamber wall. Fiqure 2.2. positivedisplacement units are popular for automatic batching and accounting applications. A partition plates between inlet and outlet ports forces incoming liquid to flow around a cylindrical measuring chamber and through the outlet port.2. Positive-displacement meter is a good choice for measuring the flows of viscous liquids or for use where a simple mechanical meter system is required. The motion of the oscillating unit is transferred to a magnetic assembly in the measuring chamber. Each segment is counted by a connecting register. Because every increment represents a discrete volume. Attah. Figure 2.3 Positive-Displacement Meter Operation of the positive displacement meter consists of separating liquids into accurately measured increments and moving them on.

in one with counter-clockwise rotation. and its Josiah K. The centrifugal force acts outwards in the radial direction and is proportional to the distance of the body from the axis of the rotating frame. The Coriolis force acts in a direction perpendicular to the rotation axis and to the velocity of the body in the rotating frame and is proportional to the object's speed in the rotating frame. Perhaps the most commonly encountered rotating reference frame is the Earth. The Coriolis effect is caused by the rotation of the Earth and the inertia of the mass experiencing the effect.) has resulted in the development of mass flow meters. Various designs are available. etc. They are correction factors that do not exist in a true non-accelerating "inertial" system. the Coriolis and centrifugal forces appear. the Coriolis force is quite small. The Coriolis force is proportional to the rotation rate and the centrifugal force is proportional to its square. heat transfer. hence the name. Its operation is based on the natural phenomenon called the Coriolis force. the deflection is to the right. Attah. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 8 . Coriolis effect is a deflection of moving objects when they are viewed in a rotating reference frame. the deflection is to the left of the motion of the object. Because the Earth completes only one rotation per day. In a reference frame with clockwise rotation.2. They allow the application of simple Newtonian laws to a rotating system. Both forces are proportional to the mass of the object. but the most commonly used type for liquid flow applications is the Coriolis meter. fictitious forces or pseudo forces.2.4 Mass Flow Meter The continuous need for an accurate flow measurement in mass-related processes (chemical reactions. Newton's laws of motion govern the motion of an object in a (non-accelerating) inertial frame of reference. When Newton's laws are transformed to a rotating frame of reference. These additional forces are termed either inertial forces.

and amplitude of the vibrating flow tubes. sensors monitor and analyze changes in frequency. The vibration. or head. [5] 2. an instrument that measures the mass flow rate and density of a fluid flowing through a tube. phase shift. provides the rotating reference frame which gives rise to the Coriolis effect.effects generally become noticeable only for motions occurring over large distances and long periods of time. and to the left of this direction south of it. Such motions are constrained by the 2-dimensional surface of the earth. canals. as they would on a non-rotating planet. The changes observed represent the mass flow rate and density of the fluid. streams. though it is not completely circular. This effect is responsible for the rotation of large cyclones. Included are tunnels. so only the horizontal component of the Coriolis force is generally important. depthrelated methods are the most common. and rivers.[4] A practical application of the Coriolis effect is the mass flow meter. Of the many techniques available for monitoring open-channel flows. and to the left in the southern. These techniques presume that the instantaneous flow rate may be determined from a measurement of the water depth. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 9 .2. While specific methods vary according to the design of the flow meter. The operating principle involves inducing a vibration of the tube through which the fluid passes. non-pressurized sewers.5 Open Channel Flow Meter The "open channel" refers to any conduit in which liquid flows with a free surface. such as large-scale movement of air in the atmosphere or water in the ocean. Rather than flowing directly from areas of high pressure to low pressure. Weirs Josiah K. partially filled pipes. This force causes moving objects on the surface of the Earth to appear to veer to the right in the northern hemisphere. winds and currents tend to flow to the right of this direction north of the equator. Attah.

rectangular. the flux density is modulated. This induces AC voltages in the coil. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 10 . and. and trapezoidal. One complete cycle of voltage is generated for each object passed. Thrust ball 6. slotted discs. The top of the plate can be straight or notched. Bushing 5. Weirs operate on the principle that an obstruction in a channel causes water to back up. turbine rotor blades. Rotor assembly 3. or shafts with keyways—are passed through the probe's magnetic field. If the objects are evenly spaced on a Josiah K. The head is a function of flow velocity. Magnetic pickup 2. Attah. therefore. Weirs are classified in accordance with the shape of the notch. creating a high level (head) behind the barrier. When discrete ferromagnetic objects—such as gear teeth. Meter body 2. The basic types are V-notch.3 Magnetic pickup A magnetic pickup is essentially a coil wound around a permanently magnetized probe.and plumes are the oldest and most widely used primary devices for measuring openchannel flow in hydraulics. [6] Meters normally consist of the following components to enable it function effectively and efficiently: 1. Weirs consist of vertical plates with sharp crests. Rotor ball 4. the flow rate through the device.

BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 11 .rotating shaft. angular positioning of rotating parts.3 below. A magnetic pickup may also be used as a timing or synchronization device— for example. pole-piece diameter. and the air gap between the pickup and the gear-tooth surface). or stroboscopic triggering of mechanical motion. Such a gear is often selected because the output frequency (in Hz) is numerically equal to rpm—a situation that allows frequency meters to be employed without calibration. (Output waveform is a function not only of rotational speed. the space between adjacent teeth should be approximately three times this diameter. For very high rotational speeds. [7] Josiah K.[6] Figure 2. a smaller number of teeth may be used. shows a magnetic pickup used in conjunction with a 60-tooth gear to measure the rpm of a rotating shaft. but also of gear-tooth dimensions and spacing. Attah. in ignition timing of gasoline engines. The pole-piece diameter should be less than or equal to both the gear width and the dimension of the tooth's top (flat) surface. and the frequency of the AC voltage is directly proportional to the rotational speed of the shaft. the total number of cycles is a measure of the total rotation.

BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 12 .1 Rotor Assembly Josiah K. Figure 2. Each output cycle therefore represents the passage of a known volume of fluid.4 shows how a turbine flow meter can measure the volumetric flow of a fluid.Figure 2. causing the meter to rotate. This rating is known as the "K factor" of the flow meter. Attah.3. and the flow meter can be accordingly calibrated in cycles per gallon or similar units. It will vary with the viscosity and flow rate.3 Magnetic Pickup Figure 2. but is usually quite predictable. the output frequency produced by the magnetic pickup is a linear function of the volumetric flow rate. In properly designed flow meters. with repeatability to within 0.4 Turbine flow meter 2.1% in many units. The fluid flow exerts a force on the turbine blades.

rather than by shear or friction at the interface.3. An important difference compared with plain bearings is that the relative motion between the two connected parts is accommodated by strain in the rubber. These bushings often take the form of an annular cylinder of flexible material inside a metallic casing or outer tube.3. Josiah K. where a bushing made of rubber (or. They might also feature an internal crush tube which protects the bushing from being crushed by the fixings which hold it onto a threaded spigot. Many different types of bushing designs exist. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 13 . The rationale for the various rotor assembly options are unit volume and desired electric motor efficiency. which relates to concentricity and the air gap between the rotor and stator. synthetic rubber or polyurethane) separates the faces of two metal objects while allowing a certain amount of movement devoid of metal to metal contact to reduce friction.3 Bushing It is a type of vibration isolator. A common application is in flow meter rotor suspension systems.[8] 2. It provides an interface between two parts.2 Rotor ball Rotor ball the rotor support is made possible by a ball or a sleeve bearing in a shaft which in turn is held rigidly inside the meter. Attah. more often. 2.cast and both components may be completely machined and assembled.Rotor assembly basically consists of a shaft ad die. damping the energy transmitted through the bushing.

5 Mechanism of a flow meter 2.6) can also be employed to measure product quantity into tanks.4 Manual flow meter This type of flow meter in (fig 2. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 14 . but has limitations.6 Manual flow meter Josiah K. Figure 2. barges.Figure 2. Attah. oil tankers etc. vessels. It is normally applied in a closed loop system to avoid air getting trapped in the metering system but its main disadvantage is that when it is applied in a pump station or vibration area it malfunctions.

They can be hot-tapped into existing pipelines (15. lightweight rotor) or for liquid (larger rotor.62cm. They are often used in large diameter pipelines where it would be cost-prohibitive to install a full size meter.[9] 2. Small turbine meters often are called barstock turbines because in sizes of 1.061m/sec. they are profiled at several points across the flow path. the insertion turbine meter is a point-velocity device. This design is suited for high operating pressures (up to 333bars). Because of their sensitivity to the velocity profile of the flowing stream. water-lubricated bearings). BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 15 . and bearings of graphite. Typical accuracy of an insertion turbine meter is 1% FS. The turbine is suspended by a bearing between two hanger assemblies that also serve to condition the flow. Similar to a pitot tube differential pressure flow meter. Some corrosion-resistant designs are made from plastic materials such as PVC. They are machined from stainless steel hexagonal barstock. It is designed to be inserted into either a liquid or a gas line to a depth at which the small-diameter rotor reads the average velocity in the line. ceramics or sapphire combined with tungsten carbide.2.5 Design & Construction Variations Most industrial turbine flow meters are manufactured from austenitic stainless steel whereas turbine meters intended for municipal water service are made of bronze or cast iron. Rotors are often made from stainless steel. bearings and shafts are designed to provide minimum friction and maximum resistance to wear. Attah. and the minimum flow velocity is about 0. tungsten carbide.6 Past modes of measuring petroleum product Josiah K. The rotor and bearing materials are selected to match the process fluid and the service. In all cases.905 to 7.24cm or larger) through a valving system without shutting down the process. Insertion turbine meters can be designed for gas applications (small.

Attah. In the oil industry. a calibration table is referred to for the height to be converted into actual volume of product in the tank. Safety is another important area of concern in that. the issue of spillage also comes up since actual volume of product entering tanks is not known immediately. The other problem is that when the calibrations of the tanks are not properly done wrong result can be obtained. Finally. density and temperature are very essential since it aids in the determination of actual product quantity. Completion of this project will capture other parameters of great importance.In the past. assume the product level and apply product paste. Since one deals with expensive product like crude oil/ petroleum products. various forms were employed in the determination of fluid volume in tanks and vessels. accuracy is required in the day -to. Josiah K. This process is very cumbersome since there can be variations in dipping as well as reading of the volume. the operator has to climb the tank.day operations. with the process of climbing to the top of the tanks and vessels if care is not taken one could slip and fall from a height and this can cause injuries/death to innocent operators/staff no matter how careful one is. the dipping process is completed. Some of the modes were the use of measuring tapes. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 16 . 2. After.7 Oil Volume Metering System Oil Volume metering System is used for measuring product quantity entering or leaving a fuel depot or oil tankers of vessels. The dipping point of the storage tank is located and the tape is lowered into the tank and until it touches the bottom or datum plate where it is rewound back for the actual level of the product. with this process.

CHAPTER THREE 3.0 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction The project ensures that product flowing into vessels/tankers is accurately measured by a volumetric meter designed to actualize that achievement. Several oil meters are in existence but this one is unique since it will address most of the critical volumetric issues in respect of the above mentioned and it will also put to rest issues confronting the oil industry for example, loss of revenue. It will also highlight the components which would be employed so as to bring this project into fruition.

3.2 Block Diagrams The Electromagnetic meter consists of a non-ferromagnetic tube wrapped with a magnetic coil. Electrodes in the tube’s inner isolated surface are in contact with the liquid (must be conductive) that flows through the tube. The coils around the pipe generate a magnetic field within the tube. The magnetic field inducts a voltage in the liquid, which is proportional to the speed of the liquid in the tube. This voltage is

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measured via the electrodes. As the measured voltage is very low, precise low-noise signal conditioning is required. Coriolis meter is a popular Flow meter that directly measures mass flow rate. The pipe through which the fluid is flowing is made to oscillate at a particular resonant frequency by forcing a strong magnetic field on the pipe. When the fluid starts flowing through the pipe, it is subject to Coriolis force. The oscillatory motion of the pipe superimposes on the linear motion of the fluid exerting twisting forces on the pipe. This twisting is due to Coriolis acceleration acting in opposite directions on either side of the pipe and the fluids resistance to the vertical motion. Sensor electrodes are placed on both the inlet and outlet sides which pick up the time difference caused by this motion. This phase shift due to the twisting forces is a direct measurement of mass flow rate. The field coils can be excited with AC or DC or Pulsed DC field. Each method has its own pros and cons and depending on the particular application requirements, one method may be favourable over the other.

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Figure 3.1 The Block Diagram of Oil Volume Metering System

3.3 Digital Driver The operation of a mass flow meter is dependent upon the proper oscillation of the flow tube. This is controlled by the drive signal(s) generated by the transmitter. The oscillation of the flow tube (as indicated by the sensor signals) is typically sinusoidal and hence characterized in terms of frequency, phase and amplitude. The drive signal is also often sinusoidal, or at least a regular waveform (e.g. square wave) for which similar
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With more significant phase offset between driver and sensor. phase (relative to the sensor signal) and amplitude of the drive signal need to be determined and generated for optimal operation of the flow tube. the flow tube oscillation becomes forced rather than natural. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 20 . whereby the sensor signal (containing the desired frequency and phase Josiah K. based on an electromagnetic coil. the most commonly used sensor. at fixed amplitude. For oscillation at the natural frequency. With small levels of phase offset. it is necessary for the driving force to be 90° out of phase with the motion of vibration. hence the sensor signal is 90° out of phase with the motion of the flow tube. As measurement algorithms assume constant amplitude of oscillation over the calculation interval (typically 5 – 500ms). with drive amplitude selected to maintain constant sensor amplitude. measures velocity. A commonly-used criterion for optimal operation is that the flow tube should oscillate at its natural frequency of vibration. amplitude stability is relevant for measurement quality. The most common technique for generating a drive signal has been analogue positive feedback. the consequences are small –the drive signal power requirement increases. Attah.attributes can be defined: the frequency. Conveniently. typically at a frequency where the phase offset between driver and sensor is closer to an integral multiple of 360 degrees. digital delay in the control circuitry can lead to inefficiencies. Analogous issues are seen in power electronics design: for sinusoidal inputs and outputs. and with benign process conditions. Thus an optimal drive signal has the same frequency of oscillation and phase as the sensor signal. The drive energy requirement also become significantly higher and the drive frequency can drift away from its natural value. Finally. with large phase offset the meter may cease vibrating entirely (“stalling”). Matching the drive output to the exact phase of the sensor signal is challenging. or begin to oscillate in another mode of vibration.

whereby the transmitter generates the drive waveform digitally. if exceeded by the damping.g. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 21 . An all-digital drive system avoids many of the pitfalls associated with analogue positive feedback. drive systems based on analogue feedback are prone to stalling. especially if they are contaminated with other modes of vibration. For example a pure sine wave or square wave. Positive feedback is easy to implement. Attah. and cannot prevent unwanted components in the sensor signal (e. Assuming negligible delay in the analogue feedback circuitry. The mechanical damping on the flow tube rises by two orders of magnitude with two-phase flow. this approach ensures phase matching between sensor input and drive output. The alternative approach presented in this paper is drive waveform synthesis. This has several advantages over positive feedback. Josiah K. frequency and phase characteristics. with the required amplitude. The drive gain required to maintain the desired amplitude of oscillation is proportional to the mechanical damping on the flow tube. but it provides only partial control of the drive waveform. leads to catastrophic collapse in oscillation. in order to provide a highly adaptable and precise drive signals. Most analogue drive systems are unable to track and respond to damping under two-phase flow. but has the challenge to match the phase of the sensor signal in real time. High and variable damping leads to low and variable sensor amplitudes.characteristics) is multiplied by a drive gain factor (either by analogue or digital means). In particular. in the presence of two-phase flow. and an ability to maintain operation even in two-phase flow. and it is possible to lose track of the sensor signals. including full control over the drive waveform. other modes of vibration) from being fed back into the drive signal. Some designs have a maximum drive gain which. and this damping varies rapidly.

perhaps by two orders of magnitude. between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude faster than other Coriolis meters. short proving runs for custody transfer applications. with numerous industrial applications. for example. • The two-phase problem has been transformed into a useful two-phase measurement capability. Mechanical energy is lost in the interactions between compressible bubbles.2 Circuit of an Electronic Driver The main effect is a dramatic rise in the flow tube damping. Josiah K. and filling applications. Attah. particularly in the oil and gas sector.• The dynamic response of the meter can be measured by the time required to indicate a step changes in flow.[10] Figure 3. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 22 . This transmitter has demonstrated a response time of 4ms. This has found industrial application in.

the flow tube may stall due to inattention. Several features provide improved flow tube control in the face of twophase flow. For any intrinsically safe flow tube.g. but this in turn leads. Attah. As a consequence. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 23 . Similarly. the end result is a catastrophic collapse in oscillation amplitude. Not only does the damping rise. the sensor amplitude starts to reduce. The rapid changes in damping. due to amplifier saturation. The consequences for drive output are as follows: Drive energy saturation. This means there is a maximum multiplier between the sensor amplitude in and the drive signal out. frequency and phase on the sensor signal ensures fast and accurate tracking by the transmitter in order to generate an appropriate drive signal. Suppose this limit is reached. but it varies rapidly. A further rise in drive current to compensate for the increased damping is not possible. Some positive feedback drives cannot exceed a maximum drive gain limit e. and the flow tube damping raises again due to yet more gas in the two-phase flow mix. The default amplitude of oscillation may not be sustainable. and the drive energy required to maintain oscillation rises sharply. If the drive control update rate is simply too slow. including: • • Measurement and control updates every half drive cycle (typically every 6ms) Rapid dynamic response Josiah K.fluid and flow tube walls. there is an absolute limit on the energy supplied to the driver(s) – for example 100mA. due to the chaotic nature of the interactions. again because of drive saturation. the frequency and amplitude of oscillation exhibit much greater variation than for single phase. due to drive saturation. amplitude. to a drop in the drive signal output. Meter transmitter technology is to provide improved measurement performance and robustness.

such as rotary encoders.3 below indicates an ADC converter in flow metering system for the project. Typically the digital output will be a two's complement binary number that is proportional to the input. [11] 3. Typically. Figure 3. • The ability to generate counter-phase signals or so-called negative gain. but there are other possibilities. An ADC may also provide an isolated measurement. some non-electronic or only partially electronic devices. Attah.• Synthesis of a pure sine wave with the required amplitude. The linearised output signals from the multiple sensors in the probe are then averaged by a Josiah K.4 Analogue to Digital Converter An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 24 . an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage or current to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current. However. Selection of a sustainable set-point for the amplitude of oscillation during twophase flow. can also be considered ADCs. frequency and phase characteristics. providing a highly adaptable and precise drive signal. A/D or A to D) is a device that converts a continuous quantity to a discrete time digital representation. The voltage output from each sensor and bridge board set is sent to its own MasterTouch microprocessor board for accurate linearization of the flow rate signal. • • A non-linear amplitude control algorithm providing stable oscillation. The digital output may use different coding schemes. The reverse operation is performed by a digitalto-analog converter (DAC).

If one or more sets are not functioning as required. Individual sensor and bridge board sets may be periodically tested at the probe location to verify performance. Typically. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 25 . Attah. flow transmitter assemblies may be specified with either one average output signal and/or individual signals to allow individual sensor readings at the Flow metering System control panel. The individual sensor and bridge board sets are field replaceable without complete probe disassembly.summer/average module. they may be removed from the probe signal average by removing the sensor input wire and turning off a DIP switch on the averager board without affecting overall Flow Metering System’s operation. [11] Josiah K. the probe assembly’s averaged output signal is transmitted to the remote Flow Meter System control panel for grand averaging with the signals from other probe assemblies. However.

g. In particular. a voltage or a pressure). Josiah K.. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 26 .5 Digital to Analogue Converter A DAC converts an abstract finite-precision number (usually a fixed-point binary number) into a physical quantity (e. DACs are often used to convert finite-precision time series data to a continually varying physical signal. Attah.3 Analogue to Digital Converter installed in flow meter 3.Figure 3.

. 3.. These numbers are written to the DAC.6 Processor Josiah K. these are removed with a low pass filter acting as a reconstruction filter in applications that require it. The effect of this is that the output voltage is held in time at the current value until the next input number is latched resulting in a piecewise constant or 'staircase' shaped output. Attah. typically with a clock signal that causes each number to be latched in sequence. methods based on Delta-sigma modulation) produce a pulse-density modulated signal that can then be filtered in a similar way to produce a smoothly varying signal. usually the sequences of numbers update the analogue voltage at uniform sampling intervals. The fact that DACs output is a sequence of piecewise constant values (known as zeroorder hold in sample data textbooks) or rectangular pulses causes multiple harmonics above the Nyquist frequency. at which time the DAC output voltage changes rapidly from the previous value to the value represented by the currently latched number.g. Digital sampling introduces quantization error that manifests as low-level noise added to the reconstructed signal. Instead of impulses. Usually. As per the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem. Other DAC methods (e. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 27 .A typical DAC converts the abstract numbers into a concrete sequence of impulses that are then processed by a reconstruction filter using some form of interpolation to fill in data between the impulses. a DAC can reconstruct the original signal from the sampled data provided that its bandwidth meets certain requirements (e.g. a baseband signal with bandwidth less than the Nyquist frequency). This is equivalent to a zero-order hold operation and has an effect on the frequency response of the reconstructed signal.

4a and Figure 3. including some that have a vane that is pushed by the fluid.4b below indicates/illustrate the circuit diagram and typical connections respectively. absolute accuracy of a measurement requires functionality for calibration.A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drives a computer. Another approach is Doppler-based methods for flow measurement. Laser-based interferometer is often used for air flow measurement. This principle is common for micro sensors to measure fuel quantity. but for liquids. As is true for all sensors. Other flow sensors are based on sensors which measure the transfer of heat caused by the moving medium. it is easier to measure the flow. to record the volume of fluids. Fuel meters are related to devices called velocimeters that measure velocity of fluids flowing through them. or vane. and can drive a rotary potentiometer. or flow logger. The term processor has generally replaced the term central processing unit (CPU).7 Fuel Sensors A fuel sensor is a device for sensing the fluid. 3. Typically a fuel sensor is the sensing element used in a fuel meter. as displaced by fluid. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 28 . There are various kinds of fuel sensors and fuel meters. [12] Figure 3. Attah. Hall Effect sensors may also be used. Josiah K. on a flapper valve. The processor in a personal computer or embedded in small devices is often called a microprocessor. to sense the position of the vane. or similar devices.

Attah. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 29 .4a Circuit Diagram of a sensor Josiah K.Figure 3.

Figure 3. Attah.4b Sensor Connected to Oil Volume Metering System Josiah K. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 30 .

Josiah K.CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 SYSTEM DESIGN. highlight the important components including the main circuit diagram and its operation. Attah. 4. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION 4. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 31 .1 Introduction This chapter discusses in detail the block diagram for the project.2 Circuit Diagram of the Oil Volume Metering System Figure 4.1 on the next page indicates the circuit diagram and the various components which can mitigate the issues of uncertainty in measuring fluid.

Figure 4. Attah.1 Schematic diagram of fuel metering system Josiah K. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 32 .

a regulated dual dc power supply must be procured. [14] Figure 4. an AC voltage was converted with the utilization of rectifiers (diodes). It is powered by a 3v 1 amp power supply. The regulated power supply is to provide the necessary dc voltage and current. Several types of both linear and switching regulators are available in integrated circuit (IC) form. Since it is a DC voltage supply. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 33 . The two methods are more commonly used.3 Power Supply Unit In every electronic unit or equipment it is necessary to get it connected a power supply unit or batteries (dry cells) and so is the flow metering system. There are various methods of achieving a stable dc voltage from ac mains. These are used. Figure 4. with low levels of ac ripple and with stability and regulation. By using the linear voltage regulator method.2 below Indicates a Block diagram of rectification process. Attah.4.2 Block Diagram of the Regulated Voltage DC Power Supply Josiah K. filtration system components and short circuit protection unit. (i) a linear voltage regulator and (ii) A switching mode regulator. step down transformer.

However. The input capacitors C3 and C4 are used to prevent unwanted oscillations when the regulator is some distance away from the power supply filter such that the line has a significant inductance. Variable resistors VR1 and VR2 are adjusted for each regulator to give a regulated output approximately between ± 1. ICs LM 317T and LM 337T are used here as positive and negative regulators respectively. Thus these two ICs form an independently adjustable bipolar power supply.2 Josiah K. This is the circuit. a regulated dual voltage dc power supply circuit is obtained shown in Figure 4. The TO-220 package easily provides one ampere each if the heat sinks are properly mounted. C5 and C6 can adjust the current in the terminals. if a short-circuit occurs across the regulator outputs. The LM 317T regulator has internal feedback regulating mechanism with current passing elements.25 V (1 + VR1 ) ----------------------------------------------------R1 4.3. Capacitors. although not always necessary are sometimes used on the input and output as indicated in figure 4. The output can be calculated by the formula: V0 = 1. filters and voltage regulators together. D5 and D6 prevent short-circuit for input and output terminals.Through combination of step down transformer. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 34 . rectifier. Capacitors C 5 and C6 are used to improve AC ripple voltage rejection.2V to ± 15V supply. which gives regulated ± 1. Attah. The output capacitors C7 and C8 acts basically as line filter to improve transient response. It incorporates various protection circuits such as current limit (which limits package power dissipation to 15 watts for the TO-220 package) and thermal shutdown.3.2V to ± 15V.1 I L (max) = Pd Vdifferent ---------------------------------------------------------4.

Figure 4. Attah. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 35 .3 Bridge rectifier Josiah K.

CD 10F/25V. D2. Solder. D6 ICs IC1 IC2 Miscellaneous Transformer Meters Switch 220V AC Primary: to 18V-0-18V. ELE 1F/35V. D3. C8 Diodes D1. 3A Sec: (0-30)V DC Voltmeters ON/OFF switch LEDs. Wires. D4 D5. Knobs. Sockets.2 Characteristic of LM regulator Josiah K. C2 C3. PCB. Fuse etc: 1N 5402 diodes 1N 4007 diodes LM 317T. C6 C7. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 36 . ELE 0. Adjustable positive voltage regulator LM 337T.Table 4.1 Values of component required Component Resistors R1. R2 VR1. ELE 330. Potentiometer Value Table 4. ¼ W.C4 C5.1F/25V. ± 5% 5K. Adjustable negative voltage regulator 4700F/25V. Attah. VR2 Capacitor C1. Heat sinks.

00 0. [15] The LM78XX monolithic 3-terminal positive voltage regulators employ internal current-limiting. 3V ≤ Vin –Vout ≤ 40V TA = 25° C.00 0. as well as disadvantages and the reasons for using certain output stages in certain situations are discussed.25 1. The three bipolar output structures found in most linear regulators has advantages.04 Units %/V mV % %/W µA V % Db A A Tmin ≤ Tj ≤ Tmax Vout = 10V. these are often the most expensive part in their product line and not necessarily the best solution.40 4.00 = 80. a designer are able choose the best regulator for an application. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 37 .0A output current.00 1.3. Attah. design examples are provided to illustrate the process of selecting the right output structure for a given set of system conditions. 10mA ≤ Iout ≤ Imax Vout ≤ 5V Vout ≥ 5V TA = 25° C. Although IC manufacturers promote regulators with very low dropout voltages. If adequate heat sinking is provided. they can deliver over 1. load current and system cost.07 100. thermal shutdown and safe-area compensation.0 1.1 LM78xx Series Voltage Regulator Choosing a linear regulator for an application involves more than looking for the part with the lowest dropout voltage or lowest cost. By considering system specifications such as minimum and maximum input voltage. 20ms Pulse LM317/LM337 0. making them essentially indestructible. They are intended as fixed voltage regulators in a wide range of applications including local (on-card) regulation for elimination of noise and Josiah K. Throughout the project. Cadj 10µF (VIN –VOUT ≤ 15V) (VIN –VOUT = 40V) 25.Parameter Line Regulation Load Regulation Thermal Regulation Adj: Pin Current Reference Voltage Temperature Stability Ripple Rejection Ratio Current Limit (Max) Current Limit (Min) Conditions TA = 25° C.4 0. F = 120Hz.

It is not necessary to bypass the output. All computers -. The 5V. Attah.0 and LM340-12 in the surface-mount TO-263 package.01% of VOUT/V of ΔVIN at 1A load (LM340A) Load regulation of 0. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 38 . as well as the LM340-5. and the LM340-5. although this does improve transient response.distribution problems associated with single-point regulation. In addition to use as fixed voltage regulators. Input bypassing is needed only if the regulator is located far from the filter capacitor of the power supply.whether a personal desktop computer or a large mainframe computer or a microcontroller – they have several things in common: Josiah K. • • • • • • • • • Complete specifications at 1A load Output voltage tolerances of ±2% at Tj = 25°C and ±4% over the temperature range (LM340A) Line regulation of 0. these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable output voltages and currents. Considerable effort was expended to make the entire series of regulators easy to use and minimize the number of external components. The LM78XXC series is available in the TO-220 plastic power package.3. 12V. and 15V regulator options are available in the steel TO-3 power package. The features of the components are as follows.3% of VOUT/A (LM340A) Internal thermal overload protection Internal short-circuit current limit Output transistor safe area protection P+ Product Enhancement tested [16] 4.0 is available in the SOT-223 package.2 Microcontroller A microcontroller is a computer.

" • The computer has an input and output devices so that it can communicate to people.it handles both input and output.• All computers have a CPU (central processing unit) that executes programs. The computer is a "general purpose computer" that can run a lot of programs. then can be referred to as "microcontroller": • Microcontrollers are "embedded" inside other device (often a consumer product) so that they can control the features or actions of the product. The CPU in a machine executes a program that implements the Web browser that is displaying this page. If a computer matches a majority of these characteristics. the keyboard and mouse are input devices and the monitor and printer are output devices. Attah. A battery-operated microcontroller might consume 50 mill watts. Josiah K. On your desktop machine. Another name for a microcontroller. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 39 . On your desktop machine." • Microcontrollers are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. • The CPU loads the program from somewhere. There are a number of other common characteristics that define microcontrollers. A hard disk is an I/O device -. Microcontrollers are "special purpose computers. therefore. • Microcontrollers are often low-power devices. A desktop computer is almost always plugged into a wall socket and might consume 50 watts of electricity. • The computer has a RAM (random-access memory) where it can store "variables. The program is stored in ROM (read-only memory) and generally does not change. the browser program is loaded from the hard disk. is "embedded controller.

A microwave oven controller takes input from a keypad. For example. The engine controller in a car takes input from sensors such as the oxygen and knock sensors and controls the fuel mix and spark plug timing. the cell phone shown on Inside a Digital Cell Phone contains a Z-80 processor. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 40 . In many products. The Z-80 is an 8-bit microprocessor developed in the 1970s and originally used in home computers of the time. In these cases. manufacturers turn to dedicated Josiah K. the speaker system and certain adjustments on the picture tube electronics such as tint and brightness. For example.• A microcontroller has a dedicated input device and often (but not always) has a small LED or LCD display for output. has to work in temperature extremes that a normal computer generally cannot handle. The microcontroller controlling a car's engine. The Garmin GPS shown in How GPS Receivers Work contains a low-power version of the Intel 80386. such as microwave ovens. The 80386 was originally used in desktop computers. The actual processor used to implement a microcontroller can vary widely. • A microcontroller is often small and is low in cost. the microcontroller inside a TV takes input from the remote control and displays output on the TV screen. a microcontroller embedded inside a VCR has not been ruggedized at all. The controller controls the channel selector. displays output on an LCD display and controls a relay that turns the microwave generator on and off. for example. I am told. the demand on the CPU is fairly low and price is an important consideration. Attah. On the other hand. A microcontroller also takes input from the device it is controlling and controls the device by sending signals to different components in the device. The components are selected to minimize size and to be as inexpensive as possible.

Attah. electronic visual display.3 Liquid Cristal Display Figure 4. They are usually more compact. portable. A typical low-end microcontroller chip might have 1. The Motorola 6811 and Intel 8051 are both good examples of such chips. With a microcontroller. either.microcontroller chips -. calculators. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 41 .4 is a pictorial view of a liquid crystal display (LCD). lightweight. instrument panels. but they are extremely inexpensive when purchased in large quantities and can often meet the needs of a device's designer with just one chip. along with eight I/0 pins in large quantities. watches.Microsoft Word requires perhaps 30 megabytes of RAM and a processor that can run millions of instructions per second. less expensive. They are used in a wide range of applications. telephones and flow metering display.chips that were originally designed to be low-cost. television. and as such low-cost and low-power performance is what is important. more reliable. embedded CPUs. one does not need Microsoft Word to control a microwave oven. including computer monitors. LCDs have displaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications. They are available in a wider range of Josiah K. etc.3. lowpower. signage. Microsoft Word cannot be run on such a chip -. They are common in consumer devices such as video players.000 bytes of ROM and 20 bytes of RAM on the chip. gaming devices. one has one specific task on how to accomplish. There is also a line of popular controllers called "PIC microcontrollers" created by a company called Microchip. it is a flat panel display. and easier on the eye. aircraft cockpit displays. 4. these CPUs are incredibly minimalistic. By current standards. LCs does not emit light directly. clocks. video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs). small. and are often very cheap. But then.

No geometric distortion. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment. Little or no flicker depending on backlight technology.screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 42 . even within the intended viewing angle. It is an electronically modulated optical device made up of any number of segments filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome. Low power consumption. Can be made in almost any size or shape. contrast and brightness to vary. Josiah K. No high voltage or other hazards present during repair/service. The most flexible ones use an array of small pixels. causing brightness distortion. as display devices LCDs are not perfect for all applications. and since they do not use phosphors. Attah. they cannot suffer image burn-in. • • • • • • • • • Very compact and light. especially toward the edges. LCDs are more energy efficient and offer safer disposal than CRTs. saturation. No theoretical resolution limit Limited viewing angle. Not affected by screen burn-in. • Bleeding and uneven backlighting in some monitors. causing color. by variations in posture. The following are the advantages and disadvantages of the component.[17] In spite of LCD's being a well proven and still viable technology.

• Fixed bit depth. but are expensive and have slower response time. Displaying resolutions either requires a video scaler. which is when only part of the screen has overheated and therefore looks discolored compared to the rest of the screen. • Only one native resolution.[18] Figure 4. lowering perceptual quality. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 43 . • • • Input lag Dead or stuck pixels may occur either during manufacturing or through use.• Smearing and ghosting artifacts caused by slow response times (>8 ms) and "sample and hold" operation. • • Not all LCDs are designed to allow easy replacement of the backlight. or display at 1:1 pixel mapping. Attah. 8bit S-IPS panels can display 16 million colors and have significantly better black level. many cheaper LCDs are only able to display 262.4a Typical picture of a liquid crystal display Josiah K.000 colors. in which images will be physically too large or won't fill the whole screen. In a constant on situation. thermalization may occur. Cannot be used with light guns/pens.

The liquid crystal Josiah K. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 44 . Attah. The inside surfaces of the bottle or cell are coated with a polymer that is buffed to align the molecules of liquid crystal.4b Structure of a Liquid Crystal Display A liquid crystal display consists of two substrates that form a "flat bottle" that contains the liquid crystal mixture.Figure 4.

This is referred to as a Positive Image.molecules align on the surfaces in the direction of the buffing. the molecules relax back to their 90º twist structure. The observer sees a black character on a sliver-gray background as indicated in figure 4. Attah. When an appropriate drive signal is applied to the cell electrodes. The observer sees the background of the display. which in this case. it becomes linearly polarized. It then passes through the front glass and is rotated by the liquid crystal molecules and passes through the rear glass. The helical structure has the ability to control light. For twisted pneumatic devices. the light passes through the analyzer and be reflected back through the cell. A polarizer is applied to the front and an analyzer/reflector is applied to the back of the cell. the two surfaces are buffed orthogonal to one another. If the analyzer is rotated 90° degree to the polarizer. Josiah K.[19] This display aids in the determination of actual product quantity emanating from the oil field which is the main objective of the project for effective and efficient accountability. is the silver-gray of the reflector. The liquid crystal molecules re-align with the electric field perpendicularly to the glass surface.4b above. forming a 90° degree twist of the liquid crystal from one surface to the other. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 45 . When randomly polarized light passes through the front polarizer. an electric field is set up across the cell. When the electric field is turned off. Reflective Viewing Mode. The incoming linearly polarized light passes through the cell unaffected and is absorbed by the rear analyzer.

MSP430x413 which forms the integral part of the circuit.5 Block diagram of microcontroller MSP430x412. This chip is the heart of the metering system and the terminals are clearly labelled to indicate their functions. Figure 4. Attah. MSP430x413 Josiah K.Figure 4. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 46 .5 shows a block diagram of microcontroller MSP430x412.

except those which are supplied via Avcc/AVss.2/TA1 P1.3/S14 P3. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 47 .4/S5 P4.0/S17 P3.6/CAO P1. capture: CCIOB input/MCLK output. 0/TAO P1. and LCD resistive divider circuitry.4/S13 P3.7/CA1 P2. compare:Out0 output/BSL transmit General purpose digital I/O timer _A. General-purpose digital I/O Timer_ O capture: CCI1A input.0/TA2 P2. 10. comparator A.5/S20 P2. Digital supply voltage. positive terminal.3/S6 P4.7/S2 P5.7/S18 P3. comparator A port. positive terminal.4 Terminal functions TERMINAL NAME AVCC AVSS DVCC DVSS NC P1. General purpose digital I/O timer _A. brownout.Table 4.3/S22 P2.5/S12 P3..2/S7 P4.4 P1.1/SO NO. Negative terminal that supplies SVS. 11 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O DESCRIPTION Positive terminal that supplies SVS.5/S4 P4. oscillator. Connection to vss recommended. compare: Out2 output General-purpose digital I/O General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 23 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 22 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 21 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 20 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O /comparator_A output/LCD segment output 19 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 18 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 17 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 16 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 15 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 14 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 13 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 12 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 11 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 10 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 9 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 8 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 7 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 6 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 5 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 4 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 3 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 2(see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 1 (see Note 1) General-purpose digital I/O LCD segment output 0 (see Note 1) Josiah K.1/S8 P4. 64 62 1 63 7. must not power up prior to DVcc.1 P2.3/SVSOUT P1.2/S23 P2.6/S3 P4. brownout.4/S21 P2. Attah. compare:Out1 output General-purpose digital I/O SVS comparator General-purpose digital I/O General-purpose digital I/O input of Timer_A clock/output of ACLK General-purpose digital I/O Comparator_A input General-purpose digital I/O Comparator_A input General-purpose digital I/O Timer_A capture:CCI2A input.1/S16 P3.0/S1 P5. oscillator. Supplies all parts. except those which are supplied via Avcc.0/S9 P4.2/S15 P3.6/CAOUT/S19 P2. Supplies all parts. Not internally connected.7/S10 P4. Needs to be externally connected to DVss Digital supply voltage.6/S11 P3.5/TACLK/ACLK P1. capture: CCIOA input. 1/TAO/MCLK P1.

4 P6.6 P6.0 P6.5/R13 P5.7 RST/NMI TCK TDI/CLK TDO/TDI TMS XIN XOUT QFN Pad 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 59 60 61 2 3 4 5 6 58 57 55 54 56 8 9 NA O I/O I/O I/O I I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I/O I I I I/O I I O NA Common output. TCK is the input port for device programming and test. Test mode select. The device protection fuse is connected to TDI. COM0-3 are used for LCD backplanes General-purpose digital I/O Common output. Output terminal of crystal oscillator TX1.3 P6.7/R33 P6.6 shows a symbol of an LED which serve as indicator when the circuit in functional state. COM0-3 are used for LCD backplanes General-purpose digital I/O Common output.5 P6.6/R23 P5. Input port for crystal oscillator XT1. QFN package pad connection to Vss NOTE: LCD functions automatically when applicable LCD module control bit are set.2 P6. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 48 .1 P6.4/COM3 R03 P5. Test data input/ Test clock input. Standard or watch crystal can be connected.3. Test data output port TDO/TDI data output or programming data input terminal.2/COM1 P5. COM0-3 are used for LCD backplanes Input port of positive forth positive (lowest) analogue LCD level (V5) General-purpose digital I/O input port of third most positive analogue LCD level (V4 or V3) General-purpose digital I/O input port of second most positive analogue LCD level (V2) General-purpose digital I/O input port of most positive analogue LCD level (V1) General-purpose digital I/O General-purpose digital I/O General-purpose digital I/O General-purpose digital I/O General-purpose digital I/O General-purpose digital I/O General-purpose digital I/O General-purpose digital I/O Reset input/Nonmaskable interrupt input Test clock. COM0-3 are used for LCD backplanes General-purpose digital I/O Common output. 4.COM 0 P5.4 Light Emitting Diode (LED) Figure 4. TMS is used as an input port for device programming and test. Attah.3/COM2 P5. Figure 4.6 Symbol of an LED Josiah K.

they radiate energy. free electrons cross the junction and fall into the holes. small in size. crude oil and any other petroleum fluid. In ordinary diodes. Furthermore. If installed and used correctly.[20] LEDs are observed to be energy efficient. this volumetric metering system maintains two totals. you can expect accuracy within ±5%. Attah. This volumetric metering system will turn on automatically upon sensing fuel when activated or connected to power source. But LEDs have the unique ability of producing light while conducting current through them. However. As these electrons fall from a higher energy to a lower energy level. 4. This device was employed to serve as indicator when the metering system is switched to “on” or “off “position. kerosene. The meter is designed for use with gasoline. this energy is radiated in a form of heat. costly effective.An LED is a specially fabricated semiconductor PN-junction diodes that emit monochromatic (single colour) light when forward biased. diesel fuel. The cumulative total (‘’TTL 2’’) provides continuous measurement and may not be manually reset. The batch total (‘’TTL 1’’) may be set to zero and measures flow during a single use. Josiah K. When a PN-junction is forward biased. It also turns off automatically if not used for about one minute. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 49 . it can manually be turned on by pressing the display bottom (‘’display’’). light in weight and then also they require no warm-up time and hence they have fast on-off switching.4 Operation of the equipment The designed volumetric metering system should be installed at the end of the fuel hose adjacent to the nozzle or installed in line either horizontal or vertically.

7 bar. 4. Its flow rate capability is 10 to 100 LPM for pump or gravity flow systems with pressure not exceeding 20. Attah. it automatically reset to zero. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 50 . Periodically apply a penetrating lubricant on the rotor shaft and bearing if the rotor sticks. hold the DISPLAY button down for three seconds to zero the batch total.When the cumulative total reaches a maximum reading of 9999. operating temperature not below -10°C and not exceeding 54°C and storage temperature not below -40°C and not exceeding 70°C. Use a soft brush or small probe to remove debris deposits from the rotor. Josiah K. It is extremely important that the rotor moves freely. With TTL 1 showing.5 Maintenance of the flow metering system The volumetric metering system is virtually maintenance free if the meter is kept clean and free of contaminants. Press the DISPLAY button (‘’DISPLAY’’) briefly to switch between TTL 1 and TTL 2.

The Consequences of crude oil spillage cannot be over-emphasised with regards to its volatility. Josiah K. Consequently when it is employ in FPSO. Any time there was petroleum under delivery or over delivery it posed lot of challenges in the operation of that establishment. When the system was put to test the following result was obtained: • The meter was connected to a tap and was able to dispense water into a 1. There have been instances where product spillage has occurred due to the inaccurate modes of measurement. This could be interpreted that the system is functional and would serve the required purpose which was intended for. it would assist in the determination of product quantity released from their oil field effectively and efficiently.CHAPTER FIVE 5. Attah. It could trigger fire when a little spark or heat is introduced and this could cause serious destruction to properties and loss of lives. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 51 .5 litre container which registered the exact quantity. The demonstration of the prototype exhibited that the aim of the accomplished its desired results. • The meter was able to reset to zero to ensure it readiness to execute another operation in respect of tank loading/discharging.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 5.1 Results The objective for the design of the oil volume metering system is to ensure proper petroleum product accountability in the oil industry/fields to enhance revenue generation.

Close to 60% of the materials could be obtained locally.2 Cost Analysis The major hardware employed in the project was Microcontroller chip. sensor.5. Josiah K. rectifier and printed circuit board. Attah. LCD and printed circuit board. sensor. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 52 . 5. meter housing. step-down transformer. resisters. Cost of the design of the metering system (labour cost) = GH¢300 2. liquid crystal display. voltage regulators power cord etc. conversely it is cost effective for short and long term project. for instance step down transformer. volume meter housing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Name of the item Microcontroller chip Liquid crystal display Meter housing Rectifier Transformer Packaging Fittings Printed circuit board Power cord Sensor Total Cost in Gh¢ 450 55 85 25 5 50 25 30 5 85 815 1. rectifiers.75 Volumetric metering system is capital intensive in respect of acquisition of essential materials such as microcontroller. Overhead cost (10%) Total Cost = GH¢55.1 Table of material cost Item No.75 = GH¢1170.

Low power consumption. Josiah K. thus the use of measuring bar and level gauges which may need additional security measures by engaging additional personnel and commit extra wages and salaries. Easy to operate.5. Less expensive comparatively to the existing measuring devices. Attah.3 Discussions Comparing the digital Volumetric metering system to the existing ancient mode of measurement in FPSO oil field. Some personnel are also engaged to patrol on the vessel to dip/measure the product after the loading process is complete for dispatch to the receiving end by using dip bars and measuring tapes. Easy to repair. this oil volume metering system could cut down the size of personnel to about 70% given that the meter would register the actual volume released from the field. The present mode of measurement required not less than five personnel since the process is cumbersome as a result some of the staffs are put at vantage point to monitor product flow to ensure that spillage does not occur. Considering the volume of staff required. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 53 . Require one personnel to operate. The advantages which this flow metering system renders are: • • • • • • The system is noiseless. Furthermore. the development and use of digital oil Volume metering system is highly effective in terms of cost and efficiency. is would result in making a lot of savings for the establishment with regard to payment of huge salaries and also dealing with product loss which affect the economy in terms of revenue.

Josiah K. • It can also be used in the refineries where crude oil is refined for onward distribution. volume correction factor and pressure. 6. Attah.2 Recommendation • This system could be employed in oil industries which deal with less/bulk oil distribution. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 54 .0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 6.CHAPTER SIX 6. temperature. • The system could be reviewed in future to capture other important quantities such as density. it could render perfect measurement of volume into tanks which other modes of measurement could not offer. overhead tank. If product runs through the system it automatically reactivates and registers the quantity of product entering the vessel. The advantage of this system is that. underground tank. barges and any other fuel tank. bulk oil distributors. oil storage and transportation companies and crude oil drilling fields ensure that petroleum products are accurately measured and thus prevent spillage. use of more personnel and ultimately cut down losses and risk.1 Conclusion The demonstration carried out on the prototype established the prospect to oil fields secured from over delivery/under delivery of petroleum product by using digital oil volume metering system technology. The process of using digital metering system which is mainly controlled by an embedded microcontroller for oil marketing companies. refineries.

Electronic Devices Fourth Editions.maxiflow. No. 2008. p844 2009. Drive Techniques for a Digital Flow meter.co. [20] Kulshreshtha D. Zamora ME. 55. [4] www. Zamora ME. L. Electronics Projects. Steed and J. MP. [12] Wiley John & Sons. Inc. 2011. Electronics Projects. Vol. pp. Atwood. 2001. Aug 2011.REFERENCE [1] Zamora. Elko fan and motors. [17]www. Radiation Detection and Measurement 2nd ed. [5] www. pp. Electronic Devices and Circuits pp.com.com.com. Prentice Hall. 2002.C. 315–316. Attah. [7] Woodward. Korea instrumentation and control association. [14] Thomas F. August 2011. [2] Henry. Digital Control of a Coriolis Mass Flow Meter. [13] Nicholson P. Milestones Liquid Crystal Display. Vol. 2002. [18] J. 2009. [15] Kamal W. ME. 2004. Feb 2007. [19] IEEE.uk. W. flow meter types and their principles. 665–666 2003. 2nd ed. [11] Glenn F. July 2008. Transactions on Industrial Electronics. 7. Aug 2010.W. Magnetic Pickups.com. 2002. Supramolecular Chemistry 2nd ed. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 55 . [3] Henry. Knoll. Mar 2011. Nov 2011 [6] Daytronic corporation. H. Sep 2011.howstuffworks.microcontrollers. Start-up Techniques for a Digital Flow meter P256. 1983.L. The instrumentation system and automation society. [8] Elco-motors. Nov 2011. [10] IEEE. and Henry. John Wiley and Sons. [9] Ti. Josiah K.maxiflow. [16] Kamal W. 55. Flow meter solutions. Nuclear Electronics. MP. 450.

GLOSSARY • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • AC RPM HZ PVC DC DAC ADC RAM PC CPU I/P O/P V C D VR PCB LED T A VOUT TV LCD VCR GPS LCs CRT MCLOCK COM RST NMI TTL LPM °C FPSO Alternating Current Revolution Per Minute Hertz Polyvinyl Chloride Direct Current Digital Analogue Converter Analogue Digital Converter Random Access memory Personal Computer Central Processing Unit Input Output Voltage Capacitor Diode Variable Resistor Printed Circuit Board Light Emitting Diode Temperature Ampere Voltage Output Television Light Emitting Diode Video Cassette Recorder Global Positioning System Liquid Crystals Cathode Ray Tube Memory Clock Communication Reset Nonmaskable interrupt input Transistor Transistor Logic Liter Per minute Degree Celsius Floating Production. Attah. Storage and Offloading Josiah K. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 56 .

4a 3.2 3. Attah.5 4.5 2.3 3.4b 4.4b 4.2 2.3 4.4a 4.6 TITLE PAGE Velocity Flow meter------------------------------------------------------------------6 Rotary Flow meter--------------------------------------------------------------------7 Magnetic Pickup---------------------------------------------------------------------11 Turbine Flow Meter-----------------------------------------------------------------12 Mechanism of a Flow Meter ------------------------------------------------------13 Manual Flow Meter----------------------------------------------------------------.4 2.1 2.5 3.LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 2.2 4. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 57 .3 2.1 3.14 Block Diagram of Oil Volume Metering System------------------------------18 Circuit Diagram of an electronic Driver-----------------------------------------22 Analogue to Digital Converter Installed in Fuel Meter-----------------------25 Circuit Diagram of a Sensor-------------------------------------------------------28 Sensor Connected in Oil Volume Metering System---------------------------29 Schematic Diagram of Fuel Meter------------------------------------------------31 Block Diagram of the Regulated Voltage DC Power Supply----------------32 Bridge Rectifier----------------------------------------------------------------------34 Typical picture of a liquid crystal display--------------------------------------42 Structure of a Liquid Crystal Display-------------------------------------------43 Block diagram of Microcontroller------------------------------------------------45 Symbol of an LED-----------------------------------------------------------------47 Josiah K.1 4.

Attah. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 58 .1 4.2 4.3 5.LIST OF TABLES TABLE 4.1 TITLE PAGE Values of component required-------------------------------------------35 Characteristic of LM regulator-------------------------------------------36 Terminal functions-----------------------------------------------------46-47 Table of material cost-----------------------------------------------------51 Josiah K.

APPENDIX FINISHED PROTOTYPE Josiah K. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 59 . Attah.

Attah.Josiah K. BENG (Hons) Regent Ghana 60 .

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