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No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Content Content Page Objectives Acknowledgement Part 1 Part 1 (a) Part 1 (b) Part 2 Part 3

Page 1 2 3

4 5

5.

Part 2 (a) Part 2 (b)(i) Part 2 (b)(ii) Part 2 (b)(iii) Part 2 (c)(i) Part 2 (c)(ii) Part 2 (c)(iii)

6-7 8 8 9 9 9 9-10

6.

Part 3 (a)(i) Part 3 (a)(ii) Part 3 (b)(i) Part 3 (b)(ii) Part 3 (b)(iii) Part 3 (b)(iv) Part 3 (c)

7. 8.

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OBJECTIVES

The aims of carrying out this project work are: i. ii. iii. iv. To apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problems. To improve thinking skills. To promote effective mathematical communication. To develop mathematical knowledge through problem-solving in a way that increases students interest and confidence. To develop positive attitude towards mathematics.

v.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I would like to thank Allah that I have finally succeeded in finishing this project work. I would like to thank my beloved Additional Mathematics teacher, Pn. Suriati Bohari, for all the guidance she had provided me during the process in finishing this project work. I also appreciate her patience in guiding me completing this project work. I would like to give a thousand thanks to my parents for giving me their full support, financially and mentally. They gave me moral support when I needed it. Who am I without their love and support? I would also like to give my thanks to my fellow friends who had helped me in finding the information that I am clueless, and the time we spent together in study group on finishing this project work. Last but not least, I would like to express my highest gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this coursework. I really appreciate all the help I got. Again, thank you very much.

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Part 1 a) Types of Drinks NESTLE Milo MARIGOLD Grape Drinks Ribena Dutch Lady Susu Segar Manufacture by NCM Food Fabriqu Ms Foods Hydrox Innovation SDN.BHD Desa Cattle SDN.BHD

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Part 2 (a)

No.

NESTLE Milo

Dutch Lady

Susu Segar

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Faizal Mustafa Farmizi Abd Muluk Mohd Arief Salim Mohd Najhan Rani Firdaus Ryan Izzairy Erfan Sudirman Mohd Nur Alif Arman Ihsan Ismail Perima Pawawoi Frederick Romzy Bensan Alex Mohd Razeef Muhammad Sahrudin Saul Safar Moktar Ihsyam Rogan Awing Surianti Abd Wahab Nurazila John Nurul Fadilawaty Aziah Nurul Asikin Amirul Nur Zulaika Sidek Nur Fazirah Karim Nurul Hanisah Halbani Asnita Mapasisi Sharmiza Adlina Junaidi Nohazirah Basri Pazilawaty Putara Noor Salina Mustapa Santi Nur Shafina Nurul Ammarah Noor Majidah Dorfiana John

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2012 6|Page

35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Cecilia Regina Matius Nurul Asyira Harezam Haslina Norasafasina Chuli Nur Faezah Flisilin Martin Munirah Musli Jumaini Jamal Nadeera Nasir Siti Zainab Seman Rossahira Natasya Zaniah Alwani Siti Aisyah Eindrad Nurul Hikmah Syakira M. Abu Armawaty Saing Kamarul Ruslan

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Types of Drinks NESTLE Milo MARIGOLD Grape Drinks Ribena Dutch Lady Susu Segar ii. Charts and Graphs

Number of Students

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 NESTLE Milo MARIGOLD Grape Drinks Ribena Dutch Lady susu segar

Number of Students

Number of Students

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 NESTLE Milo MARIGOLD Grape Drinks Ribena Dutch Lady susu segar

Number of Students

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iii. Based on the following chart, we know that NESTLE Milo has the highest frequency. Meanwhile, Ribena has the lowest frequency compared five types of drinks that have been listed. c) i. Types of Drinks NESTLE Milo MARIGOLD Grape Drinks Dutch Lady Ribena Susu Segar ii. Mean: 23+19+7+11+6 = 66 = 66/5 = 13.2 Standard Deviation: = - (174.24) =12.20 iii) Tooth Decay: All soft drinks are acidic which corrodes the teeth by eroding its enamel. The high amount of sugar consumed through soft drinks lead to the development of bacteria that attack the teeth thus aggravating dental problems. People who drink three or more glasses of aerated drinks (gaseous drinks) daily have much higher chances of dental decay, fillings and teeth loss. Therefore, soft drinks contain acid and sugar that corrode and destroy the teeth in one shot. Obesity: Soft drinks are mainly composed of filtered H2O, artificial additives and refined sugar. Thus, they lack nutritional value and only add up calories through their refined sugar; therefore, they make you gain weight. But is shifting to "Diet Soft Drink" the solution? The fact is that diet soft drinks contain aspartame (an artificial low-calorie sweetener). Although aspartame does not add up the calories it makes you feel hungrier and crave for food. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) no longer allows foods containing aspartame to be labeled as "weight reduction product ". Now it insists to label these products simply as "Diet Drink" or "Diet Food ". Research also shows that aspartame causes migraines, dizziness and more over it reduces your memory. It has been experimentally proved that soft drinks are one of the prominent reasons for obesity. The weight gain is directly related to the amount of soft drink that a person takes in. With every single can, people unknowingly add many extra calories to their body weight. * Another very common effect of soft drinks is diabetes. With every can of soft drink, people add large amount of sugar in their body. Long habitual intake of soft drinks can lead to ineffective insulin production from pancreases which consequently affect the sugar level in the body. This further leads to diabetes.

Additional Mathematics Project Work 2012 9|Page

* It has been proved that frequent consumption of soft drink can lead to weakening of the bones and osteoporosis. Soft drinks impair the calcification of the growing bones in children. * Studies also say that soft drinks increase the risk of tooth decay. The acidic content of soft drinks can dissolve the tooth enamel and make them weaker. It is recommended that people should avoid taking soft drinks between meals to prevent dental erosion and tooth decay. * This fact may shock you, but is quite true. Researchers have proved that constant and habitual intake of soft drink can lead to kidney stones formation. This happens because of the acidic and mineral radical balance. The body tries to buffer the acidity caused by the soft drinks with the calcium from the bones. This leads to calcium erosion, which ultimately gets settled in the kidney in the form of stones. * Soft drink also leads to impaired digestive system. Soft drink contains phosphoric acid which competes with the hydrochloric acid present in stomach and affects its functioning. The ineffectiveness of stomach leads to undigested food which further causes indigestion and gassiness. * Soft drinks cause dehydration in the body. Both the sugar and caffeine components of soft drinks are dehydrating agents. They both lead to excess urination, which makes you thirstier than before. * Soft drinks have strong caffeine content. Caffeine causes irritability, restlessness, tension, high blood pressure, excessive urination and other side effects. It is also believed that soft drinks increase blood pressure. Some studies also claim that soft drink has harmful effects on liver. * The sweetener used in soft drinks is Aspartame. It is 200 times sweeter than normal sugar and is far more harmful with many side effects. Next time, when head towards the refrigerator or a store to satiate your thirst with a can of soft drink, make sure you remind yourself of all the side effects that gulping down the beverage will bring forth.

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Part 3 a) i. Amount Packaging Material Used (cm) 255.999600 255.999800 255.999900 255.998220 256.333340 256.333380 256.334220 256.342000 256.379344 256.379000

Width(cm) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Height(cm) 10.399980 10.399990 10.399995 10.399911 10.416667 10.416669 10.416711 10.417100 10.418967 10.418950

Length, L (cm)

Width, W (cm)

Height, H (cm)

4 4

6 6

10.416667 10

Total Surface Area (or Amount of Packaging Material Used), A (cm2) 256.333340 256

250.000008 250

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b) i. In mathematics and the arts, two quantities are in the golden ratio () if the ratio of the sum of the quantities to the larger quantity is equal to the ratio of the larger quantity to the smaller one. The figure on the right illustrates the geometric relationship. Expressed algebraically:

where the Greek letter phi ( ) represents the golden ratio. Its value is:

ii. Width,x (cm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Length, 1.6x (cm) 1.6 3.2 4.8 6.4 8 9.6 11.2 12.8 14.4 16 Height,h (cm) 156.250000 39.062500 17.361111 9.765625 6.250000 4.340278 3.188776 2.441406 1.929012 1.562500 Total surface area,A (cm2) 815.700000 419.050000 299.633332 254.325000 242.500000 250.616674 272.871446 306.362490 349.477762 401.250000

iii. Width, x (cm) 5 Length, 1.6x (cm) 8 Height, h (cm) 6.250000 Total Surface Area , A (cm2) 242.500000 Volume of Cuboid, V (cm3) 250.000000

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Calculation using differentiation, V = 250 cm3 1.6xh = 250 h = 250/1.6x A = 2[1.6x + 1.6xh+xh] = 2[1.6x + 2.6xh] = 2[1.6x + 2.6x (250/1.6x)] = 3.2x + 812.5/x Dy/dx = 6.4x 812.5x 0 = 6.4x 812.5/x 0 = 6.4x - 812.5 x = 812.5/6.4 x = 5.03 cm (from tabulation table above, x = 5 cm) 1.6x = 8.0 cm H=250/1.6(5.) = 6.25 cm Length = 8.0cm; Width = 5.0cm; and Height = 6.25cm

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c)

h = 6.25 cm =1/3 x 6.25x = 250 x = 10.954 cm = 6.25+(10.954/2) = 8.3102 Total surface area = (10.954 x 8.3102) x 4 + 10.954 = 301.99cm

h = 6.25 cm = 1/3 r x 6.25= 250 r =6.18 cm = 6.25 + (6.18/2) = 6.972 Total surface area = rl + r = (6.18)(6.972) + (6.18) = 255.3466cm

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h = 6.25 cm = r x 6.25 = 250 r = 3.568 Total surface area = 2(3.568) + 2(3.568)(6.25) = 220.1cm

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FURTHER EXPLORATION

a) Shape s of packaging Pyramid -the stability of the drink -the cost of packaging packaging will be more stable material will be higher because the base area larger because more total surface area required. -the shape of the drink packaging become more unique because its rarely found in the market. Cone -the stability of the drink packaging will be more stable because the base area larger -the shape of the drink packaging become more unique because its rarely found in the market. Cylinder -easy to bring it anywhere -the cost is more expensive -the quantity of water is more -are not stable than usual -can be recycle -hard to put the straw into it -the cost of packaging material will be higher because more total surface area required. Pro(s) Con(s)

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PACKAGING MATERIAL

One of the packaging material uses is plastic. Plastic is easily to use but hard to dispose. It is light, strong, easy to produce and cheaper. It mostly uses in big bottles drinks.

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REFLECTION

In the making of this project, I have spent countless hour doing this project. I realized that is subject is a compulsory to me. Without it, I cant fulfill my big dreams and wishes I used to hate Additional Mathematics It always makes me wonder why this subject is so difficult I always tried to love every part of it It always an absolute obstacle for me Throughout day and night I sacrificed my precious time to have fun From Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday And even the weekend that I always looking forward to

Additional Mathematics.

From now on, I will do my best on every second that I will learn Additional

Mathematics.

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