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# UNIV.

OF REDDIT – INTRO TO NMR – 2013 MAJEWSKI 6/10/13 HW # 1 – DUE 6/17/2013

Suppose a charged particle carrying charge e and mass m moves in a static, uniform magnetic field B = B0 e3 with initial velocity v = v0 e2. 1) With the foresight that the subsequent motion is circular and in the x-y plane, express the angular frequency of the particle, ω (hint: what is the force due to B on the particle? Set that equal to something based on the circle condition, and use v = r ω and ω = 2 π f). 2) Choosing r = 0 to correspond to the point at the center of the circle, write down the particle’s angular momentum, L as a vector (recall L = r x p and p = m v). What is the angle between L and B?

3) Suppose Bohr’s assumption that the angular momentum of the electron which orbits the proton in hydrogen is quantized, meaning

| L | = n ħ ; n = 1, 2, 3, …

applies to this case (you can forget the proton, just accept the above equation for L as an enforcement of quantum mechanics). Can you manipulate your expression for

UNIV. OF REDDIT – INTRO TO NMR – 2013 MAJEWSKI 6/10/13 HW # 1 – DUE 6/17/2013

angular frequency in 1.1 to express to express the period of motion in terms of n and ħ? Play with these equations. What else is necessarily quantized, once we presume L is quantized? 4) The definition of magnetic dipole moment μ of a current loop carrying current I having area vector a is μ=Ia Using the period from (3) to write down I, express the magnetic dipole moment of the charged particle first in terms of the vector L and then its magnitude in terms of n ħ. 5) The interaction between the magnetic dipole moment and an external B field is governed by the relation E=-μ•B Using the Einstein equation Δ E = ħ ω, and assuming only one transition can occur, propose a constant of proportionality γ obeying

ω=γB
Using the expression for μ, find γ in terms of e, ħ, m, …etc.

Though the above scenario does not exactly describe the physics of nuclear gyration of the spin magnetic moment about an external B field, one is able to obtain an expression for the gyromagnetic ratio in this manner. It is often the case that semiclassical approaches, i.e. classical equations modified by imposing various restrictions from quantum mechanics, will lead to expressions that are at least close to correct. For a nucleon (or an electron), the gyromagnetic ratio differs from the expression obtained in (5) by a dimensionless constant called the g-factor. The gfactor is a correction to this expression which comes from quantum field theory – it arises because all particles are relativistic quantum fields rather than every day rigid bodies.