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To reduce or prevent Overheating on Welds: For GTAW: 1.

Reduce amperage (Current), slightly increase travel speed or shorten the arc length. 2. If applicable, use stringer passes to minimize overheating which can cause distortion. Notes: 1. Figure 7A shows discoloration on a stainless steel weld caused by overheating, which not only affects a materials color, but degrades its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties as well. Unfortunately, once this error is made, there is nothing that can be done to fix it except for scrapping the part and starting over. 2. Figure 7B shows proper coloration of stainless.

For GMAW:

To reduce or prevent Weld Spatter Only for GMAW Process: Metal particles expelled during welding that do not form a part of the weld is weld spatter. Excessive spatter creates a poor weld appearance, wastes electrodes, makes slag removal difficult, and can lead to incomplete fusion in multiple welds. Solutions are to: 1. If using Short-circuiting mode of transfer (Voltage ranging V) for welding structural thin materials, it is recommended to: a. Reduce the welding current. b. Decrease the arc voltage. c. Shorten the amount of stick-out (Stickout to be 6-12mm). 2. Avoid using Globular mode of transfer (Low voltage and current) in welding thicker materials for Structure. 3. Recommended to used Spray arc mode of transfer for thicker Structural materials (Voltage ranging 23-35V). Remarks: 1. Test a few welds on scrap metal to check that the voltage are set to perform accurately.

2. Voltage that is too high will create excessive spatter, additionally, can cause undercutting, a groove melted into the workpiece that is not properly filled with weld metal. Voltage set too low produces a narrow weld bead that lacks proper penetration and fusion. http://www.trade-equip.co.uk/blog/?p=1073 1. Increase the voltage Reduce spatter by adjusting the voltage of the machine. Voltage is closely linked to the welding arcs length and the heat input of the weld. Find the right balance, so the weld is being created with the correct intensity. 2. Welding Torch Angle Positioning your welding gun with the wire in front may make a nice, smooth weld, but it shoots spatter outward. A drag angle with the wire behind, keeps spatter in the weld pool. 3. Clean the weld surface One simple way to avoid spatter is to keep your welding surface free from contamination. Substances like oil may cause the welding power supply to alter the machines parameters settings creating spatter before and after the right adjustments are made. Anything that oxidizes the weld pool (rust) may cause bubbles which rupture, generating even more spatter. It is advisable to clean the surface and avoid the mess. Remove any build-up with an abrasive tool/brush or chemical. 4. Shielding Gas and Wire The shielding gas and welding wire should be preventing spatter, not contributing to it. Argon gas can minimize spatter, but it can alter other aspects of the weldment. Many wires contain deoxidizing substances, which will reduce the amount of spatter. Flux cored wires are considered an excellent safeguard against spatter. Reducing the wire feed speed can help overcome the problem of excessive spatter. If this isnt effective, the excessive spatter may be the result of arc blow that occurs when magnetism in your base metal affects the quality of your arc. To combat arc blow, try welding toward your work return clamp. 5. Shelter the Welding Environment In the battle against spatter, wind is considered an enemy. Ensure the shielding gas isnt being affected by air flow. Another environmental problem that causes spatter, cable grounding, can be easily fixed. Make sure cabling is secure and on clean surfaces, otherwise, you may have weld altercations.

es Figure 1 ARC LENGTH

Figure 2 Nozzle to Work Distance (Stickout)

Figure 3 Large Spatter Deposits