Human resources planning is the process by which an organization ensure that it has the right number and kind of people, at the right place, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall objectives. Objectives Understand the nature and importance of HR planning. Identify and describe the factors affecting personnel planning. Identify the employee planning process, delineate different stages in the process and describe each step. Identify prerequisites for successful planning and list the various barriers, which render planning ineffective. Importance of HRP Future personnel needs Foundations of personal functions Coping with change Increasing investment in human resources Creating highly talented personnel Resistance to change and move Protection of weaker section More time is provided to locate talent International strategies Problems of HRP People are unpredictable: they can easily upset plans through resigning, being sick, refusing to do certain things etc. People are all different so it is difficult to produce policies and approaches that are equally appropriate to all. People are required in a particular place at a particular time and are less easy to move from one location to another than, say money. Surpluses and deficits are more difficult to manage- staff numbers cannot usually be reduced at the stroke of a pen and acquiring more people can be time consuming and costly. People need careful and sensitive handling, which requires substantial thought and care on the part of managers. There are more environmental conditions to take into account money can be kept in a safe but people need offices, car parks, canteens etc. ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT For any function planning is one of the important tools. This is the 1st step. People are the most important resource which is required to run any business or organization. Now this also very important to understand the need of human resources on time so that neither my organisation falls short of resources nor faces surplus. If organisation falls short of resources then will not be able to deliver on time to client on the other hand if it has surplus resource then company has to bear that cost which will effect organisation's profitability. There is another aspect also in this company also need to plan resources based on the skill required to run the business. Otherwise they will have surplus in one area shortfall in other area which Will result to poor management. Hence until & unless you do correct resource planning you will be able to manage human resources properly. KEY COMPONENT OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING 1. Forecasting Staffing Needs There are several ways to forecast your business needs, in order to predict how many employees you need to run your business and which roles these employees need to fill. 2. Evaluating Supply Evaluating the supply of employees includes a two-prong process: evaluating internal staff (which will occur as you are forecasting your staffing needs) as well as external staff. Externally, you need to evaluate the demographics of the workforce that is available. 3. Balance Supply and Demand If you have a shortage of employees, this will determine what type of recruiting efforts your business will participate in to attract the employees. If you have a surplus of employees, this requires you to consider employee layoffs, retirements and situations where employees may need to be demoted or moved into a lateral position. KEY COMPONENTS OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT • INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT refers to the development of new knowledge, skills, and/or improved behaviours that result in performance enhancement and improvement related to one's
current job (training). Learning may involve formal programs, but is most often accomplished through informal, on-the-job training activities. • CAREER DEVELOPMENT includes both individual and organizational activities. Individual activities include career planning, career awareness, and utilizing career resource centers. Organizational activities include job posting systems, mentoring systems, career resource center development and maintenance, using managers as career counselors, providing career development workshops and seminars, human resource planning, performance appraisal, and career pathing programs. • ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT is directed at developing new and creative organization solutions to performance problems by enhancing congruence among the organization's structure, culture, processes, and strategies within the human resources domain. The ultimate goal of organizational development is to develop the organization's self-renewing capacity HR'S ORGANIZATIONAL PHILOSOPHY Managers are responsible and accountable for their decisions. Employees are responsible for their own achievements. An organization is most effective when: Leaders articulate a clear and compelling vision and model integrity accountability, and innovative thinking. It employs high-quality, ethical and committed individuals whose actions and performance are consistent with organizational needs and values. All of its members know what is expected of them. Diverse perspectives and experiences are sought and valued. Respectful behaviour is expected at all levels. Its members are empowered to make decisions and take calculated risks. Flexibility is permitted wherever possible.
Manpower Planning which is also called as Human Resource Planning consists of putting right number of people, right kind of people at the right place, right time, doing the right things for which they are suited for the achievement of goals of the organization. The procedure is as follows: STEPS IN MANPOWER PLANNING 1. Analysing the current manpower inventory- Before a manager makes forecast of future manpower, the current manpower status has to be analysed. For this the following things have to be noted• Type of organization • Number and quantity of such • Number of departments departments • Employees in these work units 2. Making future manpower forecasts- The Manpower forecasting techniques commonly employed by the organizations are as follows: a. Expert Forecasts: This includes informal decisions, formal expert surveys and Delphi technique. b. Trend Analysis: Manpower needs can be projected through extrapolation, indexationand statistical analysis (central tendency measure). c. Work Load Analysis: It is dependent upon the nature of work load in a department, in a branch or in a division. d. Work Force Analysis: Whenever production and time period has to be analysed, due allowances have to be made for getting net manpower requirements. e. Other methods: Several Mathematical models, with the aid of computers are used to forecast manpower needs, like budget and planning analysis, regression, new venture analysis. 3. Developing employment programmes- Once the current inventory is compared with future forecasts, the employment programmes can be framed and developed accordingly, which will include recruitment, selection procedures and placement plans. 4. Design training programmes- These will be based upon extent of diversification, expansion plans, development programmes, etc. Training programmes depend upon the extent of improvement in
Job analysis provides the risk factor related to particular job and thus action required for the safety of the employees can be taken. Man power planning. Higher productivity-higher productivity is a result of minimum wastage of time.When we give a promotion to an employee we need to promote him on the basis of the skill and talent required for the future job.Efficient management of personnel’s becomes an important function in the industrialization world of today. Therefore. remuneration) NEED/NECESSITY OF MANPOWER PLANNING 1. 6. capabilities. 5. 3. 2. Similarly when we transfer an employee to another branch the job must be very similar to what he has done before. Recruitment and selection: 4. Motivation. 3. 2. 2. 5. All the recruitment and selection programmes are based on manpower planning. 4.. knowledge of the workers. Job evaluation: . skills required and on that basis the salary is fixed 6. the observer who is preparing the job analysis performs a specific job by himself in order to check the difficulty level. 7. Efficient utilization. Promotions and transfer: . incentive plans to be framed for further participation and employment of employees in a concern. i.technology and advancement to take place. Key to managerial functions. Staffing function also looks after training and development of the work force which leads to co-operation and better human relations. Interview method
. Through manpower planning.Job evaluation refers to studying in detail the job performance by all individual. Better human relations.Human relations become strong trough effective control. directing and controlling are based upon the manpower. Performance Appraisal: METHODS OF JOB ANALYSIS 1. It also helps to identify the available talents in a concern and accordingly training programmes can be chalked out to develop those talents. Organizational structure and design: . Setting of large scale enterprises requires management of large scale manpower. clear communication.e. Health and safety: . It also helps to reduce the labour cost as excess staff can be identified and thereby overstaffing can be avoided.Job analysis helps in preparing the organization chart and the organizational structure. but it also comprises of motivational programmes. Thus. The observer then prepares job analysis on the basis of tasks performed by that employee. It can be effectively done through staffing function. he gets a clear idea about everything. 9. 4.The four managerial functions. Actual performance of the job In this method. The difficulty levels. Unsafe operations can be eliminated or can be replaced by safe one or the safety equipments can be installed.. It helps in growth and diversification of business. This is possible through the staffing and it's related activities ( Performance appraisal. organizing. 3. planning. Shortages and surpluses can be identified so that quick action can be taken wherever required. i.Staffing function not only includes putting right men on right job. training and development. IMPORTANCE/BENEFIT OF MANPOWER PLANNING 1. effective supervision and leadership in a concern. Personal observation is done by an observer keeping an eye on the activities of a specific employee. Training/development: 5. Career path planning / Employee counselling: 8. efforts and energies. he then matches the performance of employee with the skills and qualities required for particular job. It helps the organization to realize the importance of manpower management which ultimately helps in the stability of a concern. Classification of the jobs relation of each job with one another and various positions and hierarchy of the positions is determined. skills required and amount of time required to complete that job. UNIT-3 NEED / IMPORTANCE / PURPOSE / BENEFITS OF JOB Analysis 1. It is also done to improve upon the skills. 3. 2.e. human resources can be readily available and they can be utilized in best manner. Human resources help in the implementation of all these managerial activities. money. staffing becomes a key to all managerial functions.
Coordinating 5. Tending JOB ELEMENT METHOD • Job element method is a method of job analysis. Questionnaire method 6. The purpose of writing is to collect information like the difficulty level of problem. 2. • This method. Process of JEM method Step 1: Select a group of experts JEM is usually conducted by professional analysts. mistakes committed etc. Diverting 9. FUNCTIONAL JOB ANALYSIS FJA model is a method of job analysis that was developed by the Employment and Training Administration of the United States Department of Labour. • JEM method focuses on work behaviors and the results of this behavior rather than more abstract characteristics. Driving – Operating 7. When all of the elements have been listed. things in detail include: Data 1. mathematics. which includes things like name of the job. Data. people. who are usually incumbents and supervisors. and Practical (P): practicality–the effect of including the job element on the organization’s ability to fill job openings. Compiling 7. Handling 3. Taking instructiions 2. Superior (S): effectiveness of the element in picking a superior worker. the analyst asks the SMEs to provide sub-elements. Barely Acceptable (B): proportion of barely acceptable workers who have the job element. education qualifications. Helping 3. 5. people. Step 4: Devired scales is process of delivering scale values from the expert ratings
. skills required and how the problem was solved. language. who are project leader. tasks performed. Contents of FJA method / technique: Functional Job Analysis includes 7 scales (numbers) that measure: 1. HRD records Organizations can also prepare job analysis with the help of HR department by collecting valuable data. focuses on satisfactory workers. and a team of six subject matter experts (SMEs). employees are required to maintain a proper record of responsibilities and activities which they perform during the operation of their jobs. 7. Analyzing 6. Subelements are specific behavioral examples that illustrate the meaning of the element Step 3: Assign weights to each of the elements based on the following criteria Trouble Likely If Not Considered (T ): the trouble likely to occur if the element is not considered. Supervising 8. developed by Ernest Primoff. Speaking 4. Precision working 5. like the critical incident technique. 3 worker-function scales: measure % of time spent with: data. 3. Negotiating 6. Copying People 1. Manipulating 8. Serving Things 1. Feeding – Offbearing 2. Setting up 4. Operating. Synthesizing 4. Comparing 2. name of the employee. 3 scales that measure reasoning. promotions. Mentoring 5. Log records In this method.4. Persuading 10. HRD is responsible for maintaining records of all the employees. Critical incident method In this. worker-instruction scale. the management tells the employee to write down any critical incident that he has faced during the operation of his job. Step 2: Conduct brainstorming sessions to identify job elements SMEs will make a list of element of job.controlling 6. Instructing 7. Computing 3. things Each scale has several levels that are anchored with specific behavioral statements and illustrative tasks. It attempts to identify the characteristics of satisfactory workers (job elements).
and Auditory and Speech Abilities). Step 6: Use results in your application
RS = Rankable. Control Movement Abilities. and Coordination. This method is less expensive. Idea Generation & Reasoning Abilities. TS = Training Subelement. Using the terminology of the Department of Labor’s 1972 job analysis formula. Endurance. work output (physical activities and tools) 6. Memory. Fleishman represents a worker-oriented approach.Step 5: Assigning elements to categories Categories includes E = Element. Objectives of Recruitment It reviews the list of objectives of the company and tries to achieve them by promoting the company in the minds of public. Quantitative Abilities. other job characteristics (such as pace and 4. Visual Abilities. Ernest J. Methods of Recruitment Internal sources External sources
Advantages of Internal Recruitment Internal methods are time saving.Screenout. relationships with others structure) Each job element is rated on six scales: extent of use. SC = Screenout
THE FLEISHMAN JOB ANALYSIS SYSTEM (F-JAS) developed by Edwin A. mental processes environment) 3. It forecasts how many people will be required in the company. POSITION ANALYSIS The best-known quantitative approach to job analysis is the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). possibility of occurrence. These elements are worker-oriented. Spatial Abilities. the position analysis questionnaire is a structured job analysis questionnaire containing 194 items called job elements. and Attentiveness).
. information input 5.
The method increases loyalty and reduces labour turnover. Balance. minimum set of KSAOs across different jobs. UNIT-4 RECRUITMENT is the Process of attracting best qualified individuals to apply for a given job. No separate induction program is required. It enables the company to advertise itself and attract talented people. and a special code for certain jobs. Flexibility. Perceptual Abilities. It provides different opportunities to procure human resource. Psychomotor (Fine Manipulative Abilities. and Reaction Time and Speed Abilities). and Physical (Physical Strength Abilities. His system of 73 specific scales measure three broad areas: Cognitive (Verbal Abilities. applicability.
Disadvantages of Internal Recruitment There is no opportunity to get new talent in this method. job context (the physical and social 2. S = Significant SU = belement. The items are organized into six divisions: 1. they would be classified as worker behaviors. Developed by Dr. importance. Fleishman factor-analyzed large data sets to discover a common. McCormick* and associates at Purdue University. time.
The method is time consuming. Reliability Reliability is the degree to which a measure of physical or cognitive abilities. Interviews o Problems with interviews Biases on part of interviewer Halo effect Primacy effect (first impressions) 3. training cost.g. The method reduces loyalty to the company. Application forms 2. If options like campus recruitment have been exercised we get a chance to employ fresh graduates. Strength or Endurance) o Cognitive Abilities (Mathematical Ability or Verbal Reasoning Capacity) o Personality (Initiative or Integrity) 2.The method involves selecting people from those available in the company so there is limited scope for selection. Height) if it is to have any VALIDITY. Psychometric test o Personality: Projective Technique: TAT 16Pf Test. Assessment centre The focus is on behavior Includes role-plays and group exercises Interviews and tests will be used in addition toexercises Performance is measured in several dimensionsin terms of the competencies Several participants are assessed together inorder to allow interaction Several assessors and observers are used inorder to increase the objectivity 4. Involves selecting applicants based from their characteristics that the organization is looking for. Chances of employee discontent are very high. Validity is the extent to which a performance measure assesses all the relevant—and only the relevant—aspects of job performance. is free from random error. Advantages of External Recruitment There is influx of new talent in the method. Peer assessments Selection Method Standards 1. The measure has to be RELIABLE (e. or traits. Examples of Reliability Standards: o Physical Characteristics (Height. The method encourages more and more competition. Disadvantages of External Recruitment The method is costly because it involves recruitment cost. selection. DEFINE SELECTION Selection can be defined as process of choosing the right person for the right job from a pool of different candidates who applied for a certain job. Selection Methods 1. o Interest Inventory: Thurston Inventory o Motivation: Achievement Test Need For Power Need for Affiliation o Honesty: Polygraph Graphology 5. There are chances of biased and partiality.
. There is lesser chance of partiality through this method. thus increasing employment.
. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status. allowances and pre-requisites are dependent on performance appraisal. To maintain and assess the potential present in a person for further growth and development. In this regards. 4. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status. ADVANTAGES/ IMPORTANCE/ USES 1. The supervisor analyses the factors behind work performances of employees. Promotion: Performance Appraisal helps the supervisors to chalk out the promotion programmes for efficient employees. The supervisors measure the pay of employees and compare it with targets and plans. extra benefits. To identify the strengths and weaknesses of employees to place right men on right job. inefficient workers can be dismissed or demoted in case. wage structure. Legality All selection methods must conform to existing laws and legal precedents. It serves as a basis for influencing working habits of the employees. 2. etc. 6. 5. 3. 5. Compensation: Compensation packages which includes bonus. high salary rates. 2. Utility Utility is the degree to which the information provided by selection methods enhances the effectiveness of selecting personnel in organizations. The employers are in position to guide the employees for a better performance. To maintain records in order to determine compensation packages. Three acts have formed the basis for a majority of the suits filed by job applicants: o Civil Rights Act of 1964 and 1991 o Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
UNIT-5 Performance Appraisal is the systematic evaluation of the performance of employees and to understand the abilities of a person for further growth and development. OBJECTIVES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 1. 7.3. To review and retain the promotional and other training programmes. 2. salaries raises. Performance appraisal is generally done in systematic ways which are as follows: 1. Generalizability o Generalizabilityis the degree to which the validity of a selection method established in one context extends to other contexts. o Three contexts include: different situations different time periods different samples of people 4. 3.
6.both positive and negative . They can create a very stressful environment for everyone involved. Use data for appropriate purposes 7. Identify opportunities variables
. 2. 6. communication can be sought for in the following ways: a. Future changes in selection methods can be made in this regard. Otherwise. for feedback and future planning. a person’s efficiency can be determined if the targets are achieved. Through performance appraisal. Through performance appraisal. They are based on human assessment and are subject to rater errors and biases. Selection Validation: The supervisors come to know the validity and thereby the strengths and weaknesses of selection procedure. 9. 5.3. 4. difficult to understand. Feedback must be noticeable The staff member being appraised must be made aware of the information used in the appraisal process. and do not elicit much useful information. Can be a waste of time if not done appropriately. d. Performance Interviews 6.should be part of the performance appraisal system. informal contacts and interactions can also be used for providing feedback to employees. the process lacks impact. 10. mutually decided and accepted by both management and employees. the employers can understand and accept skills of subordinates. simple and aim at fulfilling its basic functions. FEATURES: 1. they can create a negative experience. c. Such participation imparts a feeling of involvement and creates a sense of belonging. 7. The subordinates can also understand and create a trust and confidence in superiors. Feedback should be timely 8. Motivation: Through evaluating performance of employees. 4. An open appraisal process creates credibility. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PROCESS 1. Very time consuming and can be overwhelming to managers with many employees. Reliable and consistent Appraisal should include both objective and subjective ratings to produce reliable and consistent measurement of performance. Regular and routine While an appraisal system is expected to be formal in a structured manner. effective communication between employees and employers is very important. Job expectations establishment 3. Commitment Responsibility for the appraisal system should be located at a senior level in the organization so as to ensure commitment and involvement throughout the management hierarchy. Objectives definition of appraisal 2. This very well motivates a person for better job and helps him to improve his performance in the future. Practical and simple format The appraisal format should be practical. Relevance and responsiveness Planning and appraisal of performance and consequent rewards or punishments should be oriented towards the objectives of the programme in which the employee has been assigned a role. It also helps in maintaining cordial and congenial labour management relationship. APPRAISAL SYSTEM LIMITATIONS: If not done right. Rewards Rewards . Impersonal feedback Feedback must be impersonal if it is to have the desired effect. Employees Development: It helps to analyse strengths and weaknesses of employees so that new jobs can be designed for efficient employees. 3. It develops the spirit of work and boosts the morale of employees. Communication: For an organization. Long and complicated formats are time consuming. 5. Personal feedback is usually rejected with contempt. Design an appraisal program 4. Appraise the performance 5. b. Goal The job description and the performance goals should be structured. It also helps in framing future development programmes. 11. and eventually de-motivates the employee. Participatory and open An effective appraisal system should necessarily involve the employee's participation. usually through an appraisal interview with the supervisor.
Assess your capabilities. To be fully effective. Be specific and concise in your statements and if possible support them with examples or references or evidences with dates. feedback should be a two-way process: a. talks about his accomplishments. feedback should be 1. tells about his training needs. • Do the preparation: It’s always better to prepare yourself before the meeting. but cannot tell what was learned. Supervisors can observe and comment on the results of employee actions. PEER ASSESSMENTS: members of a group evaluate and appraise the performance of their fellow group members. where a person fails to make the required contribution. accomplishments and failures. problems faced etc. Supervisors can provide direction and coaching. Usually this is done with the help of a self appraisal form where the employee rates himself on various parameters. and accomplishing results. Firstly. Who reads the self-appraisal and why? The self-appraisal is written for the employee and her/his supervisor. to demonstrate that you have made an appropriate effort to assist them.8. • Positive attitude: Have a positive attitude towards the whole appraisal process. A director’s self-appraisal will be read by members of the library board. PERFORMANCE The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy. In a contract. Timely and regular
. Don’t make personal judgments for anybody. It is included with the performance appraisal documents filed in the confidential human resource files. her/his perspective is essential for a complete appraisal.s objectives and. Peer ranking requires each group member rank all fellow members from ―best‖ to ―worst‖ on one or more dimensions of performance. There are three common methods of peer assessments. advice and assistance they need to contribute fully to the achievement of your organization&apos. COUNSELLING AND FEEDBACK: purpose of both counseling and feedback is to provide your staff with the information. Don’t hesitate from taking the responsibility of your failures as well as the achievements. human and computer assistance SELF APPRAISAL Self appraisal is an important part of the Performance appraisal process where the employee himself gives the feedback or his views and points regarding his performance. performance is deemed to be the fulfilment of an obligation. 2. but each employee has the ultimate responsibility for doing the job. Peer nomination involves each group member nominating who he/she believes to be the ―best‖ on a certain dimension of performance. • Be objective: Objectivity is important in self – appraisal. a feedback discussion should also give a staff member the opportunity to express his or her views on your performance. Peer ratings has each group member rate each other on a set of performance dimensions. weaknesses. b. in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract. making improvements. cost. Suggest ways to overcome the problems faced. if you have a concern about a person’s work performance it is usually more effective to work with the person to develop a solution rather than attempt to impose one from above. if any. and speed. weaknesses. prepare all the evidences and references. strengths. This will help in personal development as well as contributing to the organizational productivity. express the opportunities you would like have for your development and improvement. FEEDBACK is generally informal and involves you and your staff member exchanging information in a broad range of situations about how you can best work together to achieve the goals of your organization. completeness. • Seek future responsibilities: Try to look for tasks beyond your current job responsibilities. Using social processes. behaviours and skills and competence. Secondly. physical processes. Be co-operative. TIPS FOR SELF – APPRAISAL • Be honest: Always be truthful and honest while telling your accomplishments or failures. Get all the lists in place. Why is the self-appraisal important? Because the employee best understands what challenges were encountered and what was learned. • Cover all the aspects: Apart from your strengths. It will be an important starting point for the appraisal discussion.
two-way communication is the norm. 2. Constructive a. The purposes of a potential review are: 1. when to counsel ? 1. b. 3. By intervening at an early stage you can often prevent a problem escalating and requiring more serious and possibly disruptive action further down the track. you may wish to contact the EAP to obtain advice on how to best frame the discussion. 3. You should also ensure that any information that you provide. but not coercive or offensive. For instance. if you identify an aspect of a person’s performance that requires improvement. Feedback is more effective if given on a regular. if you are faced with having to give a person critical feedback about their performance and you feel uncertain about your approach. Your staff needs to understand why you are giving them feedback b. to update training and recruitment activities. POTENTIAL APPRAISAL: Potential appraisal is a future – oriented appraisal whose main objective is to identify and evaluate the potential of the employees to assume higher positions and responsibilities in the organizational hierarchy. 6. be limited to structured processes. If you encourage a free flow of information in the workplace and open. to inform employees of their future prospects. You may also wish to consult a more senior manager or contact your human resources area for advice. Arrange for the meeting to be held in private. as well as someone you may have asked to attend as an observer. who should give the counselling? In most cases it is your responsibility as a manager to provide counselling to your staff in relation to work performance and conduct. although a support person for the person being counselled may be present. In some cases it may be appropriate to involve a professionally qualified counsellor outside your agency. and will usually involve your taking the following steps: Advise the person in advance that a discussion about his or her work performance or conduct is to be held at a given time and place. When you talk to staff about their performance you should clearly articulate your reasons for doing so and outline possible action that may result if there is no improvement. is accurate. It is also important. It is equally important for staff to be committed to improvement and to follow up the actions to which they have agreed. and Keep a brief record of the meeting—this could be a diary note. b. Avoid making unsubstantiated judgments. 4. 5. You need continually to monitor and evaluate the performance of your staff. Follow up a. it is important that you follow up your commitment. COUNSELLING is a formal process. 2. It need not. c. It is not always easy to decide when to move from providing informal comments on a person’s work to a more formal approach. and deal with them promptly. c. that you make the person clearly aware of the established standards and in what way you consider that they are not being met. e. with sufficient notice to enable you both to come to the discussion prepared. Factual and specific a. and should not. b. concerning entitlements. it will be easier for you to identify performance problems when and if they do arise. You should focus on measurable performance. You should be honest. Frame the discussion around ways to improve performance rather than focusing solely on problems or perceived shortcomings. to enable the organisation to draft a management succession programme.g.a. continuing basis. Understood a. 3. initiated when a person has not responded to advice and assistance you have provided on a less formal basis.
attitude etc.4. Performance Tests & Observations: This is based on the test of knowledge or skills. to advise employees about the work to be done to enhance . Superior appraisals 7. 4. 4. does not allow rater to give relative ratings 3. every type of job can be evaluated. Management games like role playing 3. unacceptable performance can be identified at any time during the appraisal period and assistance provided to address such performance rather than wait until the end of the period when summary rating levels are assigned. Advantages – Useful for managerial level promotions. And by monitoring continually. overly close supervision. Supervisors as and when they occur record such incidents. Psychological and psychometric tests 2. Each scales ranges from excellent to poor. assignments and projects are monitored continually. large number of employees covered. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales: statements of effective and ineffective behaviors determine the points. Ongoing monitoring provides the opportunity to check how well employees are meeting predetermined standards and to make changes to unrealistic or problematic standards. checklist of statements of traits of employee in the form of Yes or No based questions is prepared. Observation of actual behaviors not possible. Tests must be reliable and validated to be useful. limited training required. ratings are supported by descriptions. MBO MONITORING AND REVIEW OF APPRAISAL SYSTEM In an effective organization. It is assumed that the performance is conformed to normal distribution. initiative. no formal training required. reduces recency biases. Monitoring well means consistently measuring performance and providing ongoing feedback to employees and work groups on their progress toward reaching their goals. easy to use. Disadvantages – Rater’s biases 2. Field Review Method: This is an appraisal done by someone outside employees’ own department usually from corporate or HR department. Advantages – Evaluations are based on actual job behaviors. Critical Incidents Method: The approach is focused on certain critical behaviors of employee that makes all the difference in the performance. feedback may be too much and may appear to be punishment. Forced Distribution Method: here employees are clustered around a high point on a rating scale. Self – appraisals 5. Peer appraisals 6. when comparable information is needed. 5. attendance. Advantages – Eliminates Disadvantages – Assumption of normal distribution. The tests may be written or an actual presentation of skills. Disadvantages – Outsider is generally not familiar with employees work environment. Disadvantages – Raters biases. chances of subordinate improvement are high. Leadership exercises etc. Disadvantages – Suffers from distortions inherent in most rating techniques. TECHNIQUES / METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS Past Oriented Methods Future Oriented Methods Past Oriented Methods 1. Disadvantages – Negative incidents can be prioritized. ease of administration.their career opportunities. use of improper weighs by HR. Advantages – Absence of personal biases because of forced choice. Checklist: Under this method. 7. The total numerical scores are computed and final conclusions are derived. Techniques of potential appraisal: 1. Advantages – Adaptability. Advantages – economy. The rater is forced to make a choice. Disadvantages – Statements may be wrongly framed. which behavior describes the employee performance. Advantage –
. They are said to be behaviorally anchored. HR department does actual assessment. 6. forgetting incidents. unrealistic. Regulatory requirements for monitoring performance include conducting progress reviews with employees where their performance is compared against their elements and standards. Rater is compelled to distribute the employees on all points on the scale. errors of central tendency. low cost. 8. Forced Choice Method: The series of statements arranged in the blocks of two or more are given and the rater indicates which statement is true or false. feedback is easy. output. Advantages – helps overcome rating errors. Rating Scales: Rating scales consists of several numerical scales representing job related performance criterions such as dependability. The rater is supposed to say. Here the rater only does the reporting or checking and HR department does the actual evaluation. standardization.
team work. Advantage – It is more useful for managerial positions. initiative. It is done in the form of in-depth interviews. resistance to stress. however its application in industry is not ruled out. Hence it is more dependent upon cost and benefit analysis. communicating ability. Advantage – It is extremely useful in filing information gaps about the employees that often occur in a better-structured checklist. Disadvantage is that it is highly subjective and ratings can be manipulated because the evaluations are linked to HR actions like promotions etc. Disadvantages – Not applicable to all jobs. Disadvantages – Tests may suffer if costs of test development or administration are high. decision making. It is easy to administer and explanation. self expression. leadership. Assessment Centers: This technique was first developed in USA and UK in 1943. Management By Objectives: It means management by objectives and the performance is rated against the achievement of objectives stated by the management. The number of comparisons may be calculated with the help of a formula as under. 3. characteristics assertiveness. administrative ability. self confidence. existing capabilities and qualifications of performing jobs. and discussion with supervisors and review of other evaluations. It is more focused on employees emotional. 11. Paired Comparison Methods: In this method each employee is rated with another employee in the form of pairs. strengths and weaknesses and training needs of the employee. allocation of merit pay may result in setting short-term goals rather than important and long-term goals etc. persuasive ability. attendance. Solid performers may feel suffocated in simulated situations. sensitivity to feelings. Psychological Appraisals: These appraisals are more directed to assess employees potential for future performance rather than the past one. overall impression of performance. Cost to keep employee. Those who are not selected for this also may get affected. MBO process goes as under. psychologists. originality and resourcefulness etc. Here the report is given in the form of Annual Confidentiality Report (ACR) and may record ratings with respect to following items. They may get confused success depends on the memory power of raters. psychological tests.
Tests may be apt to measure potential more than actual performance. This approach is slow and costly and may be useful for bright young members who may have considerable potential. technical ability. However quality of these appraisals largely depend upon the skills of psychologists who perform the evaluation. The system is highly secretive and confidential. 2. The usual techniques used may be ranking methods and paired comparison method. intellectual. planning and organizational ability. and motivational and other personal characteristics affecting his performance. 10.
. promoteability of employee. Confidential Records: Mostly used by government departments. Feedback to the assessee is given only in case of an adverse entry. ratings strongly influenced by assessee’s inter-personal skills. Cost Accounting Method: Here performance is evaluated from the monetary returns yields to his or her organization. Essay Method: In this method the rater writes down the employee description in detail within a number of broad categories like. energy level. However how best and why best are not elaborated in this method. from best to worst. 12. 9. reasoning ability. Comparative Evaluation Method (Ranking & Paired Comparisons): These are collection of different methods that compare performance with that of other co-workers. and benefit the organization derives is ascertained. Establish goals and desired outcomes for each subordinate Setting performance standards Comparison of actual goals with goals attained by the employee Establish new goals and new strategies for goals not achieved in previous year. An assessment center is a central location where managers may come together to have their participation in job related exercises evaluated by trained observers. Disadvantages – Costs of employees traveling and lodging. creativity and mental alertness etc. Ranking Methods: Superior ranks his worker based on merit. It is more focused on observation of behaviors across a series of select exercises or work samples. Disadvantages – It its highly dependent upon the writing skills of rater and most of them are not good writers. N x (N-1) / 2 Future Oriented Methods 1.
Development goals and strategies may be discussed to improve the work habits of the employee during this time. It is important that the employee addresses the issues immediately. the employee may see an increase in job performance reviews that provide positive and negative feedback. Addressing Issues If an employee is consistently making mistakes. greater selfdevelopment and multi-source feedback is useful. especially if the employee is only working part-time. The frequency of these reviews is to help the employee understand the company's procedures and rules. Whether it is a burden or an enjoyment. team members. Improvement Periods While some employers may demand to see results immediately. others see the entire employee review process as a burden. content validity and predictive ability are said to be high in assessment centers. 360-Degree Feedback: It is a technique which is systematic collection of performance data on an individual group. so a pattern can emerge in the form of sales figures or satisfied customers. Providing job performance appraisals once a month may not provide enough time for the employee to improve certain job skills or sales figures. During this time. for example. While some employers believe that one performance review per year is enough to keep the employees motivated. so employees are aware of the process. so the employee has a chance to improve. New Employee Reviews Some employers provide an introductory period. The tests also make sure that the wrong people are not hired or promoted. Improvement periods must be addressed and should be three to six months. derived from a number of stakeholders like immediate supervisors. the frequency of the job performance evaluations may decrease to once a year or biannually. The employer may require the employee to address the issues under a short meeting. peers and self. Suggested Frequency Job performance reviews should be conducted on a regular and consistent basis. There are no set-in-stone rules about the frequency of job performance appraisals. rather than once per month for instance. for new employees to learn the ropes and train for the job. Also reliability. In fact anyone who has useful information on how an employee does a job may be one of the appraisers. Finally it clearly defines the criteria for selection and promotion. Frequency of Job Performance Appraisals Employers perform job performance appraisals on an annual or biannual basis. a grace period must be given after an initial performance review. Once the employee has passed this temporary period. 4. The purpose of the reviews is to give employees recognition when work is done well or point out issues that need attention. This technique is highly useful in terms of broader perspective. customer satisfaction and team building skills. Reviews can be done annual or biannually. employers should aim for provide a review at least once per year.Advantages – well-conducted assessment center can achieve better forecasts of future performance and progress than other methods of appraisals. An employer may not be satisfied by having an employee with the company that is consistently bringing in bad numbers or cannot sell any products or services. a single annual review may not be enough. customers.
. also called a probation period. 360-degree appraisals are useful to measure inter-personal skills. as it is up to the employer and the company policy in question. according to Entrepreneur.
While employee development is critical to the success of an organization. Assessment Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Most popular psychological test for employee development. Approach to employee development 1. information. identify goals for new skills and look for ways to meet those goals Energy to make the development possible A variety of work assignments Asking for feedback Opportunities to coach others and finding good coaches for him or herself Developmental relationships that provide a variety of learning The Role of the Manager/executive in Employee Development The manager/executive has several roles to play. Some things the employee should have and consider when beginning work towards development: Specific goals. A more highly-skilled workforce can accomplish more and a supervisor's group can accomplish more as employees gain in experience and knowledge. Formal education programs include: off-site and on-site programs designed specifically for the company’s employees. They can also identify goals for new skills and abilities and then look for ways to meet those goals. Coaching is another helpful activity. on-going effort on the part of an employee and the organization for which he or she works to upgrade the employee's knowledge. skills.the practice of reimbursing employees’ costs for college and university courses and degree programs. decision making. It is a valuable tool for understanding communication styles and the ways people prefer to interact with others. both the employee and the organization must recognize that most of the responsibility for development falls to the employee. and abilities. Successful employee development requires a balance between an individual's career needs and goals and the organization's need to get work done. There are a few basic roles for a manager/executive in developing employees. Employee development programs make positive contributions to organizational performance. but providing information and support to facilitate the employee's development is what is most important. both in looking for opportunities to coach others and finding good coaches for him or herself. tackling tough problems and asking for feedback. executive MBA programs. and advice Guiding the planning through goal setting and checking back over time Allotting time and money for development experiences Ensuring opportunities for applications of new learning It is very helpful for an employee to get an honest assessment of their work. as well as access to others who may be able to provide information or coach the employee.
. and lifestyle. this does not happen overnight. They include: Coaching employees to help them determine what they need for development Providing both positive and corrective feedback Offering organizational insight. 2. Identifies individuals’ preferences for energy. The Role of the Employee Some things that the employee should consider in their own development include seeking a variety of assignments. The successful manager/executive will also respect every employee's learning curve. Employees should be looking for developmental relationships that can provide a variety of learning. and university programs. It can also be helpful to attend classes and workshops to fill in conceptual needs. short courses offered by consultants or universities. information gathering. Tuition reimbursement . Building this development time into the application of a new skill set will make the employee more successful.UNIT-6 Employee Development Employee development is a joint. It takes time for anyone to learn new skills and be able to apply them well. It can help to ask for feedback when working with a variety of people and in a variety of situations.
Performance appraisal .instrument designed to measure important factors in being a successful manager.involves collecting subordinates’ evaluations of managers’ behaviors or skills. and creating a productive work climate.employees take full-time.an employee is given a different job assignment in a different area of the company.
. Externships . problems. and more authority than in the previous job. increase feelings of self-esteem and worth to the organization. understandable. Feedback must be job-related (valid).providing employees with a series of job assignments in various functional areas of the company or movement among jobs in a single functional area or department. Transfer . if employees have the necessary skills to work in teams. The appraisal system must give employees specific information about their performance problems and ways they can improve their performance. Assessment center . Job rotation . Types of exercises used include leaderless group discussions. Interpersonal relationships Mentor . 3. Downward move . Job Experiences . acquiring resources. Benchmarks . The system must be easy to use. Upward feedback . Rating the extent to which employees have desirable traits believed to be necessary for job success. Promotions . Different approaches for measuring performance: Ranking employees. 360-degree feedback. Items that are measured include dealing with subordinates. To develop managers for top-level management positions or to help them acquire specific skills. interviews. and behaviors for management jobs. more responsibility.occurs when an employee is given a reduced level of responsibility and authority. in-baskets. and gain knowledge about important new scientific developments. Managers must be trained in providing performance feedback. and relevant. personality.adding challenges or new responsibilities to an employee’s current job. tasks. 4. productive senior employee who helps develop a less experienced employee (the protégé). demands. Purposes of Mentoring Programs To socialize new employees and to increase the likelihood of skill transfer from training to the work setting.It is used to identify: if employees have the abilities. Mentors provide career support and psychosocial support to the protégé Provide opportunities for mentors to: Develop interpersonal skills.relationships.experienced. Employee exchange is one example of temporary assignments in which two companies agree to exchange employees. To enable women and minorities to gain the experience and skills needed for managerial positions. and role plays. Job enlargement . The system must lead to managerial development. Rating their work behaviors. or other features that employees face in their jobs. temporary operational roles at another company.Factors necessary for a 360-degree feedback system to be effective: The system must provide consistent or reliable ratings.process of measuring employees’ performance.advancements into positions with greater challenges.
4. This behavior is an iteration of fear based leadership which is never going to drive high level performance and can often yield to employee paralysis as they become afraid to act due to the potential for repercussion. but in a dysfunctional environment this can be seen throughout the workplace.a peer or manager who works with employees to motivate them. success or attention. A glass ceiling inequality represents: "A gender or racial difference that is not explained by other job-relevant characteristics of the employee. Dysfunctional managers Dysfunctional managers are capable of having a greater impact on the organisation. Group mentoring programs . management will get their due recognition. yet unbreakable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder. management must serve those on the front line. and might be driven by the need for power. 360-degree assessment. current issues in employee development 1. 2. Interestingly they are often also capable of great positive things. when the sole purpose is to feed the ego and support the growth of management you can count on rampant dysfunction and less then desirable results." "A gender or racial inequality that increases over the course of a career. providing feedback based on psychological tests. Narcissistic: When management (individual or as a whole) is obsessed with their individual success. supportive. not merely the proportions of each gender or race currently at those higher levels. Passive-Aggressive: Whether it is showing up late to meetings. Turn-Over: Are you seeing a revolving door of people coming and going? This is a really bad sign and something that needs to be quickly rectified. regardless of their qualifications or achievements. the day or the hour? It is a terrible feeling for an employee to feel like their direction is changing faster than the weather in Chicago. help them develop skills. it is a huge red flag. 8 Signs of Dysfunctional Management 1. To lead. If employees are leaving. Upon driving performance. Provide the employee with resources such as mentors. in a weak or dysfunctional culture the fragile nature of the employees can be broken by even positive change." "A gender or racial difference that is greater at higher levels of an outcome than at lower levels of an outcome. the late arrival to a meeting once can be an accident. making them blind to the potential pitfalls around. or consistent excuses for not getting things done." 2. For instance. forgetting to share important details. practical. 5. or job experiences that the employee may not otherwise have access to. These behaviors are damaging in all cases. Non-Committal: Strategy of the week. Coach . In strong cultures this behavior is nipped in the bud. and self-confident but do not appear to know all the answers or want to tell others what to do.successful senior employee is paired with four to six less experienced protégés. whether by
. and provide reinforcement and feedback. but are lead over the cliff by their desire to overplay a particular strength. Because I Said So: If the only reason that you are given to complete a task is that it was because management said so then you are in a bad situation. "A gender or racial inequality in the chances of advancement into higher levels. While change can be adapted more rapidly in a stronger culture. or interviews with bosses. courses. and subordinates. 3. However. The best coaches are empathetic. Help employees learn for themselves by putting them in touch with experts who can help them with their concerns and by teaching them how to obtain feedback from others. Three roles that a coach can play: One-on-one with an employee. Regularly showing up late is a sign of indifference and can likely be a sign that the person doesn't care about or for what the meeting is about. peers. Glass Ceiling the glass ceiling is "the unseen.
(Mis)Communication or Lack thereof: If the respective leaders of the organization do not know what is going on. Succession planning increases the availability of experienced and capable employees that are prepared to assume these roles as they become available. Succession Planning Not just for small / large businesses the next set of leaders Needs to be part of the strategic plan Too late to plan it when you need it Tied to Employee Development Building Challenges Need as company evolves Inconsistent Lack of written job descriptions training programs Unclear growth path Outdated/unwritten company policies Hard to predict staff needs Boomers staying around longer Employee Turnover Costs Fill in Staff Loss of productivity
. Strong leadership teams communicate early and often. Politics: Interoffice politics are like the plague for businesses. you can be certain that the dysfunction has spread to the core of the operation. Creating division within teams is often done with negative intent and may be used to cover up larger problems and to protect agendas which never yields improved performance. Keep it simple. The rapid change of people is a Band-Aid by management to cover up for a much bigger problem which they can find in the mirror. 4. Change the name of the process to from Succession Planning to Succession Development. 6. not process 3. Identify those with the potential to assume greater responsibility in the organization Provide critical development experiences to those that can move into key roles Engage the leadership in supporting the development of high-potential leaders Build a data base that can be used to make better staffing decisions for key jobs In other companies these additional objectives may be embedded in the succession process: Improve employee commitment and retention Meet the career development expectations of existing employees Counter the increasing difficulty and costs of recruiting employees externally 4 Tips for Efficient Succession Planning 1. Taken narrowly. When the leadership team stops speaking and communicating to one another or they are trying to collect information from the rank and file it is time to worry. Even though companies are generally divided into cross functions to cover the various areas of operations." A management team or individual driven by political gain which can be a promotion.choice or not. companies with high turn-over are often seeing this due to weak culture and poor leadership. However. 8. When it becomes obvious that management is acting on an agenda that isn't in the best interest of meeting its goals/mission then you have a big problem. Succession/Success planning is a process for identifying and developing internal people with the potential to fill key business leadership positions in the company. When leadership teams become out of sync due to dysfunction you will see massive breakdowns in communication that start at the top and radiate to the bones of the company. 3. 2. Division: When members of the management team intentionally or even unintentionally drive division between members of teams or functions you are staring dysfunction in the eye. Stay realistic. synergy is still the great whole rather than the sum of its parts. Measure outcomes. They understand important messaging and they know what and when to share. Hiring is never an exact science and the elimination of low performers is important. visibility or other may be the absolute worst. "replacement planning" for key roles is the heart of succession planning Research indicates that clear objectives are critical to establishing effective succession planning. 7. then you can be fairly certain that management is dysfunctional. I refer to this sign as "exponentially dysfunctional management.
Companies that have progressive discipline policies could terminate someone who repeatedly shows signs of poor performance. Performance improvement plans generally indicate the employer has enough confidence in the employee's skills and aptitude to invest the time necessary to design a plan that encourages growth and development. we get a sense of the issues of race and gender as the primary drivers in managing diversity. what is needed is a mindset change rather than more policies and this can only be done if the workforce is sensitized to the needs of women. an
. In recent times. Further.
Exit costs Severance programs costs Managerial costs of decision making Unemployment costs Loss of training & knowledge Lost customers Short timer costs Lost Time Benefits of Succession Planning Stream of capable staff Attract high quality applicants Pipeline of future leaders Improved longevity Positive workplace reputation Recognized internal growth Morale Process of refining procedures Approach Understand the Business Strategy Map individuals Partner with Human Resources Create and execute plans Determine the Core Competencies Focus on retaining key people Analyze Performance & Potential Participate in the process Do a skills/gap analysis managing workforce diversity Introduction We live in times when global corporations and their reach across the world bring benefits in terms of innovative HR policies as well as challenges in terms of managing the workforce are concerned. naturally the question arises as to how to reconcile the differences between these employees without causing too much friction in everyday interactions. The rise of such corporations means that the workforce is composed of diverse races and ethnicities. The worrying aspect about this issue is that despite policies and rules governing gender specific issues in most organizations. this is the most pressing issue because of the preponderance of women in the workforce as well as recent trends that point to the emergence of this single issue as the dominant issue that is taking the mind space of managers. Managing diversity is important as otherwise the performance of the organization takes a hit and worse. the issue of gender diversity in terms of more women participating in the workforce has been a trend that has accelerated in the last two decades in India and much earlier in the developed countries. This article looks at the reasons for managing workforce diversity and the issues that such management brings to the fore. there can be possible lawsuits and legal tangles from disaffected employees who feel aggrieved because of instances of discrimination and harassment based on their ethnicity or gender. Issues in Managing Diversity One of the central issues in managing diversity is to do with the majority and the minority perspective. these issues have come to the forefront of the debate because of greater awareness among the minority groups about their rights as well as stricter enforcement of laws and regulations that govern workplace behavior. These types of plans are referred to as performance improvement plans or similar terms that indicate the employee's performance needs improvement. Gender Sensitization We have devoted a separate section on gender sensitization because when compared to other issues in managing diversity. Why is Management of Diversity Important ? When an organization has people of different ethnicities and a greater proportion of women than the industry average. it is the case in organizations that there is a predominant majority of a particular race or ethnicity and various others in minority groups. Organisation characteristics influencing employees development Performance Improvement Employee development plans designed to improve performance focus on both corrective action and manager support. Hence. however. there is little evidence to show that they are being followed. Usually. And considering that the most pressing issue in managing diversity arises out of the treatment of women.
the failure to motivate employees to plan their careers can result in: A shortage of employees to fill open positions Lower employee commitment Inappropriate use of monies allocated for training and development programs From the employees’ perspective. Career management is conscious planning of one’s activities and engagements in the jobs one undertakes in the course of his life for better fulfilment. Necessity / Importance: From the company’s perspective. managers ask their employees to identify their professional development goals. Promotional Opportunities Preparing an employee for accepting a promotion is another reason for designing an employee development plan. Cross-training and job shadowing are just two of the several training methods used in this type of employee development plan. financial security.
employee development plan can turn around performance provided there's strict oversight and guidance from a manager. Benefits: Personal fulfilment. Employers realize the days of staying with the same company from the beginning of a career until retirement are gone. and relationships. Career development Model: Career development is the process by which employees progress through a series of stages. or they may be goals that will help him gain entry to another field. Therefore. a supervisor who is identified as future manager would spend time with the current manager learning to take on managerial duties and responsibilities. providing an employee development plan for workers who demonstrate motivation and a desire to learn new skills is one way companies show how much they value their employees. restructuring. Employee development plans that support succession plans include training in areas such as general leadership. goal achievement work/life balance. acquisitions. This kind of employee development plan ensures the supervisor is fully prepared to step into the manager's position when the time comes. growth and financial stability. Career management is more or less like the organisational management. activities. Professional Development Goals During performance appraisal meetings. Each stage is characterized by a different set of developmental tasks. Employers who invest in educational opportunities. For example. An employee's goals may be related directly to his current job. human capital strategy and other broad-based areas. lack of career management can result in: Frustration Feelings of not being valued by the company Being unable to find suitable employment should a job change be necessary due to mergers. financial management. tuition assistance plans and training programs offer this form of employee development as part of an employee benefit package. after all an organisation is nothing but an assortment of individuals! The process of career management begins with the formulation of goals and objectives those that are short term or meant to be achieved in the short run. UNIT-7 Career Management is the combination of structured planning and the active management choice of one's own professional career. or downsizing. This gives employees an opportunity to learn various aspects of business management and helps employers further identify their most talented employees for correct placement. Employee development plans designed for succession planning might include several employees in a class-structured learning environment or an individual employee put on a career track that introduces her to several facets of the business through a long-term training and development program. These methods are particularly helpful when an employee is preparing to assume the role of another employee who is being promoted or planning to leave the company. Succession Planning Succession planning is a more formal method of identifying future leaders already with the company and preparing them for more responsibilities roles. It is a sequential process that starts from an understanding of oneself and encompasses occupational awareness. There are four career stages:
CAREER COUNSELLING What is career counselling? Career counselling is a personalized process that combines both intuitive and cognitive techniques to help you understand yourself. or Internet. thus. guidance and support to help you understand and manage varied career and lifestyle issues. The processes of career counselling offer insight.and long-term career objectives. most important of all is the one-to-one interaction between the career counsellor and the client The Aim providing accurate. spans both the internal psychology of the person and the external contexts of education and employment. explore career options. values. abilities and skills 2) Identification of current occupational interests by means of tests. Action Planning Employees determining how they will achieve their short. How is it done? Career counsellors may want to use interest or aptitude tests in counselling interviews. The career counsellor in most cases would attempt to develop a rationale for the interrelation between the two. Goal Setting The process of employees developing short. letters. First Phase: Career Planning 1) A review of early life.and long-term career goals. and/or interaction through other mediums like telephone. Reality Check Information employees receive about how the company evaluates their skills and knowledge and where they fit into company plans. Career counselling and guidance generally involves face-to-face interaction. Usually discussed with the manager and written into a development plan. inventories or exercises
. current and relevant information pertaining to the personality and qualifications of the individual is crucial to career guidance. Often involves psychological tests. This acts as a process of self-exploration and interest identification which helps in career choice and decision-making. Career counselling. and behavioral tendencies. and clarify and attain desired career/lifestyle goals. aptitudes. However. past experiences and accomplishments to identify interests.
Exploration Establishment Maintenance Disengagement
Career Planning System and its components:
Self-Assessment Use of information by employees to determine their career interests.
This phase would involve referral to and the assistance of placement or employment personnel who would focus on finding and securing a proper employment. Benefits of Career Counselling If you are trying to decide on your career or thinking of changing the course of your professional life. career -.3) Assessment of individual traits and needs as they relate to the work environment 4) Clarification and appreciation of personal values and goals as they affect career decisions. Career path is used interchangeably with career ladder. Interact with employees from different work groups inside and outside the company. Provide specialized services such as testing to determine employees’ values. Help prepare employees for job searches. This would involve individual and guided use of the Career Resource Library.and life. Career path Career path refers to the growth of the employee in an organization. Second Phase: Career and Educational Information this phase of counselling involves the gathering and exploration of available information related to careers. The employee may move vertically most of the time but also move laterally or cross functionally to move to a different type of job role. Seek challenges by gaining exposure to learning opportunities. An example of a career path is illustrated below:
Employees’ Role in Career Management Take the initiative to ask for feedback from managers and peers regarding their skill strengths and weaknesses. Create visibility through good performance. Identify their stage of career development and development needs. This information would be used to develop a set of career goals and an initial 'career pursuit' plan. Offer counseling on career-related problems. The career counselling process will help you develop the confidence. knowledge and strategies to effectively manage your own education. interests. courage. then a few well-spent moments with a proficient career counsellor might just get you started in the right direction. It refers to the various positions an employee moves to as he grows in an organization. Third Phase: Job Search On successful completion of educational training comes the phase of Job searching. Company’s Role in Career Management Companies are responsible for providing employees with the resources needed to be successful in career planning: Career workshops Information on career and job opportunities Career planning workbooks Career counseling Career paths
Managers’ Role in Career Management
. and skills. HR Manager’s Role in Career Management Provide information or advice about training and development opportunities.
direction. which has fewer positions than aspirants at each higher level of the organizational ladder. The point where there are few internal opportunities for advancement. in order to assist staff to better manage these professional challenges. by feeling of boredom. and sometimes a combination of both. In many ways this is the most serious plateau. frustration. A time of perceived or actual professional stagnation. Different Kinds of Career Plateaux Structural Plateau When one has progressed to a point where the organizational structure prevents him or her from moving up. or when one undergoes selfdoubt in his or her life. This happens to most of us sooner or later. and thus identified. Sometimes these may be self inflicted. becoming unable to respond to changing situations or to keep up with technological changes. A period in which an individual's learning rate does not improve. the following information aims at raising awareness and understanding of career plateaus. loss of enthusiasm. Individuals have significant control over the forces that create contribution-based plateau. sometimes by association with a particular department. A career plateau is: The point where the likelihood of additional hierarchical promotion is very remote. Damaged Reputation Plateau When critical behaviours or events put a temporary stall on career progression. The 'plateauing' of one's career is often accompanied. Life Plateau When one experiences a loss of identity. With this in mind. However. not just in the job. tension. Contribution Plateau When one has ceased growing and searching for learning opportunities to develop competencies and add value. The main cause of this is usually the pyramidal structure of organizations. The way most United Nations organisations are structured is a good example of this. supervisor or mission. meaning or self-esteem. Content Plateau When one has mastered the job and there is no longer a sense of challenge in the current position. due to non-availability of vacancies in higher grades. his or her value will decline rapidly.Career Paths and Career Plateaus What is a Career Plateau? Many people experience the situation at one point during their career of becoming 'stuck' with little or no movement up the career ladder. either for professional or personal reasons.
. especially when combined with working in a post conflict context. lack of team effort or lack of commitment. if one lets this happen. it is important to understand that reputation can vary over time for the same individual and that positive reputation can be restored.
perhaps. Dual career ladder programs are more common in scientific. 5. take training (IT. Manage your reputation 1. Is there anything you can do to avoid the critical behaviours or events from re-happening? 4. etc. and recognizing that you may be in a career plateau is the first step in making the necessary professional changes or adjustments in your life. find a way to ensure that the truth is known. Reassess your goals and the plans you have to achieve them. seek a geographical move to a new Duty Station or. Restructure your view of success Explore ways to feel successful on the job apart from 'moving up'. or committee work. Seek a career move Pursue a change within the organization. acquire or perfect a UN language (in-situ. going more in-depth in your area of expertise or even changing your working area as a whole. In addition. such as a special project. revolve around two main actions: reflection and reassessment. covering someone's duties while he or she is away (job rotation). Explore new learning Return to school. a dual career ladder program can potentially reduce turnover among senior staff by providing expanded career opportunities.). Find new things or experiences to be excited about. or a combination of both? 2. The individual is largely responsible for his or her own career path. whatever the kind. Manage expectations Let go of the notion of regular promotions and instead concentrate on your job satisfiers. Are known for rapid innovation. technical. such as lateral moves. managerial. Counteract your damaged reputation with positive and constructive acts and behaviours on a continuous manner. Assess your own behaviour and/or that of your department. Employees receive national credentials or licensure. explore a sabbatical to develop a skill. related to a particular department. This type of program has typically served as a way to advance employees who may have particular technical skills and/or education but who are not interested or inclined to pursue a management or supervisory track. supervisor or mission if necessary. supervisor or mission. maintain or expand your understanding of trends in your field (which can be done though effective networking or mentoring). do a cross-training. Find your balance Find time for yourself and focus on the positive aspects of your life and on what makes you happy. information technology and engineering fields or fields that typically exhibit one or more of the following characteristics: Require substantial technical or professional training and expertise beyond the basic level. register for a degree/non-degree/certificate programme. One advantage of a dual career ladder is that it gives companies an alternative career path to offer employees in lieu of traditional promotions to supervisory or managerial positions. intensive study or self-study. 3. DUAL CAREER A dual career ladder is a career development plan that allows upward mobility for employees without requiring that they be placed into supervisory or managerial positions. as with most aspects of career development. individual tutors or CD-ROMs). additional task. and it can allow employees to remain in their chosen careers and not be forced to move into managerial jobs just
. medical. Is it based on true events or made up? If made up. being in a career plateau does not mean the end of the line. Enrich the status quo: seek out a special challenging assignment. Move sideways (consider a cross-training) to find excitement and challenge through a new environment. to a different organization. Take accountability for your actions and for the actions of your department or mission and make a commitment to improve. Confront the origin of your bad reputation. taking on new and different assignments in an existing job. are you on the right path or does it need some readjustment? Career Plateaus and Taking Control Remember that. Identify the origin of your damaged reputation: is it self-inflicted.STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH A CAREER PLATEAU The strategies for dealing with a career plateau. supervisory.
Achieving balance with work and family is an ongoing process of juggling responsibilities at work and the needs of family members. For example. Knowing where you stand on your values can make tough choices easier. Write Down Family Goals. decision-making ability and innovation. 3. If you answer ―no‖ to any question.‖ you are not alone. Claim the high ground! 6. Work and Family Balance Quiz Do you successfully allocate time in your day to the things you want to do with your family? Can you participate in meaningful activities with family without feeling anxious or talking about work? Do you participate in family activities without the gnawing feeling of so much work being left undone? 10 Steps Toward Balance with Work and Family 1. Stick to Your Values. Discuss Expectations and Responsibilities.‖ 3. Develop job descriptions for each career level and include the steps required to get to the next level. The key to success is stepping back and periodically analyzing how things are going. 4. 8.to get a pay increase. Revisit Your Schedule. Balancing work and family has pay-offs for children. new opportunities may become available to participate in family activities. Working long hours causes stress that sometimes finds relief naturally through workplace distractions and procrastination. Opportunities to build a tree house for the kids or participate in a new family pastime don’t last forever. When one family member is taking on too many responsibilities at home. Assign a date. if you have an employee who is promoted to a management position and moves to a higher salary grade with additional benefits. home relationships. under the innovation factor. How well we balance responsibilities with doing things we truly enjoy directly affects our quality of life. Determine the degrees for each factor being considered—for example. Balancing Work and Family All of us must allocate 24 hours a day to the activities of life. Periodically discussing the perceptions of others can provide
. These needs change over time. 4. Recognize that Imbalance is Sometimes Inevitable. knowledge and skills. Recognizing this can help you keep balance in mind. Recognize the Benefits of Balance. Take the following quiz to see if you could use some re-evaluation of work and family balance. and everyone’s future happiness. do you really work only 10? If you are searching for more family time. make it clear that employees are free to move about the career path of their choosing as their goals may change at any time during their careers. 6. Family needs change over time. this type of program can also decrease pressure to create special jobs just to give pay increases to employees and can encourage employees to continually develop their skills and enhance their value to the organization. Ensure there is internal equity between management and alternate career track employees. It is important to recognize that jobs and responsibilities are important and that they sometimes take priority. Work and Family Balance is a Conscious Decision. and make these goals ―absolutely-will-happens. Also consider the length of time employees are expected to remain in each level—the longer the time at a career level the wider the range of pay. 7. Understanding this can reduce frustration and help you act to gain control. determine degree of skill that is needed to get from entry level to expert. Are you satisfied with your balance of time between work and family? If you answered ―no. 2. Develop salary ranges for each position. It also helps manage stress. resentments can build. 5. you may benefit from some of the steps that follow. technical expertise. If well managed. it might be found here. 5. Roll out the program. 2. If you are at the office for 12 hours. Manage Distractions and Procrastination. Use market data to benchmark salary midpoint. You can then decide if changes are needed. Decide what is important and write it down. then an employee who is promoted to a higher salary grade in a professional. The result will be enjoying your life more and being in harmony with the things you value most. In communicating to staff about a dual career ladder program. When your work schedule changes. Organizations that wish to implement a dual career ladder program should carefully consider the following: 1. Determine the factors being used to evaluate a technical position—for example. Sometimes it can be tough to make a choice between a family and a work activity. technical or scientific track should receive a similar raise and increase in benefits. Achieving balance is an ongoing process. Work and family don’t ―balance‖ automatically.
at the same time. Ten Steps to Coping with Job Loss 1. Ask your company’s human resources department to explain your entitlements. At CredAbility. Long-term employment is increasingly rare in these days of 'restructuring' 'downsizing' and 'centralising'. Acceptance will come. You may not be eligible for benefits immediately. If you feel that you have been underpaid. Discuss your employment options with Centrelink. you can access cash when you need it. The EAP can help you find sources for defining priorities. To add to your chances of finding new employment. change your career. 8. and do not use all of your payout to pay off your mortgage – you will have to live off that money for an indefinite time until you find another job. spread the word to ex-colleagues. Any decision regarding paying off your mortgage and debts should be balanced against your future prospects and the amount of the package you received. Despite these suggestions. Think positive. home maintenance for the housebound or elderly … your options are many!
. You may opt to use your payout to open your own business. dog washing and/or dog walking. they may provide assistance with Job Search Training. or even identifying family goals that you want to pursue so you can look back and say. such as computer training. gardening. then supplement it by having a garage sale. acquiring assertiveness skills. Search newspapers and the internet for suitable jobs and send out your résumé. Learning how to put work down. If you are receiving a social security payment. but it will help you to budget if you know when payments will begin and how much you will receive. 9. 7. 5. however. an opportunity to rethink your future and. Check you have received your full entitlements. If your home loan has a redraw facility. Network while job-hunting. talking to a financial planner or accountant may help to clarify your situation. ―I did it. Review your budget. Register with Centrelink. for example. improving balance of work and family may be a lot easier said than done. particularly in these increasingly challenging economic times. This may be an opportunity to tackle that degree you always wanted. and losing your employment may be the impetus you need to re-evaluate your life. find out how much you can earn before it affects your pension or benefit. What Partners EAP Can Do. How much will it cost to maintain your home and lifestyle? List all outstanding debts. Pay any outstanding bills then take time to consider your options. Revise your budget in accordance with your changed circumstances. 6. You will need money to live on until you receive benefits or get another job. say ―no. as tax rules apply to redundancy and retrenchment packages. babysitting.‖ COPING WITH JOB LOSS Coping with job loss is one of the most stressful things a person can face. consider updating your existing skills or adding new ones by doing further courses. call your union. or decide to retire early if you are near retirement age. such as mortgage or credit card payments. 9. 3. which includes resume writing and interview preparation. It is better to be up front than fall behind with your payments. making tough decisions. 4. counselors working with consumers who have lost a job find that taking quick action can mean the difference between a temporary setback and a financial disaster. letter-boxing leaflets or delivering newspapers. Improving your delegation and time-management skills can buy you time needed for family life. you may have to negotiate new terms with your creditors. Try to negotiate financial advice. 10. If you are unable to fulfill financial commitments. Seek out professional advice from an accountant or financial planner.‖ and let go of workplace worries are skills that are learned through practice. 10. Look for other ways of earning money. Update your résumé. window cleaning.the awareness you need to consider opportunities and choices for work and family balance. potentially. selling your home-made creations from a stall at your local market. ironing. Try to think of losing your job as a positive event. Do not rush into any major financial decisions. Organise your personal finances. Organize Your Work Better. outplacement and career planning as part of your redundancy package. Seek professional help. Do not immediately go out and book that overseas holiday or new car. friends and family that you are looking for work. 2.