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@ drupa 2012 Newslet t er INGEDE Met hods Recyclabilit y Digit al Print Deinking More Issues Event s Press Releases Links Members Only Print ing digit ally has many advantages such as reducing overprint, accuracy, no storage costs and many more. But some digit al print ing processes also have disadvant ages compared to conventional offset and gravure printing: They lack good deinkability in the paper mill. Even small amounts of these undeinkable prints can have a big effect in the mixture that a paper mill processes every day. INGEDE tries to inform all members of the paper chain about these problems. INGEDE also tries to cooperate with printer manufacturers to provide them with the necessary background in order to contribute to the development of better deinkable printed products. INGEDE also frequently participates in conferences, organizes seminars and has set up the Digital Round Table as a constructive cooperation. INGEDE Act ions in digital print deinking Publicat ions dealing with digital print deinking Digit al Round Table dealing with digital print deinking How it began: INGEDE/CTP Workshop in 2001

Digital Print Deinking – Overview

chemicals like caustic soda (NaOH) and soap are added to make the fibres swell and support detachment of ink particles. During the pulping. Hydrophobic (water-repellent) ink particles are separated from hydrophilic (water-wettable) fibers. This is what happens with the household collection: Board. the sorted recovered paper is dissolved in water in a long drum or in a pulper. Different printing processes can neither be sorted apart manually than automatically. dirt and other impurities and unwanted papers are removed. In the paper mill.com . Screens separate large contaminants. PDFmyURL.Paper recycling and deinking: The basic f act s are simple Deinking is the key process in paper recycling. plastic. This process has been developed for offset and gravure inks which are roughly more than 95 % in the current recovered paper mixture.

More .During the flotation process. HP also looks at other ways to improve the deinkability. Unfortunately.. at least in Europe. Here dyes and ink particles too small to be removed have no other exit than the fibers: They stain them just as red socks dye the underwear in the washing machine. the samples presented at drupa 2008 were only experimental and the bonding agent technology offered now is not deinkable.com . Solut ion f or inkjet : t o creat e a precipit at ion One way to solve this problem has already been demonstrated by HP: The Web Press which was presented at drupa 2008 used an experimental ink system where a ‘bonding agent’ led to a precipitation of a special pigmented ink on to of the paper fiber network rather than bleeding into it. PDFmyURL. for dyes this is improbable. This is repeated in several consecutive steps to remove as many ink particles as possible. Closing the water-loops is the major environmental achievement of the paper industrie in the last two decades. Other ink and inkjet suppliers in the meantime have developed better deinkable inks. Current waterbased inks create problems as they cannot be removed in this process and accumulate in the system. air is blown throw the mixture of about 1 % fibres and 99 % water. This is not only the case for inkjet inks but also for undeinkable flexo inks that the paper mills have been struggling for more than 20 years. The windfall profit is perfect deinkability. As it looks now. The bubbles take hydrophobic (water-repellent) ink particles with them and bring them to the surface where they are skimmed off.. only pigmented inks provide the chance for a solution that matches the deinking process. achieving the desired brightness.

Left: Sample of an waterbased inkjet printed newspaper from drupa 2008 with one drop of water Right: Inkjet prints lare like a sponge full of ink – they bleed into the circulation water of the paper mill (click pictures to enlarge) Recent developments comfirm that it is possible to develop inkjet printing systems that are good deinkable (see below). The same would be true for a high-volume transpromo mailing. g. It is unlikely that e.com . leading to a rising background of brightness problems in the mills. For completely different reasons. If only one neighbourhood is supplied with an inkjet printed newspaper. in a mill it requires additional energy and leads to significant fiber losses to reduce the number of dirt specks PDFmyURL. visible dirt specks (photo composition showing the size of the specks below ) resulting from the very flexible ink film that peels off the paper. In general. e. They leave large. originally deinkable paper. waterbased inkjet printed newspaper will be evenly distributed among the total paper collection.Current inkjet: Even small amount s can creat e problems. g. current liquid t oner (Indigo) prints fail to pass INGEDE's deinkability test. so mere percentages are irrelevant. the household collection from here will not only be useless for recycling but a significant problem if it mixes with other. from SOHO inkjet printers. Already the paper industry has problems with a variety of small contaminations.

HP's t rial wit h Greenf ield mill is no example f or ot her mills In late 2011.coming into the recycling process from various sources. using special equipment and accepting high losses. literally ironed the toner resin into the fiber network. Too many dirt specks f rom liquid t oner — severe damage at German paper mill In August 2010. PDFmyURL. at low speeds. they should be kept out of recovered paper for deinking and directed only towards board production. t his mill t rial proved t hat liquid t oner print s cannot be deinked even in the best plants. operating a two-loop flotation plant with two dispergers at high energy input to produce premium quality recycled paper. It was just the old slow SOHO printers which. This has improved dramatically with the speed of the printers. And the output of today’s dry toner production printers is mostly even better deinkable than offset newspapers.com . INGEDE discusses this with HP. Due to the fact that this mill produces a special pulp with very high brightness. This mill was able to process a mixture containing 5 % of Indigo prints (coverage and other details were not released). HP published results of a deinking t rial wit h Arjowiggins' Chat eau Thierry Greenf ield mill. Dry t oners for about 20 years have been good deinkable at least for production size printers. Read the full story here. this mill is unique and in no way an example for the European paper industry. On the contrary. for the first time liquid t oner print s caused signif icant damage in a German paper mill. More than 140 tons of new paper had to be dumped after overprint from a photo book printer had gotten into the raw material of Europe's most sophist icat ed deinking paper mill . By accident. this trial confirms that Indigo prints can only be deinked under very special process conditions that are neither ecological nor economical for a standard deinking plant. attaching pigment particles firmly to the fibers from which they were difficult to remove.

com . It simulates the two important steps of deinking – detachment of the ink from the fibers and ink removal from the system. The presence of these units cannot be taken as an excuse to challenge them so they cannot be included into the evaluation of the deinkability of a print product. INGEDE Met hod 11 has been developed to compare the deinkability of different printed products and to rate the challenge a printed product means to a standard deinking plant . This chart shows the results of a comparative deinking study: The number of specks found according to INGEDE Method 11 is much higher for liquid toner than for dry toner samples – no matter which lab pulper used.After HP at drupa 2008 had claimed liquid toner to be as good deinkable as dry toners. INGEDE ran additional tests with the same test file on paper from the same reel showing that this is not the case (see also INGEDE Press Release). PDFmyURL. This would not make sense as a deinking plant includes several steps to cope with present impurities such as a disperser to reduce dirt specks. It does not simulate the full process in a deinking plant.

com . Axe l Fis c he r.Co p yrig ht 20 12 ING EDE Pub lic Re latio ns . PDFmyURL.

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