This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Georgios Grivas (aka Digenis) was born on July 5, 1898 in Trikomo, Famagusta District, the fourth child of Theodoros Grivas and Kalomira Hadjimichael. He grew up in his family home at Trikomo. After attending his village school he studied at the Pancyprian Gymnasium in Nicosia (1909–1915) where he stayed with his grandmother.
Early military career
According to his obituary in The Times of London, his father intended him to become a physician. On learning this, Grivas fled his home and Cyprus in 1916 to study at the Athens Military Academy. He completed his military studies at the École Militaire in Paris. He graduated in 1919 with the rank of sub-lieutenant and was immediately posted on the Asia Minor front. Grivas served in the 10th Division of the Greek Army and participated in its advance from İzmir to Panormos and Eskişehir, past Bursa and the Sakarya River. With the subsequent rout and defeat of the Greek Army and its complete withdrawal from Asia Minor in 1922 he was placed at Redestos, Thrace. He was decorated for his bravery and promoted to lieutenant. He was later selected to study at the French Military Academy and upon his return to Greece he served in a number of posts, including that of a lecturer at the Military School of Greece. He was promoted to captain in 1925 and to major in 1935. Two years later he married Vasiliki Deka, the daughter of a pharmacist, in Athens.
World War II and German occupation
With the beginning of World War II Grivas was transferred to the operations department of the central headquarters of the Greek army, working on the northern Greece's strategic defense plans. Three months after the Italian attack on Greece, Georgios Grivas was transferred to the Albanian front as chief of staff of the 2nd Division where he arrived in December 1940. During the German-Italian-Bulgarian occupation of Greece in World War II he founded and led the Organisation X, a minor nationalist organisation made up of officers of the Greek army whose influence was limited in certain neighbourhoods of Athens. During the events of December 1944, members of Organisation X (the weapons were recovered from the German army in their retreat from Greece) fought at the Theseon alongside British and Greek monarchist forces to take control of Athens from EAM/ELAS fighters. The accusation that Georgios Grivas collaborated with the German forces is a falsification of some British writers which was adopted (see "O Grivas kai i X-To Xameno Arxeio-Spyros Papageorgiou-2004-Nea Thesis-Athens)(see Greek Civil War).  In 1946 he retired from the Greek army on his own request but his subsequent attempts to enter politics were unsuccessful.
initially of the Famagusta district. Digenis came out of his hideout and departed (in exile. His views were at odds with those of Makarios who had accepted the above agreements on behalf of the Greek Cypriot population. In March 1959. 1955 with a declaration that he signed as DIGENIS and a number of explosions in the four major cities and military installations. and at Kykkos in May 1956. he was secretly transferred from the mountains by the car of a passionate EOKA fighter. and found refuge in a hideout at Limassol from where he directed not only the military activities but also the political campaign. Grivas escaped capture twice after he was surrounded by British forces at Spilia in December 1955. chased by the British forces. Return to Cyprus in 1964 . On April 1. Kostis Efstathiou. in his book Guerrilla warfare and Eoka's struggle: A politicomilitary study He directed the first EOKA operations from his hideout in Nicosia but soon after he moved to the Troodos mountains to lead his guerrilla teams. since Archbishop Makarios in March 1956 was exiled by the authorities. with whom he collaborated for preparing the armed struggle. He recruited Grigoris Afxentiou as one of the team leaders. During the struggle. Return to Greece With the signing of the Zurich-London agreements in early 1959 and the declaration of Cyprus as an independent state Grivas reluctantly ordered cease-fire.The EOKA guerrilla campaign Thereafter Grivas focussed on the idea of liberating Cyprus from British colonial rule and the aim of Union with Greece (Enosis). since the struggle's main objective of Enosis was not achieved.000 British pounds plus passage to anywhere in the world for information leading to the arrest of Colonel Grivas. A month later. the British colonial administration had offered a reward of 10." George Grivas-Dighenis. He arrived secretly in Cyprus in November 1954 and began immediately the formation of his guerrilla organization EOKA. he announced the beginning of his campaign for Self Determination – Union with Greece. As a member of the secret Committee for the Cyprus Struggle he took the oath of Enosis together with the newly elected Archbishop Makarios III. Not long after his return general Grivas was persuaded to head a coalition party but soon abandoned this route after the disappointing percentage his party obtained in the general election of 1963. referring to British Military strategies. widely known as Pachykostis. "One does not use a tank to catch field mice--a cat will do the job better. requested by the UK as part of the cease fire agreement) for Athens where he received a hero's welcome as the liberator of the Greek Cypriots and was subsequently decorated with the highest honours by the Greek Parliament and the Athens Academy and promoted to the rank of General. leading to the Battle of Spilia.
the Cypriot Government declared a three-day official mourning and three days later. along with a number of Greek Army officers including Colonel Dimitrios Opropoulos and Majors Spyros Moustaklis. The organisation. 1974. Final return to Cyprus After the discovery of Grivas' plans by the authorities he secretly returned to Cyprus where he formed the armed organization EOKA B which he used as leverage in his attempts to persuade or force President Makarios to change his policy and adopt the line of "Self Determination – Union" with Greece. the "Invisible dictator" of Greece who was controlled directly from Athens. Grivas began the formation of armed resistance cells in a number of neighbourhoods in Athens which were armed with guns and explosives that were brought in secretly from Cyprus. 1974 after Makarios decided to oppose directly the Ioannides . however.He returned to Cyprus in 1964 after the outbreak of intercommunal violence between Turkish Cypriots and Greek Cypriots to take over the Supreme Command of the Greek Cypriot forces organised under Makarios's National Guard as well as the Greek military division sent to Cyprus by the government of George Papandreou to assist in the island's defence against a possible Turkish attack. 1974 while in hiding at a house in the city of Limassol. Recall to Greece in 1968 From 1968 to 1969 and while under strict surveillance he participated in a resistance movement aiming at deposing the ruling military Junta and restoring democracy in Greece. Limassol. EOKA B failed to overthrow Makarios but the armed struggle led to a vicious circle of violence and anti-violence which amounted to civil war among the Greek-Cypriot Community from 1971-1974. On 15 November 1967. the target of Grivas' campaign for enosis formally boycotted the event. mostly unarmed Turkish Cypriot civilians as well as Turkish Cypriot resistance fighters at Kofinou and Agios Theodoros. The government of Archbishop Makarios. in the garden of the house that had been Grivas' last hideout during the EOKA struggle (1955–1959) and was attended by tens of thousands of Greek Cypriots. which prompted the Greek military government to recall both the Greek Division and General Grivas to Athens. The Second Junta of Greece belonging to the "Invisible dictator" Brigadier Demetrios Ioannides overthrew Makarios just six months after Grivas' death. the Cypriot Parliament declared General Grivas "A worthy son of the motherland". resulting in the deaths of 27 people. was discovered by the authorities and many of its members were arrested. The post-Grivas EOKA B then signed a secret agreement with Brigadier Ioannides. Greek Cypriot National Guard under his direct command overran two small villages on the critical Larnaca. Upon his death. Nicosia intersection. He died of heart failure at the age of 75 on January 27. Ioannides was planning to overthrow Makarios from the Spring of 1974 but the final decision to act was made on July 2. Nikolaos Lytras and George Karousos as well as Greek Cypriot students and professionals many of them former EOKA fighters. Grivas' funeral and burial was held on January 29. He directed the construction of defense forts and complexes aiming at withstanding a Turkish invasion. The immediate result of this event was Turkey's ultimatum.
regime by expelling from the Cypriot National Guard 550 Greek officers. Pennsylvania State University Press. Apomnimoneumata Agonos E. 1974 which overthrew Makarios were executed by forces of the Cypriot National Guard under direct instructions from Greece. Sources • Grivas Georgios-Digenis. Sam (January 29.A. Volume D 14. 1971). 1985). ^ Letter of General Karousos to the Greek Newspaper "To Vima" Published on February 7. "Gen George Grivas (Obituaries)". References 1. Roland.O. ^ Andreas Athanasiou. Coates. Charles Foley (1964). ^ a b Grivas. Athens 1961. O Agnostos Polemos Athinon Lefkosias. Alfadi.2307/3234160.K. ^ a b Watson. p. Nicosia 2003 pp 80-81 11. To ellinotourkiko parakratos stin Kipro. 1999 http://tovima. The loss of the "War of Cyprus" marked the downfall of Ioannides. Time Magazine. Joseph S. Georgios Grivas Digenis. Viografia. ^ Grivas.php? e=B&f=12519&m=A30&aa=1 8. 40. George. Elliott. 2005). 2.. 7. "Bitter Lessons: How We Failed in Cyprus". The military coup of July 15. ^ Speeches by General Nikolaos Lytras and Lawyer Panikos Sotiriou at the Symposium "The life and work of Georgios Grivas Digenis". London: Longmans. ISBN 978-0-27102647-3. pp. The EOKA B members and other pro-enosis forces joined the National Guard in the afternoon of Monday July 15. Daniele (July 12. Vol. JSTOR 1147991. Foreign Policy 19 (19): 34–78. No. This meant the loss of military control of Cyprus for Greece as well as the humiliation of Ioannides (Secret Minutes of conversation between Makarios and British Prime Minister-London 17 July 1974). 2) 4 (2): 137–158. February 28. p. The coup was swiftly followed by the Turkish military invasion of Cyprus on Saturday 20 July taking by surprise Ioannides who failed to prepare Cyprus for a Turkish invasion and in addition failed to coerce the Greek generals that he had appointed to apply "Plan K" and provide military assistance to Cyprus. ^ a b H Tragiki Anametrisi kai i Prodosia tis Kyprou-Marios Adamides-2011. Francis. 12. 14. JSTOR 3234160. p. 5. Polity (Polity. Issue 59000.179 10. London: Longman. Routledge. p. ^ Kraemer. 1972. 1955-59. Nicosia Conference Center. The National Guard was led by Greek officers and consisted of Greek-Cypriot conscripts. George (1964). Retrieved 2008-06-24. col E. Sunday 4th Iouniou 1995 ISBN 9963-8210-1-4 9. Laurence (Summer. 4.gr/print_article. "Revolutionary Guerrilla Warfare & the Decolonization Movement". Intervention and Underdevelopment: Greece During the Cold War. (Winter. Guerrilla Warfare and Eoka's Struggle. Nato's Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe. ISBN 978-0-7146-5607-6. 3. doi:10. 6. The Times Digital Archive (London). 1975). ^ "The Survivor". 213. ^ Stern. Retrieved 2008-04-24.dolnet. ? 13. 4. ^ Makarios Drousiotis. ^ Leonidas Leonidou F. The Memoirs of General Grivas. 1974). EOKA B & CIA. . 1974 in the fight against Makarios' forces. ^ Kofas. Jon (May 31. ^ Ganser.
Palis. Georgios Grivas Digenis. (1950– 1959). O Grivas kai i "X". N. (Translated by A. .A. Praeger. Viografia. Pallis). A.. Christopher Montague (1948)..S. Georgios Grivas Digenis. Translated by A.• • • • • • • • • Grivas Georgios-Digenis. Praeger.A.O. A. Nicosia 1972 Grivas George. Guerrilla warfare and EOKA's struggle: a politico-military study. (1897– 1950).K. U. G.: Longmans. To Chameno Archeio.. Volume A. Athens 2004 Woodhouse. The Memoirs of General Grivas. 1955059. Edited by Charles Foley. New York. Frederick A. 1964 Grivas George.Y. Volume B. Viografia. Apple of Discord: A Survey of Recent Greek Politics in their International Setting. [Cyprus 1995] Leonidas Leonidou F. 1965 Leonidas Leonidou F. London H Tragiki Anametrisi kai i Prodosia tis Kyprou-Marios Adamides-Nicosia-2011E-Book). London. General Grivas on Guerrilla Warfare. New York.B.. Nicosia 1997 Papageorgiou Spyros. Crhonikon Agonos E. Green. 1965 Grivas George.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.