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Work Flow 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Markup the Drawing Build and Review the Model Error Check the Model Review/Edit Load Cases 3 Run the Analyses Review Results 5 Input Basics 4 6 3 Getting Help User Guide , Technical Reference, Application Guide On-line documentation F1 on the cell of interest Tool tips show dimensions Input Basics 4 2

CAESAR II Main Menu Locate working folder Menu Bar Toolbar Identify Version & Build Input Basics 5 Input Spreadsheet 1920x1200 screen resolution (reduced to 33% here) Input Basics 6 3

Input Spreadsheet 1280x1024 (reduced to 40% here) Input Basics 7 Manipulating the Display Input Basics 8 4

Input Tools Toolbars can be conveniently arranged around the window. There are three tool ba r groups: Main Menu Input Plot Input Basics 11 Main Menu Tools Input Basics 12 6

Input / Edit / List Tools Input Basics 13 Plot Tools Input Basics 14 7

Input Strategy The physical system is represented by the assembly of simple stick elements Node n umbers identify the ends of all these elements Each piping element is defined in a piping spreadsheet Input Basics 15 Piping Spreadsheet Layout Input Basics 16 8

Point vs. Carry-Forward Data Entered data is automatically carried forward to the next forward element where app ropriate. Carry-forward items are Carryhighlighted in red. Point data applies to this element only (shown in yellow). Input Basics 17 Moving Around Spreadsheets Next, or, if Last, Create Next First Previous Next Last If Last, Duplicate PgDn PgUp <Ctrl>Home <Ctrl>End (or Mouse Wheel) Input Basics 18 9

Deleting Spreadsheets & Data <Ctrl>D or Delete Key Erases the current spreadsheet/element. Erases the current (highlighted) cell. This key is used to erase errant erase da ta in particular fields rather than entire spreadsheets. Double-click Check Box / Click Aux Tools Deletes auxiliary items and their associated information. A doubledoubleclick on the check box or pressing the spacebar for the highlighted highlighted checkbox will toggle the entry. Clicking an Aux Tools button will Tools toggle the current entry. Input Basics 19 Pipe Length - DX, DY & DZ Input 6 6-0 66.36-10 6-10-1/4 English Output (ft.-in.) 6 in. 6 ft. 6 ft. 6 ft. 3.6 in. 6 ft. 10 in. 6 ft 10.25 in. SI Output (m-cm) 6 cm 6m 6m 630 cm 610 cm 610.25 cm mm Output (mm-mm) 6 mm 6 mm 6 mm 6.3 mm 16 mm 16.25 mm Cell Math (English): Addition: 6-10+6-2 = (6 ft. 10 in.) + (6 ft. 2 in.) = 13 ft . 6- 10+6Subtraction: -10-3+2-5 = - (10 ft. 3 in.) + (2 ft. 5 in.) = -7 ft. 10 i n. 10- 3+2Input Basics 20 10

Available Nominal Pipe ODs ANSI (inches) JIS (millimeters) Units: English Units:SI 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 3 6 42 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 Input Basics 21 DIN (millimeters) Units: mm Available Pipe Schedules ANSI B36.10 Steel Pipe Nominals: ANSI B36.10 Steel Pipe Numbers: ANSI B36.19 SS Pipe Numbers: JIS 1990 Steel Pipe Numbers: JIS 1990 SS Pipe Numbers: ANSI JIS S XS XXS 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 5S 10S 40S 80S 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 5S 10S 40S The DIN specification does not include schedule numbers. Entering S obtains a st andard wall thickness for each of the 28 nominal diameters. DIN Input Basics 22 11

Typical Restraint Definitions Input Basics 23 Non-Linear Conditions in CAESAR II Terminology applies to restraint definitions or boundary conditions. The piping system boundary conditions (i.e. the restraints) are represented as stiffnesses, or springs, in the equation being solved: [K]{x} = {f}. A constant value for st iffness K models a linear boundary. Piping systems have restraint conditions tha t change; these nonlinear restraints are more complex. Input Basics 24 12

Linear vs. Non-Linear Example of a linear boundary conditions include a double acting rigid restraint, such as a Y support or a spring hanger. The force versus displacement curve for t hese restraints is a straight line linear. The slope of the line is the stiffnes s. Input Basics 25 Linear vs. Non-Linear A +Y support is a non-linear +Y nonsupport. Its force vs displacement curve is not a straight line. Stiffness only exists for negative displacements. For positive displacements, the stiffness is zero. Input Basics 26 13

Linear vs. Non-Linear A gap is also a non-linear gap nonsupport. The force vs. displacement curve is not a straight line. There is no added stiffness in the gap. Input Basics 27 Other Non-Linear Conditions Friction Large rotation rods Bi-linear restraints Input Basics 28 14

Connecting Nodes Input Basics 29 Connecting Nodes These two models are structurally identical. The model at right has an ANCHOR at 55 with a CNODE of 56. There is NO element 55 - 56. The anchor will now show th e internal loads of 55 internal on 56. Input Basics 30 15

Connecting Nodes CNODEs are a very flexible, useful feature of CAESAR II. Think of a CNODE as: a ball & socket joint, some DOFs are related joint (such as translation), while oth ers are not (such as rotation) or the other end of the restraint. A restraint with CNODE can even replace a pipe element. Input Basics 31 Insulation & Fluid Density Insulation If insulation density is left blank, CAESAR II will use the density of calcium s ilicate (0.00665 lbf./cu.in.) with the insulation thickness to determine insulat ion weight. Refractory lining can be included using a negative insulation thickn ess. The volume will be calculated by projecting the thickness inside rather tha n outside the pipe. Fluid Fluid density may be entered directly in terms of specific gravity by following the number with SG, as in 0.8SG. SG Specific gravity is immediately converted to de nsity. Input Basics 32 16

Rigid Element Characteristics Stiffness based on 10 times wall thickness If WEIGHT > 0 Total Weight = specified weight + fluid weight + 1.75 * insulation thickness (based on specifie d OD) If WEIGHT = 0 Total Weight = 0, regardless of specified fluid & insulation Input Basics 33 Valve/Flange Databases CAESAR II provides several databases containing rigid length & weight. CADWORX & CRANE provide catalog data. GENERIC & NOFLANGE contain simpler data. Be aware o f the lengths used by CAESAR II... Input Basics 34 17

Bend Element Basics Bends can only be defined on the element entering the bend (at the To Node). The t wo elements which contain the bend must be contiguous. The layout of the two ele ments containing the bend, define the bend angle. Input Basics 35 Bend Node Numbering Input Basics 36 18

Dimensioning Bends Node locations Actual node for locations: dimensioning: Input Basics 37 Reducers Enter the To End To data here or enter the size on the next element. From End From Alpha, the slope of the slope reducer, will be estimated if not entered. Input Basics 38 19

Duplicating Data Locate selection Click on Group Select Drag box around selection Click Duplicate Enter Data Review plot Input Basics 39 Duplicating Data Whats Wrong? 60-70 duplicated as 130-140 Change to 130-70 Input Basics 40 20

Imposed Displacements A pipe support or anchor may impose movement through thermal growth or settlemen t. Do not model this boundary condition as a support or anchor. Instead, define the displacement for the support or a complete set of displacements and rotation s for the anchor. Input Basics 41 Imposed Displacements Input Basics 42 21

Imposed Displacements Hint, a vector of six zeros for displacement is identical to an anchor. An undef ined term is free. Load sets including the displacement set Dn will show these displ acements, e.g. W+T1+P1+D1. Load sets without a displacement set will show zeroes for the six terms, just like an anchor, e.g. W+P1. Input Basics 43 Starting the Analysis Click Error Check Click on Error Click on Zoom to Selection Input Basics 44 22

Building and Using Load Case CAESAR II recommends loads cases for new jobs. CAESAR II keeps the load cases fr om the last analysis. CAESAR II does not recommend occasional load sets. Input Basics 45 The Load Case Editor Reset to recommended cases Load cases Primitive loads used in this job Stress type Set load cycles Input Basics 46 23

Building and Using Load Cases All load components (primitive loads) defined in the job are displayed. These pr imitive loads are combined to make up the load cases. Load cases, too, may be co mbined to create additional load cases. All primitive combinations must be defin ed before load case combinations. Input Basics 47 Primitive Loads in CAESAR II W, WNC, WW pipe and insulation weight with contents, with no content, with water weight T1, T2, , T9 thermal strain HP, P1, P2, , P9 hydrostatic & pipe pressure H , F1, F2, , F9 hanger preload, itemized loads D1, D2, , D9 imposed displacements C S cold spring; cut short or cut long U1, U2, U3 added load per unit length (or g ) WIND1, WIND2, , WIND4 wind loads WAVE1, WAVE2, , WAVE4 hydrodynamic loads Input Basics 48 24

Building Load Cases Load cases serve three purposes in a CAESAR II analysis Develop code-defined stresses Examine structural response at various states (e.g . installed and operating condition) Collect data to size spring hangers Input Basics 49 Building Load Cases CAESAR II will recommend a set of load cases for analysis based on assumed stres s categories. The user can edit and add to these recommended load cases. Input Basics 50 25

Default stress categories Sustained components: W, P1-P9, H Expansion components: T1-T9, D1-D9 Unassigned components: Occasional: U1-U3, WIND1-WIND4, WAVE1-WAVE4, F1-F9 Structural: WNC, WW, HP, CS Input Basics 51 Load Case/Stress Types Each load case includes a load case identifier These identifiers determine how t he results are calculated and used SUStained, EXPansion, OCCasional, OPErating, and FATigue set the stress calculation and allowable stress HYDrostatic and HGR (hanger) set support configuration and data availability Input Basics 52 26

Examples of Primitive Load Sets For a job with W,P1,T1,D1 and loaded spring hangers: W+T1+P1+D1+H (OPE) W+P1+H (SUS) For a job with W,P1,P2,T1,T2: W+T1+P1 (OPE) W+T2+P2 (OPE) W+P1 (SUS) W+P2 (SUS) 53 Input Basics Load Combinations L1: W+T1+P1 (OPE) L2: W+P1 (SUS) L3: L1-L2 (EXP) :expansion stress range L1: W+T 1+P1 (OPE) L2: W+P1 (SUS) L3: WIND (OCC) L4: L1-L2 (EXP) :expansion stress range L5: L2+L3 (OCC) :sustained + occasional stress Input Basics 54 27

Combining Load Cases Load cases can be combined for structural and/or stress evaluation. All basic lo ad cases must be defined before these combinations can be constructed. For examp le, expansion stress range is taken between two states, typically, between operati ng and installed states. And, sustained stresses are summed with occasional stre sses for comparison to the allowed limit. Input Basics 55 Combining Load Cases Load case combinations are identified by the prefix L L1+L2 combines load case 1 and load case 2 L2+1.5L3 combines 1.5 times load case 3 with load case 2 There are several ways to combine load cases: Algebraic (e.g. expansion range) Scalar (e.g. sustained plus occasional) Max/Min (display max or min absolute) Input Basics 56 28

Load Case Options Adjust supports Edit load case names What to Keep or keep discard the output report How to combine load cases Select Youngs Young Modulus Globally modify friction Input Basics 57 Load Case Options Change the display name Select what reports (if any) to build in the output Set the combination method Activate snubbers Lock/unlock spring supports Specify a Y oungs Modulus Globally adjust coefficient of friction Input Basics 58 29

Structural vs. Stress Analysis L1: L2: L3: L4: L5: L6: structural W+T1+P1 (OPE) W+P1 (SUS) WIND (OCC) W+T1+P1+W IND (OPE) L1-L2 (EXP) (Algebraic) L2+L3 (OCC) (Scalar) stress (restraint loads & system deflections) (code-defined) (codeInput Basics 59 Input Basics 60 30

Global vs. Local Coordinates The standard X,Y,Z global coordinate system used in CAESAR II output is augmente d by a local coordinate system to report element forces and moments in terms of axial and shear loads and torque and bending moments. Input Basics 61 Global vs. Local Coordinates The local coordinate system is: x points from the element From node to the To node. This is the axial direction. y is the cross product of the local x and global vertical up. z is the cross of local x and local y. A few examples will illustrate... Input Basics 62 31

Global (Y up) vs. Local Coordinates Input Basics 63 Global (Y up) vs. Local Coordinates Input Basics 64 32

Other Input Items Input Basics 65 Break Command The break command adds nodes to an existing pipe run; either a single node at an y point or several, equally-spaced equallynodes based on a node number increment or final pipe count. Input Basics 66 33

Closing Loops Automatically The Close Loop command automatically connects the specified nodes (here, 90 to 1 5) with the proper length piping element to complete the path. Input Basics 67 Material Database CAESAR II provides a database of material properties that may be changed by the user. Database materials are identified by numbers from 101 to 699. Input Basics 68 34

User-defined Material (ID=21) Coefficient of Expansion (T1, T2, ) Entered as strain, this value must be defined for each temperature case used. Da ta between -0.05 and 0.05 (alpha tolerance) are interpreted as strain rather tha n temperature. Elastic Modulus (ambient) Poissons Ratio Pipe Density Input Basics 69 Offsets Offsets can be used at vessel/nozzle junctions or pipe intersections where branch cantilever length would be branch inappropriate if extended to the centerline of the vessel or header. Here, the offset is used to eliminate the pipe length betw een the vessel wall and centerline. The element from 20 to 30 will have an offse t specified for the To end To with a +X dimension equal to the vessel radius. This will adjust the element stiffness and weight but not the node locations. A weigh tless, rigid element through this open space would serve equally well. Input Basics 70 35

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