Gulliver's Travels

Jonathan Swift
Gulliver's Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World
by Jonathan Swift
'$s (iven in the ori(inal edition&)
The author of these Travels* +r& !emuel Gulliver* is my an,ient and
intimate friend- there is li.ewise some relation between us on the
mother's side& $bout three years a(o* +r& Gulliver (rowin( weary
of the ,on,ourse of ,urious /eo/le ,omin( to him at his house in
Redriff* made a small /ur,hase of land* with a ,onvenient house*
near Newar.* in Nottin(hamshire* his native ,ountry- where he now
lives retired* yet in (ood esteem amon( his nei(hbours&
$lthou(h +r& Gulliver was born in Nottin(hamshire* where his father
dwelt* yet " have heard him say his family ,ame from #0fordshire-
to ,onfirm whi,h* " have observed in the ,hur,hyard at anbury in
that ,ounty* several tombs and monuments of the Gullivers&
efore he 1uitted Redriff* he left the ,ustody of the followin(
/a/ers in my hands* with the liberty to dis/ose of them as " should
thin. fit& " have ,arefully /erused them three times& The style
is very /lain and sim/le- and the only fault " find is* that the
author* after the manner of travellers* is a little too
,ir,umstantial& There is an air of truth a//arent throu(h the
whole- and indeed the author was so distin(uished for his vera,ity*
that it be,ame a sort of /roverb amon( his nei(hbours at Redriff*
when any one affirmed a thin(* to say* it was as true as if +r&
Gulliver had s/o.en it&
y the advi,e of several worthy /ersons* to whom* with the author's
/ermission* " ,ommuni,ated these /a/ers* " now venture to send them
into the world* ho/in( they may be* at least for some time* a
better entertainment to our youn( noblemen* than the ,ommon
s,ribbles of /oliti,s and /arty&
This volume would have been at least twi,e as lar(e* if " had not
made bold to stri.e out innumerable /assa(es relatin( to the winds
and tides* as well as to the variations and bearin(s in the several
voya(es* to(ether with the minute des,ri/tions of the mana(ement of
the shi/ in storms* in the style of sailors- li.ewise the a,,ount
of lon(itudes and latitudes- wherein " have reason to a//rehend*
that +r& Gulliver may be a little dissatisfied& ut " was resolved
to fit the wor. as mu,h as /ossible to the (eneral ,a/a,ity of
readers& However* if my own i(noran,e in sea affairs shall have
led me to ,ommit some* " alone am answerable for them&
$nd if any traveller hath a ,uriosity to see the whole wor. at
lar(e* as it ,ame from the hands of the author* " will be ready to
(ratify him&
$s for any further /arti,ulars relatin( to the author* the reader
will re,eive satisfa,tion from the first /a(es of the boo.&
R"2H$R% S3+PS#N&
$ !ETTER 4R#+ 2$PT$"N GU!!"5ER T# H"S 2#US"N S3+PS#N&
WR"TTEN "N THE 3E$R 6787&
" ho/e you will be ready to own /ubli,ly* whenever you shall be
,alled to it* that by your (reat and fre1uent ur(en,y you /revailed
on me to /ublish a very loose and un,orre,t a,,ount of my travels*
with dire,tions to hire some youn( (entleman of either university
to /ut them in order* and ,orre,t the style* as my ,ousin %am/ier
did* by my advi,e* in his boo. ,alled 9$ 5oya(e round the world&9
ut " do not remember " (ave you /ower to ,onsent that any thin(
should be omitted* and mu,h less that any thin( should be inserted-
therefore* as to the latter* " do here renoun,e every thin( of that
.ind- /arti,ularly a /ara(ra/h about her ma:esty ;ueen $nne* of
most /ious and (lorious memory- althou(h " did reveren,e and esteem
her more than any of human s/e,ies& ut you* or your inter/olator*
ou(ht to have ,onsidered* that it was not my in,lination* so was it
not de,ent to /raise any animal of our ,om/osition before my master
Houyhnhnm< $nd besides* the fa,t was alto(ether false- for to my
.nowled(e* bein( in En(land durin( some /art of her ma:esty's
rei(n* she did (overn by a ,hief minister- nay even by two
su,,essively* the first whereof was the lord of Godol/hin* and the
se,ond the lord of #0ford- so that you have made me say the thin(
that was not& !i.ewise in the a,,ount of the a,ademy of
/ro:e,tors* and several /assa(es of my dis,ourse to my master
Houyhnhnm* you have either omitted some material ,ir,umstan,es* or
min,ed or ,han(ed them in su,h a manner* that " do hardly .now my
own wor.& When " formerly hinted to you somethin( of this in a
letter* you were /leased to answer that you were afraid of (ivin(
offen,e- that /eo/le in /ower were very wat,hful over the /ress*
and a/t not only to inter/ret* but to /unish every thin( whi,h
loo.ed li.e an innuendo =as " thin. you ,all it>& ut* /ray how
,ould that whi,h " s/o.e so many years a(o* and at about five
thousand lea(ues distan,e* in another rei(n* be a//lied to any of
the 3ahoos* who now are said to (overn the herd- es/e,ially at a
time when " little thou(ht* or feared* the unha//iness of livin(
under them? Have not " the most reason to ,om/lain* when " see
these very 3ahoos ,arried by Houyhnhnms in a vehi,le* as if they
were brutes* and those the rational ,reatures? $nd indeed to avoid
so monstrous and detestable a si(ht was one /rin,i/al motive of my
retirement hither&
Thus mu,h " thou(ht /ro/er to tell you in relation to yourself* and
to the trust " re/osed in you&
" do* in the ne0t /la,e* ,om/lain of my own (reat want of :ud(ment*
in bein( /revailed u/on by the entreaties and false reasonin( of
you and some others* very mu,h a(ainst my own o/inion* to suffer my
travels to be /ublished& Pray brin( to your mind how often "
desired you to ,onsider* when you insisted on the motive of /ubli,
(ood* that the 3ahoos were a s/e,ies of animals utterly in,a/able
of amendment by /re,e/t or e0am/le< and so it has /roved- for*
instead of seein( a full sto/ /ut to all abuses and ,orru/tions* at
least in this little island* as " had reason to e0/e,t- behold*
after above si0 months warnin(* " ,annot learn that my boo. has
/rodu,ed one sin(le effe,t a,,ordin( to my intentions& " desired
you would let me .now* by a letter* when /arty and fa,tion were
e0tin(uished- :ud(es learned and u/ri(ht- /leaders honest and
modest* with some tin,ture of ,ommon sense* and Smithfield bla@in(
with /yramids of law boo.s- the youn( nobility's edu,ation entirely
,han(ed- the /hysi,ians banished- the female 3ahoos aboundin( in
virtue* honour* truth* and (ood sense- ,ourts and levees of (reat
ministers thorou(hly weeded and swe/t- wit* merit* and learnin(
rewarded- all dis(ra,ers of the /ress in /rose and verse ,ondemned
to eat nothin( but their own ,otton* and 1uen,h their thirst with
their own in.& These* and a thousand other reformations* " firmly
,ounted u/on by your en,oura(ement- as indeed they were /lainly
dedu,ible from the /re,e/ts delivered in my boo.& $nd it must be
owned* that seven months were a suffi,ient time to ,orre,t every
vi,e and folly to whi,h 3ahoos are sub:e,t* if their natures had
been ,a/able of the least dis/osition to virtue or wisdom& 3et* so
far have you been from answerin( my e0/e,tation in any of your
letters- that on the ,ontrary you are loadin( our ,arrier every
wee. with libels* and .eys* and refle,tions* and memoirs* and
se,ond /arts- wherein " see myself a,,used of refle,tin( u/on (reat
state fol.- of de(radin( human nature =for so they have still the
,onfiden,e to style it>* and of abusin( the female se0& " find
li.ewise that the writers of those bundles are not a(reed amon(
themselves- for some of them will not allow me to be the author of
my own travels- and others ma.e me author of boo.s to whi,h " am
wholly a stran(er&
" find li.ewise that your /rinter has been so ,areless as to
,onfound the times* and mista.e the dates* of my several voya(es
and returns- neither assi(nin( the true year* nor the true month*
nor day of the month< and " hear the ori(inal manus,ri/t is all
destroyed sin,e the /ubli,ation of my boo.- neither have " any ,o/y
left< however* " have sent you some ,orre,tions* whi,h you may
insert* if ever there should be a se,ond edition< and yet " ,annot
stand to them- but shall leave that matter to my :udi,ious and
,andid readers to ad:ust it as they /lease&
" hear some of our sea 3ahoos find fault with my seaAlan(ua(e* as
not /ro/er in many /arts* nor now in use& " ,annot hel/ it& "n my
first voya(es* while " was youn(* " was instru,ted by the oldest
mariners* and learned to s/ea. as they did& ut " have sin,e found
that the sea 3ahoos are a/t* li.e the land ones* to be,ome newA
fan(led in their words* whi,h the latter ,han(e every year-
insomu,h* as " remember u/on ea,h return to my own ,ountry their
old diale,t was so altered* that " ,ould hardly understand the new&
$nd " observe* when any 3ahoo ,omes from !ondon out of ,uriosity to
visit me at my house* we neither of us are able to deliver our
,on,e/tions in a manner intelli(ible to the other&
"f the ,ensure of the 3ahoos ,ould any way affe,t me* " should have
(reat reason to ,om/lain* that some of them are so bold as to thin.
my boo. of travels a mere fi,tion out of mine own brain* and have
(one so far as to dro/ hints* that the Houyhnhnms and 3ahoos have
no more e0isten,e than the inhabitants of Uto/ia&
"ndeed " must ,onfess* that as to the /eo/le of !illi/ut*
robdin(ra( =for so the word should have been s/elt* and not
erroneously robdin(na(>* and !a/uta* " have never yet heard of any
3ahoo so /resum/tuous as to dis/ute their bein(* or the fa,ts "
have related ,on,ernin( them- be,ause the truth immediately
every reader with ,onvi,tion& $nd is there less /robability in my
a,,ount of the Houyhnhnms or 3ahoos* when it is manifest as to the
latter* there are so many thousands even in this ,ountry* who only
differ from their brother brutes in Houyhnhnmland* be,ause they use
a sort of :abber* and do not (o na.ed? " wrote for their
amendment* and not their a//robation& The united /raise of the
whole ra,e would be of less ,onse1uen,e to me* than the nei(hin( of
those two de(enerate Houyhnhnms " .ee/ in my stable- be,ause from
these* de(enerate as they are* " still im/rove in some virtues
without any mi0ture of vi,e&
%o these miserable animals /resume to thin.* that " am so
de(enerated as to defend my vera,ity? 3ahoo as " am* it is well
.nown throu(h all Houyhnhnmland* that* by the instru,tions and
e0am/le of my illustrious master* " was able in the ,om/ass of two
years =althou(h " ,onfess with the utmost diffi,ulty> to remove
that infernal habit of lyin(* shufflin(* de,eivin(* and
e1uivo,atin(* so dee/ly rooted in the very souls of all my s/e,ies-
es/e,ially the Euro/eans&
" have other ,om/laints to ma.e u/on this ve0atious o,,asion- but "
forbear troublin( myself or you any further& " must freely
,onfess* that sin,e my last return* some ,orru/tions of my 3ahoo
nature have revived in me by ,onversin( with a few of your s/e,ies*
and /arti,ularly those of my own family* by an unavoidable
ne,essity- else " should never have attem/ted so absurd a /ro:e,t
as that of reformin( the 3ahoo ra,e in this .in(dom< ut " have
now done with all su,h visionary s,hemes for ever&
$/ril 8* 6787
P$RT "AA$ 5#3$GE T# !"!!"PUT&
2H$PTER "&
'The author (ives some a,,ount of himself and family& His first
indu,ements to travel& He is shi/wre,.ed* and swims for his life&
Gets safe on shore in the ,ountry of !illi/ut- is made a /risoner*
and ,arried u/ the ,ountry&)
+y father had a small estate in Nottin(hamshire< " was the third
of five sons& He sent me to Emanuel 2olle(e in 2ambrid(e at
fourteen years old* where " resided three years* and a//lied myself
,lose to my studies- but the ,har(e of maintainin( me* althou(h "
had a very s,anty allowan,e* bein( too (reat for a narrow fortune*
" was bound a//renti,e to +r& James ates* an eminent sur(eon in
!ondon* with whom " ,ontinued four years& +y father now and then
sendin( me small sums of money* " laid them out in learnin(
navi(ation* and other /arts of the mathemati,s* useful to those who
intend to travel* as " always believed it would be* some time or
other* my fortune to do& When " left +r& ates* " went down to my
father< where* by the assistan,e of him and my un,le John* and
some other relations* " (ot forty /ounds* and a /romise of thirty
/ounds a year to maintain me at !eyden< there " studied /hysi, two
years and seven months* .nowin( it would be useful in lon( voya(es&
Soon after my return from !eyden* " was re,ommended by my (ood
master* +r& ates* to be sur(eon to the Swallow* 2a/tain $braham
Pannel* ,ommander- with whom " ,ontinued three years and a half* a voya(e or two into the !evant* and some other /arts& When
" ,ame ba,. " resolved to settle in !ondon- to whi,h +r& ates* my
master* en,oura(ed me* and by him " was re,ommended to several
/atients& " too. /art of a small house in the #ld Jewry- and bein(
advised to alter my ,ondition* " married +rs& +ary urton* se,ond
dau(hter to +r& Edmund urton* hosier* in New(ateAstreet* with whom
" re,eived four hundred /ounds for a /ortion&
ut my (ood master ates dyin( in two years after* and " havin( few
friends* my business be(an to fail- for my ,ons,ien,e would not
suffer me to imitate the bad /ra,ti,e of too many amon( my
brethren& Havin( therefore ,onsulted with my wife* and some of my
a,1uaintan,e* " determined to (o a(ain to sea& " was sur(eon
su,,essively in two shi/s* and made several voya(es* for si0 years*
to the East and West "ndies* by whi,h " (ot some addition to my
fortune& +y hours of leisure " s/ent in readin( the best authors*
an,ient and modern* bein( always /rovided with a (ood number of
boo.s- and when " was ashore* in observin( the manners and
dis/ositions of the /eo/le* as well as learnin( their lan(ua(e-
wherein " had a (reat fa,ility* by the stren(th of my memory&
The last of these voya(es not /rovin( very fortunate* " (rew weary
of the sea* and intended to stay at home with my wife and family&
" removed from the #ld Jewry to 4etter !ane* and from then,e to
Wa//in(* ho/in( to (et business amon( the sailors- but it would not
turn to a,,ount& $fter three years e0/e,tation that thin(s would
mend* " a,,e/ted an advanta(eous offer from 2a/tain William
Pri,hard* master of the $ntelo/e* who was a voya(e to the
South Sea& We set sail from ristol* +ay B* 6CDD* and our voya(e
was at first very /ros/erous&
"t would not be /ro/er* for some reasons* to trouble the reader
with the /arti,ulars of our adventures in those seas- let it
suffi,e to inform him* that in our /assa(e from then,e to the East
"ndies* we were driven by a violent storm to the northAwest of 5an
%iemen's !and& y an observation* we found ourselves in the
latitude of EF de(rees 8 minutes south& Twelve of our ,rew were
dead by immoderate labour and ill food- the rest were in a very
wea. ,ondition& #n the Gth of November* whi,h was the be(innin( of
summer in those /arts* the weather bein( very ha@y* the seamen
s/ied a ro,. within half a ,able's len(th of the shi/- but the wind
was so stron(* that we were driven dire,tly u/on it* and
immediately s/lit& Si0 of the ,rew* of whom " was one* havin( let
down the boat into the sea* made a shift to (et ,lear of the shi/
and the ro,.& We rowed* by my ,om/utation* about three lea(ues*
till we were able to wor. no lon(er* bein( already s/ent with
labour while we were in the shi/& We therefore trusted ourselves
to the mer,y of the waves* and in about half an hour the boat was
overset by a sudden flurry from the north& What be,ame of my
,om/anions in the boat* as well as of those who es,a/ed on the
ro,.* or were left in the vessel* " ,annot tell- but ,on,lude they
were all lost& 4or my own /art* " swam as fortune dire,ted me* and
was /ushed forward by wind and tide& " often let my le(s dro/* and
,ould feel no bottom- but when " was almost (one* and able to
stru((le no lon(er* " found myself within my de/th- and by this
time the storm was mu,h abated& The de,livity was so small* that "
wal.ed near a mile before " (ot to the shore* whi,h " ,on:e,tured
was about ei(ht o',lo,. in the evenin(& " then advan,ed forward
near half a mile* but ,ould not dis,over any si(n of houses or
inhabitants- at least " was in so wea. a ,ondition* that " did not
observe them& " was e0tremely tired* and with that* and the heat
of the weather* and about half a /int of brandy that " dran. as "
left the shi/* " found myself mu,h in,lined to slee/& " lay down
on the (rass* whi,h was very short and soft* where " sle/t sounder
than ever " remembered to have done in my life* and* as " re,.oned*
about nine hours- for when " awa.ed* it was :ust dayAli(ht& "
attem/ted to rise* but was not able to stir< for* as " ha//ened to
lie on my ba,.* " found my arms and le(s were stron(ly fastened on
ea,h side to the (round- and my hair* whi,h was lon( and thi,.*
tied down in the same manner& " li.ewise felt several slender
li(atures a,ross my body* from my armA/its to my thi(hs& " ,ould
only loo. u/wards- the sun be(an to (row hot* and the li(ht
offended my eyes& " heard a ,onfused noise about me- but in the
/osture " lay* ,ould see nothin( e0,e/t the s.y& "n a little time
" felt somethin( alive movin( on my left le(* whi,h advan,in(
(ently forward over my breast* ,ame almost u/ to my ,hin- when*
bendin( my eyes downwards as mu,h as " ,ould* " /er,eived it to be
a human ,reature not si0 in,hes hi(h* with a bow and arrow in his
hands* and a 1uiver at his ba,.& "n the mean time* " felt at least
forty more of the same .ind =as " ,on:e,tured> followin( the first&
" was in the utmost astonishment* and roared so loud* that they all
ran ba,. in a fri(ht- and some of them* as " was afterwards told*
were hurt with the falls they (ot by lea/in( from my sides u/on the
(round& However* they soon returned* and one of them* who ventured
so far as to (et a full si(ht of my fa,e* liftin( u/ his hands and
eyes by way of admiration* ,ried out in a shrill but distin,t
voi,e* He.inah de(ul< the others re/eated the same words several
times* but then " .new not what they meant& " lay all this while*
as the reader may believe* in (reat uneasiness& $t len(th*
stru((lin( to (et loose* " had the fortune to brea. the strin(s*
and wren,h out the /e(s that fastened my left arm to the (round-
for* by liftin( it u/ to my fa,e* " dis,overed the methods they had
ta.en to bind me* and at the same time with a violent /ull* whi,h
(ave me e0,essive /ain* " a little loosened the strin(s that tied
down my hair on the left side* so that " was :ust able to turn my
head about two in,hes& ut the ,reatures ran off a se,ond time*
before " ,ould sei@e them- whereu/on there was a (reat shout in a
very shrill a,,ent* and after it ,eased " heard one of them ,ry
aloud Tol(o /hona,- when in an instant " felt above a hundred
arrows dis,har(ed on my left hand* whi,h* /ri,.ed me li.e so many
needles- and besides* they shot another fli(ht into the air* as we
do bombs in Euro/e* whereof many* " su//ose* fell on my body*
=thou(h " felt them not>* and some on my fa,e* whi,h " immediately
,overed with my left hand& When this shower of arrows was over* "
fell a (roanin( with (rief and /ain- and then strivin( a(ain to (et
loose* they dis,har(ed another volley lar(er than the first* and
some of them attem/ted with s/ears to sti,. me in the sides- but by
(ood lu,. " had on a buff* whi,h they ,ould not /ier,e& "
thou(ht it the most /rudent method to lie still* and my desi(n was
to ,ontinue so till ni(ht* when* my left hand bein( already loose*
" ,ould easily free myself< and as for the inhabitants* " had
reason to believe " mi(ht be a mat,h for the (reatest army they
,ould brin( a(ainst me* if they were all of the same si@e with him
that " saw& ut fortune dis/osed otherwise of me& When the /eo/le
observed " was 1uiet* they dis,har(ed no more arrows- but* by the
noise " heard* " .new their numbers in,reased- and about four yards
from me* over a(ainst my ri(ht ear* " heard a .no,.in( for above an
hour* li.e that of /eo/le at wor.- when turnin( my head that way*
as well as the /e(s and strin(s would /ermit me* " saw a sta(e
ere,ted about a foot and a half from the (round* ,a/able of holdin(
four of the inhabitants* with two or three ladders to mount it<
from when,e one of them* who seemed to be a /erson of 1uality* made
me a lon( s/ee,h* whereof " understood not one syllable& ut "
should have mentioned* that before the /rin,i/al /erson be(an his
oration* he ,ried out three times* !an(ro dehul san =these words
and the former were afterwards re/eated and e0/lained to me>-
whereu/on* immediately* about fifty of the inhabitants ,ame and ,ut
the strin(s that fastened the left side of my head* whi,h (ave me
the liberty of turnin( it to the ri(ht* and of observin( the /erson
and (esture of him that was to s/ea.& He a//eared to be of a
middle a(e* and taller than any of the other three who attended
him* whereof one was a /a(e that held u/ his train* and seemed to
be somewhat lon(er than my middle fin(er- the other two stood one
on ea,h side to su//ort him& He a,ted every /art of an orator* and
" ,ould observe many /eriods of threatenin(s* and others of
/romises* /ity* and .indness& " answered in a few words* but in
the most submissive manner* liftin( u/ my left hand* and both my
eyes to the sun* as ,allin( him for a witness- and bein( almost
famished with hun(er* havin( not eaten a morsel for some hours
before " left the shi/* " found the demands of nature so stron(
u/on me* that " ,ould not forbear showin( my im/atien,e =/erha/s
a(ainst the stri,t rules of de,en,y> by /uttin( my fin(er
fre1uently to my mouth* to si(nify that " wanted food& The hur(o
=for so they ,all a (reat lord* as " afterwards learnt> understood
me very well& He des,ended from the sta(e* and ,ommanded that
several ladders should be a//lied to my sides* on whi,h above a
hundred of the inhabitants mounted and wal.ed towards my mouth*
laden with bas.ets full of meat* whi,h had been /rovided and sent
thither by the .in('s orders* u/on the first intelli(en,e he
re,eived of me& " observed there was the flesh of several animals*
but ,ould not distin(uish them by the taste& There were shoulders*
le(s* and loins* sha/ed li.e those of mutton* and very well
dressed* but smaller than the win(s of a lar.& " ate them by two
or three at a mouthful* and too. three loaves at a time* about the
bi(ness of bullets& They su//lied me as fast as they ,ould*
showin( a thousand mar.s of wonder and astonishment at my bul. and
a//etite& " then made another si(n* that " wanted drin.& They
found by my eatin( that a small 1uantity would not suffi,e me- and
bein( a most in(enious /eo/le* they slun( u/* with (reat de0terity*
one of their lar(est ho(sheads* then rolled it towards my hand* and
beat out the to/- " dran. it off at a drau(ht* whi,h " mi(ht well
do* for it did not hold half a /int* and tasted li.e a small wine
of ur(undy* but mu,h more deli,ious& They brou(ht me a se,ond
ho(shead* whi,h " dran. in the same manner* and made si(ns for
more- but they had none to (ive me& When " had /erformed these
wonders* they shouted for :oy* and dan,ed u/on my breast* re/eatin(
several times as they did at first* He.inah de(ul& They made me a
si(n that " should throw down the two ho(sheads* but first warnin(
the /eo/le below to stand out of the way* ,ryin( aloud* ora,h
mevolah- and when they saw the vessels in the air* there was a
universal shout of He.inah de(ul& " ,onfess " was often tem/ted*
while they were /assin( ba,.wards and forwards on my body* to sei@e
forty or fifty of the first that ,ame in my rea,h* and dash them
a(ainst the (round& ut the remembran,e of what " had felt* whi,h
/robably mi(ht not be the worst they ,ould do* and the /romise of
honour " made themAAfor so " inter/reted my submissive behaviourAA
soon drove out these ima(inations& esides* " now ,onsidered
myself as bound by the laws of hos/itality* to a /eo/le who had
treated me with so mu,h e0/ense and ma(nifi,en,e& However* in my
thou(hts " ,ould not suffi,iently wonder at the intre/idity of
these diminutive mortals* who durst venture to mount and wal. u/on
my body* while one of my hands was at liberty* without tremblin( at
the very si(ht of so /rodi(ious a ,reature as " must a//ear to
them& $fter some time* when they observed that " made no more
demands for meat* there a//eared before me a /erson of hi(h ran.
from his im/erial ma:esty& His e0,ellen,y* havin( mounted on the
small of my ri(ht le(* advan,ed forwards u/ to my fa,e* with about
a do@en of his retinue- and /rodu,in( his ,redentials under the
si(net royal* whi,h he a//lied ,lose to my eyes* s/o.e about ten
minutes without any si(ns of an(er* but with a .ind of determinate
resolution* often /ointin( forwards* whi,h* as " afterwards found*
was towards the ,a/ital ,ity* about half a mile distant- whither it
was a(reed by his ma:esty in ,oun,il that " must be ,onveyed& "
answered in few words* but to no /ur/ose* and made a si(n with my
hand that was loose* /uttin( it to the other =but over his
e0,ellen,y's head for fear of hurtin( him or his train> and then to
my own head and body* to si(nify that " desired my liberty& "t
a//eared that he understood me well enou(h* for he shoo. his head
by way of disa//robation* and held his hand in a /osture to show
that " must be ,arried as a /risoner& However* he made other si(ns
to let me understand that " should have meat and drin. enou(h* and
very (ood treatment& Whereu/on " on,e more thou(ht of attem/tin(
to brea. my bonds- but a(ain* when " felt the smart of their arrows
u/on my fa,e and hands* whi,h were all in blisters* and many of the
darts still sti,.in( in them* and observin( li.ewise that the
number of my enemies in,reased* " (ave to.ens to let them .now that
they mi(ht do with me what they /leased& U/on this* the hur(o and
his train withdrew* with mu,h ,ivility and ,heerful ,ountenan,es&
Soon after " heard a (eneral shout* with fre1uent re/etitions of
the words Pe/lom selan- and " felt (reat numbers of /eo/le on my
left side rela0in( the ,ords to su,h a de(ree* that " was able to
turn u/on my ri(ht* and to ease myself with water- whi,h "
very /lentifully did* to the (reat astonishment of the /eo/le- who*
,on:e,turin( by my motion what " was (oin( to do* immediately
o/ened to the ri(ht and left on that side* to avoid the torrent*
whi,h fell with su,h noise and violen,e from me& ut before this*
they had daubed my fa,e and both my hands with a sort of ointment*
very /leasant to the smell* whi,h* in a few minutes* removed all
the smart of their arrows& These ,ir,umstan,es* added to the
refreshment " had re,eived by their vi,tuals and drin.* whi,h were
very nourishin(* dis/osed me to slee/& " sle/t about ei(ht hours*
as " was afterwards assured- and it was no wonder* for the
/hysi,ians* by the em/eror's order* had min(led a slee/y /otion in
the ho(sheads of wine&
"t seems* that u/on the first moment " was dis,overed slee/in( on
the (round* after my landin(* the em/eror had early noti,e of it by
an e0/ress- and determined in ,oun,il* that " should be tied in the
manner " have related* =whi,h was done in the ni(ht while " sle/t->
that /lenty of meat and drin. should be sent to me* and a ma,hine
/re/ared to ,arry me to the ,a/ital ,ity&
This resolution /erha/s may a//ear very bold and dan(erous* and "
am ,onfident would not be imitated by any /rin,e in Euro/e on the
li.e o,,asion& However* in my o/inion* it was e0tremely /rudent*
as well as (enerous< for* su//osin( these /eo/le had endeavoured
to .ill me with their s/ears and arrows* while " was aslee/* "
should ,ertainly have awa.ed with the first sense of smart* whi,h
mi(ht so far have roused my ra(e and stren(th* as to have enabled
me to brea. the strin(s wherewith " was tied- after whi,h* as they
were not able to ma.e resistan,e* so they ,ould e0/e,t no mer,y&
These /eo/le are most e0,ellent mathemati,ians* and arrived to a
(reat /erfe,tion in me,hani,s* by the ,ountenan,e and en,oura(ement
of the em/eror* who is a renowned /atron of learnin(& This /rin,e
has several ma,hines fi0ed on wheels* for the ,arria(e of trees and
other (reat wei(hts& He often builds his lar(est men of war*
whereof some are nine feet lon(* in the woods where the timber
(rows* and has them ,arried on these en(ines three or four hundred
yards to the sea& 4ive hundred ,ar/enters and en(ineers were
immediately set at wor. to /re/are the (reatest en(ine they had&
"t was a frame of wood raised three in,hes from the (round* about
seven feet lon(* and four wide* movin( u/on twentyAtwo wheels& The
shout " heard was u/on the arrival of this en(ine* whi,h* it seems*
set out in four hours after my landin(& "t was brou(ht /arallel to
me* as " lay& ut the /rin,i/al diffi,ulty was to raise and /la,e
me in this vehi,le& Ei(hty /oles* ea,h of one foot hi(h* were
ere,ted for this /ur/ose* and very stron( ,ords* of the bi(ness of
/a,.thread* were fastened by hoo.s to many banda(es* whi,h the had (irt round my ne,.* my hands* my body* and my le(s&
Nine hundred of the stron(est men were em/loyed to draw u/ these
,ords* by many /ulleys fastened on the /oles- and thus* in less
than three hours* " was raised and slun( into the en(ine* and there
tied fast& $ll this " was told- for* while the o/eration was
/erformin(* " lay in a /rofound slee/* by the for,e of that
so/oriferous medi,ine infused into my li1uor& 4ifteen hundred of
the em/eror's lar(est horses* ea,h about four in,hes and a half
hi(h* were em/loyed to draw me towards the metro/olis* whi,h* as "
said* was half a mile distant&
$bout four hours after we be(an our :ourney* " awa.ed by a very
ridi,ulous a,,ident- for the ,arria(e bein( sto//ed a while* to
ad:ust somethin( that was out of order* two or three of the youn(
natives had the ,uriosity to see how " loo.ed when " was aslee/-
they ,limbed u/ into the en(ine* and advan,in( very softly to my
fa,e* one of them* an offi,er in the (uards* /ut the shar/ end of
his halfA/i.e a (ood way u/ into my left nostril* whi,h ti,.led my
nose li.e a straw* and made me snee@e violently- whereu/on they
stole off un/er,eived* and it was three wee.s before " .new the
,ause of my so suddenly& We made a lon( mar,h the remainin(
/art of the day* and* rested at ni(ht with five hundred (uards on
ea,h side of me* half with tor,hes* and half with bows and arrows*
ready to shoot me if " should offer to stir& The ne0t mornin( at
sunArise we ,ontinued our mar,h* and arrived within two hundred
yards of the ,ity (ates about noon& The em/eror* and all his
,ourt* ,ame out to meet us- but his (reat offi,ers would by no
means suffer his ma:esty to endan(er his /erson by mountin( on my
$t the /la,e where the ,arria(e sto//ed there stood an an,ient
tem/le* esteemed to be the lar(est in the whole .in(dom- whi,h*
havin( been /olluted some years before by an unnatural murder* was*
a,,ordin( to the @eal of those /eo/le* loo.ed u/on as /rofane* and
therefore had been a//lied to ,ommon use* and all the ornaments and
furniture ,arried away& "n this edifi,e it was determined " should
lod(e& The (reat (ate frontin( to the north was about four feet
hi(h* and almost two feet wide* throu(h whi,h " ,ould easily ,ree/&
#n ea,h side of the (ate was a small window* not above si0 in,hes
from the (round< into that on the left side* the .in('s smith
,onveyed fours,ore and eleven ,hains* li.e those that han( to a
lady's wat,h in Euro/e* and almost as lar(e* whi,h were lo,.ed to
my left le( with si0AandAthirty /adlo,.s& #ver a(ainst this
tem/le* on the other side of the (reat hi(hway* at twenty feet
distan,e* there was a turret at least five feet hi(h& Here the
em/eror as,ended* with many /rin,i/al lords of his ,ourt* to have
an o//ortunity of viewin( me* as " was told* for " ,ould not see
them& "t was re,.oned that above a hundred thousand inhabitants
,ame out of the town u/on the same errand- and* in s/ite of my
(uards* " believe there ,ould not be fewer than ten thousand at
several times* who mounted my body by the hel/ of ladders& ut a
/ro,lamation was soon issued* to forbid it u/on /ain of death&
When the found it was im/ossible for me to brea. loose*
they ,ut all the strin(s that bound me- whereu/on " rose u/* with
as melan,holy a dis/osition as ever " had in my life& ut the
noise and astonishment of the /eo/le* at seein( me rise and wal.*
are not to be e0/ressed& The ,hains that held my left le( were
about two yards lon(* and (ave me not only the liberty of
ba,.wards and forwards in a semi,ir,le* but* bein( fi0ed within
four in,hes of the (ate* allowed me to ,ree/ in* and lie at my full
len(th in the tem/le&
2H$PTER ""&
'The em/eror of !illi/ut* attended by several of the nobility*
,omes to see the author in his ,onfinement& The em/eror's /erson
and habit des,ribed& !earned men a//ointed to tea,h the author
their lan(ua(e& He (ains favour by his mild dis/osition& His
/o,.ets are sear,hed* and his sword and /istols ta.en from him&)
When " found myself on my feet* " loo.ed about me* and must ,onfess
" never beheld a more entertainin( /ros/e,t& The ,ountry around
a//eared li.e a ,ontinued (arden* and the en,losed fields* whi,h
were (enerally forty feet s1uare* resembled so many beds of
flowers& These fields were intermin(led with woods of half a
stan(* H6I and the tallest trees* as " ,ould :ud(e* a//eared to be
seven feet hi(h& " viewed the town on my left hand* whi,h loo.ed
li.e the /ainted s,ene of a ,ity in a theatre&
" had been for some hours e0tremely /ressed by the ne,essities of
nature- whi,h was no wonder* it bein( almost two days sin,e " had
last disburdened myself& " was under (reat diffi,ulties between
ur(en,y and shame& The best e0/edient " ,ould thin. of* was to
,ree/ into my house* whi,h " a,,ordin(ly did- and shuttin( the (ate
after me* " went as far as the len(th of my ,hain would suffer* and
dis,har(ed my body of that uneasy load& ut this was the only time
" was ever (uilty of so un,leanly an a,tion- for whi,h " ,annot but
ho/e the ,andid reader will (ive some allowan,e* after he has
maturely and im/artially ,onsidered my ,ase* and the distress " was
in& 4rom this time my ,onstant /ra,ti,e was* as soon as " rose* to
/erform that business in o/en air* at the full e0tent of my ,hain-
and due ,are was ta.en every mornin( before ,om/any ,ame* that the
offensive matter should be ,arried off in wheelAbarrows* by two
servants a//ointed for that /ur/ose& " would not have dwelt so
lon( u/on a ,ir,umstan,e that* /erha/s* at first si(ht* may a//ear
not very momentous* if " had not thou(ht it ne,essary to :ustify my
,hara,ter* in /oint of ,leanliness* to the world- whi,h* " am told*
some of my mali(ners have been /leased* u/on this and other
o,,asions* to ,all in 1uestion&
When this adventure was at an end* " ,ame ba,. out of my house*
havin( o,,asion for fresh air& The em/eror was already des,ended
from the tower* and advan,in( on horseba,. towards me* whi,h had
li.e to have ,ost him dear- for the beast* thou(h very well
trained* yet wholly unused to su,h a si(ht* whi,h a//eared as if a
mountain moved before him* reared u/ on its hinder feet< but that
/rin,e* who is an e0,ellent horseman* .e/t his seat* till his
attendants ran in* and held the bridle* while his ma:esty had time
to dismount& When he ali(hted* he surveyed me round with (reat
admiration- but .e/t beyond the len(th of my ,hain& He ordered his
,oo.s and butlers* who were already /re/ared* to (ive me vi,tuals
and drin.* whi,h they /ushed forward in a sort of vehi,les u/on
wheels* till " ,ould rea,h them& " too. these vehi,les and soon
em/tied them all- twenty of them were filled with meat* and ten
with li1uor- ea,h of the former afforded me two or three (ood
mouthfuls- and " em/tied the li1uor of ten vessels* whi,h was
,ontained in earthen vials* into one vehi,le* it off at a
drau(ht- and so " did with the rest& The em/ress* and youn(
/rin,es of the blood of both se0es* attended by many ladies* sat at
some distan,e in their ,hairs- but u/on the a,,ident that ha//ened
to the em/eror's horse* they ali(hted* and ,ame near his /erson*
whi,h " am now (oin( to des,ribe& He is taller by almost the
breadth of my nail* than any of his ,ourt- whi,h alone is enou(h to
stri.e an awe into the beholders& His features are stron( and
mas,uline* with an $ustrian li/ and ar,hed nose* his ,om/le0ion
olive* his ,ountenan,e ere,t* his body and limbs well /ro/ortioned*
all his motions (ra,eful* and his de/ortment ma:esti,& He was then
/ast his /rime* bein( twentyAei(ht years and three 1uarters old* of
whi,h he had rei(ned about seven in (reat feli,ity* and (enerally
vi,torious& 4or the better ,onvenien,e of beholdin( him* " lay on
my side* so that my fa,e was /arallel to his* and he stood but
three yards off< however* " have had him sin,e many times in my
hand* and therefore ,annot be de,eived in the des,ri/tion& His
dress was very /lain and sim/le* and the fashion of it between the
$siati, and the Euro/ean- but he had on his head a li(ht helmet of
(old* adorned with :ewels* and a /lume on the ,rest& He held his
sword drawn in his hand to defend himself* if " should ha//en to
brea. loose- it was almost three in,hes lon(- the hilt and s,abbard
were (old enri,hed with diamonds& His voi,e was shrill* but very
,lear and arti,ulate- and " ,ould distin,tly hear it when " stood
u/& The ladies and ,ourtiers were all most ma(nifi,ently ,lad- so
that the s/ot they stood u/on seemed to resemble a /etti,oat s/read
u/on the (round* embroidered with fi(ures of (old and silver& His
im/erial ma:esty s/o.e often to me* and " returned answers< but
neither of us ,ould understand a syllable& There were several of
his /riests and lawyers /resent =as " ,on:e,tured by their habits>*
who were ,ommanded to address themselves to me- and " s/o.e to them
in as many lan(ua(es as " had the least smatterin( of* whi,h were
Hi(h and !ow %ut,h* !atin* 4ren,h* S/anish* "talian* and !in(ua
4ran,a* but all to no /ur/ose& $fter about two hours the ,ourt
retired* and " was left with a stron( (uard* to /revent the
im/ertinen,e* and /robably the mali,e of the rabble* who were very
im/atient to ,rowd about me as near as they durst- and some of them
had the im/uden,e to shoot their arrows at me* as " sat on the
(round by the door of my house* whereof one very narrowly missed my
left eye& ut the ,olonel ordered si0 of the rin(leaders to be
sei@ed* and thou(ht no /unishment so /ro/er as to deliver them
bound into my hands- whi,h some of his soldiers a,,ordin(ly did*
/ushin( them forward with the buttAends of their / into my
rea,h& " too. them all in my ri(ht hand* /ut five of them into my
,oatA/o,.et- and as to the si0th* " made a ,ountenan,e as if "
would eat him alive& The /oor man s1ualled terribly* and the
,olonel and his offi,ers were in mu,h /ain* es/e,ially when they
saw me ta.e out my /en.nife< but " soon /ut them out of fear- for* mildly* and immediately ,uttin( the strin(s he was bound
with* " set him (ently on the (round* and away he ran& " treated
the rest in the same manner* them one by one out of my
/o,.et- and " observed both the soldiers and /eo/le were hi(hly
deli(hted at this mar. of my ,lemen,y* whi,h was re/resented very
mu,h to my advanta(e at ,ourt&
Towards ni(ht " (ot with some diffi,ulty into my house* where " lay
on the (round* and ,ontinued to do so about a fortni(ht- durin(
whi,h time* the em/eror (ave orders to have a bed /re/ared for me&
Si0 hundred beds of the ,ommon measure were brou(ht in ,arria(es*
and wor.ed u/ in my house- a hundred and fifty of their beds* sewn
to(ether* made u/ the breadth and len(th- and these were four
double< whi,h* however* .e/t me but very indifferently from the
hardness of the floor* that was of smooth stone& y the same
,om/utation* they /rovided me with sheets* blan.ets* and ,overlets*
tolerable enou(h for one who had been so lon( inured to hardshi/s&
$s the news of my arrival s/read throu(h the .in(dom* it brou(ht
/rodi(ious numbers of ri,h* idle* and ,urious /eo/le to see me- so
that the villa(es were almost em/tied- and (reat ne(le,t of tilla(e
and household affairs must have ensued* if his im/erial ma:esty had
not /rovided* by several /ro,lamations and orders of state* a(ainst
this in,onvenien,y& He dire,ted that those who had already beheld
me should return home* and not /resume to ,ome within fifty yards
of my house* without li,ense from the ,ourt- whereby the
se,retaries of state (ot ,onsiderable fees&
"n the mean time the em/eror held fre1uent ,oun,ils* to debate what
,ourse should be ta.en with me- and " was afterwards assured by a
/arti,ular friend* a /erson of (reat 1uality* who was as mu,h in
the se,ret as any* that the ,ourt was under many diffi,ulties
,on,ernin( me& They a//rehended my loose- that my diet
would be very e0/ensive* and mi(ht ,ause a famine& Sometimes they
determined to starve me- or at least to shoot me in the fa,e and
hands with /oisoned arrows* whi,h would soon des/at,h me- but a(ain
they ,onsidered* that the sten,h of so lar(e a ,ar,ass mi(ht
/rodu,e a /la(ue in the metro/olis* and /robably s/read throu(h the
whole .in(dom& "n the midst of these ,onsultations* several
offi,ers of the army went to the door of the (reat ,oun,ilA,hamber*
and two of them bein( admitted* (ave an a,,ount of my behaviour to
the si0 ,riminals aboveAmentioned- whi,h made so favourable an
im/ression in the breast of his ma:esty and the whole board* in my
behalf* that an im/erial ,ommission was issued out* obli(in( all
the villa(es* nine hundred yards round the ,ity* to deliver in
every mornin( si0 beeves* forty shee/* and other vi,tuals for my
sustenan,e- to(ether with a /ro/ortionable 1uantity of bread* and
wine* and other li1uors- for the due /ayment of whi,h* his ma:esty
(ave assi(nments u/on his treasury<A for this /rin,e lives ,hiefly
u/on his own demesnes- seldom* e0,e/t u/on (reat o,,asions* raisin(
any subsidies u/on his sub:e,ts* who are bound to attend him in his
wars at their own e0/ense& $n establishment was also made of si0
hundred /ersons to be my domesti,s* who had boardAwa(es allowed for
their maintenan,e* and tents built for them very ,onveniently on
ea,h side of my door& "t was li.ewise ordered* that three hundred
tailors should ma.e me a suit of ,lothes* after the fashion of the
,ountry- that si0 of his ma:esty's (reatest s,holars should be
em/loyed to instru,t me in their lan(ua(e- and lastly* that the
em/eror's horses* and those of the nobility and troo/s of (uards*
should be fre1uently e0er,ised in my si(ht* to a,,ustom themselves
to me& $ll these orders were duly /ut in e0e,ution- and in about
three wee.s " made a (reat /ro(ress in learnin( their lan(ua(e-
durin( whi,h time the em/eror fre1uently honoured me with his
visits* and was /leased to assist my masters in tea,hin( me& We
be(an already to ,onverse to(ether in some sort- and the first
words " learnt* were to e0/ress my desire 9that he would /lease
(ive me my liberty-9 whi,h " every day re/eated on my .nees& His
answer* as " ,ould ,om/rehend it* was* 9that this must be a wor. of
time* not to be thou(ht on without the advi,e of his ,oun,il* and
that first " must lumos .elmin /esso desmar lon em/oso-9 that is*
swear a /ea,e with him and his .in(dom& However* that " should be
used with all .indness& $nd he advised me to 9a,1uire* by my
/atien,e and dis,reet behaviour* the (ood o/inion of himself and
his sub:e,ts&9 He desired 9" would not ta.e it ill* if he (ave
orders to ,ertain /ro/er offi,ers to sear,h me- for /robably "
mi(ht ,arry about me several wea/ons* whi,h must needs be dan(erous
thin(s* if they answered the bul. of so /rodi(ious a /erson&9 "
said* 9His ma:esty should be satisfied- for " was ready to stri/
myself* and turn u/ my /o,.ets before him&9 This " delivered /art
in words* and /art in si(ns& He re/lied* 9that* by the laws of the
.in(dom* " must be sear,hed by two of his offi,ers- that he .new
this ,ould not be done without my ,onsent and assistan,e- and he
had so (ood an o/inion of my (enerosity and :usti,e* as to trust
their /ersons in my hands- that whatever they too. from me* should
be returned when " left the ,ountry* or /aid for at the rate whi,h
" would set u/on them&9 " too. u/ the two offi,ers in my hands*
/ut them first into my ,oatA/o,.ets* and then into every other
/o,.et about me* e0,e/t my two fobs* and another se,ret /o,.et*
whi,h " had no mind should be sear,hed* wherein " had some little
ne,essaries that were of no ,onse1uen,e to any but myself& "n one
of my fobs there was a silver wat,h* and in the other a small
1uantity of (old in a /urse& These (entlemen* havin( /en* in.* and
/a/er* about them* made an e0a,t inventory of every thin( they saw-
and when they had done* desired " would set them down* that they
mi(ht deliver it to the em/eror& This inventory " afterwards
translated into En(lish* and is* word for word* as follows<
9"m/rimis< "n the ri(ht ,oatA/o,.et of the (reat manAmountain9
=for so " inter/ret the words 1uinbus flestrin*> 9after the
stri,test sear,h* we found only one (reat /ie,e of ,oarseA,loth*
lar(e enou(h to be a footA,loth for your ma:esty's ,hief room of
state& "n the left /o,.et we saw a hu(e silver ,hest* with a ,over
of the same metal* whi,h we* the sear,hers* were not able to lift&
We desired it should be o/ened* and one of us ste//in( into it*
found himself u/ to the mid le( in a sort of dust* some /art
whereof flyin( u/ to our fa,es set us both a snee@in( for several
times to(ether& "n his ri(ht waist,oatA/o,.et we found a
/rodi(ious bundle of white thin substan,es* folded one over
another* about the bi(ness of three men* tied with a stron( ,able*
and mar.ed with bla,. fi(ures- whi,h we humbly ,on,eive to be
writin(s* every letter almost half as lar(e as the /alm of our
hands& "n the left there was a sort of en(ine* from the ba,. of
whi,h were e0tended twenty lon( /oles* resemblin( the /allisados
before your ma:esty's ,ourt< wherewith we ,on:e,ture the manA
mountain ,ombs his head- for we did not always trouble him with
1uestions* be,ause we found it a (reat diffi,ulty to ma.e him
understand us& "n the lar(e /o,.et* on the ri(ht side of his
middle ,over9 =so " translate the word ranfulo* by whi,h they meant
my bree,hes*> 9we saw a hollow /illar of iron* about the len(th of
a man* fastened to a stron( /ie,e of timber lar(er than the /illar-
and u/on one side of the /illar* were hu(e /ie,es of iron sti,.in(
out* ,ut into stran(e fi(ures* whi,h we .now not what to ma.e of&
"n the left /o,.et* another en(ine of the same .ind& "n the
smaller /o,.et on the ri(ht side* were several round flat /ie,es of
white and red metal* of different bul.- some of the white* whi,h
seemed to be silver* were so lar(e and heavy* that my ,omrade and "
,ould hardly lift them& "n the left /o,.et were two bla,. /illars
irre(ularly sha/ed< we ,ould not* without diffi,ulty* rea,h the
to/ of them* as we stood at the bottom of his /o,.et& #ne of them
was ,overed* and seemed all of a /ie,e< but at the u//er end of
the other there a//eared a white round substan,e* about twi,e the
bi(ness of our heads& Within ea,h of these was en,losed a
/rodi(ious /late of steel- whi,h* by our orders* we obli(ed him to
show us* be,ause we a//rehended they mi(ht be dan(erous en(ines&
He too. them out of their ,ases* and told us* that in his own
,ountry his /ra,ti,e was to shave his beard with one of these* and
,ut his meat with the other& There were two /o,.ets whi,h we ,ould
not enter< these he ,alled his fobs- they were two lar(e slits ,ut
into the to/ of his middle ,over* but s1uee@ed ,lose by the
/ressure of his belly& #ut of the ri(ht fob hun( a (reat silver
,hain* with a wonderful .ind of en(ine at the bottom& We dire,ted
him to draw out whatever was at the end of that ,hain- whi,h
a//eared to be a (lobe* half silver* and half of some trans/arent
metal- for* on the trans/arent side* we saw ,ertain stran(e fi(ures
,ir,ularly drawn* and thou(ht we ,ould tou,h them* till we found
our fin(ers sto//ed by the lu,id substan,e& He /ut this en(ine
into our ears* whi,h made an in,essant noise* li.e that of a waterA
mill< and we ,on:e,ture it is either some un.nown animal* or the
(od that he worshi/s- but we are more in,lined to the latter
o/inion* be,ause he assured us* =if we understood him ri(ht* for he
e0/ressed himself very im/erfe,tly> that he seldom did any thin(
without ,onsultin( it& He ,alled it his ora,le* and said* it
/ointed out the time for every a,tion of his life& 4rom the left
fob he too. out a net almost lar(e enou(h for a fisherman* but
,ontrived to o/en and shut li.e a /urse* and served him for the
same use< we found therein several massy /ie,es of yellow metal*
whi,h* if they be real (old* must be of immense value&
9Havin( thus* in obedien,e to your ma:esty's ,ommands* dili(ently
sear,hed all his /o,.ets* we observed a (irdle about his waist made
of the hide of some /rodi(ious animal* from whi,h* on the left
side* hun( a sword of the len(th of five men- and on the ri(ht* a
ba( or /ou,h divided into two ,ells* ea,h ,ell ,a/able of holdin(
three of your ma:esty's sub:e,ts& "n one of these ,ells were
several (lobes* or balls* of a most /onderous metal* about the
bi(ness of our heads* and re1uirin( a stron( hand to lift them<
the other ,ell ,ontained a hea/ of ,ertain bla,. (rains* but of no
(reat bul. or wei(ht* for we ,ould hold above fifty of them in the
/alms of our hands&
9This is an e0a,t inventory of what we found about the body of the
manAmountain* who used us with (reat ,ivility* and due res/e,t to
your ma:esty's ,ommission& Si(ned and sealed on the fourth day of
the ei(htyAninth moon of your ma:esty's aus/i,ious rei(n&
2!E4R"N 4RE!#2J* +$RS" 4RE!#2J&9
When this inventory was read over to the em/eror* he dire,ted me*
althou(h in very (entle terms* to deliver u/ the several
/arti,ulars& He first ,alled for my s,imitar* whi,h " too. out*
s,abbard and all& "n the mean time he ordered three thousand of
his ,hoi,est troo/s =who then attended him> to surround me at a
distan,e* with their bows and arrows :ust ready to dis,har(e- but "
did not observe it* for mine eyes were wholly fi0ed u/on his
ma:esty& He then desired me to draw my s,imitar* whi,h* althou(h
it had (ot some rust by the sea water* was* in most /arts*
e0,eedin( bri(ht& " did so* and immediately all the troo/s (ave a
shout between terror and sur/rise- for the sun shone ,lear* and the
refle,tion da@@led their eyes* as " waved the s,imitar to and fro
in my hand& His ma:esty* who is a most ma(nanimous /rin,e* was
less daunted than " ,ould e0/e,t< he ordered me to return it into
the s,abbard* and ,ast it on the (round as (ently as " ,ould* about
si0 feet from the end of my ,hain& The ne0t thin( he demanded was
one of the hollow iron /illars- by whi,h he meant my /o,.et
/istols& " drew it out* and at his desire* as well as " ,ould*
e0/ressed to him the use of it- and ,har(in( it only with /owder*
whi,h* by the ,loseness of my /ou,h* ha//ened to es,a/e wettin( in
the sea =an in,onvenien,e a(ainst whi,h all /rudent mariners ta.e
s/e,ial ,are to /rovide*> " first ,autioned the em/eror not to be
afraid* and then " let it off in the air& The astonishment here
was mu,h (reater than at the si(ht of my s,imitar& Hundreds fell
down as if they had been stru,. dead- and even the em/eror*
althou(h he stood his (round* ,ould not re,over himself for some
time& " delivered u/ both my /istols in the same manner as " had
done my s,imitar* and then my /ou,h of /owder and bullets- be((in(
him that the former mi(ht be .e/t from fire* for it would .indle
with the smallest s/ar.* and blow u/ his im/erial /ala,e into the
air& " li.ewise delivered u/ my wat,h* whi,h the em/eror was very
,urious to see* and ,ommanded two of his tallest yeomen of the
(uards to bear it on a /ole u/on their shoulders* as draymen in
En(land do a barrel of ale& He was ama@ed at the ,ontinual noise
it made* and the motion of the minuteAhand* whi,h he ,ould easily
dis,ern- for their si(ht is mu,h more a,ute than ours< he as.ed
the o/inions of his learned men about it* whi,h were various and
remote* as the reader may well ima(ine without my re/eatin(-
althou(h indeed " ,ould not very /erfe,tly understand them& " then
(ave u/ my silver and ,o//er money* my /urse* with nine lar(e
/ie,es of (old* and some smaller ones- my .nife and ra@or* my ,omb
and silver snuffAbo0* my,hief and :ournalAboo.& +y
s,imitar* /istols* and /ou,h* were ,onveyed in ,arria(es to his
ma:esty's stores- but the rest of my (oods were returned me&
" had as " before observed* one /rivate /o,.et* whi,h es,a/ed their
sear,h* wherein there was a /air of s/e,ta,les =whi,h " sometimes
use for the wea.ness of mine eyes*> a /o,.et /ers/e,tive* and some
other little ,onvenien,es- whi,h* bein( of no ,onse1uen,e to the
em/eror* " did not thin. myself bound in honour to dis,over* and "
a//rehended they mi(ht be lost or s/oiled if " ventured them out of
my /ossession&
2H$PTER """&
'The author diverts the em/eror* and his nobility of both se0es* in
a very un,ommon manner& The diversions of the ,ourt of !illi/ut
des,ribed& The author has his liberty (ranted him u/on ,ertain
+y (entleness and (ood behaviour had (ained so far on the em/eror
and his ,ourt* and indeed u/on the army and /eo/le in (eneral* that
" be(an to ,on,eive ho/es of (ettin( my liberty in a short time& "
too. all /ossible methods to ,ultivate this favourable dis/osition&
The natives ,ame* by de(rees* to be less a//rehensive of any dan(er
from me& " would sometimes lie down* and let five or si0 of them
dan,e on my hand- and at last the boys and (irls would venture to
,ome and /lay at hideAandAsee. in my hair& " had now made a (ood
/ro(ress in understandin( and s/ the lan(ua(e& The em/eror
had a mind one day to entertain me with several of the ,ountry
shows* wherein they e0,eed all nations " have .nown* both for
de0terity and ma(nifi,en,e& " was diverted with none so mu,h as
that of the ro/eAdan,ers* /erformed u/on a slender white thread*
e0tended about two feet* and twelve in,hes from the (round& U/on
whi,h " shall desire liberty* with the reader's /atien,e* to
enlar(e a little&
This diversion is only /ra,tised by those /ersons who are
,andidates for (reat em/loyments* and hi(h favour at ,ourt& They
are trained in this art from their youth* and are not always of
noble birth* or liberal edu,ation& When a (reat offi,e is va,ant*
either by death or dis(ra,e =whi,h often ha//ens*> five or si0 of
those ,andidates /etition the em/eror to entertain his ma:esty and
the ,ourt with a dan,e on the ro/e- and whoever :um/s the hi(hest*
without fallin(* su,,eeds in the offi,e& 5ery often the ,hief
ministers themselves are ,ommanded to show their s.ill* and to
,onvin,e the em/eror that they have not lost their fa,ulty&
4limna/* the treasurer* is allowed to ,ut a ,a/er on the strai(ht
ro/e* at least an in,h hi(her than any other lord in the whole
em/ire& " have seen him do the summerset several times to(ether*
u/on a tren,her fi0ed on a ro/e whi,h is no thi,.er than a ,ommon
/a,.thread in En(land& +y friend Reldresal* /rin,i/al se,retary
for /rivate affairs* is* in my o/inion* if " am not /artial* the
se,ond after the treasurer- the rest of the (reat offi,ers are mu,h
u/on a /ar&
These diversions are often attended with fatal a,,idents* whereof
(reat numbers are on re,ord& " myself have seen two or three
,andidates brea. a limb& ut the dan(er is mu,h (reater* when the
ministers themselves are ,ommanded to show their de0terity- for* by
,ontendin( to e0,el themselves and their fellows* they strain so
far that there is hardly one of them who has not re,eived a fall*
and some of them two or three& " was assured that* a year or two
before my arrival* 4limna/ would infallibly have bro.e his ne,.* if
one of the .in('s ,ushions* that a,,identally lay on the (round*
had not wea.ened the for,e of his fall&
There is li.ewise another diversion* whi,h is only shown before the
em/eror and em/ress* and first minister* u/on /arti,ular o,,asions&
The em/eror lays on the table three fine sil.en threads of si0
in,hes lon(- one is blue* the other red* and the third (reen&
These threads are /ro/osed as /ri@es for those /ersons whom the
em/eror has a mind to distin(uish by a /e,uliar mar. of his favour&
The ,eremony is /erformed in his ma:esty's (reat ,hamber of state*
where the ,andidates are to under(o a trial of de0terity very
different from the former* and su,h as " have not observed the
least resemblan,e of in any other ,ountry of the new or old world&
The em/eror holds a sti,. in his hands* both ends /arallel to the
hori@on* while the ,andidates advan,in(* one by one* sometimes lea/
over the sti,.* sometimes ,ree/ under it* ba,.ward and forward*
several times* a,,ordin( as the sti,. is advan,ed or de/ressed&
Sometimes the em/eror holds one end of the sti,.* and his first
minister the other- sometimes the minister has it entirely to
himself& Whoever /erforms his /art with most a(ility* and holds
out the lon(est in lea/in( and ,ree/in(* is rewarded with the blueA
,oloured sil.- the red is (iven to the ne0t* and the (reen to the
third* whi,h they all wear (irt twi,e round about the middle- and
you see few (reat /ersons about this ,ourt who are not adorned with
one of these (irdles&
The horses of the army* and those of the royal stables* havin( been
daily led before me* were no lon(er shy* but would ,ome u/ to my
very feet without startin(& The riders would lea/ them over my
hand* as " held it on the (round- and one of the em/eror's
huntsmen* u/on a lar(e ,ourser* too. my foot* shoe and all- whi,h
was indeed a /rodi(ious lea/& " had the (ood fortune to divert the
em/eror one day after a very e0traordinary manner& " desired he
would order several sti,.s of two feet hi(h* and the thi,.ness of
an ordinary ,ane* to be brou(ht me- whereu/on his ma:esty ,ommanded
the master of his woods to (ive dire,tions a,,ordin(ly- and the
ne0t mornin( si0 woodmen arrived with as many ,arria(es* drawn by
ei(ht horses to ea,h& " too. nine of these sti,.s* and fi0in( them
firmly in the (round in a 1uadran(ular fi(ure* two feet and a half
s1uare* " too. four other sti,.s* and tied them /arallel at ea,h
,orner* about two feet from the (round- then " fastened my,hief to the nine sti,.s that stood ere,t- and e0tended it
on all sides* till it was ti(ht as the to/ of a drum- and the four
/arallel sti,.s* risin( about five in,hes hi(her than the,hief* served as led(es on ea,h side& When " had finished
my wor.* " desired the em/eror to let a troo/ of his best horses
twentyAfour in number* ,ome and e0er,ise u/on this /lain& His
ma:esty a//roved of the /ro/osal* and " too. them u/* one by one*
in my hands* ready mounted and armed* with the /ro/er offi,ers to
e0er,ise them& $s soon as they (ot into order they divided into
two /arties* /erformed mo,. s.irmishes* dis,har(ed blunt arrows*
drew their swords* fled and /ursued* atta,.ed and retired* and in
short dis,overed the best military dis,i/line " ever beheld& The
/arallel sti,.s se,ured them and their horses from fallin( over the
sta(e- and the em/eror was so mu,h deli(hted* that he ordered this
entertainment to be re/eated several days* and on,e was /leased to
be lifted u/ and (ive the word of ,ommand- and with (reat
diffi,ulty /ersuaded even the em/ress herself to let me hold her in
her ,lose ,hair within two yards of the sta(e* when she was able to
ta.e a full view of the whole /erforman,e& "t was my (ood fortune*
that no ill a,,ident ha//ened in these entertainments- only on,e a
fiery horse* that belon(ed to one of the ,a/tains* /awin( with his
hoof* stru,. a hole in my,hief* and his foot sli//in(* he
overthrew his rider and himself- but " immediately relieved them
both* and ,overin( the hole with one hand* " set down the troo/
with the other* in the same manner as " too. them u/& The horse
that fell was strained in the left shoulder* but the rider (ot no
hurt- and " re/aired my,hief as well as " ,ould< however*
" would not trust to the stren(th of it any more* in su,h dan(erous
$bout two or three days before " was set at liberty* as " was
entertainin( the ,ourt with this .ind of feat* there arrived an
e0/ress to inform his ma:esty* that some of his sub:e,ts* ridin(
near the /la,e where " was first ta.en u/* had seen a (reat bla,.
substan,e lyin( on the around* very oddly sha/ed* e0tendin( its
ed(es round* as wide as his ma:esty's bed,hamber* and risin( u/ in
the middle as hi(h as a man- that it was no livin( ,reature* as
they at first a//rehended* for it lay on the (rass without motion-
and some of them had wal.ed round it several times- that* by
mountin( u/on ea,h other's shoulders* they had (ot to the to/*
whi,h was flat and even* and* stam/in( u/on it* they found that it
was hollow within- that they humbly ,on,eived it mi(ht be somethin(
belon(in( to the manAmountain- and if his ma:esty /leased* they
would underta.e to brin( it with only five horses& " /resently
.new what they meant* and was (lad at heart to re,eive this
intelli(en,e& "t seems* u/on my first rea,hin( the shore after our
shi/wre,.* " was in su,h ,onfusion* that before " ,ame to the /la,e
where " went to slee/* my hat* whi,h " had fastened with a strin(
to my head while " was rowin(* and had stu,. on all the time " was
swimmin(* fell off after " ,ame to land- the strin(* as "
,on:e,ture* by some a,,ident* whi,h " never observed* but
thou(ht my hat had been lost at sea& " entreated his im/erial
ma:esty to (ive orders it mi(ht be brou(ht to me as soon as
/ossible* des,ribin( to him the use and the nature of it< and the
ne0t day the wa((oners arrived with it* but not in a very (ood
,ondition- they had bored two holes in the brim* within an in,h and
half of the ed(e* and fastened two hoo.s in the holes- these hoo.s
were tied by a lon( ,ord to the harness* and thus my hat was
dra((ed alon( for above half an En(lish mile- but* the (round in
that ,ountry bein( e0tremely smooth and level* it re,eived less
dama(e than " e0/e,ted&
Two days after this adventure* the em/eror* havin( ordered that
/art of his army whi,h 1uarters in and about his metro/olis* to be
in readiness* too. a fan,y of divertin( himself in a very sin(ular
manner& He desired " would stand li.e a 2olossus* with my le(s as
far asunder as " ,onveniently ,ould& He then ,ommanded his (eneral
=who was an old e0/erien,ed leader* and a (reat /atron of mine> to
draw u/ the troo/s in ,lose order* and mar,h them under me- the
foot by twentyAfour abreast* and the horse by si0teen* with drums
beatin(* ,olours flyin(* and / advan,ed& This body ,onsisted
of three thousand foot* and a thousand horse& His ma:esty (ave
orders* u/on /ain of death* that every soldier in his mar,h should
observe the stri,test de,en,y with re(ard to my /erson- whi,h
however ,ould not /revent some of the youn(er offi,ers from turnin(
u/ their eyes as they /assed under me< and* to ,onfess the truth*
my bree,hes were at that time in so ill a ,ondition* that they
afforded some o//ortunities for lau(hter and admiration&
" had sent so many memorials and /etitions for my liberty* that his
ma:esty at len(th mentioned the matter* first in the ,abinet* and
then in a full ,oun,il- where it was o//osed by none* e0,e/t
S.yresh ol(olam* who was /leased* without any /rovo,ation* to be
my mortal enemy& ut it was ,arried a(ainst him by the whole
board* and ,onfirmed by the em/eror& That minister was (albet* or
admiral of the realm* very mu,h in his master's ,onfiden,e* and a
/erson well versed in affairs* but of a morose and sour ,om/le0ion&
However* he was at len(th /ersuaded to ,om/ly- but /revailed that
the arti,les and ,onditions u/on whi,h " should be set free* and to
whi,h " must swear* should be drawn u/ by himself& These arti,les
were brou(ht to me by S.yresh ol(olam in /erson attended by two
underAse,retaries* and several /ersons of distin,tion& $fter they
were read* " was demanded to swear to the /erforman,e of them-
first in the manner of my own ,ountry* and afterwards in the method
/res,ribed by their laws- whi,h was* to hold my ri(ht foot in my
left hand* and to /la,e the middle fin(er of my ri(ht hand on the
,rown of my head* and my thumb on the ti/ of my ri(ht ear& ut
be,ause the reader may be ,urious to have some idea of the style
and manner of e0/ression /e,uliar to that /eo/le* as well as to
.now the arti,le u/on whi,h " re,overed my liberty* " have made a
translation of the whole instrument* word for word* as near as "
was able* whi,h " here offer to the /ubli,&
9Golbasto +omarem Evlame Gurdilo Shefin +ully Ully Gue* most mi(hty
Em/eror of !illi/ut* deli(ht and terror of the universe* whose
dominions e0tend five thousand blustru(s =about twelve miles in
,ir,umferen,e> to the e0tremities of the (lobe- monar,h of all
monar,hs* taller than the sons of men- whose feet /ress down to the
,entre* and whose head a(ainst the sun- at whose nod the
/rin,es of the earth sha.e their .nees- /leasant as the s/rin(*
,omfortable as the summer* fruitful as autumn* dreadful as winter<
his most sublime ma:esty /ro/oses to the manAmountain* lately
arrived at our ,elestial dominions* the followin( arti,les* whi,h*
by a solemn oath* he shall be obli(ed to /erform<A
96st* The manAmountain shall not de/art from our dominions* without
our li,ense under our (reat seal&
98d* He shall not /resume to ,ome into our metro/olis* without our
e0/ress order- at whi,h time* the inhabitants shall have two hours
warnin( to .ee/ within do
9Ed* The said manAmountain shall ,onfine his wal.s to our /rin,i/al
hi(h roads* and not offer to wal.* or lie down* in a meadow or
field of ,orn&
9Bth* $s he wal.s the said roads* he shall ta.e the utmost ,are not
to tram/le u/on the bodies of any of our lovin( sub:e,ts* their
horses* or ,arria(es* nor ta.e any of our sub:e,ts into his hands
without their own ,onsent&
9Gth* "f an e0/ress re1uires e0traordinary des/at,h* the manA
mountain shall be obli(ed to ,arry* in his /o,.et* the messen(er
and horse a si0 days :ourney* on,e in every moon* and return the
said messen(er ba,. =if so re1uired> safe to our im/erial /resen,e&
9Cth* He shall be our ally a(ainst our enemies in the island of
lefus,u* and do his utmost to destroy their fleet* whi,h is now
/re/arin( to invade us&
97th* That the said manAmountain shall* at his times of leisure* be
aidin( and assistin( to our* in hel/in( to raise ,ertain
(reat stones* towards ,overin( the wall of the /rin,i/al /ar.* and
other our royal buildin(s&
9Kth* That the said manAmountain shall* in two moons' time* deliver
in an e0a,t survey of the ,ir,umferen,e of our dominions* by a
,om/utation of his own /a,es round the ,oast&
9!astly* That* u/on his solemn oath to observe all the above
arti,les* the said manAmountain shall have a daily allowan,e of
meat and drin. suffi,ient for the su//ort of 678B of our sub:e,ts*
with free a,,ess to our royal /erson* and other mar.s of our
favour& Given at our /ala,e at elfabora,* the twelfth day of the
ninetyAfirst moon of our rei(n&9
" swore and subs,ribed to these arti,les with (reat ,heerfulness
and ,ontent* althou(h some of them were not so honourable as "
,ould have wished- whi,h /ro,eeded wholly from the mali,e of
S.yresh ol(olam* the hi(hAadmiral< whereu/on my ,hains were
immediately unlo,.ed* and " was at full liberty& The em/eror
himself* in /erson* did me the honour to be by at the whole
,eremony& " made my a,.nowled(ements by /rostratin( myself at his
ma:esty's feet< but he ,ommanded me to rise- and after many
(ra,ious e0/ressions* whi,h* to avoid the ,ensure of vanity* "
shall not re/eat* he added* 9that he ho/ed " should /rove a useful
servant* and well deserve all the favours he had already ,onferred
u/on me* or mi(ht do for the future&9
The reader may /lease to observe* that* in the last arti,le of the
re,overy of my liberty* the em/eror sti/ulates to allow me a
1uantity of meat and drin. suffi,ient for the su//ort of 678B
!illi/utians& Some time after* a friend at ,ourt how they
,ame to fi0 on that determinate number* he told me that his
ma:esty's mathemati,ians* havin( ta.en the hei(ht of my body by the
hel/ of a 1uadrant* and findin( it to e0,eed theirs in the
/ro/ortion of twelve to one* they ,on,luded from the similarity of
their bodies* that mine must ,ontain at least 678B of theirs* and
,onse1uently would re1uire as mu,h food as was ne,essary to su//ort
that number of !illi/utians& y whi,h the reader may ,on,eive an
idea of the in(enuity of that /eo/le* as well as the /rudent and
e0a,t e,onomy of so (reat a /rin,e&
2H$PTER "5&
'+ildendo* the metro/olis of !illi/ut* des,ribed* to(ether with the
em/eror's /ala,e& $ ,onversation between the author and a
/rin,i/al se,retary* ,on,ernin( the affairs of that em/ire& The
author's offers to serve the em/eror in his wars&)
The first re1uest " made* after " had obtained my liberty* was*
that " mi(ht have li,ense to see +ildendo* the metro/olis- whi,h
the em/eror easily (ranted me* but with a s/e,ial ,har(e to do no
hurt either to the inhabitants or their houses& The /eo/le had
noti,e* by /ro,lamation* of my desi(n to visit the town& The wall
whi,h en,om/assed it is two feet and a half hi(h* and at least
eleven in,hes broad* so that a ,oa,h and horses may be driven very
safely round it- and it is flan.ed with stron( towers at ten feet
distan,e& " ste//ed over the (reat western (ate* and /assed very
(ently* and sidlin(* throu(h the two /rin,i/al streets* only in my
short waist,oat* for fear of dama(in( the roofs and eaves of the
houses with the s.irts of my ,oat& " wal.ed with the utmost
,ir,ums/e,tion* to avoid treadin( on any stra((lers who mi(ht
remain in the streets* althou(h the orders were very stri,t* that
all /eo/le should .ee/ in their houses* at their own /eril& The
(arret windows and to/s of houses were so ,rowded with s/e,tators*
that " thou(ht in all my travels " had not seen a more /o/ulous
/la,e& The ,ity is an e0a,t s1uare* ea,h side of the wall bein(
five hundred feet lon(& The two (reat streets* whi,h run a,ross
and divide it into four 1uarters* are five feet wide& The lanes
and alleys* whi,h " ,ould not enter* but only view them as "
/assed* are from twelve to ei(hteen in,hes& The town is ,a/able of
holdin( five hundred thousand souls< the houses are from three to
five stories< the sho/s and mar.ets well /rovided&
The em/eror's /ala,e is in the ,entre of the ,ity where the two
(reat streets meet& "t is en,losed by a wall of two feet hi(h* and
twenty feet distan,e from the buildin(s& " had his ma:esty's
/ermission to ste/ over this wall- and* the s/a,e bein( so wide
between that and the /ala,e* " ,ould easily view it on every side&
The outward ,ourt is a s1uare of forty feet* and in,ludes two other
,ourts< in the inmost are the royal a/artments* whi,h " was very
desirous to see* but found it e0tremely diffi,ult- for the (reat
(ates* from one s1uare into another* were but ei(hteen in,hes hi(h*
and seven in,hes wide& Now the buildin(s of the outer ,ourt were
at least five feet hi(h* and it was im/ossible for me to stride
over them without infinite dama(e to the /ile* thou(h the walls
were stron(ly built of hewn stone* and four in,hes thi,.& $t the
same time the em/eror had a (reat desire that " should see the
ma(nifi,en,e of his /ala,e- but this " was not able to do till
three days after* whi,h " s/ent in ,uttin( down with my .nife some
of the lar(est trees in the royal /ar.* about a hundred yards
distant from the ,ity& #f these trees " made two stools* ea,h
about three feet hi(h* and stron( enou(h to bear my wei(ht& The
/eo/le havin( re,eived noti,e a se,ond time* " went a(ain throu(h
the ,ity to the /ala,e with my two stools in my hands& When " ,ame
to the side of the outer ,ourt* " stood u/on one stool* and too.
the other in my hand- this " lifted over the roof* and (ently set
it down on the s/a,e between the first and se,ond ,ourt* whi,h was
ei(ht feet wide& " then ste/t over the buildin( very ,onveniently
from one stool to the other* and drew u/ the first after me with a
hoo.ed sti,.& y this ,ontrivan,e " (ot into the inmost ,ourt-
and* lyin( down u/on my side* " a//lied my fa,e to the windows of
the middle stories* whi,h were left o/en on /ur/ose* and dis,overed
the most s/lendid a/artments that ,an be ima(ined& There " saw the
em/ress and the youn( /rin,es* in their several lod(in(s* with
their ,hief attendants about them& Her im/erial ma:esty was
/leased to smile very (ra,iously u/on me* and (ave me out of the
window her hand to .iss&
ut " shall not anti,i/ate the reader with further des,ri/tions of
this .ind* be,ause " reserve them for a (reater wor.* whi,h is now
almost ready for the /ress- ,ontainin( a (eneral des,ri/tion of
this em/ire* from its first ere,tion* throu(h alon( series of
/rin,es- with a /arti,ular a,,ount of their wars and /oliti,s*
laws* learnin(* and reli(ion- their /lants and animals- their
/e,uliar manners and ,ustoms* with other matters very ,urious and
useful- my ,hief desi(n at /resent bein( only to relate su,h events
and transa,tions as ha//ened to the /ubli, or to myself durin( a
residen,e of about nine months in that em/ire&
#ne mornin(* about a fortni(ht after " had obtained my liberty*
Reldresal* /rin,i/al se,retary =as they style him> for /rivate
affairs* ,ame to my house attended only by one servant& He ordered
his ,oa,h to wait at a distan,e* and desired " would (ive him an
hours audien,e- whi,h " readily ,onsented to* on a,,ount of his
1uality and /ersonal merits* as well as of the many (ood offi,es he
had done me durin( my soli,itations at ,ourt& " offered to lie
down that he mi(ht the more ,onveniently rea,h my ear* but he ,hose
rather to let me hold him in my hand durin( our ,onversation& He
be(an with ,om/liments on my liberty- said 9he mi(ht /retend to
some merit in it-9 but* however* added* 9that if it had not been
for the /resent situation of thin(s at ,ourt* /erha/s " mi(ht not
have obtained it so soon& 4or*9 said he* 9as flourishin( a
,ondition as we may a//ear to be in to forei(ners* we labour under
two mi(hty evils< a violent fa,tion at home* and the dan(er of an
invasion* by a most /otent enemy* from abroad& $s to the first*
you are to understand* that for about seventy moons /ast there have
been two stru((lin( /arties in this em/ire* under the names of
Trame,.san and Slame,.san* from the hi(h and low heels of their
shoes* by whi,h they distin(uish themselves& "t is alle(ed*
indeed* that the hi(h heels are most a(reeable to our an,ient
,onstitution- but* however this be* his ma:esty has determined to
ma.e use only of low heels in the administration of the (overnment*
and all offi,es in the (ift of the ,rown* as you ,annot but
observe- and /arti,ularly that his ma:esty's im/erial heels are
lower at least by a drurr than any of his ,ourt =drurr is a measure
about the fourteenth /art of an in,h>& The animosities between
these two /arties run so hi(h* that they will neither eat* nor
drin.* nor tal. with ea,h other& We ,om/ute the Trame,.san* or
hi(h heels* to e0,eed us in number- but the /ower is wholly on our
side& We a//rehend his im/erial hi(hness* the heir to the ,rown*
to have some tenden,y towards the hi(h heels- at least we ,an
/lainly dis,over that one of his heels is hi(her than the other*
whi,h (ives him a hobble in his (ait& Now* in the midst of these
intestine dis1uiets* we are threatened with an invasion from the
island of lefus,u* whi,h is the other (reat em/ire of the
universe* almost as lar(e and /owerful as this of his ma:esty& 4or
as to what we have heard you affirm* that there are other .in(doms
and states in the world inhabited by human ,reatures as lar(e as
yourself* our /hiloso/hers are in mu,h doubt* and would rather
,on:e,ture that you dro//ed from the moon* or one of the stars-
be,ause it is ,ertain* that a hundred mortals of your bul. would in
a short time destroy all the fruits and ,attle of his ma:esty's
dominions< besides* our histories of si0 thousand moons ma.e no
mention of any other re(ions than the two (reat em/ires of !illi/ut
and lefus,u& Whi,h two mi(hty /owers have* as " was (oin( to tell
you* been en(a(ed in a most obstinate war for si0AandAthirty moons
/ast& "t be(an u/on the followin( o,,asion& "t is allowed on all
hands* that the /rimitive way of e((s* before we eat them*
was u/on the lar(er end- but his /resent ma:esty's (randfather*
while he was a boy* (oin( to eat an e((* and it a,,ordin(
to the an,ient /ra,ti,e* ha//ened to ,ut one of his fin(ers&
Whereu/on the em/eror his father /ublished an edi,t* ,ommandin( all
his sub:e,ts* u/on (reat /enalties* to brea. the smaller end of
their e((s& The /eo/le so hi(hly resented this law* that our
histories tell us* there have been si0 rebellions raised on that
a,,ount- wherein one em/eror lost his life* and another his ,rown&
These ,ivil ,ommotions were ,onstantly fomented by the monar,hs of
lefus,u- and when they were 1uelled* the e0iles always fled for
refu(e to that em/ire& "t is ,om/uted that eleven thousand /ersons
have at several times suffered death* rather than submit to brea.
their e((s at the smaller end& +any hundred lar(e volumes have
been /ublished u/on this ,ontroversy< but the boo.s of the i(A
endians have been lon( forbidden* and the whole /arty rendered
in,a/able by law of holdin( em/loyments& %urin( the ,ourse of
these troubles* the em/erors of lefus,a did fre1uently e0/ostulate
by their ambassadors* a,,usin( us of a s,hism in reli(ion*
by offendin( a(ainst a fundamental do,trine of our (reat /ro/het
!ustro(* in the fiftyAfourth ,ha/ter of the lunde,ral =whi,h is
their $l,oran>& This* however* is thou(ht to be a mere strain u/on
the te0t- for the words are these< 'that all true believers brea.
their e((s at the ,onvenient end&' $nd whi,h is the ,onvenient
end* seems* in my humble o/inion to be left to every man's
,ons,ien,e* or at least in the /ower of the ,hief ma(istrate to
determine& Now* the i(Aendian e0iles have found so mu,h ,redit in
the em/eror of lefus,u's ,ourt* and so mu,h /rivate assistan,e and
en,oura(ement from their /arty here at home* that a bloody war has
been ,arried on between the two em/ires for si0AandAthirty moons*
with various su,,ess- durin( whi,h time we have lost forty ,a/ital
shi/s* and a mu,h a (reater number of smaller vessels* to(ether
with thirty thousand of our best seamen and soldiers- and the
dama(e re,eived by the enemy is re,.oned to be somewhat (reater
than ours& However* they have now e1ui//ed a numerous fleet* and
are :ust /re/arin( to ma.e a des,ent u/on us- and his im/erial
ma:esty* /la,in( (reat ,onfiden,e in your valour and stren(th* has
,ommanded me to lay this a,,ount of his affairs before you&9
" desired the se,retary to /resent my humble duty to the em/eror-
and to let him .now* 9that " thou(ht it would not be,ome me* who
was a forei(ner* to interfere with /arties- but " was ready* with
the ha@ard of my life* to defend his /erson and state a(ainst all
2H$PTER 5&
'The author* by an e0traordinary strata(em* /revents an invasion&
$ hi(h title of honour is ,onferred u/on him& $mbassadors arrive
from the em/eror of lefus,u* and sue for /ea,e& The em/ress's
a/artment on fire by an a,,ident- the author instrumental in savin(
the rest of the /ala,e&)
The em/ire of lefus,u is an island situated to the northAeast of
!illi/ut* from whi,h it is /arted only by a ,hannel of ei(ht
hundred yards wide& " had not yet seen it* and u/on this noti,e of
an intended invasion* " avoided a//earin( on that side of the
,oast* for fear of bein( dis,overed* by some of the enemy's shi/s*
who had re,eived no intelli(en,e of me- all inter,ourse between the
two em/ires havin( been stri,tly forbidden durin( the war* u/on
/ain of death* and an embar(o laid by our em/eror u/on all vessels
whatsoever& " ,ommuni,ated to his ma:esty a /ro:e,t " had formed
of sei@in( the enemy's whole fleet- whi,h* as our s,outs assured
us* lay at an,hor in the harbour* ready to sail with the first fair
wind& " ,onsulted the most e0/erien,ed seamen u/on the de/th of
the ,hannel* whi,h they had often /lumbed- who told me* that in the
middle* at hi(hAwater* it was seventy (lum(luffs dee/* whi,h is
about si0 feet of Euro/ean measure- and the rest of it fifty
(lum(luffs at most& " wal.ed towards the northAeast ,oast* over
a(ainst lefus,u* where* lyin( down behind a hillo,.* " too. out my
small /ers/e,tive (lass* and viewed the enemy's fleet at an,hor*
,onsistin( of about fifty men of war* and a (reat number of
trans/orts< " then ,ame ba,. to my house* and (ave orders =for
whi,h " had a warrant> for a (reat 1uantity of the stron(est ,able
and bars of iron& The ,able was about as thi,. as /a,.thread and
the bars of the len(th and si@e of a .nittin(Aneedle& " trebled
the ,able to ma.e it stron(er* and for the same reason " twisted
three of the iron bars to(ether* bendin( the e0tremities into a
hoo.& Havin( thus fi0ed fifty hoo.s to as many ,ables* " went ba,.
to the northAeast ,oast* and /uttin( off my ,oat* shoes* and
sto,.in(s* wal.ed into the sea* in my leathern* about half
an hour before hi(h water& " waded with what haste " ,ould* and
swam in the middle about thirty yards* till " felt (round& "
arrived at the fleet in less than half an hour& The enemy was so
fri(htened when they saw me* that they lea/ed out of their shi/s*
and swam to shore* where there ,ould not be fewer than thirty
thousand souls& " then too. my ta,.lin(* and* fastenin( a hoo. to
the hole at the /row of ea,h* " tied all the ,ords to(ether at the
end& While " was thus em/loyed* the enemy dis,har(ed several
thousand arrows* many of whi,h stu,. in my hands and fa,e* and*
beside the e0,essive smart* (ave me mu,h disturban,e in my wor.&
+y (reatest a//rehension was for mine eyes* whi,h " should have
infallibly lost* if " had not suddenly thou(ht of an e0/edient& "
.e/t* amon( other little ne,essaries* a /air of s/e,ta,les in a
/rivate /o,.et* whi,h* as " observed before* had es,a/ed the
em/eror's sear,hers& These " too. out and fastened as stron(ly as
" ,ould u/on my nose* and thus armed* went on boldly with my wor.*
in s/ite of the enemy's arrows* many of whi,h stru,. a(ainst the
(lasses of my s/e,ta,les* but without any other effe,t* further
than a little to dis,om/ose them& " had now fastened all the
hoo.s* and* the .not in my hand* be(an to /ull- but not a
shi/ would stir* for they were all too fast held by their an,hors*
so that the boldest /art of my enter/rise remained& " therefore
let (o the ,ord* and leavin( the loo.s fi0ed to the shi/s* "
resolutely ,ut with my .nife the ,ables that fastened the an,hors*
re,eivin( about two hundred shots in my fa,e and hands- then " too.
u/ the .notted end of the ,ables* to whi,h my hoo.s were tied* and
with (reat ease drew fifty of the enemy's lar(est men of war after
The lefus,udians* who had not the least ima(ination of what "
intended* were at first ,onfounded with astonishment& They had
seen me ,ut the ,ables* and thou(ht my desi(n was only to let the
shi/s run adrift or fall foul on ea,h other< but when they
/er,eived the whole fleet movin( in order* and saw me /ullin( at
the end* they set u/ su,h a s,ream of (rief and des/air as it is
almost im/ossible to des,ribe or ,on,eive& When " had (ot out of
dan(er* " sto//ed awhile to /i,. out the arrows that stu,. in my
hands and fa,e- and rubbed on some of the same ointment that was
(iven me at my first arrival* as " have formerly mentioned& " then
too. off my s/e,ta,les* and waitin( about an hour* till the tide
was a little fallen* " waded throu(h the middle with my ,ar(o* and
arrived safe at the royal /ort of !illi/ut&
The em/eror and his whole ,ourt stood on the shore* e0/e,tin( the
issue of this (reat adventure& They saw the shi/s move forward in
a lar(e halfAmoon* but ,ould not dis,ern me* who was u/ to my
breast in water& When " advan,ed to the middle of the ,hannel*
they were yet more in /ain* be,ause " was under water to my ne,.&
The em/eror ,on,luded me to be drowned* and that the enemy's fleet
was a//roa,hin( in a hostile manner< but he was soon eased of his
fears- for the ,hannel (rowin( shallower every ste/ " made* " ,ame
in a short time within hearin(* and holdin( u/ the end of the
,able* by whi,h the fleet was fastened* " ,ried in a loud voi,e*
9!on( live the most /uissant .in( of !illi/utL9 This (reat /rin,e
re,eived me at my landin( with all /ossible en,omiums* and ,reated
me a narda, u/on the s/ot* whi,h is the hi(hest title of honour
amon( them&
His ma:esty desired " would ta.e some other o//ortunity of brin(in(
all the rest of his enemy's shi/s into his /orts& $nd so
unmeasureable is the ambition of /rin,es* that he seemed to thin.
of nothin( less than redu,in( the whole em/ire of lefus,u into a
/rovin,e* and (overnin( it* by a vi,eroy- of destroyin( the i(A
endian e0iles* and ,om/ellin( that /eo/le to brea. the smaller end
of their e((s* by whi,h he would remain the sole monar,h of the
whole world& ut " endeavoured to divert him from this desi(n* by
many ar(uments drawn from the to/i,s of /oli,y as well as :usti,e-
and " /lainly /rotested* 9that " would never be an instrument of
brin(in( a free and brave /eo/le into slavery&9 $nd* when the
matter was debated in ,oun,il* the wisest /art of the ministry were
of my o/inion&
This o/en bold de,laration of mine was so o//osite to the s,hemes
and /oliti,s of his im/erial ma:esty* that he ,ould never for(ive
me& He mentioned it in a very artful manner at ,oun,il* where "
was told that some of the wisest a//eared* at least by their
silen,e* to be of my o/inion- but others* who were my se,ret
enemies* ,ould not forbear some e0/ressions whi,h* by a sideAwind*
refle,ted on me& $nd from this time be(an an intri(ue between his
ma:esty and a :unto of ministers* mali,iously bent a(ainst me*
whi,h bro.e out in less than two months* and had li.e to have ended
in my utter destru,tion& #f so little wei(ht are the (reatest
servi,es to /rin,es* when /ut into the balan,e with a refusal to
(ratify their /assions&
$bout three wee.s after this e0/loit* there arrived a solemn
embassy from lefus,u* with humble offers of a /ea,e* whi,h was
soon ,on,luded* u/on ,onditions very advanta(eous to our em/eror*
wherewith " shall not trouble the reader& There were si0
ambassadors* with a train of about five hundred /ersons* and their
entry was very ma(nifi,ent* suitable to the (randeur of their
master* and the im/ortan,e of their business& When their treaty
was finished* wherein " did them several (ood offi,es by the ,redit
" now had* or at least a//eared to have* at ,ourt* their
e0,ellen,ies* who were /rivately told how mu,h " had been their
friend* made me a visit in form& They be(an with many ,om/liments
u/on my valour and (enerosity* invited me to that .in(dom in the
em/eror their master's name* and desired me to show them some
/roofs of my /rodi(ious stren(th* of whi,h they had heard so many
wonders- wherein " readily obli(ed them* but shall not trouble the
reader with the /arti,ulars&
When " had for some time entertained their e0,ellen,ies* to their
infinite satisfa,tion and sur/rise* " desired they would do me the
honour to /resent my most humble res/e,ts to the em/eror their
master* the renown of whose virtues had so :ustly filled the whole
world with admiration* and whose royal /erson " resolved to attend*
before " returned to my own ,ountry& $,,ordin(ly* the ne0t time "
had the honour to see our em/eror* " desired his (eneral li,ense to
wait on the lefus,udian monar,h* whi,h he was /leased to (rant me*
as " ,ould /er,eive* in a very ,old manner- but ,ould not (uess the
reason* till " had a whis/er from a ,ertain /erson* 9that 4limna/
and ol(olam had re/resented my inter,ourse with those ambassadors
as a mar. of disaffe,tion-9 from whi,h " am sure my heart was
wholly free& $nd this was the first time " be(an to ,on,eive some
im/erfe,t idea of ,ourts and ministers&
"t is to be observed* that these ambassadors s/o.e to me* by an
inter/reter* the lan(ua(es of both em/ires differin( as mu,h from
ea,h other as any two in Euro/e* and ea,h nation /ridin( itself
u/on the anti1uity* beauty* and ener(y of their own ton(ue* with an
avowed ,ontem/t for that of their nei(hbour- yet our em/eror*
standin( u/on the advanta(e he had (ot by the sei@ure of their
fleet* obli(ed them to deliver their ,redentials* and ma.e their
s/ee,h* in the !illi/utian ton(ue& $nd it must be ,onfessed* that
from the (reat inter,ourse of trade and ,ommer,e between both
realms* from the ,ontinual re,e/tion of e0iles whi,h is mutual
amon( them* and from the ,ustom* in ea,h em/ire* to send their
youn( nobility and ri,her (entry to the other* in order to /olish
themselves by seein( the world* and understandin( men and manners-
there are few /ersons of distin,tion* or mer,hants* or seamen* who
dwell in the maritime /arts* but what ,an hold ,onversation in both
ton(ues- as " found some wee.s after* when " went to /ay my
res/e,ts to the em/eror of lefus,u* whi,h* in the midst of (reat
misfortunes* throu(h the mali,e of my enemies* /roved a very ha//y
adventure to me* as " shall relate in its /ro/er /la,e&
The reader may remember* that when " si(ned those arti,les u/on
whi,h " re,overed my liberty* there were some whi,h " disli.ed*
u/on a,,ount of their bein( too servile- neither ,ould anythin( but
an e0treme ne,essity have for,ed me to submit& ut bein( now a
narda, of the hi(hest ran. in that em/ire* su,h offi,es were loo.ed
u/on as below my di(nity* and the em/eror =to do him :usti,e>*
never on,e mentioned them to me& However* it was not lon( before "
had an o//ortunity of doin( his ma:esty* at least as " then
thou(ht* a most si(nal servi,e& " was alarmed at midni(ht with the
,ries of many hundred /eo/le at my door- by whi,h* bein( suddenly
awa.ed* " was in some .ind of terror& " heard the word ur(lum
re/eated in,essantly< several of the em/eror's ,ourt* their
way throu(h the ,rowd* entreated me to ,ome immediately to the
/ala,e* where her im/erial ma:esty's a/artment was on fire* by the
,arelessness of a maid of honour* who fell aslee/ while she was
readin( a roman,e& " (ot u/ in an instant- and orders bein( (iven
to ,lear the way before me* and it bein( li.ewise a moonshine
ni(ht* " made a shift to (et to the /ala,e without tram/lin( on any
of the /eo/le& " found they had already a//lied ladders to the
walls of the a/artment* and were well /rovided with bu,.ets* but
the water was at some distan,e& These bu,.ets were about the si@e
of lar(e thimbles* and the /oor /eo/le su//lied me with them as
fast as they ,ould< but the flame was so violent that they did
little (ood& " mi(ht easily have stifled it with my ,oat* whi,h "
unfortunately left behind me for haste* and ,ame away only in my
leathern The ,ase seemed wholly des/erate and de/lorable-
and this ma(nifi,ent /ala,e would have infallibly been burnt down
to the (round* if* by a /resen,e of mind unusual to me* " had not
suddenly thou(ht of an e0/edient& " had* the evenin( before* drun.
/lentifully of a most deli,ious wine ,alled (limi(rim* =the
lefus,udians ,all it flune,* but ours is esteemed the better
sort*> whi,h is very diureti,& y the lu,.iest ,han,e in the
world* " had not dis,har(ed myself of any /art of it& The heat "
had ,ontra,ted by ,omin( very near the flames* and by labourin( to
1uen,h them* made the wine be(in to o/erate by urine- whi,h "
voided in su,h a 1uantity* and a//lied so well to the /ro/er
/la,es* that in three minutes the fire was wholly e0tin(uished* and
the rest of that noble /ile* whi,h had ,ost so many a(es in
ere,tin(* /reserved from destru,tion&
"t was now dayAli(ht* and " returned to my house without waitin( to
,on(ratulate with the em/eror< be,ause* althou(h " had done a very
eminent /ie,e of servi,e* yet " ,ould not tell how his ma:esty
mi(ht resent the manner by whi,h " had /erformed it< for* by the
fundamental laws of the realm* it is ,a/ital in any /erson* of what
1uality soever* to ma.e water within the /re,in,ts of the /ala,e&
ut " was a little ,omforted by a messa(e from his ma:esty* 9that
he would (ive orders to the (rand :usti,iary for /assin( my /ardon
in form<9 whi,h* however* " ,ould not obtain- and " was /rivately
assured* 9that the em/ress* ,on,eivin( the (reatest abhorren,e of
what " had done* removed to the most distant side of the ,ourt*
firmly resolved that those buildin(s should never be re/aired for
her use< and* in the /resen,e of her ,hief ,onfidents ,ould not
forbear vowin( reven(e&9
2H$PTER 5"&
'#f the inhabitants of !illi/ut- their learnin(* laws* and ,ustoms-
the manner of edu,atin( their ,hildren& The author's way of livin(
in that ,ountry& His vindi,ation of a (reat lady&)
$lthou(h " intend to leave the des,ri/tion of this em/ire to a
/arti,ular treatise* yet* in the mean time* " am ,ontent to (ratify
the ,urious reader with some (eneral ideas& $s the ,ommon si@e of
the natives is somewhat under si0 in,hes hi(h* so there is an e0a,t
/ro/ortion in all other animals* as well as /lants and trees< for
instan,e* the tallest horses and o0en are between four and five
in,hes in hei(ht* the shee/ an in,h and half* more or less< their
(eese about the bi(ness of a s/arrow* and so the several (radations
downwards till you ,ome to the smallest* whi,h to my si(ht* were
almost invisible- but nature has ada/ted the eyes of the
!illi/utians to all ob:e,ts /ro/er for their view< they see with
(reat e0a,tness* but at no (reat distan,e& $nd* to show the
shar/ness of their si(ht towards ob:e,ts that are near* " have been
mu,h /leased with observin( a ,oo. /ullin( a lar.* whi,h was not so
lar(e as a ,ommon fly- and a youn( (irl threadin( an invisible
needle with invisible sil.& Their tallest trees are about seven
feet hi(h< " mean some of those in the (reat royal /ar.* the to/s
whereof " ,ould but :ust rea,h with my fist ,len,hed& The other
ve(etables are in the same /ro/ortion- but this " leave to the
reader's ima(ination&
" shall say but little at /resent of their learnin(* whi,h* for
many a(es* has flourished in all its bran,hes amon( them< but
their manner of writin( is very /e,uliar* bein( neither from the
left to the ri(ht* li.e the Euro/eans* nor from the ri(ht to the
left* li.e the $rabians* nor from u/ to down* li.e the 2hinese* but
aslant* from one ,orner of the /a/er to the other* li.e ladies in
They bury their dead with their heads dire,tly downward* be,ause
they hold an o/inion* that in eleven thousand moons they are all to
rise a(ain- in whi,h /eriod the earth =whi,h they ,on,eive to be
flat> will turn u/side down* and by this means they shall* at their
resurre,tion* be found ready standin( on their feet& The learned
amon( them ,onfess the absurdity of this do,trine- but the /ra,ti,e
still ,ontinues* in ,om/lian,e to the vul(ar&
There are some laws and ,ustoms in this em/ire very /e,uliar- and
if they were not so dire,tly ,ontrary to those of my own dear
,ountry* " should be tem/ted to say a little in their
:ustifi,ation& "t is only to be wished they were as well e0e,uted&
The first " shall mention* relates to informers& $ll ,rimes
a(ainst the state* are /unished here with the utmost severity- but*
if the /erson a,,used his inno,en,e /lainly to a//ear u/on
his trial* the a,,user is immediately /ut to an i(nominious death-
and out of his (oods or lands the inno,ent /erson is 1uadru/ly
re,om/ensed for the loss of his time* for the dan(er he underwent*
for the hardshi/ of his im/risonment* and for all the ,har(es he
has been at in his defen,e- or* if that fund be defi,ient*
it is lar(ely su//lied by the ,rown& The em/eror also ,onfers on
him some /ubli, mar. of his favour* and /ro,lamation is made of his
inno,en,e throu(h the whole ,ity&
They loo. u/on fraud as a (reater ,rime than theft* and therefore
seldom fail to /unish it with death- for they alle(e* that ,are and
vi(ilan,e* with a very ,ommon understandin(* may /reserve a man's
(oods from thieves* but honesty has no defen,e a(ainst su/erior
,unnin(- and* sin,e it is ne,essary that there should be a
/er/etual inter,ourse of buyin( and sellin(* and dealin( u/on
,redit* where fraud is /ermitted and ,onnived at* or has no law to
/unish it* the honest dealer is always undone* and the .nave (ets
the advanta(e& " remember* when " was on,e inter,edin( with the
em/eror for a ,riminal who had wron(ed his master of a (reat sum of
money* whi,h he had re,eived by order and ran away with- and
ha//enin( to tell his ma:esty* by way of e0tenuation* that it was
only a brea,h of trust* the em/eror thou(ht it monstrous in me to
offer as a defen,e the (reatest a((ravation of the ,rime- and truly
" had little to say in return* farther than the ,ommon answer* that
different nations had different ,ustoms- for* " ,onfess* " was
heartily ashamed& H8I
$lthou(h we usually ,all reward and /unishment the two hin(es u/on
whi,h all (overnment turns* yet " ,ould never observe this ma0im to
be /ut in /ra,ti,e by any nation e0,e/t that of !illi/ut& Whoever
,an there brin( suffi,ient /roof* that he has stri,tly observed the
laws of his ,ountry for seventyAthree moons* has a ,laim to ,ertain
/rivile(es* a,,ordin( to his 1uality or ,ondition of life* with a
/ro/ortionable sum of money out of a fund a//ro/riated for that
use< he li.ewise a,1uires the title of snil/all* or le(al* whi,h
is added to his name* but does not des,end to his /osterity& $nd
these /eo/le thou(ht it a /rodi(ious defe,t of /oli,y amon( us*
when " told them that our laws were enfor,ed only by /enalties*
without any mention of reward& "t is u/on this a,,ount that the
ima(e of Justi,e* in their ,ourts of :udi,ature* is formed with si0
eyes* two before* as many behind* and on ea,h side one* to si(nify
,ir,ums/e,tion- with a ba( of (old o/en in her ri(ht hand* and a
sword sheathed in her left* to show she is more dis/osed to reward
than to /unish&
"n ,hoosin( /ersons for all em/loyments* they have more re(ard to
(ood morals than to (reat abilities- for* sin,e (overnment is
ne,essary to man.ind* they believe* that the ,ommon si@e of human
understandin( is fitted to some station or other- and that
Providen,e never intended to ma.e the mana(ement of /ubli, affairs
a mystery to be ,om/rehended only by a few /ersons of sublime
(enius* of whi,h there seldom are three born in an a(e< but they
su//ose truth* :usti,e* tem/eran,e* and the li.e* to be in every
man's /ower- the /ra,ti,e of whi,h virtues* assisted by e0/erien,e
and a (ood intention* would 1ualify any man for the servi,e of his
,ountry* e0,e/t where a ,ourse of study is re1uired& ut they
thou(ht the want of moral virtues was so far from bein( su//lied by
su/erior endowments of the mind* that em/loyments ,ould never be
/ut into su,h dan(erous hands as those of /ersons so 1ualified-
and* at least* that the ,ommitted by i(noran,e* in a
virtuous dis/osition* would never be of su,h fatal ,onse1uen,e to
the /ubli, weal* as the /ra,ti,es of a man* whose in,linations led
him to be ,orru/t* and who had (reat abilities to mana(e* to
multi/ly* and defend his ,orru/tions&
"n li.e manner* the disbelief of a %ivine Providen,e renders a man
in,a/able of holdin( any /ubli, station- for* sin,e .in(s avow
themselves to be the de/uties of Providen,e* the !illi/utians thin.
nothin( ,an be more absurd than for a /rin,e to em/loy su,h men as
disown the authority under whi,h he a,ts&
"n relatin( these and the followin( laws* " would only be
understood to mean the ori(inal institutions* and not the most
s,andalous ,orru/tions* into whi,h these /eo/le are fallen by the
de(enerate nature of man& 4or* as to that infamous /ra,ti,e of
a,1uirin( (reat em/loyments by dan,in( on the ro/es* or bad(es of
favour and distin,tion by lea/in( over sti,.s and ,ree/in( under
them* the reader is to observe* that they were first introdu,ed by
the (randfather of the em/eror now rei(nin(* and (rew to the
/resent hei(ht by the (radual in,rease of /arty and fa,tion&
"n(ratitude is amon( them a ,a/ital ,rime* as we read it to have
been in some other ,ountries< for they reason thus- that whoever ill returns to his benefa,tor* must needs be a ,ommon enemy
to the rest of man.ind* from whom he has re,eived no obli(ation*
and therefore su,h a man is not fit to live&
Their notions relatin( to the duties of /arents and ,hildren differ
e0tremely from ours& 4or* sin,e the ,on:un,tion of male and female
is founded u/on the (reat law of nature* in order to /ro/a(ate and
,ontinue the s/e,ies* the !illi/utians will needs have it* that men
and women are :oined to(ether* li.e other animals* by the motives
of ,on,u/is,en,e- and that their tenderness towards their youn(
/ro,eeds from the li.e natural /rin,i/le< for whi,h reason they
will never allow that a ,hild is under any obli(ation to his father
for be(ettin( him* or to his mother for brin(in( him into the
world- whi,h* ,onsiderin( the miseries of human life* was neither a
benefit in itself* nor intended so by his /arents* whose thou(hts*
in their love en,ounters* were otherwise em/loyed& U/on these* and
the li.e reasonin(s* their o/inion is* that /arents are the last of
all others to be trusted with the edu,ation of their own ,hildren-
and therefore they have in every town /ubli, nurseries* where all
/arents* e0,e/t ,otta(ers and labourers* are obli(ed to send their
infants of both se0es to be reared and edu,ated* when they ,ome to
the a(e of twenty moons* at whi,h time they are su//osed to have
some rudiments of do,ility& These s,hools are of several .inds*
suited to different 1ualities* and both se0es& They have ,ertain
/rofessors well s.illed in /re/arin( ,hildren for su,h a ,ondition
of life as befits the ran. of their /arents* and their own
,a/a,ities* as well as in,linations& " shall first say somethin(
of the male nurseries* and then of the female&
The nurseries for males of noble or eminent birth* are /rovided
with (rave and learned /rofessors* and their several de/uties& The
,lothes and food of the ,hildren are /lain and sim/le& They are
bred u/ in the /rin,i/les of honour* :usti,e* ,oura(e* modesty*
,lemen,y* reli(ion* and love of their ,ountry- they are always
em/loyed in some business* e0,e/t in the times of eatin( and
slee/in(* whi,h are very short* and two hours for diversions
,onsistin( of bodily e0er,ises& They are dressed by men till four
years of a(e* and then are obli(ed to dress themselves* althou(h
their 1uality be ever so (reat- and the women attendant* who are
a(ed /ro/ortionably to ours at fifty* /erform only the most menial
offi,es& They are never suffered to ,onverse with servants* but (o
to(ether in smaller or (reater numbers to ta.e their diversions*
and always in the /resen,e of a /rofessor* or one of his de/uties-
whereby they avoid those early bad im/ressions of folly and vi,e*
to whi,h our ,hildren are sub:e,t& Their /arents are suffered to
see them only twi,e a year- the visit is to last but an hour- they
are allowed to .iss the ,hild at meetin( and /artin(- but a
/rofessor* who always stands by on those o,,asions* will not suffer
them to whis/er* or use any fondlin( e0/ressions* or brin( any
/resents of toys* sweetmeats* and the li.e&
The /ension from ea,h family for the edu,ation and entertainment of
a ,hild* u/on failure of due /ayment* is levied by the em/eror's
The nurseries for ,hildren of ordinary (entlemen* mer,hants*
traders* and handi,rafts* are mana(ed /ro/ortionably after the same
manner- only those desi(ned for trades are /ut out a//renti,es at
eleven years old* whereas those of /ersons of 1uality ,ontinue in
their e0er,ises till fifteen* whi,h answers to twentyAone with us<
but the ,onfinement is (radually lessened for the last three years&
"n the female nurseries* the youn( (irls of 1uality are edu,ated
mu,h li.e the males* only they are dressed by orderly servants of
their own se0- but always in the /resen,e of a /rofessor or de/uty*
till they ,ome to dress themselves* whi,h is at five years old&
$nd if it be found that these nurses ever /resume to entertain the
(irls with fri(htful or foolish stories* or the ,ommon follies
/ra,tised by ,hambermaids amon( us* they are /ubli,ly whi//ed
thri,e about the ,ity* im/risoned for a year* and banished for life
to the most desolate /art of the ,ountry& Thus the youn( ladies
are as mu,h ashamed of bein( ,owards and fools as the men* and
des/ise all /ersonal ornaments* beyond de,en,y and ,leanliness<
neither did " /er,eive any differen,e in their edu,ation made by
their differen,e of se0* only that the e0er,ises of the females
were not alto(ether so robust- and that some rules were (iven them
relatin( to domesti, life* and a smaller ,om/ass of learnin( was
en:oined them< for their ma0im is* that amon( /eo/les of 1uality*
a wife should be always a reasonable and a(reeable ,om/anion*
be,ause she ,annot always be youn(& When the (irls are twelve
years old* whi,h amon( them is the marria(eable a(e* their /arents
or (uardians ta.e them home* with (reat e0/ressions of (ratitude to
the /rofessors* and seldom without tears of the youn( lady and her
"n the nurseries of females of the meaner sort* the ,hildren are
instru,ted in all .inds of wor.s /ro/er for their se0* and their
several de(rees< those intended for a//renti,es are dismissed at
seven years old* the rest are .e/t to eleven&
The meaner families who have ,hildren at these nurseries* are
obli(ed* besides their annual /ension* whi,h is as low as /ossible*
to return to the steward of the nursery a small monthly share of
their (ettin(s* to be a /ortion for the ,hild- and therefore all
/arents are limited in their e0/enses by the law& 4or the
!illi/utians thin. nothin( ,an be more un:ust* than for /eo/le* in
subservien,e to their own a//etites* to brin( ,hildren into the
world* and leave the burthen of su//ortin( them on the /ubli,& $s
to /ersons of 1uality* they (ive se,urity to a//ro/riate a ,ertain
sum for ea,h ,hild* suitable to their ,ondition- and these funds
are always mana(ed with (ood husbandry and the most e0a,t :usti,e&
The ,otta(ers and labourers .ee/ their ,hildren at home* their
business bein( only to till and ,ultivate the earth* and therefore
their edu,ation is of little ,onse1uen,e to the /ubli,< but the
old and diseased amon( them* are su//orted by hos/itals- for
be((in( is a trade un.nown in this em/ire&
$nd here it may* /erha/s* divert the ,urious reader* to (ive some
a,,ount of my domesti,s* and my manner of livin( in this ,ountry*
durin( a residen,e of nine months* and thirteen days& Havin( a
head me,hani,ally turned* and bein( li.ewise for,ed by ne,essity* "
had made for myself a table and ,hair ,onvenient enou(h* out of the
lar(est trees in the royal /ar.& Two hundred sem/stresses were
em/loyed to ma.e me shirts* and linen for my bed and table* all of
the stron(est and ,oarsest .ind they ,ould (et- whi,h* however*
they were for,ed to 1uilt to(ether in several folds* for the
thi,.est was some de(rees finer than lawn& Their linen is usually
three in,hes wide* and three feet ma.e a /ie,e& The sem/stresses
too. my measure as " lay on the (round* one standin( at my ne,.*
and another at my midAle(* with a stron( ,ord e0tended* that ea,h
held by the end* while a third measured the len(th of the ,ord with
a rule of an in,h lon(& Then they measured my ri(ht thumb* and
desired no more- for by a mathemati,al ,om/utation* that twi,e
round the thumb is on,e round the wrist* and so on to the ne,. and
the waist* and by the hel/ of my old shirt* whi,h " dis/layed on
the (round before them for a /attern* they fitted me e0a,tly&
Three hundred tailors were em/loyed in the same manner to ma.e me
,lothes- but they had another ,ontrivan,e for my measure& "
.neeled down* and they raised a ladder from the (round to my ne,.-
u/on this ladder one of them mounted* and let fall a /lumbAline
from my ,ollar to the floor* whi,h :ust answered the len(th of my
,oat< but my waist and arms " measured myself& When my ,lothes
were finished* whi,h was done in my house =for the lar(est of
theirs would not have been able to hold them>* they loo.ed li.e the
/at,hAwor. made by the ladies in En(land* only that mine were all
of a ,olour&
" had three hundred ,oo.s to dress my vi,tuals* in little
,onvenient huts built about my house* where they and their families
lived* and /re/ared me two dishes aA/ie,e& " too. u/ twenty
waiters in my hand* and /la,ed them on the table< a hundred more
attended below on the (round* some with dishes of meat* and some
with barrels of wine and other li1uors slun( on their shoulders-
all whi,h the waiters above drew u/* as " wanted* in a very
in(enious manner* by ,ertain ,ords* as we draw the bu,.et u/ a well
in Euro/e& $ dish of their meat was a (ood mouthful* and a barrel
of their li1uor a reasonable drau(ht& Their mutton yields to ours*
but their beef is e0,ellent& " have had a sirloin so lar(e* that "
have been for,ed to ma.e three bites of it- but this is rare& +y
servants were astonished to see me eat it* bones and all* as in our
,ountry we do the le( of a lar.& Their (eese and tur.eys " usually
ate at a mouthful* and " ,onfess they far e0,eed ours& #f their
smaller fowl " ,ould ta.e u/ twenty or thirty at the end of my
#ne day his im/erial ma:esty* bein( informed of my way of livin(*
desired 9that himself and his royal ,onsort* with the youn( /rin,es
of the blood of both se0es* mi(ht have the ha//iness*9 as he was
/leased to ,all it* 9of dinin( with me&9 They ,ame a,,ordin(ly*
and " /la,ed them in ,hairs of state* u/on my table* :ust over
a(ainst me* with their (uards about them& 4limna/* the lord hi(h
treasurer* attended there li.ewise with his white staff- and "
observed he often loo.ed on me with a sour ,ountenan,e* whi,h "
would not seem to re(ard* but ate more than usual* in honour to my
dear ,ountry* as well as to fill the ,ourt with admiration& " have
some /rivate reasons to believe* that this visit from his ma:esty
(ave 4limna/ an o//ortunity of doin( me ill offi,es to his master&
That minister had always been my se,ret enemy* thou(h he outwardly
,aressed me more than was usual to the moroseness of his nature&
He re/resented to the em/eror 9the low ,ondition of his treasury-
that he was for,ed to ta.e u/ money at a (reat dis,ount- that
e0,he1uer bills would not ,ir,ulate under nine /er ,ent& below /ar-
that " had ,ost his ma:esty above a million and a half of s/ru(s9
=their (reatest (old ,oin* about the bi(ness of a s/an(le> 9and*
u/on the whole* that it would be advisable in the em/eror to ta.e
the first fair o,,asion of dismissin( me&9
" am here obli(ed to vindi,ate the re/utation of an e0,ellent lady*
who was an inno,ent sufferer u/on my a,,ount& The treasurer too. a
fan,y to be :ealous of his wife* from the mali,e of some evil
ton(ues* who informed him that her (ra,e had ta.en a violent
affe,tion for my /erson- and the ,ourt s,andal ran for some time*
that she on,e ,ame /rivately to my lod(in(& This " solemnly
de,lare to be a most infamous falsehood* without any (rounds*
further than that her (ra,e was /leased to treat me with all
inno,ent mar.s of freedom and friendshi/& " own she ,ame often to
my house* but always /ubli,ly* nor ever without three more in the
,oa,h* who were usually her sister and youn( dau(hter* and some
/arti,ular a,1uaintan,e- but this was ,ommon to many other ladies
of the ,ourt& $nd " still a//eal to my servants round* whether
they at any time saw a ,oa,h at my door* without .nowin( what
/ersons were in it& #n those o,,asions* when a servant had (iven
me noti,e* my ,ustom was to (o immediately to the door* and* after
/ayin( my res/e,ts* to ta.e u/ the ,oa,h and two horses very
,arefully in my hands =for* if there were si0 horses* the
/ostillion always unharnessed four*> and /la,e them on a table*
where " had fi0ed a movable rim 1uite round* of five in,hes hi(h*
to /revent a,,idents& $nd " have often had four ,oa,hes and horses
at on,e on my table* full of ,om/any* while " sat in my ,hair*
leanin( my fa,e towards them- and when " was en(a(ed with one set*
the ,oa,hmen would (ently drive the others round my table& " have
/assed many an afternoon very a(reeably in these ,onversations&
ut " defy the treasurer* or his two informers =" will name them*
and let them ma.e the best of it> 2lustril and %runlo* to /rove
that any /erson ever ,ame to me in,o(nito* e0,e/t the se,retary
Reldresal* who was sent by e0/ress ,ommand of his im/erial ma:esty*
as " have before related& " should not have dwelt so lon( u/on
this /arti,ular* if it had not been a /oint wherein the re/utation
of a (reat lady is so nearly ,on,erned* to say nothin( of my own-
thou(h " then had the honour to be a narda,* whi,h the treasurer
himself is not- for all the world .nows* that he is only a
(lum(lum* a title inferior by one de(ree* as that of a mar1uis is
to a du.e in En(land- yet " allow he /re,eded me in ri(ht of his
/ost& These false informations* whi,h " afterwards ,ame to the
.nowled(e of by an a,,ident not /ro/er to mention* made the
treasurer show his lady for some time an ill ,ountenan,e* and me a
worse- and althou(h he was at last unde,eived and re,on,iled to
her* yet " lost all ,redit with him* and found my interest de,line
very fast with the em/eror himself* who was* indeed* too mu,h
(overned by that favourite&
2H$PTER 5""&
'The author* bein( informed of a desi(n to a,,use him of hi(hA
treason* his es,a/e to lefus,u& His re,e/tion there&)
efore " /ro,eed to (ive an a,,ount of my leavin( this .in(dom* it
may be /ro/er to inform the reader of a /rivate intri(ue whi,h had
been for two months formin( a(ainst me&
" had been hitherto* all my life* a stran(er to ,ourts* for whi,h "
was un1ualified by the meanness of my ,ondition& " had indeed
heard and read enou(h of the dis/ositions of (reat /rin,es and
ministers* but never e0/e,ted to have found su,h terrible effe,ts
of them* in so remote a ,ountry* (overned* as " thou(ht* by very
different ma0ims from those in Euro/e&
When " was :ust /re/arin( to /ay my attendan,e on the em/eror of
lefus,u* a ,onsiderable /erson at ,ourt =to whom " had been very
servi,eable* at a time when he lay under the hi(hest dis/leasure of
his im/erial ma:esty> ,ame to my house very /rivately at ni(ht* in
a ,lose ,hair* and* without sendin( his name* desired admittan,e&
The ,hairmen were dismissed- " /ut the ,hair* with his lordshi/ in
it* into my ,oatA/o,.et< and* (ivin( orders to a trusty servant*
to say " was indis/osed and (one to slee/* " fastened the door of
my house* /la,ed the ,hair on the table* a,,ordin( to my usual
,ustom* and sat down by it& $fter the ,ommon salutations were
over* observin( his lordshi/'s ,ountenan,e full of ,on,ern* and
in1uirin( into the reason* he desired 9" would hear him with
/atien,e* in a matter that hi(hly ,on,erned my honour and my life&9
His s/ee,h was to the followin( effe,t* for " too. notes of it as
soon as he left me<A
93ou are to .now*9 said he* 9that several ,ommittees of ,oun,il
have been lately ,alled* in the most /rivate manner* on your
a,,ount- and it is but two days sin,e his ma:esty ,ame to a full
93ou are very sensible that S.yresh ol(olam9 =(albet* or hi(hA
admiral> 9has been your mortal enemy* almost ever sin,e your
arrival& His ori(inal reasons " .now not- but his hatred is
in,reased sin,e your (reat su,,ess a(ainst lefus,u* by whi,h his
(lory as admiral is mu,h obs,ured& This lord* in ,on:un,tion with
4limna/ the hi(hAtreasurer* whose enmity a(ainst you is notorious
on a,,ount of his lady* !imto, the (eneral* !al,on the ,hamberlain*
and almuff the (rand :usti,iary* have /re/ared arti,les of
im/ea,hment a(ainst you* for treason and other ,a/ital ,rimes&9
This /refa,e made me so im/atient* bein( ,ons,ious of my own merits
and inno,en,e* that " was (oin( to interru/t him- when he entreated
me to be silent* and thus /ro,eeded<A
9#ut of (ratitude for the favours you have done me* " /ro,ured
information of the whole /ro,eedin(s* and a ,o/y of the arti,les-
wherein " venture my head for your servi,e&
9'$rti,les of "m/ea,hment a(ainst ;U"NUS 4!ESTR"N* =the +anA
$RT"2!E "&
9'Whereas* by a statute made in the rei(n of his im/erial ma:esty
2alin %effar Plune* it is ena,ted* that* whoever shall ma.e water
within the /re,in,ts of the royal /ala,e* shall be liable to the
/ains and /enalties of hi(hAtreason- notwithstandin(* the said
;uinbus 4lestrin* in o/en brea,h of the said law* under ,olour of
e0tin(uishin( the fire .indled in the a/artment of his ma:esty's
most dear im/erial ,onsort* did mali,iously* traitorously* and
devilishly* by dis,har(e of his urine* /ut out the said fire
.indled in the said a/artment* lyin( and bein( within the /re,in,ts
of the said royal /ala,e* a(ainst the statute in that ,ase
/rovided* et,& a(ainst the duty* et,&
$RT"2!E ""&
9'That the said ;uinbus 4lestrin* havin( brou(ht the im/erial fleet
of lefus,u into the royal /ort* and bein( afterwards ,ommanded by
his im/erial ma:esty to sei@e all the other shi/s of the said
em/ire of lefus,u* and redu,e that em/ire to a /rovin,e* to be
(overned by a vi,eroy from hen,e* and to destroy and /ut to death*
not only all the i(Aendian e0iles* but li.ewise all the /eo/le of
that em/ire who would not immediately forsa.e the i(Aendian
heresy* he* the said 4lestrin* li.e a false traitor a(ainst his
most aus/i,ious* serene* im/erial ma:esty* did /etition to be
e0,used from the said servi,e* u/on /reten,e of unwillin(ness to
for,e the ,ons,ien,es* or destroy the liberties and lives of an
inno,ent /eo/le&
$RT"2!E """&
9'That* whereas ,ertain ambassadors arrived from the 2ourt of
lefus,u* to sue for /ea,e in his ma:esty's ,ourt* he* the said
4lestrin* did* li.e a false traitor* aid* abet* ,omfort* and
divert* the said ambassadors* althou(h he .new them to be servants
to a /rin,e who was lately an o/en enemy to his im/erial ma:esty*
and in an o/en war a(ainst his said ma:esty&
$RT"2!E "5&
9'That the said ;uinbus 4lestrin* ,ontrary to the duty of a
faithful sub:e,t* is now /re/arin( to ma.e a voya(e to the ,ourt
and em/ire of lefus,u* for whi,h he has re,eived only verbal
li,ense from his im/erial ma:esty- and* under ,olour of the said
li,ense* does falsely and traitorously intend to ta.e the said
voya(e* and thereby to aid* ,omfort* and abet the em/eror of
lefus,u* so lately an enemy* and in o/en war with his im/erial
ma:esty aforesaid&'
9There are some other arti,les- but these are the most im/ortant*
of whi,h " have read you an abstra,t&
9"n the several debates u/on this im/ea,hment* it must be ,onfessed
that his ma:esty (ave many mar.s of his (reat lenity- often ur(in(
the servi,es you had done him* and endeavourin( to e0tenuate your
,rimes& The treasurer and admiral insisted that you should be /ut
to the most /ainful and i(nominious death* by settin( fire to your
house at ni(ht* and the (eneral was to attend with twenty thousand
men* armed with /oisoned arrows* to shoot you on the fa,e and
hands& Some of your servants were to have /rivate orders to strew
a /oisonous :ui,e on your shirts and sheets* whi,h would soon ma.e
you tear your own flesh* and die in the utmost torture& The
(eneral ,ame into the same o/inion- so that for a lon( time there
was a ma:ority a(ainst you- but his ma:esty resolvin(* if /ossible*
to s/are your life* at last brou(ht off the ,hamberlain&
9U/on this in,ident* Reldresal* /rin,i/al se,retary for /rivate
affairs* who always a//roved himself your true friend* was
,ommanded by the em/eror to deliver his o/inion* whi,h he
a,,ordin(ly did- and therein :ustified the (ood thou(hts you have
of him& He allowed your ,rimes to be (reat* but that still there
was room for mer,y* the most ,ommendable virtue in a /rin,e* and
for whi,h his ma:esty was so :ustly ,elebrated& He said* the
friendshi/ between you and him was so well .nown to the world* that
/erha/s the most honourable board mi(ht thin. him /artial- however*
in obedien,e to the ,ommand he had re,eived* he would freely offer
his sentiments& That if his ma:esty* in ,onsideration of your
servi,es* and /ursuant to his own mer,iful dis/osition* would
/lease to s/are your life* and only (ive orders to /ut out both
your eyes* he humbly ,on,eived* that by this e0/edient :usti,e
mi(ht in some measure be satisfied* and all the world would a//laud
the lenity of the em/eror* as well as the fair and (enerous
/ro,eedin(s of those who have the honour to be his ,ounsellors&
That the loss of your eyes would be no im/ediment to your bodily
stren(th* by whi,h you mi(ht still be useful to his ma:esty- that
blindness is an addition to ,oura(e* by ,on,ealin( dan(ers from us-
that the fear you had for your eyes* was the (reatest diffi,ulty in
brin(in( over the enemy's fleet* and it would be suffi,ient for you
to see by the eyes of the ministers* sin,e the (reatest /rin,es do
no more&
9This /ro/osal was re,eived with the utmost disa//robation by the
whole board& ol(olam* the admiral* ,ould not /reserve his tem/er*
but* risin( u/ in fury* said* he wondered how the se,retary durst
/resume to (ive his o/inion for /reservin( the life of a traitor-
that the servi,es you had /erformed were* by all true reasons of
state* the (reat a((ravation of your ,rimes- that you* who were
able to e0tin(uish the fire by dis,har(e of urine in her ma:esty's
a/artment =whi,h he mentioned with horror>* mi(ht* at another time*
raise an inundation by the same means* to drown the whole /ala,e-
and the same stren(th whi,h enabled you to brin( over the enemy's
fleet* mi(ht serve* u/on the first dis,ontent* to ,arry it ba,.-
that he had (ood reasons to thin. you were a i(Aendian in your
heart- and* as treason be(ins in the heart* before it a//ears in
overtAa,ts* so he a,,used you as a traitor on that a,,ount* and
therefore insisted you should be /ut to death&
9The treasurer was of the same o/inion< he showed to what straits
his ma:esty's revenue was redu,ed* by the ,har(e of maintainin(
you* whi,h would soon (row insu//ortable- that the se,retary's
e0/edient of /uttin( out your eyes* was so far from bein( a remedy
a(ainst this evil* that it would /robably in,rease it* as is
manifest from the ,ommon /ra,ti,e of blindin( some .ind of fowls*
after whi,h they fed the faster* and (rew sooner fat- that his
sa,red ma:esty and the ,oun,il* who are your :ud(es* were* in their
own ,ons,ien,es* fully ,onvin,ed of your (uilt* whi,h was a
suffi,ient ar(ument to ,ondemn you to death* without the formal
/roofs re1uired by the stri,t letter of the law&
9ut his im/erial ma:esty* fully determined a(ainst ,a/ital
/unishment* was (ra,iously /leased to say* that sin,e the ,oun,il
thou(ht the loss of your eyes too easy a ,ensure* some other way
may be infli,ted hereafter& $nd your friend the se,retary* humbly
desirin( to be heard a(ain* in answer to what the treasurer had
ob:e,ted* ,on,ernin( the (reat ,har(e his ma:esty was at in
maintainin( you* said* that his e0,ellen,y* who had the sole
dis/osal of the em/eror's revenue* mi(ht easily /rovide a(ainst
that evil* by (radually lessenin( your establishment- by whi,h* for
want of suffi,ient for you would (row wea. and faint* and lose your
a//etite* and ,onse1uently* de,ay* and ,onsume in a few months-
neither would the sten,h of your ,ar,ass be then so dan(erous* when
it should be,ome more than half diminished- and immediately u/on
your death five or si0 thousand of his ma:esty's sub:e,ts mi(ht* in
two or three days* ,ut your flesh from your bones* ta.e it away by
,artAloads* and bury it in distant /arts* to /revent infe,tion*
leavin( the s.eleton as a monument of admiration to /osterity&
9Thus* by the (reat friendshi/ of the se,retary* the whole affair
was ,om/romised& "t was stri,tly en:oined* that the /ro:e,t of
starvin( you by de(rees should be .e/t a se,ret- but the senten,e
of /uttin( out your eyes was entered on the boo.s- none dissentin(*
e0,e/t ol(olam the admiral* who* bein( a ,reature of the em/ress*
was /er/etually insti(ated by her ma:esty to insist u/on your
death* she havin( borne /er/etual mali,e a(ainst you* on a,,ount of
that infamous and ille(al method you too. to e0tin(uish the fire in
her a/artment&
9"n three days your friend the se,retary will be dire,ted to ,ome
to your house* and read before you the arti,les of im/ea,hment- and
then to si(nify the (reat lenity and favour of his ma:esty and
,oun,il* whereby you are only ,ondemned to the loss of your eyes*
whi,h his ma:esty does not 1uestion you will (ratefully and humbly
submit to- and twenty of his ma:esty's sur(eons will attend* in
order to see the o/eration well /erformed* by dis,har(in( very
shar/A/ointed arrows into the balls of your eyes* as you lie on the
9" leave to your /ruden,e what measures you will ta.e- and to avoid
sus/i,ion* " must immediately return in as /rivate a manner as "
His lordshi/ did so- and " remained alone* under many doubts and
/er/le0ities of mind&
"t was a ,ustom introdu,ed by this /rin,e and his ministry =very
different* as " have been assured* from the /ra,ti,e of former
times*> that after the ,ourt had de,reed any ,ruel e0e,ution*
either to (ratify the monar,h's resentment* or the mali,e of a
favourite* the em/eror always made a s/ee,h to his whole ,oun,il*
e0/ressin( his (reat lenity and tenderness* as 1ualities .nown and
,onfessed by all the world& This s/ee,h was immediately /ublished
throu(hout the .in(dom- nor did any thin( terrify the /eo/le so
mu,h as those en,omiums on his ma:esty's mer,y- be,ause it was
observed* that the more these /raises were enlar(ed and insisted
on* the more inhuman was the /unishment* and the sufferer more
inno,ent& 3et* as to myself* " must ,onfess* havin( never been
desi(ned for a ,ourtier* either by my birth or edu,ation* " was so
ill a :ud(e of thin(s* that " ,ould not dis,over the lenity and
favour of this senten,e* but ,on,eived it =/erha/s erroneously>
rather to be ri(orous than (entle& " sometimes thou(ht of standin(
my trial* for* althou(h " ,ould not deny the fa,ts alle(ed in the
several arti,les* yet " ho/ed they would admit of some e0tenuation&
ut havin( in my life /erused many stateAtrials* whi,h " ever
observed to terminate as the :ud(es thou(ht fit to dire,t* " durst
not rely on so dan(erous a de,ision* in so ,riti,al a :un,ture* and
a(ainst su,h /owerful enemies& #n,e " was stron(ly bent u/on
resistan,e* for* while " had liberty the whole stren(th of that
em/ire ,ould hardly subdue me* and " mi(ht easily with stones /elt
the metro/olis to /ie,es- but " soon re:e,ted that /ro:e,t with
horror* by rememberin( the oath " had made to the em/eror* the
favours " re,eived from him* and the hi(h title of narda, he
,onferred u/on me& Neither had " so soon learned the (ratitude of
,ourtiers* to /ersuade myself* that his ma:esty's /resent seventies
a,1uitted me of all /ast obli(ations&
$t last* " fi0ed u/on a resolution* for whi,h it is /robable " may
in,ur some ,ensure* and not un:ustly- for " ,onfess " owe the
/reservin( of mine eyes* and ,onse1uently my liberty* to my own
(reat rashness and want of e0/erien,e- be,ause* if " had then .nown
the nature of /rin,es and ministers* whi,h " have sin,e observed in
many other ,ourts* and their methods of treatin( ,riminals less
obno0ious than myself* " should* with (reat ala,rity and readiness*
have submitted to so easy a /unishment& ut hurried on by the
/re,i/itan,y of youth* and havin( his im/erial ma:esty's li,ense to
/ay my attendan,e u/on the em/eror of lefus,u* " too. this
o//ortunity* before the three days were ela/sed* to send a letter
to my friend the se,retary* si(nifyin( my resolution of settin( out
that mornin( for lefus,u* /ursuant to the leave " had (ot- and*
without waitin( for an answer* " went to that side of the island
where our fleet lay& " sei@ed a lar(e man of war* tied a ,able to
the /row* and* liftin( u/ the an,hors* " stri//ed myself* /ut my
,lothes =to(ether with my ,overlet* whi,h " ,arried under my arm>
into the vessel* and* drawin( it after me* between wadin( and
swimmin( arrived at the royal /ort of lefus,u* where the /eo/le
had lon( e0/e,ted me< they lent me two (uides to dire,t me to the
,a/ital ,ity* whi,h is of the same name& " held them in my hands*
till " ,ame within two hundred yards of the (ate* and desired them
9to si(nify my arrival to one of the se,retaries* and let him .now*
" there waited his ma:esty's ,ommand&9 " had an answer in about an
hour* 9that his ma:esty* attended by the royal family* and (reat
offi,ers of the ,ourt* was ,omin( out to re,eive me&9 " advan,ed a
hundred yards& The em/eror and his train ali(hted from their
horses* the em/ress and ladies from their ,oa,hes* and " did not
/er,eive they were in any fri(ht or ,on,ern& " lay on the (round
to .iss his ma:esty's and the em/ress's hands& " told his ma:esty*
9that " was ,ome a,,ordin( to my /romise* and with the li,ense of
the em/eror my master* to have the honour of seein( so mi(hty a
monar,h* and to offer him any servi,e in my /ower* ,onsistent with
my duty to my own /rin,e-9 not mentionin( a word of my dis(ra,e*
be,ause " had hitherto no re(ular information of it* and mi(ht
su//ose myself wholly i(norant of any su,h desi(n- neither ,ould "
reasonably ,on,eive that the em/eror would dis,over the se,ret*
while " was out of his /ower- wherein* however* it soon a//eared "
was de,eived&
" shall not trouble the reader with the /arti,ular a,,ount of my
re,e/tion at this ,ourt* whi,h was suitable to the (enerosity of so
(reat a /rin,e- nor of the diffi,ulties " was in for want of a
house and bed* bein( for,ed to lie on the (round* wra//ed u/ in my
2H$PTER 5"""&
'The author* by a lu,.y a,,ident* finds means to leave lefus,u-
and* after some diffi,ulties* returns safe to his native ,ountry&)
Three days after my arrival* out of ,uriosity to the northA
east ,oast of the island* " observed* about half a lea(ue off in
the sea* somewhat that loo.ed li.e a boat overturned& " /ulled off
my shoes and sto,.in(s* and* wailin( two or three hundred yards* "
found the ob:e,t to a//roa,h nearer by for,e of the tide- and then
/lainly saw it to be a real boat* whi,h " su//osed mi(ht by some
tem/est have been driven from a shi/& Whereu/on* " returned
immediately towards the ,ity* and desired his im/erial ma:esty to
lend me twenty of the tallest vessels he had left* after the loss
of his fleet* and three thousand seamen* under the ,ommand of his
vi,eAadmiral& This fleet sailed round* while " went ba,. the
shortest way to the ,oast* where " first dis,overed the boat& "
found the tide had driven it still nearer& The seamen were all
/rovided with ,orda(e* whi,h " had beforehand twisted to a
suffi,ient stren(th& When the shi/s ,ame u/* " stri//ed myself*
and waded till " ,ame within a hundred yards off the boat* after
whi,h " was for,ed to swim till " (ot u/ to it& The seamen threw
me the end of the ,ord* whi,h " fastened to a hole in the foreA/art
of the boat* and the other end to a man of war- but " found all my
labour to little /ur/ose- for* bein( out of my de/th* " was not
able to wor.& "n this ne,essity " was for,ed to swim behind* and
/ush the boat forward* as often as " ,ould* with one of my hands-
and the tide favourin( me* " advan,ed so far that " ,ould :ust hold
u/ my ,hin and feel the (round& " rested two or three minutes* and
then (ave the boat another shove* and so on* till the sea was no
hi(her than my armA/its- and now* the most laborious /art bein(
over* " too. out my other ,ables* whi,h were stowed in one of the
shi/s* and fastened them first to the boat* and then to nine of the
vessels whi,h attended me- the wind bein( favourable* the seamen
towed* and " shoved* until we arrived within forty yards of the
shore- and* waitin( till the tide was out* " (ot dry to the boat*
and by the assistan,e of two thousand men* with ro/es and en(ines*
" made a shift to turn it on its bottom* and found it was but
little dama(ed&
" shall not trouble the reader with the diffi,ulties " was under*
by the hel/ of ,ertain /addles* whi,h ,ost me ten days* to
(et my boat to the royal /ort of lefus,u* where a mi(hty ,on,ourse
of /eo/le a//eared u/on my arrival* full of wonder at the si(ht of
so /rodi(ious a vessel& " told the em/eror 9that my (ood fortune
had thrown this boat in my way* to ,arry me to some /la,e when,e "
mi(ht return into my native ,ountry- and be((ed his ma:esty's
orders for (ettin( materials to fit it u/* to(ether with his
li,ense to de/art-9 whi,h* after some .ind e0/ostulations* he was
/leased to (rant&
" did very mu,h wonder* in all this time* not to have heard of any
e0/ress relatin( to me from our em/eror to the ,ourt of lefus,u&
ut " was afterward (iven /rivately to understand* that his
im/erial ma:esty* never ima(inin( " had the least noti,e of his
desi(ns* believed " was only (one to lefus,u in /erforman,e of my
/romise* a,,ordin( to the li,ense he had (iven me* whi,h was well
.nown at our ,ourt* and would return in a few days* when the
,eremony was ended& ut he was at last in /ain at my lon( absen,e-
and after ,onsultin( with the treasurer and the rest of that ,abal*
a /erson of 1uality was dis/at,hed with the ,o/y of the arti,les
a(ainst me& This envoy had instru,tions to re/resent to the
monar,h of lefus,u* 9the (reat lenity of his master* who was
,ontent to /unish me no farther than with the loss of mine eyes-
that " had fled from :usti,e- and if " did not return in two hours*
" should be de/rived of my title of narda,* and de,lared a
traitor&9 The envoy further added* 9that in order to maintain the
/ea,e and amity between both em/ires* his master e0/e,ted that his
brother of lefus,u would (ive orders to have me sent ba,. to
!illi/ut* bound hand and foot* to be /unished as a traitor&9
The em/eror of lefus,u* havin( ta.en three days to ,onsult*
returned an answer ,onsistin( of many ,ivilities and e0,uses& He
said* 9that as for sendin( me bound* his brother .new it was
im/ossible- that* althou(h " had de/rived him of his fleet* yet he
owed (reat obli(ations to me for many (ood offi,es " had done him
in the /ea,e& That* however* both their ma:esties would
soon be made easy- for " had found a /rodi(ious vessel on the
shore* able to ,arry me on the sea* whi,h he had (iven orders to
fit u/* with my own assistan,e and dire,tion- and he ho/ed* in a
few wee.s* both em/ires would be freed from so insu//ortable an
With this answer the envoy returned to !illi/ut- and the monar,h of
lefus,u related to me all that had /assed- offerin( me at the same
time =but under the stri,test ,onfiden,e> his (ra,ious /rote,tion*
if " would ,ontinue in his servi,e- wherein* althou(h " believed
him sin,ere* yet " resolved never more to /ut any ,onfiden,e in
/rin,es or ministers* where " ,ould /ossibly avoid it- and
therefore* with all due a,.nowled(ments for his favourable
intentions* " humbly be((ed to be e0,used& " told him* 9that sin,e
fortune* whether (ood or evil* had thrown a vessel in my way* " was
resolved to venture myself on the o,ean* rather than be an o,,asion
of differen,e between two su,h mi(hty monar,hs&9 Neither did "
find the em/eror at all dis/leased- and " dis,overed* by a ,ertain
a,,ident* that he was very (lad of my resolution* and so were most
of his ministers&
These ,onsiderations moved me to hasten my de/arture somewhat
sooner than " intended- to whi,h the ,ourt* im/atient to have me
(one* very readily ,ontributed& 4ive hundred were em/loyed
to ma.e two sails to my boat* a,,ordin( to my dire,tions* by
1uiltin( thirteen folds of their stron(est linen to(ether& " was
at the /ains of ro/es and ,ables* by twistin( ten* twenty*
or thirty of the thi,.est and stron(est of theirs& $ (reat stone
that " ha//ened to find* after a lon( sear,h* by the seaAshore*
served me for an an,hor& " had the tallow of three hundred ,ows*
for (reasin( my boat* and other uses& " was at in,redible /ains in
,uttin( down some of the lar(est timberAtrees* for oars and masts*
wherein " was* however* mu,h assisted by his ma:esty's shi/A
,ar/enters* who hel/ed me in smoothin( them* after " had done the
rou(h wor.&
"n about a month* when all was /re/ared* " sent to re,eive his
ma:esty's ,ommands* and to ta.e my leave& The em/eror and royal
family ,ame out of the /ala,e- " lay down on my fa,e to .iss his
hand* whi,h he very (ra,iously (ave me< so did the em/ress and
youn( /rin,es of the blood& His ma:esty /resented me with fifty
/urses of two hundred s/ru(s aA/ie,e* to(ether with his /i,ture at
full len(th* whi,h " /ut immediately into one of my (loves* to .ee/
it from bein( hurt& The ,eremonies at my de/arture were too many
to trouble the reader with at this time&
" stored the boat with the ,ar,ases of a hundred o0en* and three
hundred shee/* with bread and drin. /ro/ortionable* and as mu,h
meat ready dressed as four hundred ,oo.s ,ould /rovide& " too.
with me si0 ,ows and two bulls alive* with as many ewes and rams*
intendin( to ,arry them into my own ,ountry* and /ro/a(ate the
breed& $nd to feed them on board* " had a (ood bundle of hay* and
a ba( of ,orn& " would (ladly have ta.en a do@en of the natives*
but this was a thin( the em/eror would by no means /ermit- and*
besides a dili(ent sear,h into my /o,.ets* his ma:esty en(a(ed my
honour 9not to ,arry away any of his sub:e,ts* althou(h with their
own ,onsent and desire&9
Havin( thus /re/ared all thin(s as well as " was able* " set sail
on the twentyAfourth day of Se/tember 67F6* at si0 in the mornin(-
and when " had (one about fourAlea(ues to the northward* the wind
bein( at southAeast* at si0 in the evenin( " des,ried a small
island* about half a lea(ue to the northAwest& " advan,ed forward*
and ,ast an,hor on the leeAside of the island* whi,h seemed to be
uninhabited& " then too. some refreshment* and went to my rest& "
sle/t well* and as " ,on:e,tured at least si0 hours* for " found
the day bro.e in two hours after " awa.ed& "t was a ,lear ni(ht&
" ate my before the sun was u/- and heavin( an,hor* the
wind bein( favourable* " steered the same ,ourse that " had done
the day before* wherein " was dire,ted by my /o,.et ,om/ass& +y
intention was to rea,h* if /ossible* one of those islands& whi,h "
had reason to believe lay to the northAeast of 5an %iemen's !and&
" dis,overed nothin( all that day- but u/on the ne0t* about three
in the afternoon* when " had by my ,om/utation made twentyAfour
lea(ues from lefus,u* " des,ried a sail steerin( to the southA
east- my ,ourse was due east& " hailed her* but ,ould (et no
answer- yet " found " (ained u/on her* for the wind sla,.ened& "
made all the sail " ,ould* and in half an hour she s/ied me* then
hun( out her an,ient* and dis,har(ed a (un& "t is not easy to
e0/ress the :oy " was in* u/on the une0/e,ted ho/e of on,e more
seein( my beloved ,ountry* and the dear /led(es " left in it& The
shi/ sla,.ened her sails* and " ,ame u/ with her between five and
si0 in the evenin(* Se/tember 8Cth- but my heart lea/ed within me
to see her En(lish ,olours& " /ut my ,ows and shee/ into my ,oatA
/o,.ets* and (ot on board with all my little ,ar(o of /rovisions&
The vessel was an En(lish mer,hantman* returnin( from Ja/an by the
North and South seas- the ,a/tain* +r& John iddel* of %e/tford* a
very ,ivil man* and an e0,ellent sailor&
We were now in the latitude of EF de(rees south- there were about
fifty men in the shi/- and here " met an old ,omrade of mine* one
Peter Williams* who (ave me a (ood ,hara,ter to the ,a/tain& This
(entleman treated me with .indness* and desired " would let him
.now what /la,e " ,ame from last* and whither " was bound- whi,h "
did in a few words* but he thou(ht " was ravin(* and that the
dan(ers " underwent had disturbed my head- whereu/on " too. my
bla,. ,attle and shee/ out of my /o,.et* whi,h* after (reat
astonishment* ,learly ,onvin,ed him of my vera,ity& " then showed
him the (old (iven me by the em/eror of lefus,u* to(ether with his
ma:esty's /i,ture at full len(th* and some other rarities of that
,ountry& " (ave him two /urses of two hundreds s/ru(s ea,h* and
/romised* when we arrived in En(land* to ma.e him a /resent of a
,ow and a shee/ bi( with youn(&
" shall not trouble the reader with a /arti,ular a,,ount of this
voya(e* whi,h was very /ros/erous for the most /art& We arrived in
the %owns on the 6Eth of $/ril* 67F8& " had only one misfortune*
that the rats on board ,arried away one of my shee/- " found her
bones in a hole* /i,.ed ,lean from the flesh& The rest of my
,attle " (ot safe ashore* and set them aA(ra@in( in a bowlin(A(reen
at Greenwi,h* where the fineness of the (rass made them feed very
heartily* thou(h " had always feared the ,ontrary< neither ,ould "
/ossibly have /reserved them in so lon( a voya(e* if the ,a/tain
had not allowed me some of his best bis,uit* whi,h* rubbed to
/owder* and min(led with water* was their ,onstant food& The short
time " ,ontinued in En(land* " made a ,onsiderable /rofit by
showin( my ,attle to many /ersons of 1uality and others< and
before " be(an my se,ond voya(e* " sold them for si0 hundred
/ounds& Sin,e my last return " find the breed is ,onsiderably
in,reased* es/e,ially the shee/* whi,h " ho/e will /rove mu,h to
the advanta(e of the woollen manufa,ture* by the fineness of the
" stayed but two months with my wife and family* for my insatiable
desire of seein( forei(n ,ountries* would suffer me to ,ontinue no
lon(er& " left fifteen hundred /ounds with my wife* and fi0ed her
in a (ood house at Redriff& +y remainin( sto,. " ,arried with me*
/art in money and /art in (oods* in ho/es to im/rove my fortunes&
+y eldest un,le John had left me an estate in land* near E//in(* of
about thirty /ounds aAyear- and " had a lon( lease of the la,.
ull in 4etterA!ane* whi,h yielded me as mu,h more- so that " was
not in any dan(er of leavin( my family u/on the /arish& +y son
Johnny* named so after his un,le* was at the (rammarAs,hool* and a
towardly ,hild& +y dau(hter etty =who is now well married* and
has ,hildren> was then at her needleAwor.& " too. leave of my
wife* and boy and (irl* with tears on both sides* and went on board
the $dventure* a mer,hant shi/ of three hundred tons* bound for
Surat* ,a/tain John Ni,holas* of !iver/ool* ,ommander& ut my
a,,ount of this voya(e must be referred to the Se,ond Part of my
P$RT ""& $ 5#3$GE T# R#%"NGN$G&
2H$PTER "&
'$ (reat storm des,ribed- the lon( boat sent to fet,h water- the
author (oes with it to dis,over the ,ountry& He is left on shore*
is sei@ed by one of the natives* and ,arried to a farmer's house&
His re,e/tion* with several a,,idents that ha//ened there& $
des,ri/tion of the inhabitants&)
Havin( been ,ondemned* by nature and fortune* to a,tive and
restless life* in two months after my return* " a(ain left my
native ,ountry* and too. shi//in( in the %owns* on the 8Fth day of
June* 67F8* in the $dventure* 2a/tain John Ni,holas* a 2ornish man*
,ommander* bound for Surat& We had a very /ros/erous (ale* till we
arrived at the 2a/e of Good Ho/e* where we landed for fresh water-
but dis,overin( a lea.* we unshi//ed our (oods and wintered there-
for the ,a/tain fallin( si,. of an a(ue* we ,ould not leave the
2a/e till the end of +ar,h& We then set sail* and had a (ood
voya(e till we /assed the Straits of +ada(as,ar- but havin( (ot
northward of that island* and to about five de(rees south latitude*
the winds* whi,h in those seas are observed to blow a ,onstant
e1ual (ale between the north and west* from the be(innin( of
%e,ember to the be(innin( of +ay* on the 6Dth of $/ril be(an to
blow with mu,h (reater violen,e* and more westerly than usual*
,ontinuin( so for twenty days to(ether< durin( whi,h time* we were
driven a little to the east of the +olu,,a "slands* and about three
de(rees northward of the line* as our ,a/tain found by an
observation he too. the 8nd of +ay* at whi,h time the wind ,eased*
and it was a /erfe,t ,alm* whereat " was not a little re:oi,ed&
ut he* bein( a man well e0/erien,ed in the navi(ation of those
seas* bid us all /re/are a(ainst a storm* whi,h a,,ordin(ly
ha//ened the day followin(< for the southern wind* ,alled the
southern monsoon* be(an to set in&
4indin( it was li.ely to overblow* we too. in our s/ritAsail* and
stood by to hand the foreAsail- but foul weather* we loo.ed
the (uns were all fast* and handed the mi@en& The shi/ lay very
broad off* so we thou(ht it better s/oonin( before the sea* than
tryin( or hullin(& We reefed the foreAsail and set him* and hauled
aft the foreAsheet- the helm was hard aAweather& The shi/ wore
bravely& We belayed the fore downAhaul- but the sail was s/lit*
and we hauled down the yard* and (ot the sail into the shi/* and
unbound all the thin(s ,lear of it& "t was a very fier,e storm-
the sea bro.e stran(e and dan(erous& We hauled off u/on the
laniard of the whi/Astaff* and hel/ed the man at the helm& We
would not (et down our to/mast* but let all stand* be,ause she
s,udded before the sea very well* and we .new that the to/Amast
bein( aloft* the shi/ was the wholesomer* and made better way
throu(h the sea* seein( we had seaAroom& When the storm was over*
we set foreAsail and mainAsail* and brou(ht the shi/ to& Then we
set the mi@en* mainAto/Asail* and the foreAto/Asail& #ur ,ourse
was eastAnorthAeast* the wind was at southAwest& We (ot the
starboard ta,.s aboard* we ,ast off our weatherAbra,es and lifts-
we set in the leeAbra,es* and hauled forward by the weatherA
bowlin(s* and hauled them ti(ht* and belayed them* and hauled over
the mi@en ta,. to windward* and .e/t her full and by as near as she
would lie&
%urin( this storm* whi,h was followed by a stron( wind westAsouthA
west* we were ,arried* by my ,om/utation* about five hundred
lea(ues to the east* so that the oldest sailor on board ,ould not
tell in what /art of the world we were& #ur /rovisions held out
well* our shi/ was staun,h* and our ,rew all in (ood health- but we
lay in the utmost distress for water& We thou(ht it best to hold
on the same ,ourse* rather than turn more northerly* whi,h mi(ht
have brou(ht us to the northAwest /art of Great Tartary* and into
the 4ro@en Sea&
#n the 6Cth day of June* 67FE* a boy on the to/Amast dis,overed
land& #n the 67th* we ,ame in full view of a (reat island* or
,ontinent =for we .new not whether-> on the south side whereof was
a small ne,. of land :uttin( out into the sea* and a ,ree. too
shallow to hold a shi/ of above one hundred tons& We ,ast an,hor
within a lea(ue of this ,ree.* and our ,a/tain sent a do@en of his
men well armed in the lon(Aboat* with vessels for water* if any
,ould be found& " desired his leave to (o with them* that " mi(ht
see the ,ountry* and ma.e what dis,overies " ,ould& When we ,ame
to land we saw no river or s/rin(* nor any si(n of inhabitants&
#ur men therefore wandered on the shore to find out some fresh
water near the sea* and " wal.ed alone about a mile on the other
side* where " observed the ,ountry all barren and ro,.y& " now
be(an to be weary* and seein( nothin( to entertain my ,uriosity* "
returned (ently down towards the ,ree.- and the sea bein( full in
my view* " saw our men already (ot into the boat* and rowin( for
life to the shi/& " was (oin( to holla after them* althou(h it had
been to little /ur/ose* when " observed a hu(e ,reature
after them in the sea* as fast as he ,ould< he waded not mu,h
dee/er than his .nees* and too. /rodi(ious strides< but our men
had the start of him half a lea(ue* and* the sea thereabouts bein(
full of shar/A/ointed ro,.s* the monster was not able to overta.e
the boat& This " was afterwards told* for " durst not stay to see
the issue of the adventure- but ran as fast as " ,ould the way "
first went* and then ,limbed u/ a stee/ hill* whi,h (ave me some
/ros/e,t of the ,ountry& " found it fully ,ultivated- but that
whi,h first sur/rised me was the len(th of the (rass* whi,h* in
those (rounds that seemed to be .e/t for hay* was about twenty feet
" fell into a hi(h road* for so " too. it to be* thou(h it served
to the inhabitants only as a footA/ath throu(h a field of barley&
Here " wal.ed on for some time* but ,ould see little on either
side* it bein( now near harvest* and the ,orn risin( at least forty
feet& " was an hour to the end of this field* whi,h was
fen,ed in with a hed(e of at least one hundred and twenty feet
hi(h* and the trees so lofty that " ,ould ma.e no ,om/utation of
their altitude& There was a stile to /ass from this field into the
ne0t& "t had four ste/s* and a stone to ,ross over when you ,ame
to the u//ermost& "t was im/ossible for me to ,limb this stile*
be,ause every ste/ was si0Afeet hi(h* and the u//er stone about
twenty& " was endeavourin( to find some (a/ in the hed(e* when "
dis,overed one of the inhabitants in the ne0t field* advan,in(
towards the stile* of the same si@e with him whom " saw in the sea
/ursuin( our boat& He a//eared as tall as an ordinary s/ire
stee/le* and too. about ten yards at every stride* as near as "
,ould (uess& " was stru,. with the utmost fear and astonishment*
and ran to hide myself in the ,orn* when,e " saw him at the to/ of
the stile ba,. into the ne0t field on the ri(ht hand* and
heard him ,all in a voi,e many de(rees louder than a s/
trum/et< but the noise was so hi(h in the air* that at first "
,ertainly thou(ht it was thunder& Whereu/on seven monsters* li.e
himself* ,ame towards him with rea/in(Ahoo.s in their hands* ea,h
hoo. about the lar(eness of si0 s,ythes& These /eo/le were not so
well ,lad as the first* whose servants or labourers they seemed to
be- for* u/on some words he s/o.e* they went to rea/ the ,orn in
the field where " lay& " .e/t from them at as (reat a distan,e as
" ,ould* but was for,ed to move with e0treme diffi,ulty* for the
stal.s of the ,orn were sometimes not above a foot distant* so that
" ,ould hardly s1uee@e my body betwi0t them& However* " made a
shift to (o forward* till " ,ame to a /art of the field where the
,orn had been laid by the rain and wind& Here it was im/ossible
for me to advan,e a ste/- for the stal.s were so interwoven* that "
,ould not ,ree/ throu(h* and the beards of the fallen ears so
stron( and /ointed* that they /ier,ed throu(h my ,lothes into my
flesh& $t the same time " heard the rea/ers not a hundred yards
behind me& ein( 1uite dis/irited with toil* and wholly over,ome
by (rief and dis/air* " lay down between two rid(es* and heartily
wished " mi(ht there end my days& " bemoaned my desolate widow and
fatherless ,hildren& " lamented my own folly and wilfulness* in
attem/tin( a se,ond voya(e* a(ainst the advi,e of all my friends
and relations& "n this terrible a(itation of mind* " ,ould not
forbear of !illi/ut* whose inhabitants loo.ed u/on me as
the (reatest /rodi(y that ever a//eared in the world- where " was
able to draw an im/erial fleet in my hand* and /erform those other
a,tions* whi,h will be re,orded for ever in the ,hroni,les of that
em/ire* while /osterity shall hardly believe them* althou(h
attested by millions& " refle,ted what a mortifi,ation it must
/rove to me* to a//ear as in,onsiderable in this nation* as one
sin(le !illi/utian would be amon( us& ut this " ,on,eived was to
be the least of my misfortunes- for* as human ,reatures are
observed to be more sava(e and ,ruel in /ro/ortion to their bul.*
what ,ould " e0/e,t but to be a morsel in the mouth of the first
amon( these enormous barbarians that should ha//en to sei@e me?
Undoubtedly /hiloso/hers are in the ri(ht* when they tell us that
nothin( is (reat or little otherwise than by ,om/arison& "t mi(ht
have /leased fortune* to have let the !illi/utians find some
nation* where the /eo/le were as diminutive with res/e,t to them*
as they were to me& $nd who .nows but that even this /rodi(ious
ra,e of mortals mi(ht be e1ually overmat,hed in some distant /art
of the world* whereof we have yet no dis,overy&
S,ared and ,onfounded as " was* " ,ould not forbear (oin( on with
these refle,tions* when one of the rea/ers* a//roa,hin( within ten
yards of the rid(e where " lay* made me a//rehend that with the
ne0t ste/ " should be s1uashed to death under his foot* or ,ut in
two with his rea/in(Ahoo.& $nd therefore* when he was a(ain about
to move* " s,reamed as loud as fear ,ould ma.e me< whereu/on the
hu(e ,reature trod short* and* round about under him for
some time* at last es/ied me as " lay on the (round& He ,onsidered
awhile* with the ,aution of one who endeavours to lay hold on a
small dan(erous animal in su,h a manner that it shall not be able
either to s,rat,h or bite him* as " myself have sometimes done with
a weasel in En(land& $t len(th he ventured to ta.e me behind* by
the middle* between his foreAfin(er and thumb* and brou(ht me
within three yards of his eyes* that he mi(ht behold my sha/e more
/erfe,tly& " (uessed his meanin(* and my (ood fortune (ave me so
mu,h /resen,e of mind* that " resolved not to stru((le in the least
as he held me in the air above si0ty feet from the (round* althou(h
he (rievously /in,hed my sides* for fear " should sli/ throu(h his
fin(ers& $ll " ventured was to raise mine eyes towards the sun*
and /la,e my hands to(ether in a su//li,atin( /osture* and to s/ea.
some words in a humble melan,holy tone* suitable to the ,ondition "
then was in< for " a//rehended every moment that he would dash me
a(ainst the (round* as we usually do any little hateful animal*
whi,h we have a mind to destroy& ut my (ood star would have it*
that he a//eared /leased with my voi,e and (estures* and be(an to
loo. u/on me as a ,uriosity* mu,h wonderin( to hear me /ronoun,e
arti,ulate words* althou(h he ,ould not understand them& "n the
mean time " was not able to forbear (roanin( and sheddin( tears*
and turnin( my head towards my sides- lettin( him .now* as well as
" ,ould* how ,ruelly " was hurt by the /ressure of his thumb and
fin(er& He seemed to a//rehend my meanin(- for* liftin( u/ the
la//et of his ,oat* he /ut me (ently into it* and immediately ran
alon( with me to his master* who was a substantial farmer* and the
same /erson " had first seen in the field&
The farmer havin( =as " su//ose by their tal.> re,eived su,h an
a,,ount of me as his servant ,ould (ive him* too. a /ie,e of a
small straw* about the si@e of a* and therewith
lifted u/ the la//ets of my ,oat- whi,h it seems he thou(ht to be
some .ind of ,overin( that nature had (iven me& He blew my hairs
aside to ta.e a better view of my fa,e& He ,alled his hinds about
him* and as.ed them* as " afterwards learned* whether they had ever
seen in the fields any little ,reature that resembled me& He then
/la,ed me softly on the (round u/on all fours* but " (ot
immediately u/* and wal.ed slowly ba,.ward and forward* to let
those /eo/le see " had no intent to run away& They all sat down in
a ,ir,le about me* the better to observe my motions& " /ulled off
my hat* and made a low bow towards the farmer& " fell on my .nees*
and lifted u/ my hands and eyes* and s/o.e several words as loud as
" ,ould< " too. a /urse of (old out of my /o,.et* and humbly
/resented it to him& He re,eived it on the /alm of his hand* then
a//lied it ,lose to his eye to see what it was* and afterwards
turned it several times with the /oint of a /in =whi,h he too. out
of his sleeve*> but ,ould ma.e nothin( of it& Whereu/on " made a
si(n that he should /la,e his hand on the (round& " then too. the
/urse* and* o/enin( it* /oured all the (old into his /alm& There
were si0 S/anish /ie,es of four /istoles ea,h* beside twenty or
thirty smaller ,oins& " saw him wet the ti/ of his little fin(er
u/on his ton(ue* and ta.e u/ one of my lar(est /ie,es* and then
another- but he seemed to be wholly i(norant what they were& He
made me a si(n to /ut them a(ain into my /urse* and the /urse a(ain
into my /o,.et* whi,h* after offerin( it to him several times* "
thou(ht it best to do&
The farmer* by this time* was ,onvin,ed " must be a rational
,reature& He s/o.e often to me- but the sound of his voi,e /ier,ed
my ears li.e that of a waterAmill* yet his words were arti,ulate
enou(h& " answered as loud as " ,ould in several lan(ua(es* and he
often laid his ear within two yards of me< but all in vain* for we
were wholly unintelli(ible to ea,h other& He then sent his
servants to their wor.* and his,hief out of his
/o,.et* he doubled and s/read it on his left hand* whi,h he /la,ed
flat on the (round with the /alm u/ward* me a si(n to ste/
into it* as " ,ould easily do* for it was not above a foot in
thi,.ness& " thou(ht it my /art to obey* and* for fear of fallin(*
laid myself at full len(th u/on the,hief* with the
remainder of whi,h he la//ed me u/ to the head for further
se,urity* and in this manner ,arried me home to his house& There
he ,alled his wife* and showed me to her- but she s,reamed and ran
ba,.* as women in En(land do at the si(ht of a toad or a s/ider&
However* when she had a while seen my behaviour* and how well "
observed the si(ns her husband made* she was soon re,on,iled* and
by de(rees (rew e0tremely tender of me&
"t was about twelve at noon* and a servant brou(ht in dinner& "t
was only one substantial dish of meat =fit for the /lain ,ondition
of a husbandman*> in a dish of about fourAandAtwenty feet diameter&
The ,om/any were* the farmer and his wife* three ,hildren* and an
old (randmother& When they were sat down* the farmer /la,ed me at
some distan,e from him on the table* whi,h was thirty feet hi(h
from the floor& " was in a terrible fri(ht* and .e/t as far as "
,ould from the ed(e* for fear of fallin(& The wife min,ed a bit of
meat* then ,rumbled some bread on a tren,her* and /la,ed it before
me& " made her a low bow* too. out my .nife and for.* and fell to
eat* whi,h (ave them e0,eedin( deli(ht& The mistress sent her maid
for a small dram ,u/* whi,h held about two (allons* and filled it
with drin.- " too. u/ the vessel with mu,h diffi,ulty in both
hands* and in a most res/e,tful manner dran. to her ladyshi/'s
health* e0/ressin( the words as loud as " ,ould in En(lish* whi,h
made the ,om/any lau(h so heartily* that " was almost deafened with
the noise& This li1uor tasted li.e a small ,ider* and was not
un/leasant& Then the master made me a si(n to ,ome to his tren,her
side- but as " wal.ed on the table* bein( in (reat sur/rise all the
time* as the indul(ent reader will easily ,on,eive and e0,use* "
ha//ened to stumble a(ainst a ,rust* and fell flat on my fa,e* but
re,eived no hurt& " (ot u/ immediately* and observin( the (ood
/eo/le to be in mu,h ,on,ern* " too. my hat =whi,h " held under my
arm out of (ood manners*> and wavin( it over my head* made three
hu@@as* to show " had (ot no mis,hief by my fall& ut advan,in(
forward towards my master =as " shall hen,eforth ,all him*> his
youn(est son* who sat ne0t to him* an ar,h boy of about ten years
old* too. me u/ by the le(s* and held me so hi(h in the air* that "
trembled every limb< but his father snat,hed me from him* and at
the same time (ave him su,h a bo0 on the left ear* as would have
felled an Euro/ean troo/ of horse to the earth* orderin( him to be
ta.en from the table& ut bein( afraid the boy mi(ht owe me a
s/ite* and well rememberin( how mis,hievous all ,hildren amon( us
naturally are to s/arrows* rabbits* youn( .ittens* and /u//y do(s*
" fell on my .nees* and /ointin( to the boy* made my master to
understand* as well as " ,ould* that " desired his son mi(ht be
/ardoned& The father ,om/lied* and the lad too. his seat a(ain*
whereu/on " went to him* and .issed his hand* whi,h my master too.*
and made him stro.e me (ently with it&
"n the midst of dinner* my mistress's favourite ,at lea/ed into her
la/& " heard a noise behind me li.e that of a do@en sto,.in(A
weavers at wor.- and turnin( my head* " found it /ro,eeded from the
/urrin( of that animal* who seemed to be three times lar(er than an
o0* as " ,om/uted by the view of her head* and one of her /aws*
while her mistress was feedin( and her& The fier,eness of
this ,reature's ,ountenan,e alto(ether dis,om/osed me- thou(h "
stood at the farther end of the table* above fifty feet off- and
althou(h my mistress held her fast* for fear she mi(ht (ive a
s/rin(* and sei@e me in her talons& ut it ha//ened there was no
dan(er* for the ,at too. not the least noti,e of me when my master
/la,ed me within three yards of her& $nd as " have been always
told* and found true by e0/erien,e in my travels* that flyin( or
dis,overin( fear before a fier,e animal* is a ,ertain way to ma.e
it /ursue or atta,. you* so " resolved* in this dan(erous :un,ture*
to show no manner of ,on,ern& " wal.ed with intre/idity five or
si0 times before the very head of the ,at* and ,ame within half a
yard of her- whereu/on she drew herself ba,.* as if she were more
afraid of me< " had less a//rehension ,on,ernin( the do(s* whereof
three or four ,ame into the room* as it is usual in farmers'
houses- one of whi,h was a mastiff* e1ual in bul. to four
ele/hants* and another a (reyhound* somewhat taller than the
mastiff* but not so lar(e&
When dinner was almost done* the nurse ,ame in with a ,hild of a
year old in her arms* who immediately s/ied me* and be(an a s1uall
that you mi(ht have heard from !ondonArid(e to 2helsea* after the
usual oratory of infants* to (et me for a /laythin(& The mother*
out of /ure indul(en,e* too. me u/* and /ut me towards the ,hild*
who /resently sei@ed me by the middle* and (ot my head into his
mouth* where " roared so loud that the ur,hin was fri(hted* and let
me dro/* and " should infallibly have bro.e my ne,.* if the mother
had not held her a/ron under me& The nurse* to 1uiet her babe*
made use of a rattle whi,h was a .ind of hollow vessel filled with
(reat stones* and fastened by a ,able to the ,hild's waist< but
all in vain- so that she was for,ed to a//ly the last remedy by
(ivin( it su,.& " must ,onfess no ob:e,t ever dis(usted me so mu,h
as the si(ht of her monstrous breast* whi,h " ,annot tell what to
,om/are with* so as to (ive the ,urious reader an idea of its bul.*
sha/e* and ,olour& "t stood /rominent si0 feet* and ,ould not be
less than si0teen in ,ir,umferen,e& The ni//le was about half the
bi(ness of my head* and the hue both of that and the du(* so varied
with s/ots* /im/les* and fre,.les* that nothin( ,ould a//ear more
nauseous< for " had a near si(ht of her* she sittin( down* the
more ,onveniently to (ive su,.* and " standin( on the table& This
made me refle,t u/on the fair s.ins of our En(lish ladies* who
a//ear so beautiful to us* only be,ause they are of our own si@e*
and their defe,ts not to be seen but throu(h a ma(nifyin( (lass-
where we find by e0/eriment that the smoothest and whitest s.ins
loo. rou(h* and ,oarse* and illA,oloured&
" remember when " was at !illi/ut* the ,om/le0ion of those
diminutive /eo/le a//eared to me the fairest in the world- and u/on this sub:e,t with a /erson of learnin( there* who was
an intimate friend of mine* he said that my fa,e a//eared mu,h
fairer and smoother when he loo.ed on me from the (round* than it
did u/on a nearer view* when " too. him u/ in my hand* and brou(ht
him ,lose* whi,h he ,onfessed was at first a very sho,.in( si(ht&
He said* 9he ,ould dis,over (reat holes in my that the stum/s
of my beard were ten times stron(er than the bristles of a boar*
and my ,om/le0ion made u/ of several ,olours alto(ether
disa(reeable<9 althou(h " must be( leave to say for myself* that "
am as fair as most of my se0 and ,ountry* and very little sunburnt
by all my travels& #n the other side* dis,oursin( of the ladies in
that em/eror's ,ourt* he used to tell me* 9one had fre,.les-
another too wide a mouth- a third too lar(e a nose-9 nothin( of
whi,h " was able to distin(uish& " ,onfess this refle,tion was
obvious enou(h- whi,h* however* " ,ould not forbear* lest the
reader mi(ht thin. those vast ,reatures were a,tually deformed<
for " must do them the :usti,e to say* they are a ,omely ra,e of
/eo/le* and /arti,ularly the features of my master's ,ountenan,e*
althou(h he was but a farmer* when " beheld him from the hei(ht of
si0ty feet* a//eared very well /ro/ortioned&
When dinner was done* my master went out to his labourers* and* as
" ,ould dis,over by his voi,e and (esture* (ave his wife stri,t
,har(e to ta.e ,are of me& " was very mu,h tired* and dis/osed to
slee/* whi,h my mistress /er,eivin(* she /ut me on her own bed* and
,overed me with a ,lean white,hief* but lar(er and ,oarser
than the mainsail of a manAofAwar&
" sle/t about two hours* and dreamt " was at home with my wife and
,hildren* whi,h a((ravated my sorrows when " awa.ed* and found
myself alone in a vast room* between two and three hundred feet
wide* and above two hundred hi(h* lyin( in a bed twenty yards wide&
+y mistress was (one about her household affairs* and had lo,.ed me
in& The bed was ei(ht yards from the floor& Some natural
ne,essities re1uired me to (et down- " durst not /resume to ,all-
and if " had* it would have been in vain* with su,h a voi,e as
mine* at so (reat a distan,e from the room where " lay to the
.it,hen where the family .e/t& While " was under these
,ir,umstan,es* two rats ,re/t u/ the ,urtains* and ran smellin(
ba,.wards and forwards on the bed& #ne of them ,ame u/ almost to
my fa,e* whereu/on " rose in a fri(ht* and drew out my han(er to
defend myself& These horrible animals had the boldness to atta,.
me on both sides* and one of them held his foreAfeet at my ,ollar-
but " had the (ood fortune to ri/ u/ his belly before he ,ould do
me any mis,hief& He fell down at my feet- and the other* seein(
the fate of his ,omrade* made his es,a/e* but not without one (ood
wound on the ba,.* whi,h " (ave him as he fled* and made the blood
run tri,.lin( from him& $fter this e0/loit* " wal.ed (ently to and
fro on the bed* to re,over my breath and loss of s/irits& These
,reatures were of the si@e of a lar(e mastiff* but infinitely more
nimble and fier,e- so that if " had ta.en off my belt before " went
to slee/* " must have infallibly been torn to /ie,es and devoured&
" measured the tail of the dead rat* and found it to be two yards
lon(* wantin( an in,h- but it went a(ainst my stoma,h to dra( the
,ar,ass off the bed* where it lay still bleedin(- " observed it had
yet some life* but with a stron( slash a,ross the ne,.* "
thorou(hly des/at,hed it&
Soon after my mistress ,ame into the room* who seein( me all
bloody* ran and too. me u/ in her hand& " /ointed to the dead rat*
smilin(* and other si(ns to show " was not hurt- whereat she
was e0tremely re:oi,ed* ,allin( the maid to ta.e u/ the dead rat
with a /air of ton(s* and throw it out of the window& Then she set
me on a table* where " showed her my han(er all bloody* and wi/in(
it on the la//et of my ,oat* returned it to the s,abbard& " was
/ressed to do more than one thin( whi,h another ,ould not do for
me* and therefore endeavoured to ma.e my mistress understand* that
" desired to be set down on the floor- whi,h after she had done* my
bashfulness would not suffer me to e0/ress myself farther* than by
/ointin( to the door* and bowin( several times& The (ood woman*
with mu,h diffi,ulty* at last /er,eived what " would be at* and me u/ a(ain in her hand* wal.ed into the (arden* where she
set me down& " went on one side about two hundred yards* and
be,.onin( to her not to loo. or to follow me* " hid myself between
two leaves of sorrel* and there dis,har(ed the ne,essities of
" ho/e the (entle reader will e0,use me for dwellin( on these and
the li.e /arti,ulars* whi,h* however insi(nifi,ant they may a//ear
to (rovelin( vul(ar minds* yet will ,ertainly hel/ a /hiloso/her to
enlar(e his thou(hts and ima(ination* and a//ly them to the benefit
of /ubli, as well as /rivate life* whi,h was my sole desi(n in
/resentin( this and other a,,ounts of my travels to the world-
wherein " have been ,hiefly studious of truth* without affe,tin(
any ornaments of learnin( or of style& ut the whole s,ene of this
voya(e made so stron( an im/ression on my mind* and is so dee/ly
fi0ed in my memory* that* in ,ommittin( it to /a/er " did not omit
one material ,ir,umstan,e< however* u/on a stri,t review* "
blotted out several /assa(es& #f less moment whi,h were in my
first ,o/y* for fear of bein( ,ensured as tedious and triflin(*
whereof travellers are often* /erha/s not without :usti,e* a,,used&
2H$PTER ""&
'$ des,ri/tion of the farmer's dau(hter& The author ,arried to a
mar.etAtown* and then to the metro/olis& The /arti,ulars of his
+y mistress had a dau(hter of nine years old* a ,hild of towardly
/arts for her a(e* very de0terous at her needle* and s.ilful in
dressin( her baby& Her mother and she ,ontrived to fit u/ the
baby's ,radle for me a(ainst ni(ht< the ,radle was /ut into a
small drawer of a ,abinet* and the drawer /la,ed u/on a han(in(
shelf for fear of the rats& This was my bed all the time " staid
with those /eo/le* thou(h made more ,onvenient by de(rees* as "
be(an to learn their lan(ua(e and ma.e my wants .nown& This youn(
(irl was so handy* that after " had on,e or twi,e /ulled off my
,lothes before her* she was able to dress and undress me* thou(h "
never (ave her that trouble when she would let me do either myself&
She made me seven shirts* and some other linen* of as fine ,loth as
,ould be (ot* whi,h indeed was ,oarser than sa,.,loth- and these
she ,onstantly washed for me with her own hands& She was li.ewise
my s,hoolAmistress* to tea,h me the lan(ua(e< when " /ointed to
any thin(* she told me the name of it in her own ton(ue* so that in
a few days " was able to ,all for whatever " had a mind to& She
was very (oodAnatured* and not above forty feet hi(h* bein( little
for her a(e& She (ave me the name of Grildri(* whi,h the family
too. u/* and afterwards the whole .in(dom& The word im/orts what
the !atins ,all nanun,ulus* the "talians homun,eletino* and the
En(lish To her " ,hiefly owe my /reservation in that
,ountry< we never /arted while " was there- " ,alled her my
Glumdal,lit,h* or little nurse- and should be (uilty of (reat
in(ratitude* if " omitted this honourable mention of her ,are and
affe,tion towards me* whi,h " heartily wish it lay in my /ower to
re1uite as she deserves* instead of bein( the inno,ent* but unha//y
instrument of her dis(ra,e* as " have too mu,h reason to fear&
"t now be(an to be .nown and tal.ed of in the nei(hbourhood* that
my master had found a stran(e animal in the field* about the
bi(ness of a s/la,nu,.* but e0a,tly sha/ed in every /art li.e a
human ,reature- whi,h it li.ewise imitated in all its a,tions-
seemed to s/ea. in a little lan(ua(e of its own* had already
learned several words of theirs* went ere,t u/on two le(s* was tame
and (entle* would ,ome when it was ,alled* do whatever it was bid*
had the finest limbs in the world* and a ,om/le0ion fairer than a
nobleman's dau(hter of three years old& $nother farmer* who lived
hard by* and was a /arti,ular friend of my master* ,ame on a visit
on /ur/ose to in1uire into the truth of this story& " was
immediately /rodu,ed* and /la,ed u/on a table* where " wal.ed as "
was ,ommanded* drew my han(er* /ut it u/ a(ain* made my reveren,e
to my master's (uest* as.ed him in his own lan(ua(e how he did* and
told him HE W$S WE!2#+E* :ust as my little nurse had instru,ted me&
This man* who was old and dimAsi(hted* /ut on his s/e,ta,les to
behold me better- at whi,h " ,ould not forbear lau(hin( very
heartily* for his eyes a//eared li.e the full moon shinin( into a
,hamber at two windows& #ur /eo/le* who dis,overed the ,ause of my
mirth* bore me ,om/any in lau(hin(* at whi,h the old fellow was
fool enou(h to be an(ry and out of ,ountenan,e& He had the
,hara,ter of a (reat miser- and* to my misfortune* he well deserved
it* by the ,ursed advi,e he (ave my master* to show me as a si(ht
u/on a mar.etAday in the ne0t town* whi,h was half an hour's
ridin(* about twoAandAtwenty miles from our house& " (uessed there
was some mis,hief when " observed my master and his friend
whis/erin( to(ether* sometimes /ointin( at me- and my fears made me
fan,y that " overheard and understood some of their words& ut the
ne0t mornin( Glumdal,lit,h* my little nurse* told me the whole
matter* whi,h she had ,unnin(ly /i,.ed out from her mother& The
/oor (irl laid me on her bosom* and fell a wee/in( with shame and
(rief& She a//rehended some mis,hief would ha//en to me from rude
vul(ar fol.s* who mi(ht s1uee@e me to death* or brea. one of my
limbs by me in their hands& She had also observed how
modest " was in my nature* how ni,ely " re(arded my honour* and
what an indi(nity " should ,on,eive it* to be e0/osed for money as
a /ubli, s/e,ta,le* to the meanest of the /eo/le& She said* her
/a/a and mamma had /romised that Grildri( should be hers- but now
she found they meant to serve her as they did last year* when they
/retended to (ive her a lamb* and yet* as soon as it was fat* sold
it to a but,her& 4or my own /art* " may truly affirm* that " was
less ,on,erned than my nurse& " had a stron( ho/e* whi,h never
left me* that " should one day re,over my liberty< and as to the
i(nominy of bein( ,arried about for a monster* " ,onsidered myself
to be a /erfe,t stran(er in the ,ountry* and that su,h a misfortune
,ould never be ,har(ed u/on me as a re/roa,h* if ever " should
return to En(land* sin,e the .in( of Great ritain himself* in my
,ondition* must have under(one the same distress&
+y master* /ursuant to the advi,e of his friend* ,arried me in a
bo0 the ne0t mar.etAday to the nei(hbourin( town* and too. alon(
with him his little dau(hter* my nurse* u/on a /illion behind him&
The bo0 was ,lose on every side* with a little door for me to (o in
and out* and a few (imlet holes to let in air& The (irl had been
so ,areful as to /ut the 1uilt of her baby's bed into it* for me to
lie down on& However* " was terribly sha.en and dis,om/osed in
this :ourney* thou(h it was but of half an hour< for the horse
went about forty feet at every ste/ and trotted so hi(h* that the
a(itation was e1ual to the risin( and fallin( of a shi/ in a (reat
storm* but mu,h more fre1uent& #ur :ourney was somewhat farther
than from !ondon to St& $lban's& +y master ali(hted at an inn
whi,h he used to fre1uent- and after ,onsultin( awhile with the* and some ne,essary /re/arations* he hired the
(rultrud* or ,rier* to (ive noti,e throu(h the town of a stran(e
,reature to be seen at the si(n of the Green Ea(le* not so bi( as a
s/la,nu,. =an animal in that ,ountry very finely sha/ed* about si0
feet lon(*> and in every /art of the body resemblin( a human
,reature* ,ould s/ea. several words* and /erform a hundred
divertin( tri,.s&
" was /la,ed u/on a table in the lar(est room of the inn* whi,h
mi(ht be near three hundred feet s1uare& +y little nurse stood on
a low stool ,lose to the table* to ta.e ,are of me* and dire,t what
" should do& +y master* to avoid a ,rowd* would suffer only thirty
/eo/le at a time to see me& " wal.ed about on the table as the
(irl ,ommanded- she as.ed me 1uestions* as far as she .new my
understandin( of the lan(ua(e rea,hed* and " answered them as loud
as " ,ould& " turned about several times to the ,om/any* /aid my
humble res/e,ts* said THE3 WERE WE!2#+E* and used some other
s/ee,hes " had been tau(ht& " too. u/ a thimble filled with
li1uor* whi,h Glumdal,lit,h had (iven me for a ,u/* and dran. their
health* " drew out my han(er* and flourished with it after the
manner of fen,ers in En(land& +y nurse (ave me a /art of a straw*
whi,h " e0er,ised as a /i.e* havin( learnt the art in my youth& "
was that day shown to twelve sets of ,om/any* and as often for,ed
to a,t over a(ain the same fo//eries* till " was half dead with
weariness and ve0ation- for those who had seen me made su,h
wonderful re/orts* that the /eo/le were ready to brea. down the
doors to ,ome in& +y master* for his own interest* would not
suffer any one to tou,h me e0,e/t my nurse- and to /revent dan(er*
ben,hes were set round the table at su,h a distan,e as to /ut me
out of every body's rea,h& However* an unlu,.y s,hoolAboy aimed a
ha@el nut dire,tly at my head* whi,h very narrowly missed me-
otherwise it ,ame with so mu,h violen,e* that it would have
infallibly .no,.ed out my brains* for it was almost as lar(e as a
small /um/.in* but " had the satisfa,tion to see the youn( ro(ue
well beaten* and turned out of the room&
+y master (ave /ubli, noti,e that he would show me a(ain the ne0t
mar.etAday- and in the meantime he /re/ared a ,onvenient vehi,le
for me* whi,h he had reason enou(h to do- for " was so tired with
my first :ourney* and with entertainin( ,om/any for ei(ht hours
to(ether* that " ,ould hardly stand u/on my le(s* or s/ea. a word&
"t was at least three days before " re,overed my stren(th- and that
" mi(ht have no rest at home* all the nei(hbourin( (entlemen from a
hundred miles round* hearin( of my fame* ,ame to see me at my
master's own house& There ,ould not be fewer than thirty /ersons
with their wives and ,hildren =for the ,ountry is very /o/ulous->
and my master demanded the rate of a full room whenever he showed
me at home* althou(h it were only to a sin(le family- so that for
some time " had but little ease every day of the wee. =e0,e/t
Wednesday* whi,h is their Sabbath*> althou(h " were not ,arried to
the town&
+y master* findin( how /rofitable " was li.ely to be* resolved to
,arry me to the most ,onsiderable ,ities of the .in(dom& Havin(
therefore /rovided himself with all thin(s ne,essary for a lon(
:ourney* and settled his affairs at home* he too. leave of his
wife* and u/on the 67th of $u(ust* 67FE* about two months after my
arrival* we set out for the metro/olis* situate near the middle of
that em/ire* and about three thousand miles distan,e from our
house& +y master made his dau(hter Glumdal,lit,h ride behind him&
She ,arried me on her la/* in a bo0 tied about her waist& The (irl
had lined it on all sides with the softest ,loth she ,ould (et*
well 1uilted underneath* furnished it with her baby's bed* /rovided
me with linen and other ne,essaries* and made everythin( as
,onvenient as she ,ould& We had no other ,om/any but a boy of the
house* who rode after us with the lu((a(e&
+y master's desi(n was to show me in all the towns by the way* and
to ste/ out of the road for fifty or a hundred miles* to any
villa(e* or /erson of 1uality's house* where he mi(ht e0/e,t
,ustom& We made easy :ourneys* of not above seven or ei(ht s,ore
miles aAday- for Glumdal,lit,h* on /ur/ose to s/are me* ,om/lained
she was tired with the trottin( of the horse& She often too. me
out of my bo0* at my own desire* to (ive me air* and show me the
,ountry* but always held me fast by a leadin(Astrin(& We /assed
over five or si0 rivers* many de(rees broader and dee/er than the
Nile or the Gan(es< and there was hardly a rivulet so small as the
Thames at !ondonAbrid(e& We were ten wee.s in our :ourney* and "
was shown in ei(hteen lar(e towns* besides many villa(es* and
/rivate families&
#n the 8Cth day of #,tober we arrived at the metro/olis* ,alled in
their lan(ua(e !orbrul(rud* or Pride of the Universe& +y master
too. a lod(in( in the /rin,i/al street of the ,ity* not far from
the royal /ala,e* and /ut out bills in the usual form* ,ontainin(
an e0a,t des,ri/tion of my /erson and /arts& He hired a lar(e room
between three and four hundred feet wide& He /rovided a table
si0ty feet in diameter* u/on whi,h " was to a,t my /art* and
/allisadoed it round three feet from the ed(e* and as many hi(h* to
/revent my fallin( over& " was shown ten times aAday* to the
wonder and satisfa,tion of all /eo/le& " ,ould now s/ea. the
lan(ua(e tolerably well* and /erfe,tly understood every word* that
was s/o.en to me& esides* " had learnt their al/habet* and ,ould
ma.e a shift to e0/lain a senten,e here and there- for
Glumdal,lit,h had been my instru,tor while we were at home* and at
leisure hours durin( our :ourney& She ,arried a little boo. in her
/o,.et* not mu,h lar(er than a Sanson's $tlas- it was a ,ommon
treatise for the use of youn( (irls* (ivin( a short a,,ount of
their reli(ion< out of this she tau(ht me my letters* and
inter/reted the words&
2H$PTER """&
'The author sent for to ,ourt& The 1ueen buys him of his master
the farmer* and /resents him to the .in(& He dis/utes with his
ma:esty's (reat s,holars& $n a/artment at ,ourt /rovided for the
author& He is in hi(h favour with the 1ueen& He stands u/ for the
honour of his own ,ountry& His 1uarrels with the 1ueen's dwarf&)
The fre1uent labours " underwent every day* made* in a few wee
s* a
very ,onsiderable ,han(e in my health< the more my master (ot by
me* the more insatiable he (rew& " had 1uite lost my stoma,h* and
was almost redu,ed to a s.eleton& The farmer observed it* and
,on,ludin( " must soon die* resolved to ma.e as (ood a hand of me
as he ,ould& While he was thus reasonin( and resolvin( with
himself* a sardral* or (entlemanAusher* ,ame from ,ourt* ,ommandin(
my master to ,arry me immediately thither for the diversion of the
1ueen and her ladies& Some of the latter had already been to see
me* and re/orted stran(e thin(s of my beauty* behaviour* and (ood
sense& Her ma:esty* and those who attended her* were beyond
measure deli(hted with my demeanour& " fell on my .nees* and
be((ed the honour of .issin( her im/erial foot- but this (ra,ious
/rin,ess held out her little fin(er towards me* after " was set on
the table* whi,h " embra,ed in both my arms* and /ut the ti/ of it
with the utmost res/e,t to my li/& She made me some (eneral
1uestions about my ,ountry and my travels* whi,h " answered as
distin,tly* and in as few words as " ,ould& She as.ed* 9whether "
,ould be ,ontent to live at ,ourt?9 " bowed down to the board of
the table* and humbly answered 9that " was my master's slave< but*
if " were at my own dis/osal* " should be /roud to devote my life
to her ma:esty's servi,e&9 She then as.ed my master* 9whether he
was willin( to sell me at a (ood /ri,e?9 He* who a//rehended "
,ould not live a month* was ready enou(h to /art with me* and
demanded a thousand /ie,es of (old* whi,h were ordered him on the
s/ot* ea,h /ie,e bein( about the bi(ness of ei(ht hundred moidores-
but allowin( for the /ro/ortion of all thin(s between that ,ountry
and Euro/e* and the hi(h /ri,e of (old amon( them* was hardly so
(reat a sum as a thousand (uineas would be in En(land& " then said
to the 1ueen* 9sin,e " was now her ma:esty's most humble ,reature
and vassal* " must be( the favour* that Glumdal,lit,h* who had
always tended me with so mu,h ,are and .indness* and understood to
do it so well* mi(ht be admitted into her servi,e* and ,ontinue to
be my nurse and instru,tor&9
Her ma:esty a(reed to my /etition* and easily (ot the farmer's
,onsent* who was (lad enou(h to have his dau(hter /referred at
,ourt* and the /oor (irl herself was not able to hide her :oy& +y
late master withdrew* biddin( me farewell* and sayin( he had left
me in a (ood servi,e- to whi,h " re/lied not a word* only
him a sli(ht bow&
The 1ueen observed my ,oldness- and* when the farmer was (one out
of the a/artment* as.ed me the reason& " made bold to tell her
ma:esty* 9that " owed no other obli(ation to my late master* than
his not dashin( out the brains of a /oor harmless ,reature* found
by ,han,e in his fields< whi,h obli(ation was am/ly re,om/ensed*
by the (ain he had made in showin( me throu(h half the .in(dom* and
the /ri,e he had now sold me for& That the life " had sin,e led
was laborious enou(h to .ill an animal of ten times my stren(th&
That my health was mu,h im/aired* by the ,ontinual drud(ery of
entertainin( the rabble every hour of the day- and that* if my
master had not thou(ht my life in dan(er* her ma:esty would not
have (ot so ,hea/ a bar(ain& ut as " was out of all fear of bein(
illAtreated under the /rote,tion of so (reat and (ood an em/ress*
the ornament of nature* the darlin( of the world* the deli(ht of
her sub:e,ts* the /hoeni0 of the ,reation* so " ho/ed my late
master's a//rehensions would a//ear to be (roundless- for " already
found my s/irits revive* by the influen,e of her most au(ust
This was the sum of my s/ee,h* delivered with (reat im/ro/rieties
and hesitation& The latter /art was alto(ether framed in the style
/e,uliar to that /eo/le* whereof " learned some /hrases from
Glumdal,lit,h* while she was ,arryin( me to ,ourt&
The 1ueen* (ivin( (reat allowan,e for my defe,tiveness in s/*
was* however* sur/rised at so mu,h wit and (ood sense in so
diminutive an animal& She too. me in her own hand* and ,arried me
to the .in(* who was then retired to his ,abinet& His ma:esty* a
/rin,e of mu,h (ravity and austere ,ountenan,e* not well observin(
my sha/e at first view* as.ed the 1ueen after a ,old manner 9how
lon( it was sin,e she (rew fond of a s/la,nu,.?9 for su,h it seems
he too. me to be* as " lay u/on my breast in her ma:esty's ri(ht
hand& ut this /rin,ess* who has an infinite deal of wit and
humour* set me (ently on my feet u/on the s,rutoire* and ,ommanded
me to (ive his ma:esty an a,,ount of myself* whi,h " did in a very
few words< and Glumdal,lit,h who attended at the ,abinet door* and
,ould not endure " should be out of her si(ht* bein( admitted*
,onfirmed all that had /assed from my arrival at her father's
The .in(* althou(h he be as learned a /erson as any in his
dominions* had been edu,ated in the study of /hiloso/hy* and
/arti,ularly mathemati,s- yet when he observed my sha/e e0a,tly*
and saw me wal. ere,t* before " be(an to s/ea.* ,on,eived " mi(ht
be a /ie,e of ,lo,.Awor. =whi,h is in that ,ountry arrived to a
very (reat /erfe,tion> ,ontrived by some in(enious artist& ut
when he heard my voi,e* and found what " delivered to be re(ular
and rational* he ,ould not ,on,eal his astonishment& He was by no
means satisfied with the relation " (ave him of the manner " ,ame
into his .in(dom* but thou(ht it a story ,on,erted between
Glumdal,lit,h and her father* who had tau(ht me a set of words to
ma.e me sell at a better /ri,e& U/on this ima(ination* he /ut
several other 1uestions to me* and still re,eived rational answers<
no otherwise defe,tive than by a forei(n a,,ent* and an im/erfe,t
.nowled(e in the lan(ua(e* with some rusti, /hrases whi,h " had
learned at the farmer's house* and did not suit the /olite style of
a ,ourt&
His ma:esty sent for three (reat s,holars* who were then in their waitin(* a,,ordin( to the ,ustom in that ,ountry& These
(entlemen* after they had a while e0amined my sha/e with mu,h
ni,ety* were of different o/inions ,on,ernin( me& They all a(reed
that " ,ould not be /rodu,ed a,,ordin( to the re(ular laws of
nature* be,ause " was not framed with a ,a/a,ity of /reservin( my
life* either by swiftness* or ,limbin( of trees* or di((in( holes
in the earth& They observed by my teeth* whi,h they viewed with
(reat e0a,tness* that " was a ,arnivorous animal- yet most
1uadru/eds bein( an overmat,h for me* and field mi,e* with some
others* too nimble* they ,ould not ima(ine how " should be able to
su//ort myself* unless " fed u/on snails and other inse,ts* whi,h
they offered* by many learned ar(uments* to evin,e that " ,ould not
/ossibly do& #ne of these virtuosi seemed to thin. that " mi(ht be
an embryo* or abortive birth& ut this o/inion was re:e,ted by the
other two* who observed my limbs to be /erfe,t and finished- and
that " had lived several years* as it was manifest from my beard*
the stum/s whereof they /lainly dis,overed throu(h a ma(nifyin(
(lass& They would not allow me to be a dwarf* be,ause my
littleness was beyond all de(rees of ,om/arison- for the 1ueen's
favourite dwarf* the smallest ever .nown in that .in(dom* was near
thirty feet hi(h& $fter mu,h debate* they ,on,luded unanimously*
that " was only rel/lum s,al,ath* whi,h is inter/reted literally
lusus naturae- a determination e0a,tly a(reeable to the modern
/hiloso/hy of Euro/e* whose /rofessors* disdainin( the old evasion
of o,,ult ,auses* whereby the followers of $ristotle endeavoured in
vain to dis(uise their i(noran,e* have invented this wonderful
solution of all diffi,ulties* to the uns/ advan,ement of
human .nowled(e&
$fter this de,isive ,on,lusion* " entreated to be heard a word or
two& " a//lied myself to the .in(* and assured his ma:esty* 9that
" ,ame from a ,ountry whi,h abounded with several millions of both
se0es* and of my own stature- where the animals* trees* and houses*
were all in /ro/ortion* and where* by ,onse1uen,e* " mi(ht be as
able to defend myself* and to find sustenan,e* as any of his
ma:esty's sub:e,ts ,ould do here- whi,h " too. for a full answer to
those (entlemen's ar(uments&9 To this they only re/lied with a
smile of ,ontem/t* sayin(* 9that the farmer had instru,ted me very
well in my lesson&9 The .in(* who had a mu,h better understandin(*
dismissin( his learned men* sent for the farmer* who by (ood
fortune was not yet (one out of town& Havin( therefore first
e0amined him /rivately* and then ,onfronted him with me and the
youn( (irl* his ma:esty be(an to thin. that what we told him mi(ht
/ossibly be true& He desired the 1ueen to order that a /arti,ular
,are should be ta.en of me- and was of o/inion that Glumdal,lit,h
should still ,ontinue in her offi,e of tendin( me* be,ause he
observed we had a (reat affe,tion for ea,h other& $ ,onvenient
a/artment was /rovided for her at ,ourt< she had a sort of
(overness a//ointed to ta.e ,are of her edu,ation* a maid to dress
her* and two other servants for menial offi,es- but the ,are of me
was wholly a//ro/riated to herself& The 1ueen ,ommanded her own
, to ,ontrive a bo0* that mi(ht serve me for a
bed,hamber* after the model that Glumdal,lit,h and " should a(ree
u/on& This man was a most in(enious artist* and a,,ordin( to my
dire,tion* in three wee.s finished for me a wooden ,hamber of
si0teen feet s1uare* and twelve hi(h* with sashAwindows* a door*
and two ,losets* li.e a !ondon bedA,hamber& The board* that made
the ,eilin(* was to be lifted u/ and down by two hin(es* to /ut in
a bed ready furnished by her ma:esty's u/holsterer* whi,h
Glumdal,lit,h too. out every day to air* made it with her own
hands* and lettin( it down at ni(ht* lo,.ed u/ the roof over me& $
ni,e* who was famous for little ,uriosities* undertoo. to
ma.e me two ,hairs* with ba,.s and frames* of a substan,e not
unli.e ivory* and two tables* with a ,abinet to /ut my thin(s in&
The room was 1uilted on all sides* as well as the floor and the
,eilin(* to /revent any a,,ident from the ,arelessness of those who
,arried me* and to brea. the for,e of a :olt* when " went in a
,oa,h& " desired a lo,. for my door* to /revent rats and mi,e from
,omin( in& The smith* after several attem/ts* made the smallest
that ever was seen amon( them* for " have .nown a lar(er at the
(ate of a (entleman's house in En(land& " made a shift to .ee/ the
.ey in a /o,.et of my own* fearin( Glumdal,lit,h mi(ht lose it&
The 1ueen li.ewise ordered the thinnest sil.s that ,ould be (otten*
to ma.e me ,lothes* not mu,h thi,.er than an En(lish* very
,umbersome till " was a,,ustomed to them& They were after the
fashion of the .in(dom* /artly resemblin( the Persian* and /artly
the 2hinese* and are a very (rave and de,ent habit&
The 1ueen be,ame so fond of my ,om/any* that she ,ould not dine
without me& " had a table /la,ed u/on the same at whi,h her
ma:esty ate* :ust at her left elbow* and a ,hair to sit on&
Glumdal,lit,h stood on a stool on the floor near my table* to
assist and ta.e ,are of me& " had an entire set of silver dishes
and /lates* and other ne,essaries* whi,h* in /ro/ortion to those of
the 1ueen* were not mu,h bi((er than what " have seen in a !ondon
toyAsho/ for the furniture of a babyAhouse< these my little nurse
.e/t in her /o,.et in a silver bo0* and (ave me at meals as "
wanted them* always ,leanin( them herself& No /erson dined with
the 1ueen but the two /rin,esses royal* the eldest si0teen years
old* and the youn(er at that time thirteen and a month& Her
ma:esty used to /ut a bit of meat u/on one of my dishes* out of
whi,h " ,arved for myself* and her diversion was to see me eat in
miniature< for the 1ueen =who had indeed but a wea. stoma,h> too.
u/* at one mouthful* as mu,h as a do@en En(lish farmers ,ould eat
at a meal* whi,h to me was for some time a very nauseous si(ht&
She would ,raun,h the win( of a lar.* bones and all* between her
teeth* althou(h it were nine times as lar(e as that of a fullA(rown
tur.ey- and /ut a bit of bread into her mouth as bi( as two twelveA
/enny loaves& She dran. out of a (olden ,u/* above a ho(shead at a
drau(ht& Her .nives were twi,e as lon( as a s,ythe* set strai(ht
u/on the handle& The s/oons* for.s* and other instruments* were
all in the same /ro/ortion& " remember when Glumdal,lit,h ,arried
me* out of ,uriosity* to see some of the tables at ,ourt* where ten
or a do@en of those enormous .nives and for.s were lifted u/
to(ether* " thou(ht " had never till then beheld so terrible a
"t is the ,ustom* that every Wednesday =whi,h* as " have observed*
is their Sabbath> the .in( and 1ueen* with the royal issue of both
se0es* dine to(ether in the a/artment of his ma:esty* to whom " was
now be,ome a (reat favourite- and at these times* my little ,hair
and table were /la,ed at his left hand* before one of the saltA
,ellars& This /rin,e too. a /leasure in ,onversin( with me*
in1uirin( into the manners* reli(ion* laws* (overnment* and
learnin( of Euro/e- wherein " (ave him the best a,,ount " was able&
His a//rehension was so ,lear* and his :ud(ment so e0a,t* that he
made very wise refle,tions and observations u/on all " said& ut "
,onfess* that* after " had been a little too ,o/ious in of
my own beloved ,ountry* of our trade and wars by sea and land* of
our s,hisms in reli(ion* and /arties in the state- the /re:udi,es
of his edu,ation /revailed so far* that he ,ould not forbear
me u/ in his ri(ht hand* and me (ently with the other*
after a hearty fit of lau(hin(* as.ed me* 9whether " was a whi( or
tory?9 Then turnin( to his first minister* who waited behind him
with a white staff* near as tall as the mainmast of the Royal
Soverei(n* he observed 9how ,ontem/tible a thin( was human
(randeur* whi,h ,ould be mimi,.ed by su,h diminutive inse,ts as "<
and yet*9 says he* 9" dare en(a(e these ,reatures have their titles
and distin,tions of honour- they ,ontrive little nests and burrows*
that they ,all houses and ,ities- they ma.e a fi(ure in dress and
e1ui/a(e- they love* they fi(ht* they dis/ute* they ,heat* they
betrayL9 $nd thus he ,ontinued on* while my ,olour ,ame and went
several times* with indi(nation* to hear our noble ,ountry* the
mistress of arts and arms* the s,our(e of 4ran,e* the arbitress of
Euro/e* the seat of virtue* /iety* honour* and truth* the /ride and
envy of the world* so ,ontem/tuously treated&
ut as " was not in a ,ondition to resent in:uries* so u/on mature
thou(hts " be(an to doubt whether " was in:ured or no& 4or* after
havin( been a,,ustomed several months to the si(ht and ,onverse of
this /eo/le* and observed every ob:e,t u/on whi,h " ,ast mine eyes
to be of /ro/ortionable ma(nitude* the horror " had at first
,on,eived from their bul. and as/e,t was so far worn off* that if "
had then beheld a ,om/any of En(lish lords and ladies in their
finery and birthAday ,lothes* a,tin( their several /arts in the
most ,ourtly manner of struttin(* and bowin(* and /ratin(* to say
the truth* " should have been stron(ly tem/ted to lau(h as mu,h at
them as the .in( and his (randees did at me& Neither* indeed*
,ould " forbear smilin( at myself* when the 1ueen used to /la,e me
u/on her hand towards a* by whi,h both our /ersons
a//eared before me in full view to(ether- and there ,ould be
nothin( more ridi,ulous than the ,om/arison- so that " really be(an
to ima(ine myself dwindled many de(rees below my usual si@e&
Nothin( an(ered and mortified me so mu,h as the 1ueen's dwarf- who
bein( of the lowest stature that was ever in that ,ountry =for "
verily thin. he was not full thirty feet hi(h>* be,ame so insolent
at seein( a ,reature so mu,h beneath him* that he would always
affe,t to swa((er and loo. bi( as he /assed by me in the 1ueen's
ante,hamber* while " was standin( on some table with the
lords or ladies of the ,ourt* and he seldom failed of a smart word
or two u/on my littleness- a(ainst whi,h " ,ould only reven(e
myself by ,allin( him brother* ,hallen(in( him to wrestle* and su,h
re/artees as are usually in the mouths of ,ourt /a(es& #ne day* at
dinner* this mali,ious little ,ub was so nettled with somethin( "
had said to him* that* raisin( himself u/on the frame of her
ma:esty's ,hair* he too. me u/ by the middle* as " was sittin(
down* not any harm* and let me dro/ into a lar(e silver
bowl of ,ream* and then ran away as fast as he ,ould& " fell over
head and ears* and* if " had not been a (ood swimmer* it mi(ht have
(one very hard with me- for Glumdal,lit,h in that instant ha//ened
to be at the other end of the room* and the 1ueen was in su,h a
fri(ht* that she wanted /resen,e of mind to assist me& ut my
little nurse ran to my relief* and too. me out* after " had
swallowed above a 1uart of ,ream& " was /ut to bed< however* "
re,eived no other dama(e than the loss of a suit of ,lothes* whi,h
was utterly s/oiled& The dwarf was soundly whi/t* and as a farther
/unishment* for,ed to drin. u/ the bowl of ,ream into whi,h he had
thrown me< neither was he ever restored to favour- for soon after
the 1ueen bestowed him on a lady of hi(h 1uality* so that " saw him
no more* to my very (reat satisfa,tion- for " ,ould not tell to
what e0tremities su,h a mali,ious ur,hin mi(ht have ,arried his
He had before served me a s,urvy tri,.* whi,h set the 1ueen aA
lau(hin(* althou(h at the same time she was heartily ve0ed* and
would have immediately ,ashiered him* if " had not been so (enerous
as to inter,ede& Her ma:esty had ta.en a marrowAbone u/on her
/late* and* after .no,.in( out the marrow* /la,ed the bone a(ain in
the dish ere,t* as it stood before- the dwarf* wat,hin( his
o//ortunity* while Glumdal,lit,h was (one to the sideAboard*
mounted the stool that she stood on to ta.e ,are of me at meals*
too. me u/ in both hands* and s1uee@in( my le(s to(ether* wed(ed
them into the marrow bone above my waist* where " stu,. for some
time* and made a very ridi,ulous fi(ure& " believe it was near a
minute before any one .new what was be,ome of me- for " thou(ht it
below me to ,ry out& ut* as /rin,es seldom (et their meat hot* my
le(s were not s,alded* only my sto,.in(s and bree,hes in a sad
,ondition& The dwarf* at my entreaty* had no other /unishment than
a sound whi//in(&
" was fre1uently rallied by the 1ueen u/on a,,ount of my
fearfulness- and she used to as. me whether the /eo/le of my
,ountry were as (reat ,owards as myself? The o,,asion was this<
the .in(dom is mu,h /estered with flies in summer- and these odious
inse,ts* ea,h of them as bi( as a %unstable lar.* hardly (ave me
any rest while " sat at dinner* with their ,ontinual hummin( and
bu@@in( about mine ears& They would sometimes ali(ht u/on my
vi,tuals* and leave their loathsome e0,rement* or s/awn behind*
whi,h to me was very visible* thou(h not to the natives of that
,ountry* whose lar(e o/ti,s were not so a,ute as mine* in viewin(
smaller ob:e,ts& Sometimes they would fi0 u/on my nose* or
forehead* where they stun( me to the 1ui,.* smellin( very
offensively- and " ,ould easily tra,e that vis,ous matter* whi,h*
our naturalists tell us* enables those ,reatures to wal. with their
feet u/wards u/on a ,eilin(& " had mu,h ado to defend myself
a(ainst these detestable animals* and ,ould not forbear startin(
when they ,ame on my fa,e& "t was the ,ommon /ra,ti,e of the
dwarf* to ,at,h a number of these inse,ts in his hand* as
s,hoolboys do amon( us* and let them out suddenly under my nose* on
/ur/ose to fri(hten me* and divert the 1ueen& +y remedy was to ,ut
them in /ie,es with my .nife* as they flew in the air* wherein my
de0terity was mu,h admired&
" remember* one mornin(* when Glumdal,lit,h had set me in a bo0
u/on a window* as she usually did in fair days to (ive me air =for
" durst not venture to let the bo0 be hun( on a nail out of the
window* as we do with ,a(es in En(land>* after " had lifted u/ one
of my sashes* and sat down at my table to eat a /ie,e of sweet ,a.e
for my* above twenty was/s* allured by the smell* ,ame
flyin( into the room* hummin( louder than the drones of as many
ba(/i/es& Some of them sei@ed my ,a.e* and ,arried it /ie,emeal
away- others flew about my head and fa,e* ,onfoundin( me with the
noise* and /uttin( me in the utmost terror of their stin(s&
However* " had the ,oura(e to rise and draw my han(er* and atta,.
them in the air& " dis/at,hed four of them* but the rest (ot away*
and " /resently shut my window& These inse,ts were as lar(e as
/artrid(es< " too. out their stin(s* found them an in,h and a half
lon(* and as shar/ as needles& " ,arefully /reserved them all- and
havin( sin,e shown them* with some other ,uriosities* in several
/arts of Euro/e* u/on my return to En(land " (ave three of them to
Gresham 2olle(e* and .e/t the fourth for myself&
2H$PTER "5&
'The ,ountry des,ribed& $ /ro/osal for ,orre,tin( modern ma/s&
The .in('s /ala,e- and some a,,ount of the metro/olis& The
author's way of travellin(& The ,hief tem/le des,ribed&)
" now intend to (ive the reader a short des,ri/tion of this
,ountry* as far as " travelled in it* whi,h was not above two
thousand miles round !orbrul(rud* the metro/olis& 4or the 1ueen*
whom " always attended* never went farther when she a,,om/anied the
.in( in his /ro(resses* and there staid till his ma:esty returned
from viewin( his frontiers& The whole e0tent of this /rin,e's
dominions rea,hes about si0 thousand miles in len(th* and from
three to five in breadth< when,e " ,annot but ,on,lude* that our
(eo(ra/hers of Euro/e are in a (reat error* by su//osin( nothin(
but sea between Ja/an and 2alifornia- for it was ever my o/inion*
that there must be a balan,e of earth to ,ounter/oise the (reat
,ontinent of Tartary- and therefore they ou(ht to ,orre,t their
ma/s and ,harts* by :oinin( this vast tra,t of land to the northA
west /arts of $meri,a* wherein " shall be ready to lend them my
The .in(dom is a /eninsula* terminated to the northAeast by a rid(e
of mountains thirty miles hi(h* whi,h are alto(ether im/assable* by
reason of the vol,anoes u/on the to/s< neither do the most learned
.now what sort of mortals inhabit beyond those mountains* or
whether they be inhabited at all& #n the three other sides* it is
bounded by the o,ean& There is not one sea/ort in the whole
.in(dom< and those /arts of the ,oasts into whi,h the rivers
issue* are so full of /ointed ro,.s* and the sea (enerally so
rou(h* that there is no venturin( with the smallest of their boats-
so that these /eo/le are wholly e0,luded from any ,ommer,e with the
rest of the world& ut the lar(e rivers are full of vessels* and
abound with e0,ellent fish- for they seldom (et any from the sea*
be,ause the sea fish are of the same si@e with those in Euro/e* and
,onse1uently not worth ,at,hin(- whereby it is manifest* that
nature* in the /rodu,tion of /lants and animals of so e0traordinary
a bul.* is wholly ,onfined to this ,ontinent* of whi,h " leave the
reasons to be determined by /hiloso/hers& However* now and then
they ta.e a whale that ha//ens to be dashed a(ainst the ro,.s*
whi,h the ,ommon /eo/le feed on heartily& These whales " have
.nown so lar(e* that a man ,ould hardly ,arry one u/on his
shoulders- and sometimes* for ,uriosity* they are brou(ht in
ham/ers to !orbrul(rud- " saw one of them in a dish at the .in('s
table* whi,h /assed for a rarity* but " did not observe he was fond
of it- for " thin.* indeed* the bi(ness dis(usted him* althou(h "
have seen one somewhat lar(er in Greenland&
The ,ountry is well inhabited* for it ,ontains fiftyAone ,ities*
near a hundred walled towns* and a (reat number of villa(es& To
satisfy my ,urious reader* it may be suffi,ient to des,ribe
!orbrul(rud& This ,ity stands u/on almost two e1ual /arts* on ea,h
side the river that /asses throu(h& "t ,ontains above ei(hty
thousand houses* and about si0 hundred thousand inhabitants& "t is
in len(th three (lom(lun(s =whi,h ma.e about fiftyAfour En(lish
miles*> and two and a half in breadth- as " measured it myself in
the royal ma/ made by the .in('s order* whi,h was laid on the
(round on /ur/ose for me* and e0tended a hundred feet< " /a,ed the
diameter and ,ir,umferen,e several times barefoot* and* ,om/utin(
by the s,ale* measured it /retty e0a,tly&
The .in('s /ala,e is no re(ular edifi,e* but a hea/ of buildin(s*
about seven miles round< the ,hief rooms are (enerally two hundred
and forty feet hi(h* and broad and lon( in /ro/ortion& $ ,oa,h was
allowed to Glumdal,lit,h and me* wherein her (overness fre1uently
too. her out to see the town* or (o amon( the sho/s- and " was
always of the /arty* ,arried in my bo0- althou(h the (irl* at my
own desire* would often ta.e me out* and hold me in her hand* that
" mi(ht more ,onveniently view the houses and the /eo/le* as we
/assed alon( the streets& " re,.oned our ,oa,h to be about a
s1uare of WestminsterAhall* but not alto(ether so hi(h< however* "
,annot be very e0a,t& #ne day the (overness ordered our ,oa,hman
to sto/ at several sho/s* where the be((ars* wat,hin( their
o//ortunity* ,rowded to the sides of the ,oa,h* and (ave me the
most horrible s/e,ta,le that ever a Euro/ean eye beheld& There was
a woman with a ,an,er in her breast* swelled to a monstrous si@e*
full of holes* in two or three of whi,h " ,ould have easily ,re/t*
and ,overed my whole body& There was a fellow with a wen in his
ne,.* lar(er than five woolA/a,.s- and another* with a ,ou/le of
wooden le(s* ea,h about twenty feet hi(h& ut the most hateful
si(ht of all* was the li,e ,rawlin( on their ,lothes& " ,ould see
distin,tly the limbs of these vermin with my na.ed eye* mu,h better
than those of a Euro/ean louse throu(h a mi,ros,o/e* and their
snouts with whi,h they rooted li.e swine& They were the first "
had ever beheld* and " should have been ,urious enou(h to disse,t
one of them* if " had had /ro/er instruments* whi,h " unlu,.ily
left behind me in the shi/* althou(h* indeed* the si(ht was so
nauseous* that it /erfe,tly turned my stoma,h&
esides the lar(e bo0 in whi,h " was usually ,arried* the 1ueen
ordered a smaller one to be made for me* of about twelve feet
s1uare* and ten hi(h* for the ,onvenien,e of travellin(- be,ause
the other was somewhat too lar(e for Glumdal,lit,h's la/* and
,umbersome in the ,oa,h- it was made by the same artist* whom "
dire,ted in the whole ,ontrivan,e& This travellin(A,loset was an
e0a,t s1uare* with a window in the middle of three of the s1uares*
and ea,h window was latti,ed with iron wire on the outside* to
/revent a,,idents in lon( :ourneys& #n the fourth side* whi,h had
no window* two stron( sta/les were fi0ed* throu(h whi,h the /erson
that ,arried me* when " had a mind to be on horseba,.* /ut a
leathern belt* and bu,.led it about his waist& This was always the
offi,e of some (rave trusty servant* in whom " ,ould ,onfide*
whether " attended the .in( and 1ueen in their /ro(resses* or were
dis/osed to see the (ardens* or /ay a visit to some (reat lady or
minister of state in the ,ourt* when Glumdal,lit,h ha//ened to be
out of order- for " soon be(an to be .nown and esteemed amon( the
(reatest offi,ers* " su//ose more u/on a,,ount of their ma:esties'
favour* than any merit of my own& "n :ourneys* when " was weary of
the ,oa,h* a servant on horseba,. would bu,.le on my bo0* and /la,e
it u/on a ,ushion before him- and there " had a full /ros/e,t of
the ,ountry on three sides* from my three windows& " had* in this
,loset* a fieldAbed and a hammo,.* hun( from the ,eilin(* two
,hairs and a table* neatly s,rewed to the floor* to /revent bein(
tossed about by the a(itation of the horse or the ,oa,h& $nd
havin( been lon( used to seaAvoya(es* those motions* althou(h
sometimes very violent* did not mu,h dis,om/ose me&
Whenever " had a mind to see the town* it was always in my
travellin(A,loset- whi,h Glumdal,lit,h held in her la/ in a .ind of
o/en sedan* after the fashion of the ,ountry* borne by four men*
and attended by two others in the 1ueen's livery& The /eo/le* who
had often heard of me* were very ,urious to ,rowd about the sedan*
and the (irl was ,om/laisant enou(h to ma.e the bearers sto/* and
to ta.e me in her hand* that " mi(ht be more ,onveniently seen&
" was very desirous to see the ,hief tem/le* and /arti,ularly the
tower belon(in( to it* whi,h is re,.oned the hi(hest in the
.in(dom& $,,ordin(ly one day my nurse ,arried me thither* but "
may truly say " ,ame ba,. disa//ointed- for the hei(ht is not above
three thousand feet* re,.onin( from the (round to the hi(hest
/inna,le to/- whi,h* allowin( for the differen,e between the si@e
of those /eo/le and us in Euro/e* is no (reat matter for
admiration* nor at all e1ual in /ro/ortion =if " ri(htly remember>
to Salisbury stee/le& ut* not to detra,t from a nation* to whi,h*
durin( my life* " shall a,.nowled(e myself e0tremely obli(ed* it
must be allowed* that whatever this famous tower wants in hei(ht*
is am/ly made u/ in beauty and stren(th< for the walls are near a
hundred feet thi,.* built of hewn stone* whereof ea,h is about
forty feet s1uare* and adorned on all sides with statues of (ods
and em/erors* ,ut in marble* lar(er than the life* /la,ed in their
several ni,hes& " measured a little fin(er whi,h had fallen down
from one of these statues* and lay un/er,eived amon( some rubbish*
and found it e0a,tly four feet and an in,h in len(th&
Glumdal,lit,h wra//ed it u/ in her,hief* and ,arried it
home in her /o,.et* to .ee/ amon( other trin.ets* of whi,h the (irl
was very fond* as ,hildren at her a(e usually are&
The .in('s .it,hen is indeed a noble buildin(* vaulted at to/* and
about si0 hundred feet hi(h& The (reat oven is not so wide* by ten
/a,es* as the ,u/ola at St& Paul's< for " measured the latter on
/ur/ose* after my return& ut if " should des,ribe the .it,hen
(rate* the /rodi(ious /ots and .ettles* the :oints of meat turnin(
on the s/its* with many other /arti,ulars* /erha/s " should be
hardly believed- at least a severe ,riti, would be a/t to thin. "
enlar(ed a little* as travellers are often sus/e,ted to do& To
avoid whi,h ,ensure " fear " have run too mu,h into the other
e0treme- and that if this treatise should ha//en to be translated
into the lan(ua(e of robdin(na( =whi,h is the (eneral name of that
.in(dom*> and transmitted thither* the .in( and his /eo/le would
have reason to ,om/lain that " had done them an in:ury* by a false
and diminutive re/resentation&
His ma:esty seldom .ee/s above si0 hundred horses in his stables<
they are (enerally from fiftyAfour to si0ty feet hi(h& ut* when
he (oes abroad on solemn days* he is attended* for state* by a
military (uard of five hundred horse* whi,h* indeed* " thou(ht was
the most s/lendid si(ht that ,ould be ever beheld* till " saw /art
of his army in battalia* whereof " shall find another o,,asion to
2H$PTER 5&
'Several adventurers that ha//ened to the author& The e0e,ution of
a ,riminal& The author shows his s.ill in navi(ation&)
" should have lived ha//y enou(h in that ,ountry* if my littleness
had not e0/osed me to several ridi,ulous and troublesome a,,idents-
some of whi,h " shall venture to relate& Glumdal,lit,h often
,arried me into the (ardens of the ,ourt in my smaller bo0* and
would sometimes ta.e me out of it* and hold me in her hand* or set
me down to wal.& " remember* before the dwarf left the 1ueen* he
followed us one day into those (ardens* and my nurse havin( set me
down* he and " bein( ,lose to(ether* near some dwarf a//le trees* "
must needs show my wit* by a silly allusion between him and the
trees* whi,h ha//ens to hold in their lan(ua(e as it does in ours&
Whereu/on* the mali,ious ro(ue* wat,hin( his o//ortunity* when "
was under one of them* shoo. it dire,tly over my head* by
whi,h a do@en a//les* ea,h of them near as lar(e as a ristol
barrel* ,ame tumblin( about my ears- one of them hit me on the ba,.
as " ,han,ed to stoo/* and .no,.ed me down flat on my fa,e- but "
re,eived no other hurt* and the dwarf was /ardoned at my desire*
be,ause " had (iven the /rovo,ation&
$nother day* Glumdal,lit,h left me on a smooth (rassA/lot to divert
myself* while she wal.ed at some distan,e with her (overness& "n
the meantime* there suddenly fell su,h a violent shower of hail*
that " was immediately by the for,e of it* stru,. to the (round<
and when " was down* the hailstones (ave me su,h ,ruel ban(s all
over the body* as if " had been /elted with tennisAballs- however*
" made a shift to ,ree/ on all fours* and shelter myself* by lyin(
flat on my fa,e* on the leeAside of a border of lemonAthyme* but so
bruised from head to foot* that " ,ould not (o abroad in ten days&
Neither is this at all to be wondered at* be,ause nature* in that
,ountry* observin( the same /ro/ortion throu(h all her o/erations*
a hailstone is near ei(hteen hundred times as lar(e as one in
Euro/e- whi,h " ,an assert u/on e0/erien,e* havin( been so ,urious
as to wei(h and measure them&
ut a more dan(erous a,,ident ha//ened to me in the same (arden*
when my little nurse* believin( she had /ut me in a se,ure /la,e
=whi,h " often entreated her to do* that " mi(ht en:oy my own
thou(hts*> and havin( left my bo0 at home* to avoid the trouble of
,arryin( it* went to another /art of the (arden with her (overness
and some ladies of her a,1uaintan,e& While she was absent* and out
of hearin(* a small white s/aniel that belon(ed to one of the ,hief
(ardeners* havin( (ot by a,,ident into the (arden* ha//ened to
ran(e near the /la,e where " lay< the do(* followin( the s,ent*
,ame dire,tly u/* and me in his mouth* ran strai(ht to his
master wa((in( his tail* and set me (ently on the (round& y (ood
fortune he had been so well tau(ht* that " was ,arried between his
teeth without the least hurt* or even tearin( my ,lothes& ut the
/oor (ardener* who .new me well* and had a (reat .indness for me*
was in a terrible fri(ht< he (ently too. me u/ in both his hands*
and as.ed me how " did? but " was so ama@ed and out of breath* that
" ,ould not s/ea. a word& "n a few minutes " ,ame to myself* and
he ,arried me safe to my little nurse* who* by this time* had
returned to the /la,e where she left me* and was in ,ruel a(onies
when " did not a//ear* nor answer when she ,alled& She severely
re/rimanded the (ardener on a,,ount of his do(& ut the thin( was
hushed u/* and never .nown at ,ourt* for the (irl was afraid of the
1ueen's an(er- and truly* as to myself* " thou(ht it would not be
for my re/utation* that su,h a story should (o about&
This a,,ident absolutely determined Glumdal,lit,h never to trust me
abroad for the future out of her si(ht& " had been lon( afraid of
this resolution* and therefore ,on,ealed from her some little
unlu,.y adventures* that ha//ened in those times when " was left by
myself& #n,e a .ite* hoverin( over the (arden* made a stoo/ at me*
and if " had not resolutely drawn my han(er* and run under a thi,.
es/alier* he would have ,ertainly ,arried me away in his talons&
$nother time* to the to/ of a fresh moleAhill* " fell to my
ne,. in the hole* throu(h whi,h that animal had ,ast u/ the earth*
and ,oined some lie* not worth rememberin(* to e0,use myself for
s/oilin( my ,lothes& " li.ewise bro.e my ri(ht shin a(ainst the
shell of a snail* whi,h " ha//ened to stumble over* as " was alone and on /oor En(land&
" ,annot tell whether " were more /leased or mortified to observe*
in those solitary wal.s* that the smaller birds did not a//ear to
be at all afraid of me* but would ho/ about within a yard's
distan,e* for worms and other food* with as mu,h
indifferen,e and se,urity as if no ,reature at all were near them&
" remember* a thrush had the ,onfiden,e to snat,h out of my hand*
with his bill* a of ,a.e that Glumdal,lit,h had :ust (iven me for
my When " attem/ted to ,at,h any of these birds* they
would boldly turn a(ainst me* endeavourin( to /e,. my fin(ers*
whi,h " durst not venture within their rea,h- and then they would
ho/ ba,. un,on,erned* to hunt for worms or snails* as they did
before& ut one day* " too. a thi,. ,ud(el* and threw it with all
my stren(th so lu,.ily* at a linnet* that " .no,.ed him down* and
sei@in( him by the ne,. with both my hands* ran with him in trium/h
to my nurse& However* the bird* who had only been stunned*
re,overin( himself (ave me so many bo0es with his win(s* on both
sides of my head and body* thou(h " held him at arm'sAlen(th* and
was out of the rea,h of his ,laws* that " was twenty times
to let him (o& ut " was soon relieved by one of our servants* who
wrun( off the bird's ne,.* and " had him ne0t day for dinner* by
the 1ueen's ,ommand& This linnet* as near as " ,an remember*
seemed to be somewhat lar(er than an En(lish swan&
The maids of honour often invited Glumdal,lit,h to their
a/artments* and desired she would brin( me alon( with her* on
/ur/ose to have the /leasure of seein( and tou,hin( me& They would
often stri/ me na.ed from to/ to toe* and lay me at full len(th in
their bosoms- wherewith " was mu,h dis(usted be,ause* to say the
truth* a very offensive smell ,ame from their s.ins- whi,h " do not
mention* or intend* to the disadvanta(e of those e0,ellent ladies*
for whom " have all manner of res/e,t- but " ,on,eive that my sense
was more a,ute in /ro/ortion to my littleness* and that those
illustrious /ersons were no more disa(reeable to their lovers* or
to ea,h other* than /eo/le of the same 1uality are with us in
En(land& $nd* after all* " found their natural smell was mu,h more
su//ortable* than when they used /erfumes* under whi,h "
immediately swooned away& " ,annot for(et* that an intimate friend
of mine in !illi/ut* too. the freedom in a warm day* when " had
used a (ood deal of e0er,ise* to ,om/lain of a stron( smell about
me* althou(h " am as little faulty that way* as most of my se0<
but " su//ose his fa,ulty of smellin( was as ni,e with re(ard to
me* as mine was to that of this /eo/le& U/on this /oint* " ,annot
forbear doin( :usti,e to the 1ueen my mistress* and Glumdal,lit,h
my nurse* whose /ersons were as sweet as those of any lady in
That whi,h (ave me most uneasiness amon( these maids of honour
=when my nurse ,arried me to visit then> was* to see them use me
without any manner of ,eremony* li.e a ,reature who had no sort of
,onse1uen,e< for they would stri/ themselves to the* and /ut
on their smo,.s in my /resen,e* while " was /la,ed on their toilet*
dire,tly before their na.ed bodies* whi,h " am sure to me was very
far from bein( a tem/tin( si(ht* or from (ivin( me any other
emotions than those of horror and dis(ust< their s.ins a//eared so
,oarse and uneven* so variously ,oloured* when " saw them near*
with a mole here and there as broad as a tren,her* and hairs
han(in( from it thi,.er than /a,.threads* to say nothin( farther
,on,ernin( the rest of their /ersons& Neither did they at all
s,ru/le* while " was by* to dis,har(e what they had dran.* to the
1uantity of at least two ho(sheads* in a vessel that held above
three tuns& The handsomest amon( these maids of honour* a
/leasant* froli,some (irl of si0teen* would sometimes set me
astride u/on one of her ni//les* with many other tri,.s* wherein
the reader will e0,use me for not bein( over /arti,ular& ut " was
so mu,h dis/leased* that " entreated Glumdal,lit,h to ,ontrive some
e0,use for not seein( that youn( lady any more&
#ne day* a youn( (entleman* who was ne/hew to my nurse's (overness*
,ame and /ressed them both to see an e0e,ution& "t was of a man*
who had murdered one of that (entleman's intimate a,1uaintan,e&
Glumdal,lit,h was /revailed on to be of the ,om/any* very mu,h
a(ainst her in,lination* for she was naturally tenderAhearted<
and* as for myself* althou(h " abhorred su,h .ind of s/e,ta,les*
yet my ,uriosity tem/ted me to see somethin( that " thou(ht must be
e0traordinary& The malefa,tor was fi0ed in a ,hair u/on a s,affold
ere,ted for that /ur/ose* and his head ,ut off at one blow* with a
sword of about forty feet lon(& The veins and arteries s/outed u/
su,h a /rodi(ious 1uantity of blood* and so hi(h in the air* that
the (reat :et d'eau at 5ersailles was not e1ual to it for the time
it lasted< and the head* when it fell on the s,affold floor* (ave
su,h a boun,e as made me start* althou(h " was at least half an
En(lish mile distant&
The 1ueen* who often used to hear me tal. of my seaAvoya(es* and
too. all o,,asions to divert me when " was melan,holy* as.ed me
whether " understood how to handle a sail or an oar* and whether a
little e0er,ise of rowin( mi(ht not be ,onvenient for my health? "
answered* that " understood both very well< for althou(h my /ro/er
em/loyment had been to be sur(eon or do,tor to the shi/* yet often*
u/on a /in,h* " was for,ed to wor. li.e a ,ommon mariner& ut "
,ould not see how this ,ould be done in their ,ountry* where the
smallest wherry was e1ual to a firstArate man of war amon( us- and
su,h a boat as " ,ould mana(e would never live in any of their
rivers& Her ma:esty said* if " would ,ontrive a boat* her own
:oiner should ma.e it* and she would /rovide a /la,e for me to sail
in& The fellow was an in(enious* and by my instru,tions*
in ten days* finished a /leasureAboat with all its ta,.lin(* able
,onveniently to hold ei(ht Euro/eans& When it was finished* the
1ueen was so deli(hted* that she ran with it in her la/ to the
.in(* who ordered it to be /ut into a ,istern full of water* with
me in it* by way of trial* where " ,ould not mana(e my two s,ulls*
or little oars* for want of room& ut the 1ueen had before
,ontrived another /ro:e,t& She ordered the :oiner to ma.e a wooden
trou(h of three hundred feet lon(* fifty broad* and ei(ht dee/-
whi,h* bein( well /it,hed* to /revent* was /la,ed on the
floor* alon( the wall* in an outer room of the /ala,e& "t had a
,o,. near the bottom to let out the water* when it be(an to (row
stale- and two servants ,ould easily fill it in half an hour& Here
" often used to row for my own diversion* as well as that of the
1ueen and her ladies* who thou(ht themselves well entertained with
my s.ill and a(ility& Sometimes " would /ut u/ my sail* and then
my business was only to steer* while the ladies (ave me a (ale with
their fans- and* when they were weary* some of their /a(es would
blow my sail forward with their breath* while " showed my art by
steerin( starboard or larboard as " /leased& When " had done*
Glumdal,lit,h always ,arried ba,. my boat into her ,loset* and hun(
it on a nail to dry&
"n this e0er,ise " on,e met an a,,ident* whi,h had li.e to have
,ost me my life- for* one of the /a(es havin( /ut my boat into the
trou(h* the (overness who attended Glumdal,lit,h very offi,iously
lifted me u/* to /la,e me in the boat< but " ha//ened to sli/
throu(h her fin(ers* and should infallibly have fallen down forty
feet u/on the floor* if* by the lu,.iest ,han,e in the world* " had
not been sto//ed by a , that stu,. in the (ood
(entlewoman's stoma,her- the head of the /in /assin( between my
shirt and the waistband of my bree,hes* and thus " was held by the
middle in the air* till Glumdal,lit,h ran to my relief&
$nother time* one of the servants* whose offi,e it was to fill my
trou(h every third day with fresh water* was so ,areless as to let
a hu(e fro( =not /er,eivin( it> sli/ out of his /ail& The fro( lay
,on,ealed till " was /ut into my boat* but then* seein( a restin(A
/la,e* ,limbed u/* and made it lean so mu,h on one side* that " was
for,ed to balan,e it with all my wei(ht on the other* to /revent
overturnin(& When the fro( was (ot in* it ho//ed at on,e half the
len(th of the boat* and then over my head* ba,.ward and forward*
daubin( my fa,e and ,lothes with its odious slime& The lar(eness
of its features made it a//ear the most deformed animal that ,an be
,on,eived& However* " desired Glumdal,lit,h to let me deal with it
alone& " ban(ed it a (ood while with one of my s,ulls* and at last
for,ed it to lea/ out of the boat&
ut the (reatest dan(er " ever underwent in that .in(dom* was from
a mon.ey* who belon(ed to one of the ,ler.s of the .it,hen&
Glumdal,lit,h had lo,.ed me u/ in her ,loset* while she went
somewhere u/on business* or a visit& The weather bein( very warm*
the ,losetAwindow was left o/en* as well as the windows and the
door of my bi((er bo0* in whi,h " usually lived* be,ause of its
lar(eness and ,onvenien,y& $s " sat 1uietly meditatin( at my
table* " heard somethin( boun,e in at the ,losetAwindow* and s.i/
about from one side to the other< whereat* althou(h " was mu,h
alarmed* yet " ventured to loo. out* but not stirrin( from my seat-
and then " saw this froli,some animal and lea/in( u/ and
down* till at last he ,ame to my bo0* whi,h he seemed to view with
(reat /leasure and ,uriosity* /ee/in( in at the door and every
window& " retreated to the farther ,orner of my room- or bo0- but
the mon.ey in at every side* /ut me in su,h a fri(ht* that
" wanted /resen,e of mind to ,on,eal myself under the bed* as "
mi(ht easily have done& $fter some time s/ent in /ee/in(*
(rinnin(* and ,hatterin(* he at last es/ied me- and rea,hin( one of
his /aws in at the door* as a ,at does when she /lays with a mouse*
althou(h " often shifted /la,e to avoid him* he at len(th sei@ed
the la//et of my ,oat =whi,h bein( made of that ,ountry sil.* was
very thi,. and stron(>* and dra((ed me out& He too. me u/ in his
ri(ht foreAfoot and held me as a nurse does a ,hild she is (oin( to
su,.le* :ust as " have seen the same sort of ,reature do with a
.itten in Euro/e- and when " offered to stru((le he s1uee@ed me so
hard* that " thou(ht it more /rudent to submit& " have (ood reason
to believe* that he too. me for a youn( one of his own s/e,ies* by
his often my fa,e very (ently with his other /aw& "n
these diversions he was interru/ted by a noise at the ,loset door*
as if somebody were o/enin( it< whereu/on he suddenly lea/ed u/ to
the window at whi,h he had ,ome in* and then,e u/on the leads and
(utters* u/on three le(s* and holdin( me in the fourth*
till he ,lambered u/ to a roof that was ne0t to ours& " heard
Glumdal,lit,h (ive a shrie. at the moment he was ,arryin( me out&
The /oor (irl was almost distra,ted< that 1uarter of the /ala,e
was all in an u/roar- the servants ran for ladders- the mon.ey was
seen by hundreds in the ,ourt* sittin( u/on the rid(e of a
buildin(* holdin( me li.e a baby in one of his fore/aws* and
feedin( me with the other* by ,rammin( into my mouth some vi,tuals
he had s1uee@ed out of the ba( on one side of his ,ha/s* and
/attin( me when " would not eat- whereat many of the rabble below
,ould not forbear lau(hin(- neither do " thin. they :ustly ou(ht to
be blamed* for* without 1uestion* the si(ht was ridi,ulous enou(h
to every body but myself& Some of the /eo/le threw u/ stones*
ho/in( to drive the mon.ey down- but this was stri,tly forbidden*
or else* very /robably* my brains had been dashed out&
The ladders were now a//lied* and mounted by several men- whi,h the
mon.ey observin(* and findin( himself almost en,om/assed* not bein(
able to ma.e s/eed enou(h with his three le(s* let me dro/ on a
rid(e tile* and made his es,a/e& Here " sat for some time* five
hundred yards from the (round* e0/e,tin( every moment to be blown
down by the wind* or to fall by my own (iddiness* and ,ome tumblin(
over and over from the rid(e to the eaves- but an honest lad* one
of my nurse's footmen* ,limbed u/* and /uttin( me into his bree,hes
/o,.et* brou(ht me down safe&
" was almost ,ho.ed with the filthy stuff the mon.ey had ,rammed
down my throat< but my dear little nurse /i,.ed it out of my mouth
with a small needle* and then " fell aAvomitin(* whi,h (ave me
(reat relief& 3et " was so wea. and bruised in the sides with the
s1uee@es (iven me by this odious animal* that " was for,ed to .ee/
my bed a fortni(ht& The .in(* 1ueen* and all the ,ourt* sent every
day to in1uire after my health- and her ma:esty made me several
visits durin( my si,.ness& The mon.ey was .illed* and an order
made* that no su,h animal should be .e/t about the /ala,e&
When " attended the .in( after my re,overy* to return him than.s
for his favours* he was /leased to rally me a (ood deal u/on this
adventure& He as.ed me* 9what my thou(hts and s/e,ulations were*
while " lay in the mon.ey's /aw- how " li.ed the vi,tuals he (ave
me- his manner of feedin(- and whether the fresh air on the roof
had shar/ened my stoma,h&9 He desired to .now* 9what " would have
done u/on su,h an o,,asion in my own ,ountry&9 " told his ma:esty*
9that in Euro/e we had no mon.eys* e0,e/t su,h as were brou(ht for
,uriosity from other /la,es* and so small* that " ,ould deal with a
do@en of them to(ether* if they /resumed to atta,. me& $nd as for
that monstrous animal with whom " was so lately en(a(ed =it was
indeed as lar(e as an ele/hant>* if my fears had suffered me to
thin. so far as to ma.e use of my han(er*9 fier,ely* and
,la//in( my hand on the hilt* as " s/o.e> 9when he /o.ed his /aw
into my ,hamber* /erha/s " should have (iven him su,h a wound* as
would have made him (lad to withdraw it with more haste than he /ut
it in&9 This " delivered in a firm tone* li.e a /erson who was
:ealous lest his ,oura(e should be ,alled in 1uestion& However* my
s/ee,h /rodu,ed nothin( else beside a laud lau(hter* whi,h all the
res/e,t due to his ma:esty from those about him ,ould not ma.e them
,ontain& This made me refle,t* how vain an attem/t it is for a man
to endeavour to do himself honour amon( those who are out of all
de(ree of e1uality or ,om/arison with him& $nd yet " have seen the
moral of my own behaviour very fre1uent in En(land sin,e my return-
where a little ,ontem/tible varlet* without the least title to
birth* /erson* wit* or ,ommon sense* shall /resume to loo. with
im/ortan,e* and /ut himself u/on a foot with the (reatest /ersons
of the .in(dom&
" was every day furnishin( the ,ourt with some ridi,ulous story<
and Glumdal,lit,h* althou(h she loved me to e0,ess* yet was ar,h
enou(h to inform the 1ueen* whenever " ,ommitted any folly that she
thou(ht would be divertin( to her ma:esty& The (irl* who had been
out of order* was ,arried by her (overness to ta.e the air about an
hour's distan,e* or thirty miles from town& They ali(hted out of
the ,oa,h near a small footA/ath in a field* and Glumdal,lit,h
settin( down my travellin( bo0* " went out of it to wal.& There
was a ,owAdun( in the /ath* and " must need try my a,tivity by
attem/tin( to lea/ over it& " too. a run* but unfortunately :um/ed
short* and found myself :ust in the middle u/ to my .nees& " waded
throu(h with some diffi,ulty* and one of the footmen wi/ed me as
,lean as he ,ould with his,hief* for " was filthily
bemired- and my nurse ,onfined me to my bo0* till we returned home-
where the 1ueen was soon informed of what had /assed* and the
footmen s/read it about the ,ourt< so that all the mirth for some
days was at my e0/ense&
2H$PTER 5"&
'Several ,ontrivan,es of the author to /lease the .in( and 1ueen&
He shows his s.ill in musi,& The .in( in1uires into the state of
En(land* whi,h the author relates to him& The .in('s observations
" used to attend the .in('s levee on,e or twi,e a wee.* and had
often seen him under the barber's hand* whi,h indeed was at first
very terrible to behold- for the ra@or was almost twi,e as lon( as
an ordinary s,ythe& His ma:esty* a,,ordin( to the ,ustom of the
,ountry* was only shaved twi,e aAwee.& " on,e /revailed on the
barber to (ive me some of the suds or lather* out of whi,h " /i,.ed
forty or fifty of the stron(est stum/s of hair& " then too. a
/ie,e of fine wood* and ,ut it li.e the ba,. of a ,omb*
several holes in it at e1ual distan,es with as small a needle as "
,ould (et from Glumdal,lit,h& " fi0ed in the stum/s so
artifi,ially* s,ra/in( and slo/in( them with my .nife toward the
/oints* that " made a very tolerable ,omb- whi,h was a seasonable
su//ly* my own bein( so mu,h bro.en in the teeth* that it was
almost useless< neither did " .now any artist in that ,ountry so
ni,e and e0a,t* as would underta.e to ma.e me another&
$nd this /uts me in mind of an amusement* wherein " s/ent many of
my leisure hours& " desired the 1ueen's woman to save for me the
,ombin(s of her ma:esty's hair* whereof in time " (ot a (ood
1uantity- and ,onsultin( with my friend the ,* who had
re,eived (eneral orders to do little :obs for me* " dire,ted him to
ma.e two ,hairAframes* no lar(er than those " had in my bo0* and to
bore little holes with a fine awl* round those /arts where "
desi(ned the ba,.s and seats- throu(h these holes " wove the
stron(est hairs " ,ould /i,. out* :ust after the manner of ,ane
,hairs in En(land& When they were finished* " made a /resent of
them to her ma:esty- who .e/t them in her ,abinet* and used to show
them for ,uriosities* as indeed they were the wonder of every one
that beheld them& The 1ueen would have me sit u/on one of these
,hairs* but " absolutely refused to obey her* /rotestin( " would
rather die than /la,e a dishonourable /art of my body on those
/re,ious hairs* that on,e adorned her ma:esty's head& #f these
hairs =as " had always a me,hani,al (enius> " li.ewise made a neat
little /urse* about five feet lon(* with her ma:esty's name
de,i/hered in (old letters* whi,h " (ave to Glumdal,lit,h* by the
1ueen's ,onsent& To say the truth* it was more for show than use*
bein( not of stren(th to bear the wei(ht of the lar(er ,oins* and
therefore she .e/t nothin( in it but some little toys that (irls
are fond of&
The .in(* who deli(hted in musi,* had fre1uent ,on,erts at ,ourt*
to whi,h " was sometimes ,arried* and set in my bo0 on a table to
hear them< but the noise was so (reat that " ,ould hardly
distin(uish the tunes& " am ,onfident that all the drums and
trum/ets of a royal army* beatin( and soundin( to(ether :ust at
your ears* ,ould not e1ual it& +y /ra,ti,e was to have my bo0
removed from the /la,e where the /erformers sat* as far as " ,ould*
then to shut the doors and windows of it* and draw the window
,urtains- after whi,h " found their musi, not disa(reeable&
" had learned in my youth to /lay a little u/on the s/inet&
Glumdal,lit,h .e/t one in her ,hamber* and a master attended twi,e
aAwee. to tea,h her< " ,alled it a s/inet* be,ause it somewhat
resembled that instrument* and was /layed u/on in the same manner&
$ fan,y ,ame into my head* that " would entertain the .in( and
1ueen with an En(lish tune u/on this instrument& ut this a//eared
e0tremely diffi,ult< for the s/inet was near si0ty feet lon(* ea,h
.ey bein( almost a foot wide* so that with my arms e0tended " ,ould
not rea,h to above five .eys* and to /ress them down re1uired a
(ood smart stro.e with my fist* whi,h would be too (reat a labour*
and to no /ur/ose& The method " ,ontrived was this< " /re/ared
two round sti,.s* about the bi(ness of ,ommon ,ud(els- they were
thi,.er at one end than the other* and " ,overed the thi,.er ends
with /ie,es of a mouse's* that by ra//in( on them " mi(ht
neither dama(e the to/s of the .eys nor interru/t the sound&
efore the s/inet a ben,h was /la,ed* about four feet below the
.eys* and " was /ut u/on the ben,h& " ran sidelin( u/on it* that
way and this* as fast as " ,ould* ban(in( the /ro/er .eys with my
two sti,.s* and made a shift to /lay a :i(* to the (reat
satisfa,tion of both their ma:esties- but it was the most violent
e0er,ise " ever underwent- and yet " ,ould not stri.e above si0teen
.eys* nor ,onse1uently /lay the bass and treble to(ether* as other
artists do- whi,h was a (reat disadvanta(e to my /erforman,e&
The .in(* who* as " before observed* was a /rin,e of e0,ellent
understandin(* would fre1uently order that " should be brou(ht in
my bo0* and set u/on the table in his ,loset< he would then
,ommand me to brin( one of my ,hairs out of the bo0* and sit down
within three yards distan,e u/on the to/ of the ,abinet* whi,h
brou(ht me almost to a level with his fa,e& "n this manner " had
several ,onversations with him& " one day too. the freedom to tell
his ma:esty* 9that the ,ontem/t he dis,overed towards Euro/e* and
the rest of the world* did not seem answerable to those e0,ellent
1ualities of mind that he was master of- that reason did not e0tend
itself with the bul. of the body- on the ,ontrary* we observed in
our ,ountry* that the tallest /ersons were usually the least
/rovided with it- that amon( other animals* bees and ants had the
re/utation of more industry* art* and sa(a,ity* than many of the
lar(er .inds- and that* as in,onsiderable as he too. me to be* "
ho/ed " mi(ht live to do his ma:esty some si(nal servi,e&9 The
.in( heard me with attention* and be(an to ,on,eive a mu,h better
o/inion of me than he had ever before& He desired 9" would (ive
him as e0a,t an a,,ount of the (overnment of En(land as " /ossibly
,ould- be,ause* as fond as /rin,es ,ommonly are of their own
,ustoms =for so he ,on:e,tured of other monar,hs* by my former
dis,ourses>* he should be (lad to hear of any thin( that mi(ht
deserve imitation&9
"ma(ine with thyself* ,ourteous reader* how often " then wished for
the ton(ue of %emosthenes or 2i,ero* that mi(ht have enabled me to
,elebrate the /raise of my own dear native ,ountry in a style e1ual
to its merits and feli,ity&
" be(an my dis,ourse by informin( his ma:esty* that our dominions
,onsisted of two islands* whi,h ,om/osed three mi(hty .in(doms*
under one soverei(n* beside our /lantations in $meri,a& " dwelt
lon( u/on the fertility of our soil* and the tem/erature of our
,limate& " then s/o.e at lar(e u/on the ,onstitution of an En(lish
/arliament- /artly made u/ of an illustrious body ,alled the House
of Peers- /ersons of the noblest blood* and of the most an,ient and
am/le /atrimonies& " des,ribed that e0traordinary ,are always
ta.en of their edu,ation in arts and arms* to 1ualify them for
bein( ,ounsellors both to the .in( and .in(dom- to have a share in
the le(islature- to be members of the hi(hest ,ourt of :udi,ature*
when,e there ,an be no a//eal- and to be ,ham/ions always ready for
the defen,e of their /rin,e and ,ountry* by their valour* ,ondu,t*
and fidelity& That these were the ornament and bulwar. of the
.in(dom* worthy followers of their most renowned an,estors* whose
honour had been the reward of their virtue* from whi,h their
/osterity were never on,e .nown to de(enerate& To these were
:oined several holy /ersons* as /art of that assembly* under the
title of bisho/s* whose /e,uliar business is to ta.e ,are of
reli(ion* and of those who instru,t the /eo/le therein& These were
sear,hed and sou(ht out throu(h the whole nation* by the /rin,e and
his wisest ,ounsellors* amon( su,h of the /riesthood as were most
deservedly distin(uished by the san,tity of their lives* and the
de/th of their erudition- who were indeed the s/iritual fathers of
the ,ler(y and the /eo/le&
That the other /art of the /arliament ,onsisted of an assembly
,alled the House of 2ommons* who were all /rin,i/al (entlemen*
freely /i,.ed and ,ulled out by the /eo/le themselves* for their
(reat abilities and love of their ,ountry* to re/resent the wisdom
of the whole nation& $nd that these two bodies made u/ the most
au(ust assembly in Euro/e- to whom* in ,on:un,tion with the /rin,e*
the whole le(islature is ,ommitted&
" then des,ended to the ,ourts of :usti,e- over whi,h the :ud(es*
those venerable sa(es and inter/reters of the law* /resided* for
determinin( the dis/uted ri(hts and /ro/erties of men* as well as
for the /unishment of vi,e and /rote,tion of inno,en,e& "
mentioned the /rudent mana(ement of our treasury- the valour and
a,hievements of our for,es* by sea and land& " ,om/uted the number
of our /eo/le* by re,.onin( how many millions there mi(ht be of
ea,h reli(ious se,t* or /oliti,al /arty amon( us& " did not omit
even our s/orts and /astimes* or any other /arti,ular whi,h "
thou(ht mi(ht redound to the honour of my ,ountry& $nd " finished
all with a brief histori,al a,,ount of affairs and events in
En(land for about a hundred years /ast&
This ,onversation was not ended under five audien,es* ea,h of
several hours- and the .in( heard the whole with (reat attention*
fre1uently notes of what " s/o.e* as well as memorandums of
what 1uestions he intended to as. me&
When " had /ut an end to these lon( dis,our,es* his ma:esty* in a
si0th audien,e* ,onsultin( his notes* /ro/osed many doubts*
1ueries* and ob:e,tions* u/on every arti,le& He as.ed* 9What
methods were used to ,ultivate the minds and bodies of our youn(
nobility* and in what .ind of business they ,ommonly s/ent the
first and tea,hable /arts of their lives? What ,ourse was ta.en to
su//ly that assembly* when any noble family be,ame e0tin,t? What
1ualifi,ations were ne,essary in those who are to be ,reated new
lords< whether the humour of the /rin,e* a sum of money to a ,ourt
lady* or a desi(n of stren(thenin( a /arty o//osite to the /ubli,
interest* ever ha//ened to be the motive in those advan,ements?
What share of .nowled(e these lords had in the laws of their
,ountry* and how they ,ame by it* so as to enable them to de,ide
the /ro/erties of their fellowAsub:e,ts in the last resort?
Whether they were always so free from avari,e* /artialities* or
want* that a bribe* or some other sinister view* ,ould have no
/la,e amon( them? Whether those holy lords " s/o.e of were always
/romoted to that ran. u/on a,,ount of their .nowled(e in reli(ious
matters* and the san,tity of their lives- had never been ,om/liers
with the times* while they were ,ommon /riests- or slavish
/rostitute ,ha/lains to some nobleman* whose o/inions they
,ontinued servilely to follow* after they were admitted into that
He then desired to .now* 9What arts were /ra,tised in ele,tin(
those whom " ,alled ,ommoners< whether a stran(er* with a stron(
/urse* mi(ht not influen,e the vul(ar voters to ,hoose him before
their own landlord* or the most ,onsiderable (entleman in the
nei(hbourhood? How it ,ame to /ass* that /eo/le were so violently
bent u/on (ettin( into this assembly* whi,h " allowed to be a (reat
trouble and e0/ense* often to the ruin of their families* without
any salary or /ension? be,ause this a//eared su,h an e0alted strain
of virtue and /ubli, s/irit* that his ma:esty seemed to doubt it
mi(ht /ossibly not be always sin,ere&9 $nd he desired to .now*
9Whether su,h @ealous (entlemen ,ould have any views of refundin(
themselves for the ,har(es and trouble they were at by sa,rifi,in(
the /ubli, (ood to the desi(ns of a wea. and vi,ious /rin,e* in
,on:un,tion with a ,orru/ted ministry?9 He multi/lied his
1uestions* and sifted me thorou(hly u/on every /art of this head*
/ro/osin( numberless in1uiries and ob:e,tions* whi,h " thin. it not
/rudent or ,onvenient to re/eat&
U/on what " said in relation to our ,ourts of :usti,e* his ma:esty
desired to be satisfied in several /oints< and this " was the
better able to do* havin( been formerly almost ruined by a lon(
suit in ,han,ery* whi,h was de,reed for me with ,osts& He as.ed*
9What time was usually s/ent in determinin( between ri(ht and
wron(* and what de(ree of e0/ense? Whether advo,ates and orators
had liberty to /lead in ,auses manifestly .nown to be un:ust*
ve0atious* or o//ressive? Whether /arty* in reli(ion or /oliti,s*
were observed to be of any wei(ht in the s,ale of :usti,e? Whether
those /leadin( orators were /ersons edu,ated in the (eneral
.nowled(e of e1uity* or only in /rovin,ial* national* and other
lo,al ,ustoms? Whether they or their :ud(es had any /art in
/ennin( those laws* whi,h they assumed the liberty of inter/retin(*
and (lossin( u/on at their /leasure? Whether they had ever* at
different times* /leaded for and a(ainst the same ,ause* and ,ited
/re,edents to /rove ,ontrary o/inions? Whether they were a ri,h or
a /oor ,or/oration? Whether they re,eived any /e,uniary reward for
/leadin(* or deliverin( their o/inions? $nd /arti,ularly* whether
they were ever admitted as members in the lower senate?9
He fell ne0t u/on the mana(ement of our treasury- and said* 9he
thou(ht my memory had failed me* be,ause " ,om/uted our ta0es at
about five or si0 millions aAyear* and when " ,ame to mention the
issues* he found they sometimes amounted to more than double- for
the notes he had ta.en were very /arti,ular in this /oint* be,ause
he ho/ed* as he told me* that the .nowled(e of our ,ondu,t mi(ht be
useful to him* and he ,ould not be de,eived in his ,al,ulations&
ut* if what " told him were true* he was still at a loss how a
.in(dom ,ould run out of its estate* li.e a /rivate /erson&9 He
as.ed me* 9who were our ,reditors- and where we found money to /ay
them?9 He wondered to hear me tal. of su,h ,har(eable and
e0/ensive wars- 9that ,ertainly we must be a 1uarrelsome /eo/le* or
live amon( very bad nei(hbours* and that our (enerals must needs be
ri,her than our .in(s&9 He as.ed* what business we had out of our
own islands* unless u/on the s,ore of trade* or treaty* or to
defend the ,oasts with our fleet?9 $bove all* he was ama@ed to
hear me tal. of a mer,enary standin( army* in the midst of /ea,e*
and amon( a free /eo/le& He said* 9if we were (overned by our own
,onsent* in the /ersons of our re/resentatives* he ,ould not
ima(ine of whom we were afraid* or a(ainst whom we were to fi(ht-
and would hear my o/inion* whether a /rivate man's house mi(ht not
be better defended by himself* his ,hildren* and family* than by
halfAaAdo@en ras,als* /i,.ed u/ at a venture in the streets for
small wa(es* who mi(ht (et a hundred times more by ,uttin( their
He lau(hed at my 9odd .ind of arithmeti,*9 as he
was /leased to
,all it* 9in re,.onin( the numbers of our /eo/le* by a ,om/utation
drawn from the several se,ts amon( us* in reli(ion and /oliti,s&9
He said* 9he .new no reason why those* who entertain o/inions
/re:udi,ial to the /ubli,* should be obli(ed to ,han(e* or should
not be obli(ed to ,on,eal them& $nd as it was tyranny in any
(overnment to re1uire the first* so it was wea.ness not to enfor,e
the se,ond< for a man may be allowed to .ee/ /oisons in his
,loset* but not to vend them about for ,ordials&9
He observed* 9that amon( the diversions of our nobility and (entry*
" had mentioned (amin(< he desired to .now at what a(e this
entertainment was usually ta.en u/* and when it was laid down- how
mu,h of their time it em/loyed- whether it ever went so hi(h as to
affe,t their fortunes- whether mean* vi,ious /eo/le* by their
de0terity in that art* mi(ht not arrive at (reat ri,hes* and
sometimes .ee/ our very nobles in de/enden,e* as well as habituate
them to vile ,om/anions* wholly ta.e them from the im/rovement of
their minds* and for,e them* by the losses they re,eived* to learn
and /ra,tise that infamous de0terity u/on others?9
He was /erfe,tly astonished with the histori,al a,,ount (ave him of
our affairs durin( the last ,entury- /rotestin( 9it was only a hea/
of ,ons/ira,ies* rebellions* murders* massa,res* revolutions*
banishments* the very worst effe,ts that avari,e* fa,tion*
hy/o,risy* /erfidiousness* ,ruelty* ra(e* madness* hatred* envy*
lust* mali,e* and ambition* ,ould /rodu,e&9
His ma:esty* in another audien,e* was at the /ains to re,a/itulate
the sum of all " had s/o.en- ,om/ared the 1uestions he made with
the answers " had (iven- then me into his hands* and me (ently* delivered himself in these words* whi,h " shall
never for(et* nor the manner he s/o.e them in< 9+y little friend
Grildri(* you have made a most admirable /ane(yri, u/on your
,ountry- you have ,learly /roved* that i(noran,e* idleness* and
vi,e* are the /ro/er in(redients for 1ualifyin( a le(islator- that
laws are best e0/lained* inter/reted* and a//lied* by those whose
interest and abilities lie in /ervertin(* ,onfoundin(* and eludin(
them& " observe amon( you some lines of an institution* whi,h* in
its ori(inal* mi(ht have been tolerable* but these half erased* and
the rest wholly blurred and blotted by ,orru/tions& "t does not
a//ear* from all you have said* how any one /erfe,tion is re1uired
toward the /ro,urement of any one station amon( you- mu,h less*
that men are ennobled on a,,ount of their virtue- that /riests are
advan,ed for their /iety or learnin(- soldiers* for their ,ondu,t
or valour- :ud(es* for their inte(rity- senators* for the love of
their ,ountry- or ,ounsellors for their wisdom& $s for yourself*9
,ontinued the .in(* 9who have s/ent the (reatest /art of your life
in travellin(* " am well dis/osed to ho/e you may hitherto have
es,a/ed many vi,es of your ,ountry& ut by what " have (athered
from your own relation* and the answers " have with mu,h /ains
wrun( and e0torted from you* " ,annot but ,on,lude the bul. of your
natives to be the most /erni,ious ra,e of little odious vermin that
nature ever suffered to ,rawl u/on the surfa,e of the earth&9
2H$PTER 5""&
'The author's love of his ,ountry& He a /ro/osal of mu,h
advanta(e to the .in(* whi,h is re:e,ted& The .in('s (reat
i(noran,e in /oliti,s& The learnin( of that ,ountry very im/erfe,t
and ,onfined& The laws* and military affairs* and /arties in the
Nothin( but an e0treme love of truth ,ould have hindered me from
,on,ealin( this /art of my story& "t was in vain to dis,over my
resentments* whi,h were always turned into ridi,ule- and " was
for,ed to rest with /atien,e* while my noble and beloved ,ountry
was so in:uriously treated& " am as heartily sorry as any of my
readers ,an /ossibly be* that su,h an o,,asion was (iven< but this
/rin,e ha//ened to be so ,urious and in1uisitive u/on every
/arti,ular* that it ,ould not ,onsist either with (ratitude or (ood
manners* to refuse (ivin( him what satisfa,tion " was able& 3et
thus mu,h " may be allowed to say in my own vindi,ation* that "
artfully eluded many of his 1uestions* and (ave to every /oint a
more favourable turn* by many de(rees* than the stri,tness of truth
would allow& 4or " have always borne that laudable /artiality to
my own ,ountry* whi,h %ionysius Hali,arnassensis* with so mu,h
:usti,e* re,ommends to an historian< " would hide the frailties
and deformities of my /oliti,al mother* and /la,e her virtues and
beauties in the most advanta(eous li(ht& This was my sin,ere
endeavour in those many dis,ourses " had with that monar,h*
althou(h it unfortunately failed of su,,ess&
ut (reat allowan,es should be (iven to a .in(* who lives wholly
se,luded from the rest of the world* and must therefore be
alto(ether una,1uainted with the manners and ,ustoms that most
/revail in other nations< the want of whi,h .nowled(e will ever
/rodu,e many /re:udi,es* and a ,ertain narrowness of* from
whi,h we* and the /oliter ,ountries of Euro/e* are wholly e0em/ted&
$nd it would be hard indeed* if so remote a /rin,e's notions of
virtue and vi,e were to be offered as a standard for all man.ind&
To ,onfirm what " have now said* and further to show the miserable
effe,ts of a ,onfined edu,ation* " shall here insert a /assa(e*
whi,h will hardly obtain belief& "n ho/es to in(ratiate myself
further into his ma:esty's favour* " told him of 9an invention*
dis,overed between three and four hundred years a(o* to ma.e a
,ertain /owder* into a hea/ of whi,h* the smallest s/ar. of fire
fallin(* would .indle the whole in a moment* althou(h it were as
bi( as a mountain* and ma.e it all fly u/ in the air to(ether* with
a noise and a(itation (reater than thunder& That a /ro/er 1uantity
of this /owder rammed into a hollow tube of brass or iron*
a,,ordin( to its bi(ness* would drive a ball of iron or lead* with
su,h violen,e and s/eed* as nothin( was able to sustain its for,e&
That the lar(est balls thus dis,har(ed* would not only destroy
whole ran.s of an army at on,e* but batter the stron(est walls to
the (round* sin. down shi/s* with a thousand men in ea,h* to the
bottom of the sea* and when lin.ed to(ether by a ,hain* would ,ut
throu(h masts and ri((in(* divide hundreds of bodies in the middle*
and lay all waste before them& That we often /ut this /owder into
lar(e hollow balls of iron* and dis,har(ed them by an en(ine into
some ,ity we were besie(in(* whi,h would ri/ u/ the /avements* tear
the houses to /ie,es* burst and throw s/linters on every side*
dashin( out the brains of all who ,ame near& That " .new the
in(redients very well* whi,h were ,hea/ and ,ommon- " understood
the manner of ,om/oundin( them* and ,ould dire,t his how to
ma.e those tubes* of a si@e /ro/ortionable to all other thin(s in
his ma:esty's .in(dom* and the lar(est need not be above a hundred
feet lon(- twenty or thirty of whi,h tubes* ,har(ed with the /ro/er
1uantity of /owder and balls* would batter down the walls of the
stron(est town in his dominions in a few hours* or destroy the
whole metro/olis* if ever it should /retend to dis/ute his absolute
,ommands&9 This " humbly offered to his ma:esty* as a small
tribute of a,.nowled(ment* in turn for so many mar.s that " had
re,eived* of his royal favour and /rote,tion&
The .in( was stru,. with horror at the des,ri/tion " had (iven of
those terrible en(ines* and the /ro/osal " had made& 9He was
ama@ed* how so im/otent and (rovellin( an inse,t as "9 =these were
his e0/ressions> 9,ould entertain su,h inhuman ideas* and in so
familiar a manner* as to a//ear wholly unmoved at all the s,enes of
blood and desolation whi,h " had /ainted as the ,ommon effe,ts of
those destru,tive ma,hines- whereof*9 he said* 9some evil (enius*
enemy to man.ind* must have been the first ,ontriver& $s for
himself* he /rotested* that althou(h few thin(s deli(hted him so
mu,h as new dis,overies in art or in nature* yet he would rather
lose half his .in(dom* than be /rivy to su,h a se,ret- whi,h he
,ommanded me* as " valued any life* never to mention any more&9
$ stran(e effe,t of narrow /rin,i/les and viewsL that a /rin,e
/ossessed of every 1uality whi,h /ro,ures veneration* love* and
esteem- of stron( /arts* (reat wisdom* and /rofound learnin(*
endowed with admirable talents* and almost adored by his sub:e,ts*
should* from a ni,e* unne,essary s,ru/le* whereof in Euro/e we ,an
have no ,on,e/tion* let sli/ an o//ortunity /ut into his hands that
would have made him absolute master of the lives* the liberties*
and the fortunes of his /eo/leL Neither do " say this* with the
least intention to detra,t from the many virtues of that e0,ellent
.in(* whose ,hara,ter* " am sensible* will* on this a,,ount* be
very mu,h lessened in the o/inion of an En(lish reader< but " ta.e
this defe,t amon( them to have risen from their i(noran,e* by not
havin( hitherto redu,ed /oliti,s into a s,ien,e* as the more a,ute
wits of Euro/e have done& 4or* " remember very well* in a
dis,ourse one day with the .in(* when " ha//ened to say* 9there
were several thousand boo.s amon( us written u/on the art of
(overnment*9 it (ave him =dire,tly ,ontrary to my intention> a very
mean o/inion of our understandin(s& He /rofessed both to abominate
and des/ise all mystery* refinement* and intri(ue* either in a
/rin,e or a minister& He ,ould not tell what " meant by se,rets of
state* where an enemy* or some rival nation* were not in the ,ase&
He ,onfined the .nowled(e of (overnin( within very narrow bounds*
to ,ommon sense and reason* to :usti,e and lenity* to the s/eedy
determination of ,ivil and ,riminal ,auses- with some other obvious
to/i,s* whi,h are not worth ,onsiderin(& $nd he (ave it for his
o/inion* 9that whoever ,ould ma.e two ears of ,orn* or two blades
of (rass* to (row u/on a s/ot of (round where only one (rew before*
would deserve better of man.ind* and do more essential servi,e to
his ,ountry* than the whole ra,e of /oliti,ians /ut to(ether&9
The learnin( of this /eo/le is very defe,tive* ,onsistin( only in
morality* history* /oetry* and mathemati,s* wherein they must be
allowed to e0,el& ut the last of these is wholly a//lied to what
may be useful in life* to the im/rovement of a(ri,ulture* and all
me,hani,al arts- so that amon( us* it would be little esteemed&
$nd as to ideas* entities* abstra,tions* and trans,endentals* "
,ould never drive the least ,on,e/tion into their heads&
No law in that ,ountry must e0,eed in words the number of letters
in their al/habet* whi,h ,onsists only of two and twenty& ut
indeed few of them e0tend even to that len(th& They are e0/ressed
in the most /lain and sim/le terms* wherein those /eo/le are not
mer,urial enou(h to dis,over above one inter/retation< and to
write a ,omment u/on any law* is a ,a/ital ,rime& $s to the
de,ision of ,ivil ,auses* or /ro,eedin(s a(ainst ,riminals* their
/re,edents are so few* that they have little reason to boast of any
e0traordinary s.ill in either&
They have had the art of /rintin(* as well as the 2hinese* time out
of mind< but their libraries are not very lar(e- for that of the
.in(* whi,h is re,.oned the lar(est* does not amount to above a
thousand volumes* /la,ed in a (allery of twelve hundred feet lon(*
when,e " had liberty to borrow what boo.s " /leased& The 1ueen's
:oiner had ,ontrived in one of Glumdal,lit,h's rooms* a .ind of
wooden ma,hine fiveAandAtwenty feet hi(h* formed li.e a standin(
ladder- the ste/s were ea,h fifty feet lon(& "t was indeed a
moveable /air of stairs* the lowest end /la,ed at ten feet distan,e
from the wall of the ,hamber& The boo. " had a mind to read* was
/ut u/ leanin( a(ainst the wall< " first mounted to the u//er ste/
of the ladder* and turnin( my fa,e towards the boo.* be(an at the
to/ of the /a(e* and so to the ri(ht and left about ei(ht
or ten /a,es* a,,ordin( to the len(th of the lines* till " had
(otten a little below the level of mine eyes* and then des,endin(
(radually till " ,ame to the bottom< after whi,h " mounted a(ain*
and be(an the other /a(e in the same manner* and so turned over the
leaf* whi,h " ,ould easily do with both my hands* for it was as
thi,. and stiff as a /asteboard* and in the lar(est folios not
above ei(hteen or twenty feet lon(&
Their style is ,lear* mas,uline* and smooth* but not florid- for
they avoid nothin( more than multi/lyin( unne,essary words* or
usin( various e0/ressions& " have /erused many of their boo.s*
es/e,ially those in history and morality& $mon( the rest* " was
mu,h diverted with a little old treatise* whi,h always lay in
Glumdal,lit,h's bed ,hamber* and belon(ed to her (overness* a (rave
elderly (entlewoman* who dealt in writin(s of morality and
devotion& The boo. treats of the wea.ness of human .ind* and is in
little esteem* e0,e/t amon( the women and the vul(ar& However* "
was ,urious to see what an author of that ,ountry ,ould say u/on
su,h a sub:e,t& This writer went throu(h all the usual to/i,s of
Euro/ean moralists* showin( 9how diminutive* ,ontem/tible* and
hel/less an animal was man in his own nature- how unable to defend
himself from in,lemen,ies of the air* or the fury of wild beasts<
how mu,h he was e0,elled by one ,reature in stren(th* by another in
s/eed* by a third in foresi(ht* by a fourth in industry&9 He
added* 9that nature was de(enerated in these latter de,linin( a(es
of the world* and ,ould now /rodu,e only small abortive births* in
,om/arison of those in an,ient times&9 He said 9it was very
reasonable to thin.* not only that the s/e,ies of men were
ori(inally mu,h lar(er* but also that there must have been (iants
in former a(es- whi,h* as it is asserted by history and tradition*
so it has been ,onfirmed by hu(e bones and s.ulls* ,asually du( u/
in several /arts of the .in(dom* far e0,eedin( the ,ommon dwindled
ra,e of men in our days&9 He ar(ued* 9that the very laws of nature
absolutely re1uired we should have been made* in the be(innin( of a
si@e more lar(e and robust- not so liable to destru,tion from every
little a,,ident* of a tile fallin( from a house* or a stone ,ast
from the hand of a boy* or bein( drowned in a little broo.&9 4rom
this way of reasonin(* the author drew several moral a//li,ations*
useful in the ,ondu,t of life* but needless here to re/eat& 4or my
own /art* " ,ould not avoid refle,tin( how universally this talent
was s/read* of drawin( le,tures in morality* or indeed rather
matter of dis,ontent and re/inin(* from the 1uarrels we raise with
nature& $nd " believe* u/on a stri,t in1uiry* those 1uarrels mi(ht
be shown as illA(rounded amon( us as they are amon( that /eo/le&
$s to their military affairs* they boast that the .in('s army
,onsists of a hundred and seventyAsi0 thousand foot* and thirtyAtwo
thousand horse< if that may be ,alled an army* whi,h is made u/ of
tradesmen in the several ,ities* and farmers in the ,ountry* whose
,ommanders are only the nobility and (entry* without /ay or reward&
They are indeed /erfe,t enou(h in their e0er,ises* and under very
(ood dis,i/line* wherein " saw no (reat merit- for how should it be
otherwise* where every farmer is under the ,ommand of his own
landlord* and every ,iti@en under that of the /rin,i/al men in his
own ,ity* ,hosen after the manner of 5eni,e* by ballot?
" have often seen the militia of !orbrul(rud drawn out to e0er,ise*
in a (reat field near the ,ity of twenty miles s1uare& They were
in all not above twentyAfive thousand foot* and si0 thousand horse-
but it was im/ossible for me to ,om/ute their number* ,onsiderin(
the s/a,e of (round they too. u/& $ ,avalier* mounted on a lar(e
steed* mi(ht be about ninety feet hi(h& " have seen this whole
body of horse* u/on a word of ,ommand* draw their swords at on,e*
and brandish them in the air& "ma(ination ,an fi(ure nothin( so
(rand* so sur/risin(* and so astonishin(L it loo.ed as if ten
thousand flashes of li(htnin( were dartin( at the same time from
every 1uarter of the s.y&
" was ,urious to .now how this /rin,e* to whose dominions there is
no a,,ess from any other ,ountry* ,ame to thin. of armies* or to
tea,h his /eo/le the /ra,ti,e of military dis,i/line& ut " was
soon informed* both by ,onversation and readin( their histories-
for* in the ,ourse of many a(es* they have been troubled with the
same disease to whi,h the whole ra,e of man.ind is sub:e,t- the
nobility often ,ontendin( for /ower* the /eo/le for liberty* and
the .in( for absolute dominion& $ll whi,h* however ha//ily
tem/ered by the laws of that .in(dom* have been sometimes violated
by ea,h of the three /arties* and have more than on,e o,,asioned
,ivil wars- the last whereof was ha//ily /ut an end to by this
/rin,e's (randAfather* in a (eneral ,om/osition- and the militia*
then settled with ,ommon ,onsent* has been ever sin,e .e/t in the
stri,test duty&
2H$PTER 5"""&
'The .in( and 1ueen ma.e a /ro(ress to the frontiers& The author
attends them& The manner in whi,h he leaves the ,ountry very
/arti,ularly related& He returns to En(land&)
" had always a stron( im/ulse that " should some time re,over my
liberty* thou(h it was im/ossible to ,on:e,ture by what means* or
to form any /ro:e,t with the least ho/e of su,,eedin(& The shi/ in
whi,h " sailed* was the first ever .nown to be driven within si(ht
of that ,oast* and the .in( had (iven stri,t orders* that if at any
time another a//eared* it should be ta.en ashore* and with all its
,rew and /assen(ers brou(ht in a tumbril to !orbrul(rud& He was
stron(ly bent to (et me a woman of my own si@e* by whom " mi(ht
/ro/a(ate the breed< but " thin. " should rather have died than
under(one the dis(ra,e of leavin( a /osterity to be .e/t in ,a(es*
li.e tame ,anaryAbirds* and /erha/s* in time* sold about the
.in(dom* to /ersons of 1uality* for ,uriosities& " was indeed
treated with mu,h .indness< " was the favourite of a (reat .in(
and 1ueen* and the deli(ht of the whole ,ourt- but it was u/on su,h
a foot as ill be,ame the di(nity of human.ind& " ,ould never
for(et those domesti, /led(es " had left behind me& " wanted to be
amon( /eo/le* with whom " ,ould ,onverse u/on even terms* and wal.
about the streets and fields without bein( afraid of bein( trod to
death li.e a fro( or a youn( /u//y& ut my deliveran,e ,ame sooner
than " e0/e,ted* and in a manner not very ,ommon- the whole story
and ,ir,umstan,es of whi,h " shall faithfully relate&
" had now been two years in this ,ountry- and about the be(innin(
of the third* Glumdal,lit,h and " attended the .in( and 1ueen* in a
/ro(ress to the south ,oast of the .in(dom& " was ,arried* as
usual* in my travellin(Abo0* whi,h as " have already des,ribed* was
a very ,onvenient ,loset* of twelve feet wide& $nd " had ordered a
hammo,. to be fi0ed* by sil.en ro/es from the four ,orners at the
to/* to brea. the :olts* when a servant ,arried me before him on
horseba,.* as " sometimes desired- and would often slee/ in my
hammo,.* while we were u/on the road& #n the roof of my ,loset*
not dire,tly over the middle of the hammo,.* " ordered the :oiner
to ,ut out a hole of a foot s1uare* to (ive me air in hot weather*
as " sle/t- whi,h hole " shut at /leasure with a board that drew
ba,.ward and forward throu(h a (roove&
When we ,ame to our :ourney's end* the .in( thou(ht /ro/er to /ass
a few days at a /ala,e he has near 4lanflasni,* a ,ity within
ei(hteen En(lish miles of the seaside& Glumdal,lit,h and " were
mu,h fati(ued< " had (otten a small ,old* but the /oor (irl was so
ill as to be ,onfined to her ,hamber& " lon(ed to see the o,ean*
whi,h must be the only s,ene of my es,a/e* if ever it should
ha//en& " /retended to be worse than " really was* and desired
leave to ta.e the fresh air of the sea* with a /a(e* whom " was
very fond of* and who had sometimes been trusted with me& " shall
never for(et with what unwillin(ness Glumdal,lit,h ,onsented* nor
the stri,t ,har(e she (ave the /a(e to be ,areful of me* burstin(
at the same time into a flood of tears* as if she had some
forbodin( of what was to ha//en& The boy too. me out in my bo0*
about half an hours wal. from the /ala,e* towards the ro,.s on the
seaAshore& " ordered him to set me down* and liftin( u/ one of my
sashes* ,ast many a wistful melan,holy loo. towards the sea& "
found myself not very well* and told the /a(e that " had a mind to
ta.e a na/ in my hammo,.* whi,h " ho/ed would do me (ood& " (ot
in* and the boy shut the window ,lose down* to .ee/ out the ,old&
" soon fell aslee/* and all " ,an ,on:e,ture is* while " sle/t* the
/a(e* no dan(er ,ould ha//en* went amon( the ro,.s to loo.
for birds' e((s* havin( before observed him from my window
sear,hin( about* and /i,.in( u/ one or two in the ,lefts& e that
as it will* " found myself suddenly awa.ed with a violent /ull u/on
the rin(* whi,h was fastened at the to/ of my bo0 for the
,onvenien,y of ,arria(e& " felt my bo0 raised very hi(h in the
air* and then borne forward with /rodi(ious s/eed& The first :olt
had li.e to have sha.en me out of my hammo,.* but afterward the
motion was easy enou(h& " ,alled out several times* as loud as "
,ould raise my voi,e* but all to no /ur/ose& " loo.ed towards my
windows* and ,ould see nothin( but the ,louds and s.y& " heard a
noise :ust over my head* li.e the ,la//in( of win(s* and then be(an
to /er,eive the woful ,ondition " was in- that some ea(le had (ot
the rin( of my bo0 in his bea.* with an intent to let it fall on a
ro,.* li.e a tortoise in a shell* and then /i,. out my body* and
devour it< for the sa(a,ity and smell of this bird enables him to
dis,over his 1uarry at a (reat distan,e* thou(h better ,on,ealed
than " ,ould be within a twoAin,h board&
"n a little time* " observed the noise and flutter of win(s to
in,rease very fast* and my bo0 was tossed u/ and down* li.e a si(n
in a windy day& " heard several ban(s or buffets* as " thou(ht
(iven to the ea(le =for su,h " am ,ertain it must have been that
held the rin( of my bo0 in his bea.>* and then* all on a sudden*
felt myself fallin( /er/endi,ularly down* for above a minute* but
with su,h in,redible swiftness* that " almost lost my breath& +y
fall was sto//ed by a terrible s1uash* that sounded louder to my
ears than the ,atara,t of Nia(ara- after whi,h* " was 1uite in the
dar. for another minute* and then my bo0 be(an to rise so hi(h*
that " ,ould see li(ht from the to/s of the windows& " now
/er,eived " was fallen into the sea& +y bo0* by the wei(ht of my
body* the (oods that were in* and the broad /lates of iron fi0ed
for stren(th at the four ,orners of the to/ and bottom* floated
about five feet dee/ in water& " did then* and do now su//ose*
that the ea(le whi,h flew away with my bo0 was /ursued by two or
three others* and for,ed to let me dro/* while he defended himself
a(ainst the rest* who ho/ed to share in the /rey& The /lates of
iron fastened at the bottom of the bo0 =for those were the
stron(est> /reserved the balan,e while it fell* and hindered it
from bein( bro.en on the surfa,e of the water& Every :oint of it
was well (rooved- and the door did not move on hin(es* but u/ and
down li.e a sash* whi,h .e/t my ,loset so ti(ht that very little
water ,ame in& " (ot with mu,h diffi,ulty out of my hammo,.*
havin( first ventured to draw ba,. the sli/Aboard on the roof
already mentioned* ,ontrived on /ur/ose to let in air* for want of
whi,h " found myself almost stifled&
How often did " then wish myself with my dear Glumdal,lit,h* from
whom one sin(le hour had so far divided meL $nd " may say with
truth* that in the midst of my own misfortunes " ,ould not forbear
lamentin( my /oor nurse* the (rief she would suffer for my loss*
the dis/leasure of the 1ueen* and the ruin of her fortune& Perha/s
many travellers have not been under (reater diffi,ulties and
distress than " was at this :un,ture* e0/e,tin( every moment to see
my bo0 dashed to /ie,es* or at least overset by the first violent
blast* or risin( wave& $ brea,h in one sin(le /ane of (lass would
have been immediate death< nor ,ould any thin( have /reserved the
windows* but the stron( latti,e wires /la,ed on the outside*
a(ainst a,,idents in travellin(& " saw the water oo@e in at
several ,rannies* althou(h the lea.s were not ,onsiderable* and "
endeavoured to sto/ them as well as " ,ould& " was not able to
lift u/ the roof of my ,loset* whi,h otherwise " ,ertainly should
have done* and sat on the to/ of it- where " mi(ht at least
/reserve myself some hours lon(er* than by bein( shut u/ =as " may
,all it> in the hold& #r if " es,a/ed these dan(ers for a day or
two* what ,ould " e0/e,t but a miserable death of ,old and hun(er?
" was four hours under these ,ir,umstan,es* e0/e,tin(* and indeed
wishin(* every moment to be my last&
" have already told the reader that there were two stron( sta/les
fi0ed u/on that side of my bo0 whi,h had no window* and into whi,h
the servant* who used to ,arry me on horseba,.* would /ut a
leathern belt* and bu,.le it about his waist& ein( in this
dis,onsolate state* " heard* or at least thou(ht " heard* some .ind
of (ratin( noise on that side of my bo0 where the sta/les were
fi0ed- and soon after " be(an to fan,y that the bo0 was /ulled or
towed alon( the sea- for " now and then felt a sort of tu((in(*
whi,h made the waves rise near the to/s of my windows* leavin( me
almost in the dar.& This (ave me some faint ho/es of relief*
althou(h " was not able to ima(ine how it ,ould be brou(ht about&
" ventured to uns,rew one of my ,hairs* whi,h were always fastened
to the floor- and havin( made a hard shift to s,rew it down a(ain*
dire,tly under the sli//in(Aboard that " had lately o/ened* "
mounted on the ,hair* and /uttin( my mouth as near as " ,ould to
the hole* " ,alled for hel/ in a loud voi,e* and in all the
lan(ua(es " understood& " then fastened my,hief to a sti,.
" usually ,arried* and thrustin( it u/ the hole* waved it several
times in the air* that if any boat or shi/ were near* the seamen
mi(ht ,on:e,ture some unha//y mortal to be shut u/ in the bo0&
" found no effe,t from all " ,ould do* but /lainly /er,eived my
,loset to be moved alon(- and in the s/a,e of an hour* or better*
that side of the bo0 where the sta/les were* and had no windows*
stru,. a(ainst somethin( that was hard& " a//rehended it to be a
ro,.* and found myself tossed more than ever& " /lainly heard a
noise u/on the ,over of my ,loset* li.e that of a ,able* and the
(ratin( of it as it /assed throu(h the rin(& " then found myself
hoisted u/* by de(rees* at least three feet hi(her than " was
before& Whereu/on " a(ain thrust u/ my sti,. and,hief*
,allin( for hel/ till " was almost hoarse& "n return to whi,h* "
heard a (reat shout re/eated three times* (ivin( me su,h trans/orts
of :oy as are not to be ,on,eived but by those who feel them& "
now heard a tram/lin( over my head* and somebody ,allin( throu(h
the hole with a loud voi,e* in the En(lish ton(ue* 9"f there be any
body below* let them s/ea.&9 " answered* 9" was an En(lishman*
drawn by ill fortune into the (reatest ,alamity that ever any
,reature underwent* and be((ed* by all that was movin(* to be
delivered out of the dun(eon " was in&9 The voi,e re/lied* 9" was
safe* for my bo0 was fastened to their shi/- and the ,ar/enter
should immediately ,ome and saw a hole in the ,over* lar(e enou(h
to /ull me out&9 " answered* 9that was needless* and would ta.e u/
too mu,h time- for there was no more to be done* but let one of the
,rew /ut his fin(er into the rin(* and ta.e the bo0 out of the sea
into the shi/* and so into the ,a/tain's ,abin&9 Some of them*
u/on hearin( me tal. so wildly* thou(ht " was mad< others lau(hed-
for indeed it never ,ame into my head* that " was now (ot amon(
/eo/le of my own stature and stren(th& The ,ar/enter ,ame* and in
a few minutes sawed a /assa(e about four feet s1uare* then let down
a small ladder* u/on whi,h " mounted* and then,e was ta.en into the
shi/ in a very wea. ,ondition&
The sailors were all in ama@ement* and as.ed me a thousand
1uestions* whi,h " had no in,lination to answer& " was e1ually
,onfounded at the si(ht of so many /i(mies* for su,h " too. them to
be* after havin( so lon( a,,ustomed mine eyes to the monstrous
ob:e,ts " had left& ut the ,a/tain* +r& Thomas Wil,o,.s* an
honest worthy Shro/shire man* observin( " was ready to faint* too.
me into his ,abin* (ave me a ,ordial to ,omfort me* and made me
turn in u/on his own bed* advisin( me to ta.e a little rest* of
whi,h " had (reat need& efore " went to slee/* " (ave him to
understand that " had some valuable furniture in my bo0* too (ood
to be lost< a fine hammo,.* a handsome fieldAbed* two ,hairs* a
table* and a ,abinet- that my ,loset was hun( on all sides* or
rather 1uilted* with sil. and ,otton- that if he would let one of
the ,rew brin( my ,loset into his ,abin* " would o/en it there
before him* and show him my (oods& The ,a/tain* hearin( me utter
these absurdities* ,on,luded " was ravin(- however =" su//ose to
/a,ify me> he /romised to (ive order as " desired* and (oin( u/on
de,.* sent some of his men down into my ,loset* when,e =as "
afterwards found> they drew u/ all my (oods* and stri//ed off the
1uiltin(- but the ,hairs* ,abinet* and bedstead* bein( s,rewed to
the floor* were mu,h dama(ed by the i(noran,e of the seamen* who
tore them u/ by for,e& Then they .no,.ed off some of the boards
for the use of the shi/* and when they had (ot all they had a mind
for* let the hull dro/ into the sea* whi,h by reason of many
brea,hes made in the bottom and sides* sun. to ri(hts& $nd*
indeed* " was (lad not to have been a s/e,tator of the havo, they
made* be,ause " am ,onfident it would have sensibly tou,hed me* by
brin(in( former /assa(es into my mind* whi,h " would rather have
" sle/t some hours* but /er/etually disturbed with dreams of the
/la,e " had left* and the dan(ers " had es,a/ed& However* u/on* " found myself mu,h re,overed& "t was now about ei(ht
o',lo,. at ni(ht* and the ,a/tain ordered su//er immediately* " had already fasted too lon(& He entertained me with
(reat .indness* observin( me not to loo. wildly* or tal.
in,onsistently< and* when we were left alone* desired " would (ive
him a relation of my travels* and by what a,,ident " ,ame to be set
adrift* in that monstrous wooden ,hest& He said 9that about twelve
o',lo,. at noon* as he was throu(h his (lass* he s/ied it
at a distan,e* and thou(ht it was a sail* whi,h he had a mind to
ma.e* bein( not mu,h out of his ,ourse* in ho/es of buyin( some
bis,uit* his own be(innin( to fall short& That u/on ,omin( nearer*
and findin( his error* he sent out his lon(Aboat to dis,over what
it was- that his men ,ame ba,. in a fri(ht* swearin( they had seen
a swimmin( house& That he lau(hed at their folly* and went himself
in the boat* orderin( his men to ta.e a stron( ,able alon( with
them& That the weather bein( ,alm* he rowed round me several
times* observed my windows and wire latti,es that defended them&
That he dis,overed two sta/les u/on one side* whi,h was all of
boards* without any /assa(e for li(ht& He then ,ommanded his men
to row u/ to that side* and fastenin( a ,able to one of the
sta/les* ordered them to tow my ,hest* as they ,alled it* toward
the shi/& When it was there* he (ave dire,tions to fasten another
,able to the rin( fi0ed in the ,over* and to raise u/ my ,hest with
/ulleys* whi,h all the sailors were not able to do above two or
three feet&9 He said* 9they saw my sti,. and,hief thrust
out of the hole* and ,on,luded that some unha//y man must be shut
u/ in the ,avity&9 " as.ed* 9whether he or the ,rew had seen any
/rodi(ious birds in the air* about the time he first dis,overed
me&9 To whi,h he answered* that dis,oursin( this matter with the
sailors while " was aslee/* one of them said* he had observed three
ea(les flyin( towards the north* but remar.ed nothin( of their
bein( lar(er than the usual si@e<9 whi,h " su//ose must be im/uted
to the (reat hei(ht they were at- and he ,ould not (uess the reason
of my 1uestion& " then as.ed the ,a/tain* 9how far he re,.oned we
mi(ht be from land?9 He said* 9by the best ,om/utation he ,ould
ma.e* we were at least a hundred lea(ues&9 " assured him* 9that he
must be mista.en by almost half* for " had not left the ,ountry
when,e " ,ame above two hours before " dro//ed into the sea&9
Whereu/on he be(an a(ain to thin. that my brain was disturbed* of
whi,h he (ave me a hint* and advised me to (o to bed in a ,abin he
had /rovided& " assured him* 9" was well refreshed with his (ood
entertainment and ,om/any* and as mu,h in my senses as ever " was
in my life&9 He then (rew serious* and desired to as. me freely*
9whether " were not troubled in my mind by the ,ons,iousness of
some enormous ,rime* for whi,h " was /unished* at the ,ommand of
some /rin,e* by e0/osin( me in that ,hest- as (reat ,riminals* in
other ,ountries* have been for,ed to sea in a lea.y vessel* without
/rovisions< for althou(h he should be sorry to have ta.en so ill a
man into his shi/* yet he would en(a(e his word to set me safe
ashore* in the first /ort where we arrived&9 He added* 9that his
sus/i,ions were mu,h in,reased by some very absurd s/ee,hes " had
delivered at first to his sailors* and afterwards to himself* in
relation to my ,loset or ,hest* as well as by my odd loo.s and
behaviour while " was at su//er&9
" be((ed his /atien,e to hear me tell my story* whi,h " faithfully
did* from the last time " left En(land* to the moment he first
dis,overed me& $nd* as truth always for,es its way into rational
minds* so this honest worthy (entleman* who had some tin,ture of
learnin(* and very (ood sense* was immediately ,onvin,ed of my
,andour and vera,ity& ut further to ,onfirm all " had said* "
entreated him to (ive order that my ,abinet should be brou(ht* of
whi,h " had the .ey in my /o,.et- for he had already informed me
how the seamen dis/osed of my ,loset& " o/ened it in his own
/resen,e* and showed him the small ,olle,tion of rarities " made in
the ,ountry from whi,h " had been so stran(ely delivered& There
was the ,omb " had ,ontrived out of the stum/s of the .in('s beard*
and another of the same materials* but fi0ed into a /arin( of her
ma:esty's thumbAnail* whi,h served for the ba,.& There was a
,olle,tion of needles and /ins* from a foot to half a yard lon(-
four was/ stin(s* li.e :oiner's ta,.s- some ,ombin(s of the 1ueen's
hair- a (old rin(* whi,h one day she made me a /resent of* in a
most obli(in( manner* it from her little fin(er* and
throwin( it over my head li.e a ,ollar& " desired the ,a/tain
would /lease to a,,e/t this rin( in return for his ,ivilities-
whi,h he absolutely refused& " showed him a ,orn that " had ,ut
off with my own hand* from a maid of honour's toe- it was about the
bi(ness of Jentish /i//in* and (rown so hard* that when " returned
En(land* " (ot it hollowed into a ,u/* and set in silver& !astly*
" desired him to see the bree,hes " had then on* whi,h were made of
a mouse's
" ,ould for,e nothin( on him but a footman's tooth* whi,h "
observed him to e0amine with (reat ,uriosity* and found he had a
fan,y for it& He re,eived it with abundan,e of than.s* more than
su,h a trifle ,ould deserve& "t was drawn by an uns.ilful sur(eon*
in a mista.e* from one of Glumdal,lit,h's men* who was affli,ted
with the toothAa,he* but it was as sound as any in his head& " (ot
it ,leaned* and /ut it into my ,abinet& "t was about a foot lon(*
and four in,hes in diameter&
The ,a/tain was very well satisfied with this /lain relation " had
(iven him* and said* 9he ho/ed* when we returned to En(land* "
would obli(e the world by /uttin( it on /a/er* and it
/ubli,&9 +y answer was* 9that we were oversto,.ed with boo.s of
travels< that nothin( ,ould now /ass whi,h was not e0traordinary-
wherein " doubted some authors less ,onsulted truth* than their own
vanity* or interest* or the diversion of i(norant readers- that my
story ,ould ,ontain little beside ,ommon events* without those
ornamental des,ri/tions of stran(e /lants* trees* birds* and other
animals- or of the barbarous ,ustoms and idolatry of sava(e /eo/le*
with whi,h most writers abound& However* " than.ed him for his
(ood o/inion* and /romised to ta.e the matter into my thou(hts&9
He said 9he wondered at one thin( very mu,h* whi,h was* to hear me
s/ea. so loud-9 me 9whether the .in( or 1ueen of that
,ountry were thi,. of hearin(?9 " told him* 9it was what " had
been used to for above two years /ast* and that " admired as mu,h
at the voi,es of him and his men* who seemed to me only to whis/er*
and yet " ,ould hear them well enou(h& ut* when " s/o.e in that
,ountry* it was li.e a man in the streets* to another out from the to/ of a stee/le* unless when " was /la,ed on
a table* or held in any /erson's hand&9 " told him* 9" had
li.ewise observed another thin(* that* when " first (ot into the
shi/* and the sailors stood all about me* " thou(ht they were the
most little ,ontem/tible ,reatures " had ever beheld&9 4or indeed*
while " was in that /rin,e's ,ountry* " ,ould never endure to loo.
in a (lass* after mine eyes had been a,,ustomed to su,h /rodi(ious
ob:e,ts* be,ause the ,om/arison (ave me so des/i,able a ,on,eit of
myself& The ,a/tain said* 9that while we were at su//er* he
observed me to loo. at every thin( with a sort of wonder* and that
" often seemed hardly able to ,ontain my lau(hter* whi,h he .new
not well how to ta.e* but im/uted it to some disorder in my brain&9
" answered* 9it was very true- and " wondered how " ,ould forbear*
when " saw his dishes of the si@e of a silver threeA/en,e* a le( of
/or. hardly a mouthful* a ,u/ not so bi( as a nutAshell-9 and so "
went on* des,ribin( the rest of his householdAstuff and /rovisions*
after the same manner& 4or* althou(h he 1ueen had ordered a little
e1ui/a(e of all thin(s ne,essary for me* while " was in her
servi,e* yet my ideas were wholly ta.en u/ with what " saw on every
side of me* and " win.ed at my own littleness* as /eo/le do at
their own faults& The ,a/tain understood my raillery very well*
and merrily re/lied with the old En(lish /roverb* 9that he doubted
mine eyes were bi((er than my belly* for he did not observe my
stoma,h so (ood* althou(h " had fasted all day-9 and* ,ontinuin( in
his mirth* /rotested 9he would have (ladly (iven a hundred /ounds*
to have seen my ,loset in the ea(le's bill* and afterwards in its
fall from so (reat a hei(ht into the sea- whi,h would ,ertainly
have been a most astonishin( ob:e,t* worthy to have the des,ri/tion
of it transmitted to future a(es<9 and the ,om/arison of Phaeton
was so obvious* that he ,ould not forbear a//lyin( it* althou(h "
did not mu,h admire the ,on,eit&
The ,a/tain havin( been at Ton1uin* was* in his return to En(land*
driven northAeastward to the latitude of BB de(rees* and lon(itude
of 6BE& ut meetin( a tradeAwind two days after " ,ame on board
him* we sailed southward a lon( time* and ,oastin( New Holland*
.e/t our ,ourse westAsouthAwest* and then southAsouthAwest* till we
doubled the 2a/e of Good Ho/e& #ur voya(e was very /ros/erous* but
" shall not trouble the reader with a :ournal of it& The ,a/tain
,alled in at one or two /orts* and sent in his lon(Aboat for
/rovisions and fresh water- but " never went out of the shi/ till
we ,ame into the %owns* whi,h was on the third day of June* 67FC*
about nine months after my es,a/e& " offered to leave my (oods in
se,urity for /ayment of my frei(ht< but the ,a/tain /rotested he
would not re,eive one farthin(& We too. a .ind leave of ea,h
other* and " made him /romise he would ,ome to see me at my house
in Redriff& " hired a horse and (uide for five shillin(s* whi,h "
borrowed of the ,a/tain&
$s " was on the road* observin( the littleness of the houses* the
trees* the ,attle* and the /eo/le* " be(an to thin. myself in
!illi/ut& " was afraid of tram/lin( on every traveller " met* and
often ,alled aloud to have them stand out of the way* so that " had
li.e to have (otten one or two bro.en heads for my im/ertinen,e&
When " ,ame to my own house* for whi,h " was for,ed to in1uire* one
of the servants o/enin( the door* " bent down to (o in* =li.e a
(oose under a (ate*> for fear of my head& +y wife run out
to embra,e me* but " stoo/ed lower than her .nees* she
,ould otherwise never be able to rea,h my mouth& +y dau(hter
.neeled to as. my blessin(* but " ,ould not see her till she arose*
havin( been so lon( used to stand with my head and eyes ere,t to
above si0ty feet- and then " went to ta.e her u/ with one hand by
the waist& " loo.ed down u/on the servants* and one or two friends
who were in the house* as if they had been /i(mies and " a (iant&
" told my wife* 9she had been too thrifty* for " found she had
starved herself and her dau(hter to nothin(&9 "n short* " behaved
myself so una,,ountably* that they were all of the ,a/tain's
o/inion when he first saw me* and ,on,luded " had lost my wits&
This " mention as an instan,e of the (reat /ower of habit and
"n a little time* " and my family and friends ,ame to a ri(ht
understandin(< but my wife /rotested 9" should never (o to sea any
more-9 althou(h my evil destiny so ordered* that she had not /ower
to hinder me* as the reader may .now hereafter& "n the mean time*
" here ,on,lude the se,ond /art of my unfortunate voya(es&
P$RT """& $ 5#3$GE T# !$PUT$* $!N"$R"* !UGGN$GG*
$N% J$P$N&
2H$PTER "&
'The author sets out on his third voya(e& "s ta.en by /irates&
The mali,e of a %ut,hman& His arrival at an island& He is
re,eived into !a/uta&)
" had not been at home above ten days* when 2a/tain William
Robinson* a 2ornish man* ,ommander of the Ho/ewell* a stout shi/ of
three hundred tons* ,ame to my house& " had formerly been sur(eon
of another shi/ where he was master* and a fourth /art owner* in a
voya(e to the !evant& He had always treated me more li.e a
brother* than an inferior offi,er- and* hearin( of my arrival* made
me a visit* as " a//rehended only out of friendshi/* for nothin(
/assed more than what is usual after lon( absen,es& ut re/eatin(
his visits often* e0/ressin( his :oy to find " me in (ood health** 9whether " were now settled for life?9 addin(* 9that he
intended a voya(e to the East "ndies in two months*9 at last he
/lainly invited me* thou(h with some a/olo(ies* to be sur(eon of
the shi/- 9that " should have another sur(eon under me* beside our
two mates- that my salary should be double to the usual /ay- and
that havin( e0/erien,ed my .nowled(e in seaAaffairs to be at least
e1ual to his* he would enter into any en(a(ement to follow my
advi,e* as mu,h as if " had shared in the ,ommand&9
He said so many other obli(in( thin(s* and " .new him to be so
honest a man* that " ,ould not re:e,t this /ro/osal- the thirst "
had of seein( the world* notwithstandin( my /ast misfortunes*
,ontinuin( as violent as ever& The only diffi,ulty that remained*
was to /ersuade my wife* whose ,onsent however " at last obtained*
by the /ros/e,t of advanta(e she /ro/osed to her ,hildren&
We set out the Gth day of $u(ust* 67FC* and arrived at 4ort St&
Geor(e the 66th of $/ril* 67F7& We staid there three wee.s to
refresh our ,rew* many of whom were si,.& 4rom then,e we went to
Ton1uin* where the ,a/tain resolved to ,ontinue some time* be,ause
many of the (oods he intended to buy were not ready* nor ,ould he
e0/e,t to be dis/at,hed in several months& Therefore* in ho/es to
defray some of the ,har(es he must be at* he bou(ht a sloo/* loaded
it with several sorts of (oods* wherewith the Ton1uinese usually
trade to the nei(hbourin( islands* and /uttin( fourteen men on
board* whereof three were of the ,ountry* he a//ointed me master of
the sloo/* and (ave me /ower to traffi,* while he transa,ted his
affairs at Ton1uin&
We had not sailed above three days* when a (reat storm arisin(* we
were driven five days to the northAnorthAeast* and then to the
east< after whi,h we had fair weather* but still with a /retty
stron( (ale from the west& U/on the tenth day we were ,hased by
two /irates* who soon overtoo. us- for my sloo/ was so dee/ laden*
that she sailed very slow* neither were we in a ,ondition to defend
We were boarded about the same time by both the /irates* who
entered furiously at the head of their men- but findin( us all
/rostrate u/on our fa,es =for so " (ave order>* they /inioned us
with stron( ro/es* and settin( (uard u/on us* went to sear,h the
" observed amon( them a %ut,hman* who seemed to be of some
authority* thou(h he was not ,ommander of either shi/& He .new us
by our ,ountenan,es to be En(lishmen* and :abberin( to us in his
own lan(ua(e* swore we should be tied ba,. to ba,. and thrown into
the sea& " s/o.en %ut,h tolerably well- " told him who we were*
and be((ed him* in ,onsideration of our bein( 2hristians and
Protestants* of nei(hbourin( ,ountries in stri,t allian,e* that he
would move the ,a/tains to ta.e some /ity on us& This inflamed his
ra(e- he re/eated his threatenin(s* and turnin( to his ,om/anions*
s/o.e with (reat vehemen,e in the Ja/anese lan(ua(e* as " su//ose*
often usin( the word 2hristianos&
The lar(est of the two /irate shi/s was ,ommanded by a Ja/anese
,a/tain* who s/o.e a little %ut,h* but very im/erfe,tly& He ,ame
u/ to me* and after several 1uestions* whi,h " answered in (reat
humility* he said* 9we should not die&9 " made the ,a/tain a very
low bow* and then* turnin( to the %ut,hman* said* 9" was sorry to
find more mer,y in a heathen* than in a brother ,hristian&9 ut "
had soon reason to re/ent those foolish words< for that mali,ious
re/robate* havin( often endeavoured in vain to /ersuade both the
,a/tains that " mi(ht be thrown into the sea =whi,h they would not
yield to* after the /romise made me that " should not die>*
however* /revailed so far* as to have a /unishment infli,ted on me*
worse* in all human a//earan,e* than death itself& +y men were
sent by an e1ual division into both the /irate shi/s* and my sloo/
new manned& $s to myself* it was determined that " should be set
adrift in a small ,anoe* with /addles and a sail* and four days'
/rovisions- whi,h last* the Ja/anese ,a/tain was so .ind to double
out of his own stores* and would /ermit no man to sear,h me& " (ot
down into the ,anoe* while the %ut,hman* standin( u/on the de,.*
loaded me with all the ,urses and in:urious terms his lan(ua(e
,ould afford&
$bout an hour before we saw the /irates " had ta.en an observation*
and found we were in the latitude of BC N& and lon(itude of 6KE&
When " was at some distan,e from the /irates* " dis,overed* by my
/o,.etA(lass* several islands to the southAeast& " set u/ my sail*
the wind bein( fair* with a desi(n to rea,h the nearest of those
islands* whi,h " made a shift to do* in about three hours& "t was
all ro,.y< however " (ot many birds' e((s- and* fire* "
.indled some heath and dry seaAweed* by whi,h " roasted my e((s& "
ate no other su//er* bein( resolved to s/are my /rovisions as mu,h
as " ,ould& " /assed the ni(ht under the shelter of a ro,.*
strewin( some heath under me* and sle/t /retty well&
The ne0t day " sailed to another island* and then,e to a third and
fourth* sometimes usin( my sail* and sometimes my /addles& ut*
not to trouble the reader with a /arti,ular a,,ount of my
distresses* let it suffi,e* that on the fifth day " arrived at the
last island in my si(ht* whi,h lay southAsouthAeast to the former&
This island was at a (reater distan,e than " e0/e,ted* and " did
not rea,h it in less than five hours& " en,om/assed it almost
round* before " ,ould find a ,onvenient /la,e to land in- whi,h was
a small ,ree.* about three times the wideness of my ,anoe& " found
the island to be all ro,.y* only a little intermin(led with tufts
of (rass* and sweetAsmellin( herbs& " too. out my small /rovisions
and after havin( refreshed myself* " se,ured the remainder in a
,ave* whereof there were (reat numbers- " (athered /lenty of e((s
u/on the ro,.s* and (ot a 1uantity of dry seaAweed* and /ar,hed
(rass* whi,h " desi(ned to .indle the ne0t day* and roast my e((s
as well as " ,ould* for " had about me my flint* steel* mat,h* and
burnin(A(lass& " lay all ni(ht in the ,ave where " had lod(ed my
/rovisions& +y bed was the same dry (rass and seaAweed whi,h "
intended for fuel& " sle/t very little* for the dis1uiets of my
mind /revailed over my weariness* and .e/t me awa.e& " ,onsidered
how im/ossible it was to /reserve my life in so desolate a /la,e*
and how miserable my end must be< yet found myself so listless and
des/ondin(* that " had not the heart to rise- and before " ,ould
(et s/irits enou(h to ,ree/ out of my ,ave* the day was far
advan,ed& " wal.ed awhile amon( the ro,.s< the s.y was /erfe,tly
,lear* and the sun so hot* that " was for,ed to turn my fa,e from
it< when all on a sudden it be,ame obs,ure* as " thou(ht* in a
manner very different from what ha//ens by the inter/osition of a
,loud& " turned ba,.* and /er,eived a vast o/a1ue body between me
and the sun movin( forwards towards the island< it seemed to be
about two miles hi(h* and hid the sun si0 or seven minutes- but "
did not observe the air to be mu,h ,older* or the s.y more
dar.ened* than if " had stood under the shade of a mountain& $s it
a//roa,hed nearer over the /la,e where " was* it a//eared to be a
firm substan,e* the bottom flat* smooth* and shinin( very bri(ht*
from the refle,tion of the sea below& " stood u/on a hei(ht about
two hundred yards from the shore* and saw this vast body des,endin(
almost to a /arallel with me* at less than an En(lish mile
distan,e& " too. out my /o,.et /ers/e,tive* and ,ould /lainly
dis,over numbers of /eo/le movin( u/ and down the sides of it*
whi,h a//eared to be slo/in(- but what those /eo/le where doin( "
was not able to distin(uish&
The natural love of life (ave me some inward motion of :oy* and "
was ready to entertain a ho/e that this adventure mi(ht* some way
or other* hel/ to deliver me from the desolate /la,e and ,ondition
" was in& ut at the same time the reader ,an hardly ,on,eive my
astonishment* to behold an island in the air* inhabited by men* who
were able =as it should seem> to raise or sin.* or /ut it into
/ro(ressive motion* as they /leased& ut not bein( at that time in
a dis/osition to /hiloso/hise u/on this /henomenon* " rather ,hose
to observe what ,ourse the island would ta.e* be,ause it seemed for
awhile to stand still& 3et soon after* it advan,ed nearer* and "
,ould see the sides of it en,om/assed with several (radations of
(alleries* and stairs* at ,ertain intervals* to des,end from one to
the other& "n the lowest (allery* " beheld some /eo/le fishin(
with lon( an(lin( rods* and others on& " waved my ,a/ =for
my hat was lon( sin,e worn out> and my,hief toward the
island- and u/on its nearer a//roa,h* " ,alled and shouted with the
utmost stren(th of my voi,e- and then ,ir,ums/e,tly* "
beheld a ,rowd (ather to that side whi,h was most in my view& "
found by their /ointin( towards me and to ea,h other* that they
/lainly dis,overed me* althou(h they made no return to my shoutin(&
ut " ,ould see four or five men runnin( in (reat haste* u/ the
stairs* to the to/ of the island* who then disa//eared& " ha//ened
ri(htly to ,on:e,ture* that these were sent for orders to some
/erson in authority u/on this o,,asion&
The number of /eo/le in,reased* and* in less than half all hour*
the island was moved and raised in su,h a manner* that the lowest
(allery a//eared in a /arallel of less then a hundred yards
distan,e from the hei(ht where " stood& " then /ut myself in the
most su//li,atin( /osture* and s/o.e in the humblest a,,ent* but
re,eived no answer& Those who stood nearest over a(ainst me*
seemed to be /ersons of distin,tion* as " su//osed by their habit&
They ,onferred earnestly with ea,h other* often u/on me&
$t len(th one of them ,alled out in a ,lear* /olite* smooth
diale,t* not unli.e in sound to the "talian< and therefore "
returned an answer in that lan(ua(e* ho/in( at least that the
,aden,e mi(ht be more a(reeable to his ears& $lthou(h neither of
us understood the other* yet my meanin( was easily .nown* for the
/eo/le saw the distress " was in&
They made si(ns for me to ,ome down from the ro,.* and (o towards
the shore* whi,h " a,,ordin(ly did- and the flyin( island bein(
raised to a ,onvenient hei(ht* the ver(e dire,tly over me* a ,hain
was let down from the lowest (allery* with a seat fastened to the
bottom* to whi,h " fi0ed myself* and was drawn u/ by /ulleys&
2H$PTER ""&
'The humours and dis/ositions of the !a/utians des,ribed& $n
a,,ount of their learnin(& #f the .in( and his ,ourt& The
author's re,e/tion there& The inhabitants sub:e,t to fear and
dis1uietudes& $n a,,ount of the women&)
$t my ali(htin(* " was surrounded with a ,rowd of /eo/le* but those
who stood nearest seemed to be of better 1uality& They beheld me
with all the mar.s and ,ir,umstan,es of wonder- neither indeed was
" mu,h in their debt* havin( never till then seen a ra,e of mortals
so sin(ular in their sha/es* habits* and ,ountenan,es& Their heads
were all re,lined* either to the ri(ht* or the left- one of their
eyes turned inward* and the other dire,tly u/ to the @enith& Their
outward (arments were adorned with the fi(ures of suns* moons* and
stars- interwoven with those of fiddles* flutes* har/s* trum/ets*
(uitars* har/si,hords* and many other instruments of musi,* un.nown
to us in Euro/e& " observed* here and there* many in the habit of
servants* with a blown bladder* fastened li.e a flail to the end of
a sti,.* whi,h they ,arried in their hands& "n ea,h bladder was a
small 1uantity of dried /eas* or little /ebbles* as " was
afterwards informed& With these bladders* they now and then
fla//ed the mouths and ears of those who stood near them* of whi,h
/ra,ti,e " ,ould not then ,on,eive the meanin(& "t seems the minds
of these /eo/le are so ta.en u/ with intense s/e,ulations* that
they neither ,an s/ea.* nor attend to the dis,ourses of others*
without bein( roused by some e0ternal ta,tion u/on the or(ans of
s/ee,h and hearin(- for whi,h reason* those /ersons who are able to
afford it always .ee/ a fla//er =the ori(inal is ,limenole> in
their family* as one of their domesti,s- nor ever wal. abroad* or
ma.e visits* without him& $nd the business of this offi,er is*
when two* three* or more /ersons are in ,om/any* (ently to stri.e
with his bladder the mouth of him who is to s/ea.* and the ri(ht
ear of him or them to whom the s/ addresses himself& This
fla//er is li.ewise em/loyed dili(ently to attend his master in his
wal.s* and u/on o,,asion to (ive him a soft fla/ on his eyes-
be,ause he is always so wra//ed u/ in ,o(itation* that he is in
manifest dan(er of fallin( down every /re,i/i,e* and boun,in( his
head a(ainst every /ost- and in the streets* of :ustlin( others* or
bein( :ustled himself into the .ennel&
"t was ne,essary to (ive the reader this information* without whi,h
he would be at the same loss with me to understand the /ro,eedin(s
of these /eo/le* as they ,ondu,ted me u/ the stairs to the to/ of
the island* and from then,e to the royal /ala,e& While we were
as,endin(* they for(ot several times what they were about* and left
me to myself* till their memories were a(ain roused by their
fla//ers- for they a//eared alto(ether unmoved by the si(ht of my
forei(n habit and ,ountenan,e* and by the shouts of the vul(ar*
whose thou(hts and minds were more disen(a(ed&
$t last we entered the /ala,e* and /ro,eeded into the ,hamber of
/resen,e* where " saw the .in( seated on his throne* attended on
ea,h side by /ersons of /rime 1uality& efore the throne* was a
lar(e table filled with (lobes and s/heres* and mathemati,al
instruments of all .inds& His ma:esty too. not the least noti,e of
us* althou(h our entran,e was not without suffi,ient noise* by the
,on,ourse of all /ersons belon(in( to the ,ourt& ut he was then
dee/ in a /roblem- and we attended at least an hour* before he
,ould solve it& There stood by him* on ea,h side* a youn( /a(e
with fla/s in their hands* and when they saw he was at leisure* one
of them (ently stru,. his mouth* and the other his ri(ht ear- at
whi,h he startled li.e one awa.ed on the sudden* and
towards me and the ,om/any " was in* re,olle,ted the o,,asion of
our ,omin(* whereof he had been informed before& He s/o.e some
words* whereu/on immediately a youn( man with a fla/ ,ame u/ to my
side* and fla//ed me (ently on the ri(ht ear- but " made si(ns* as
well as " ,ould* that " had no o,,asion for su,h an instrument-
whi,h* as " afterwards found* (ave his ma:esty* and the whole
,ourt* a very mean o/inion of my understandin(& The .in(* as far
as " ,ould ,on:e,ture* as.ed me several 1uestions* and " addressed
myself to him in all the lan(ua(es " had& When it was found "
,ould neither understand nor be understood* " was ,ondu,ted by his
order to an a/artment in his /ala,e =this /rin,e bein(
distin(uished above all his /rede,essors for his hos/itality to
stran(ers>* where two servants were a//ointed to attend me& +y
dinner was brou(ht* and four /ersons of 1uality* whom " remembered
to have seen very near the .in('s /erson* did me the honour to dine
with me& We had two ,ourses* of three dishes ea,h& "n the first
,ourse* there was a shoulder of mutton ,ut into an e1uilateral
trian(le* a /ie,e of beef into a rhomboides* and a /uddin( into a
,y,loid& The se,ond ,ourse was two du,.s trussed u/ in the form of
fiddles- sausa(es and /uddin(s resemblin( flutes and hautboys* and
a breast of veal in the sha/e of a har/& The servants ,ut our
bread into ,ones* ,ylinders* /arallelo(rams* and several other
mathemati,al fi(ures&
While we were at dinner* " made bold to as. the names of several
thin(s in their lan(ua(e* and those noble /ersons* by the
assistan,e of their fla//ers* deli(hted to (ive me answers* ho/in(
to raise my admiration of their (reat abilities if " ,ould be
brou(ht to ,onverse with them& " was soon able to ,all for bread
and drin.* or whatever else " wanted&
$fter dinner my ,om/any withdrew* and a /erson was sent to me by
the .in('s order* attended by a fla//er& He brou(ht with him /en*
in.* and /a/er* and three or four boo.s* (ivin( me to understand by
si(ns* that he was sent to tea,h me the lan(ua(e& We sat to(ether
four hours* in whi,h time " wrote down a (reat number of words in
,olumns* with the translations over a(ainst them- " li.ewise made a
shift to learn several short senten,es- for my tutor would order
one of my servants to fet,h somethin(* to turn about* to ma.e a
bow* to sit* or to stand* or wal.* and the li.e& Then " too. down
the senten,e in writin(& He showed me also* in one of his boo.s*
the fi(ures of the sun* moon* and stars* the @odia,* the tro/i,s*
and /olar ,ir,les* to(ether with the denominations of many /lains
and solids& He (ave me the names and des,ri/tions of all the
musi,al instruments* and the (eneral terms of art in /layin( on
ea,h of them& $fter he had left me* " /la,ed all my words* with
their inter/retations* in al/habeti,al order& $nd thus* in a few
days* by the hel/ of a very faithful memory* " (ot some insi(ht
into their lan(ua(e& The word* whi,h " inter/ret the flyin( or
floatin( island* is in the ori(inal !a/uta* whereof " ,ould never
learn the true etymolo(y& !a/* in the old obsolete lan(ua(e*
si(nifies hi(h- and untuh* a (overnor- from whi,h they say* by
,orru/tion* was derived !a/uta* from !a/untuh& ut " do not
a//rove of this derivation* whi,h seems to be a little strained& "
ventured to offer to the learned amon( them a ,on:e,ture of my own*
that !a/uta was 1uasi la/ outed- la/* si(nifyin( /ro/erly* the
dan,in( of the sunbeams in the sea* and outed* a win(- whi,h*
however* " shall not obtrude* but submit to the :udi,ious reader&
Those to whom the .in( had entrusted me* observin( how ill " was
,lad* ordered a tailor to ,ome ne0t mornin(* and ta.e measure for a
suit of ,lothes& This o/erator did his offi,e after a different
manner from those of his trade in Euro/e& He first too. my
altitude by a 1uadrant* and then* with a rule and ,om/asses*
des,ribed the dimensions and outlines of my whole body* all whi,h
he entered u/on /a/er- and in si0 days brou(ht my ,lothes very ill
made* and 1uite out of sha/e* by ha//enin( to mista.e a fi(ure in
the ,al,ulation& ut my ,omfort was* that " observed su,h
a,,idents very fre1uent* and little re(arded&
%urin( my ,onfinement for want of ,lothes* and by an indis/osition
that held me some days lon(er* " mu,h enlar(ed my di,tionary- and
when " went ne0t to ,ourt* was able to understand many thin(s the
.in( s/o.e* and to return him some .ind of answers& His ma:esty
had (iven orders* that the island should move northAeast and by
east* to the verti,al /oint over !a(ado* the metro/olis of the
whole .in(dom below* u/on the firm earth& "t was about ninety
lea(ues distant* and our voya(e lasted four days and a half& " was
not in the least sensible of the /ro(ressive motion made in the air
by the island& #n the se,ond mornin(* about eleven o',lo,.* the
.in( himself in /erson* attended by his nobility* ,ourtiers* and
offi,ers* havin( /re/ared all their musi,al instruments* /layed on
them for three hours without intermission* so that " was 1uite
stunned with the noise- neither ,ould " /ossibly (uess the meanin(*
till my tutor informed me& He said that* the /eo/le of their
island had their ears ada/ted to hear 9the musi, of the s/heres*
whi,h always /layed at ,ertain /eriods* and the ,ourt was now
/re/ared to bear their /art* in whatever instrument they most
"n our :ourney towards !a(ado* the ,a/ital ,ity* his ma:esty
ordered that the island should sto/ over ,ertain towns and
villa(es* from when,e he mi(ht re,eive the /etitions of his
sub:e,ts& $nd to this /ur/ose* several /a,.threads were let down*
with small wei(hts at the bottom& #n these /a,.threads the /eo/le
strun( their /etitions* whi,h mounted u/ dire,tly* li.e the s,ra/s
of /a/er fastened by s,hool boys at the end of the strin( that
holds their .ite& Sometimes we re,eived wine and vi,tuals from
below* whi,h were drawn u/ by /ulleys&
The .nowled(e " had in mathemati,s* (ave me (reat assistan,e in
a,1uirin( their /hraseolo(y* whi,h de/ended mu,h u/on that s,ien,e*
and musi,- and in the latter " was not uns.illed& Their ideas are
/er/etually ,onversant in lines and fi(ures& "f they would* for
e0am/le* /raise the beauty of a woman* or any other animal* they
des,ribe it by rhombs* ,ir,les* /arallelo(rams* elli/ses* and other
(eometri,al terms* or by words of art drawn from musi,* needless
here to re/eat& " observed in the .in('s .it,hen all sorts of
mathemati,al and musi,al instruments* after the fi(ures of whi,h
they ,ut u/ the :oints that were served to his ma:esty's table&
Their houses are very ill built* the walls bevil* without one ri(ht
an(le in any a/artment- and this defe,t arises from the ,ontem/t
they bear to /ra,ti,al (eometry* whi,h they des/ise as vul(ar and
me,hani,- those instru,tions they (ive bein( too refined for the
intelle,ts of their* whi,h o,,asions /er/etual
$nd althou(h they are de0terous enou(h u/on a /ie,e of /a/er* in
the mana(ement of the rule* the /en,il* and the divider* yet in the
,ommon a,tions and behaviour of life* " have not seen a more
,lumsy* aw.ward* and unhandy /eo/le* nor so slow and /er/le0ed in
their ,on,e/tions u/on all other sub:e,ts* e0,e/t those of
mathemati,s and musi,& They are very bad reasoners* and vehemently
(iven to o//osition* unless when they ha//en to be of the ri(ht
o/inion* whi,h is seldom their ,ase& "ma(ination* fan,y* and
invention* they are wholly stran(ers to* nor have any words in
their lan(ua(e* by whi,h those ideas ,an be e0/ressed- the whole
,om/ass of their thou(hts and mind bein( shut u/ within the two
forementioned s,ien,es&
+ost of them* and es/e,ially those who deal in the astronomi,al
/art* have (reat faith in :udi,ial astrolo(y* althou(h they are
ashamed to own it /ubli,ly& ut what " ,hiefly admired* and
thou(ht alto(ether una,,ountable* was the stron( dis/osition "
observed in them towards news and /oliti,s* /er/etually in1uirin(
into /ubli, affairs* (ivin( their :ud(ments in matters of state*
and /assionately dis/utin( every in,h of a /arty o/inion& " have
indeed observed the same dis/osition amon( most of the
mathemati,ians " have .nown in Euro/e* althou(h " ,ould never
dis,over the least analo(y between the two s,ien,es- unless those
/eo/le su//ose* that be,ause the smallest ,ir,le has as many
de(rees as the lar(est* therefore the re(ulation and mana(ement of
the world re1uire no more abilities than the handlin( and turnin(
of a (lobe- but " rather ta.e this 1uality to s/rin( from a very
,ommon infirmity of human nature* in,linin( us to be most ,urious
and ,on,eited in matters where we have least ,on,ern* and for whi,h
we are least ada/ted by study or nature&
These /eo/le are under ,ontinual dis1uietudes* never en:oyin( a
minutes /ea,e of mind- and their disturban,es /ro,eed from ,auses
whi,h very little affe,t the rest of mortals& Their a//rehensions
arise from several ,han(es they dread in the ,elestial bodies< for
instan,e* that the earth* by the ,ontinual a//roa,hes of the sun
towards it* must* in ,ourse of time* be absorbed* or swallowed u/-
that the fa,e of the sun* will* by de(rees* be en,rusted with its
own effluvia* and (ive no more li(ht to the world- that the earth
very narrowly es,a/ed a brush from the tail of the last ,omet*
whi,h would have infallibly r
du,ed it to ashes- and that the ne0t*
whi,h they have ,al,ulated for oneAandAthirty years hen,e* will
/robably destroy us& 4or if* in its /erihelion* it should a//roa,h
within a ,ertain de(ree of the sun =as by their ,al,ulations they
have reason to dread> it will re,eive a de(ree of heat ten thousand
times more intense than that of red hot (lowin( iron* and in its
absen,e from the sun* ,arry a bla@in( tail ten hundred thousand and
fourteen miles lon(* throu(h whi,h* if the earth should /ass at the
distan,e of one hundred thousand miles from the nu,leus* or main
body of the ,omet* it must in its /assa(e be set on fire* and
redu,ed to ashes< that the sun* daily s/endin( its rays without
any nutriment to su//ly them* will at last be wholly ,onsumed and
annihilated- whi,h must be attended with the destru,tion of this
earth* and of all the /lanets that re,eive their li(ht from it&
They are so /er/etually alarmed with the a//rehensions of these*
and the li.e im/endin( dan(ers* that they ,an neither slee/ 1uietly
in their beds* nor have any relish for the ,ommon /leasures and
amusements of life& When they meet an a,1uaintan,e in the mornin(*
the first 1uestion is about the sun's health* how he loo.ed at his
settin( and risin(* and what ho/es they have to avoid the stro.e of
the a//roa,hin( ,omet& This ,onversation they are a/t to run into
with the same tem/er that boys dis,over in deli(htin( to hear
terrible stories of s/irits and hob(oblins* whi,h they (reedily
listen to* and dare not (o to bed for fear&
The women of the island have abundan,e of viva,ity< they* ,ontemn
their husbands* and are e0,eedin(ly fond of stran(ers* whereof
there is always a ,onsiderable number from the ,ontinent below*
attendin( at ,ourt* either u/on affairs of the several towns and
,or/orations* or their own /arti,ular o,,asions* but are mu,h
des/ised* be,ause they want the same endowments& $mon( these the
ladies ,hoose their (allants< but the ve0ation is* that they a,t
with too mu,h ease and se,urity- for the husband is always so ra/t
in s/e,ulation* that the mistress and lover may /ro,eed to the
(reatest familiarities before his fa,e* if he be but /rovided with
/a/er and im/lements* and without his fla//er at his side&
The wives and dau(hters lament their ,onfinement to the island*
althou(h " thin. it the most deli,ious s/ot of (round in the world-
and althou(h they live here in the (reatest /lenty and
ma(nifi,en,e* and are allowed to do whatever they /lease* they lon(
to see the world* and ta.e the diversions of the metro/olis* whi,h
they are not allowed to do without a /arti,ular li,ense from the
.in(- and this is not easy to be obtained* be,ause the /eo/le of
1uality have found* by fre1uent e0/erien,e* how hard it is to
/ersuade their women to return from below& " was told that a (reat
,ourt lady* who had several ,hildren*AAis married to the /rime
minister* the ri,hest sub:e,t in the .in(dom* a very (ra,eful
/erson* e0tremely fond of her* and lives in the finest /ala,e of
the island*AAwent down to !a(ado on the /reten,e of health* there
hid herself for several months* till the .in( sent a warrant to
sear,h for her- and she was found in an obs,ure eatin(Ahouse all in
ra(s* havin( /awned her ,lothes to maintain an old deformed
footman* who beat her every day* and in whose ,om/any she was
ta.en* mu,h a(ainst her will& $nd althou(h her husband re,eived
her with all /ossible .indness* and without the least re/roa,h* she
soon after ,ontrived to steal down a(ain* with all her :ewels* to
the same (allant* and has not been heard of sin,e&
This may /erha/s /ass with the reader rather for an Euro/ean or
En(lish story* than for one of a ,ountry so remote& ut he may
/lease to ,onsider* that the ,a/ri,es of woman.ind are not limited
by any ,limate or nation* and that they are mu,h more uniform* than
,an be easily ima(ined&
"n about a month's time* " had made a tolerable /rofi,ien,y in
their lan(ua(e* and was able to answer most of the .in('s
1uestions* when " had the honour to attend him& His ma:esty
dis,overed not the least ,uriosity to in1uire into the laws*
(overnment* history* reli(ion* or manners of the ,ountries where "
had been- but ,onfined his 1uestions to the state of mathemati,s*
and re,eived the a,,ount " (ave him with (reat ,ontem/t and
indifferen,e* thou(h often roused by his fla//er on ea,h side&
2H$PTER """&
'$ /henomenon solved by modern /hiloso/hy and astronomy& The
!a/utians' (reat im/rovements in the latter& The .in('s method of
su//ressin( insurre,tions&)
" desired leave of this /rin,e to see the ,uriosities of the
island* whi,h he was (ra,iously /leased to (rant* and ordered my
tutor to attend me& " ,hiefly wanted to .now* to what ,ause* in
art or in nature* it owed its several motions* whereof " will now
(ive a /hiloso/hi,al a,,ount to the reader&
The flyin( or floatin( island is e0a,tly ,ir,ular* its diameter
7KE7 yards* or about four miles and a half* and ,onse1uently
,ontains ten thousand a,res& "t is three hundred yards thi,.& The
bottom* or under surfa,e* whi,h a//ears to those who view it below*
is one even re(ular /late of adamant* shootin( u/ to the hei(ht of
about two hundred yards& $bove it lie the several minerals in
their usual order* and over all is a ,oat of ri,h mould* ten or
twelve feet dee/& The de,livity of the u//er surfa,e* from the
,ir,umferen,e to the ,entre* is the natural ,ause why all the dews
and rains* whi,h fall u/on the island* are ,onveyed in small
rivulets toward the middle* where they are em/tied into four lar(e
basins* ea,h of about half a mile in ,ir,uit* and two hundred yards
distant from the ,entre& 4rom these basins the water is
,ontinually e0haled by the sun in the daytime* whi,h effe,tually
/revents their overflowin(& esides* as it is in the /ower of the
monar,h to raise the island above the re(ion of ,louds and va/ours*
he ,an /revent the fallin( of dews and rain whenever he /leases&
4or the hi(hest ,louds ,annot rise above two miles* as naturalists
a(ree* at least they were never .nown to do so in that ,ountry&
$t the ,entre of the island there is a ,hasm about fifty yards in
diameter* when,e the astronomers des,end into a lar(e dome* whi,h
is therefore ,alled flandona (a(nole* or the astronomer's ,ave*
situated at the de/th of a hundred yards beneath the u//er surfa,e
of the adamant& "n this ,ave are twenty lam/s ,ontinually burnin(*
whi,h* from the refle,tion of the adamant* ,ast a stron( li(ht into
every /art& The /la,e is stored with (reat variety of se0tants*
1uadrants* teles,o/es* astrolabes* and other astronomi,al
instruments& ut the (reatest ,uriosity* u/on whi,h the fate of
the island de/ends* is a loadstone of a /rodi(ious si@e* in sha/e
resemblin( a weaver's shuttle& "t is in len(th si0 yards* and in
the thi,.est /art at least three yards over& This ma(net is
sustained by a very stron( a0le of adamant /assin( throu(h its
middle* u/on whi,h it /lays* and is /oised so e0a,tly that the
wea.est hand ,an turn it& "t is hoo/ed round with a hollow
,ylinder of adamant* four feet yards in diameter* /la,ed
hori@ontally* and su//orted by ei(ht adamantine feet* ea,h si0
yards hi(h& "n the middle of the ,on,ave side* there is a (roove
twelve in,hes dee/* in whi,h the e0tremities of the a0le are
lod(ed* and turned round as there is o,,asion&
The stone ,annot be removed from its /la,e by any for,e* be,ause
the hoo/ and its feet are one ,ontinued /ie,e with that body of
adamant whi,h ,onstitutes the bottom of the island&
y means of this loadstone* the island is made to rise and fall*
and move from one /la,e to another& 4or* with res/e,t to that /art
of the earth over whi,h the monar,h /resides* the stone is endued
at one of its sides with an attra,tive /ower* and at the other with
a re/ulsive& U/on /la,in( the ma(net ere,t* with its attra,tin(
end towards the earth* the island des,ends- but when the re/ellin(
e0tremity /oints downwards* the island mounts dire,tly u/wards&
When the /osition of the stone is obli1ue* the motion of the island
is so too< for in this ma(net* the for,es always a,t in lines
/arallel to its dire,tion&
y this obli1ue motion* the island is ,onveyed to different /arts
of the monar,h's dominions& To e0/lain the manner of its /ro(ress*
let $ re/resent a line drawn a,ross the dominions of alnibarbi*
let the line , d re/resent the loadstone* of whi,h let d be the
re/ellin( end* and , the attra,tin( end* the island bein( over 2<
let the stone be /la,ed in /osition , d* with its re/ellin( end
downwards- then the island will be driven u/wards obli1uely towards
%& When it is arrived at %* let the stone be turned u/on its a0le*
till its attra,tin( end /oints towards E* and then the island will
be ,arried obli1uely towards E- where* if the stone be a(ain turned
u/on its a0le till it stands in the /osition E 4* with its
re/ellin( /oint downwards* the island will rise obli1uely towards
4* where* by dire,tin( the attra,tin( end towards G* the island may
be ,arried to G* and from G to H* by turnin( the stone* so as to
ma.e its re/ellin( e0tremity to /oint dire,tly downward& $nd thus*
by ,han(in( the situation of the stone* as often as there is
o,,asion* the island is made to rise and fall by turns in an
obli1ue dire,tion* and by those alternate risin(s and fallin(s =the
obli1uity bein( not ,onsiderable> is ,onveyed from one /art of the
dominions to the other&
ut it must be observed* that this island ,annot move beyond the
e0tent of the dominions below* nor ,an it rise above the hei(ht of
four miles& 4or whi,h the astronomers =who have written lar(e
systems ,on,ernin( the stone> assi(n the followin( reason< that
the ma(neti, virtue does not e0tend beyond the distan,e of four
miles* and that the mineral* whi,h a,ts u/on the stone in the
bowels of the earth* and in the sea about si0 lea(ues distant from
the shore* is not diffused throu(h the whole (lobe* but terminated
with the limits of the .in('s dominions- and it was easy* from the
(reat advanta(e of su,h a su/erior situation* for a /rin,e to brin(
under his obedien,e whatever ,ountry lay within the attra,tion of
that ma(net&
When the stone is /ut /arallel to the /lane of the hori@on* the
island stands still- for in that ,ase the e0tremities of it* bein(
at e1ual distan,e from the earth* a,t with e1ual for,e* the one in
drawin( downwards* the other in /ushin( u/wards* and ,onse1uently
no motion ,an ensue&
This loadstone is under the ,are of ,ertain astronomers* who* from
time to time* (ive it su,h /ositions as the monar,h dire,ts& They
s/end the (reatest /art of their lives in observin( the ,elestial
bodies* whi,h they do by the assistan,e of (lasses* far e0,ellin(
ours in (oodness& 4or* althou(h their lar(est teles,o/es do not
e0,eed three feet* they ma(nify mu,h more than those of a hundred
with us* and show the stars with (reater ,learness& This advanta(e
has enabled them to e0tend their dis,overies mu,h further than our
astronomers in Euro/e- for they have made a ,atalo(ue of ten
thousand fi0ed stars* whereas the lar(est of ours do not ,ontain
above one third /art of that number& They have li.ewise dis,overed
two lesser stars* or satellites* whi,h revolve about +ars- whereof
the innermost is distant from the ,entre of the /rimary /lanet
e0a,tly three of his diameters* and the outermost* five- the former
revolves in the s/a,e of ten hours* and the latter in twentyAone
and a half- so that the s1uares of their /eriodi,al times are very
near in the same /ro/ortion with the ,ubes of their distan,e from
the ,entre of +ars- whi,h evidently shows them to be (overned by
the same law of (ravitation that influen,es the other heavenly
They have observed ninetyAthree different ,omets* and settled their
/eriods with (reat e0a,tness& "f this be true =and they affirm it
with (reat ,onfiden,e> it is mu,h to be wished* that their
observations were made /ubli,* whereby the theory of ,omets* whi,h
at /resent is very lame and defe,tive* mi(ht be brou(ht to the same
/erfe,tion with other arts of astronomy&
The .in( would be the most absolute /rin,e in the universe* if he
,ould but /revail on a ministry to :oin with him- but these havin(
their estates below on the ,ontinent* and ,onsiderin( that the
offi,e of a favourite has a very un,ertain tenure* would never
,onsent to the enslavin( of their ,ountry&
"f any town should en(a(e in rebellion or mutiny* fall into violent
fa,tions* or refuse to /ay the usual tribute* the .in( has two
methods of redu,in( them to obedien,e& The first and the mildest
,ourse is* by .ee/in( the island hoverin( over su,h a town* and the
lands about it* whereby he ,an de/rive them of the benefit of the
sun and the rain* and ,onse1uently affli,t the inhabitants with
dearth and diseases< and if the ,rime deserve it* they are at the
same time /elted from above with (reat stones* a(ainst whi,h they
have no defen,e but by ,ree/in( into ,ellars or ,aves* while the
roofs of their houses are beaten to /ie,es& ut if they still
,ontinue obstinate* or offer to raise insurre,tions* he /ro,eeds to
the last remedy* by lettin( the island dro/ dire,tly u/on their
heads* whi,h a universal destru,tion both of houses and men&
However* this is an e0tremity to whi,h the /rin,e is seldom driven*
neither indeed is he willin( to /ut it in e0e,ution- nor dare his
ministers advise him to an a,tion* whi,h* as it would render them
odious to the /eo/le* so it would be a (reat dama(e to their own
estates* whi,h all lie below- for the island is the .in('s demesne&
ut there is still indeed a more wei(hty reason* why the .in(s of
this ,ountry have been always averse from e0e,utin( so terrible an
a,tion* unless u/on the utmost ne,essity& 4or* if the town
intended to be destroyed should have in it any tall ro,.s* as it
(enerally falls out in the lar(er ,ities* a situation /robably
,hosen at first with a view to /revent su,h a ,atastro/he- or if it
abound in hi(h s/ires* or /illars of stone* a sudden fall mi(ht
endan(er the bottom or under surfa,e of the island* whi,h* althou(h
it ,onsist* as " have said* of one entire adamant* two hundred
yards thi,.* mi(ht ha//en to ,ra,. by too (reat a sho,.* or burst
by a//roa,hin( too near the fires from the houses below* as the
ba,.s* both of iron and stone* will often do in our ,himneys& #f
all this the /eo/le are well a//rised* and understand how far to
,arry their obstina,y* where their liberty or /ro/erty is
,on,erned& $nd the .in(* when he is hi(hest /rovo.ed* and most
determined to /ress a ,ity to rubbish* orders the island to des,end
with (reat (entleness* out of a /reten,e of tenderness to his
/eo/le* but* indeed* for fear of the adamantine bottom- in
whi,h ,ase* it is the o/inion of all their /hiloso/hers* that the
loadstone ,ould no lon(er hold it u/* and the whole mass would fall
to the (round&
y a fundamental law of this realm* neither the .in(* nor either of
his two eldest sons* are /ermitted to leave the island- nor the
1ueen* till she is /ast ,hildAbearin(&
2H$PTER "5&
'The author leaves !a/uta- is ,onveyed to alnibarbi- arrives at
the metro/olis& $ des,ri/tion of the metro/olis* and the ,ountry
ad:oinin(& The author hos/itably re,eived by a (reat lord& His
,onversation with that lord&)
$lthou(h " ,annot say that " was ill treated in this island* yet "
must ,onfess " thou(ht myself too mu,h ne(le,ted* not without some
de(ree of ,ontem/t- for neither /rin,e nor /eo/le a//eared to be
,urious in any /art of .nowled(e* e0,e/t mathemati,s and musi,*
wherein " was far their inferior* and u/on that a,,ount very little
#n the other side* after havin( seen all the ,uriosities of the
island* " was very desirous to leave it* bein( heartily weary of
those /eo/le& They were indeed e0,ellent in two s,ien,es for whi,h
" have (reat esteem* and wherein " am not unversed- but* at the
same time* so abstra,ted and involved in s/e,ulation* that " never
met with su,h disa(reeable ,om/anions& " ,onversed only with
women* tradesmen* fla//ers* and ,ourtA/a(es* durin( two months of
my abode there- by whi,h* at last* " rendered myself e0tremely
,ontem/tible- yet these were the only /eo/le from whom " ,ould ever
re,eive a reasonable answer&
" had obtained* by hard study* a (ood de(ree of .nowled(e in their
lan(ua(e< " was weary of bein( ,onfined to an island where "
re,eived so little ,ountenan,e* and resolved to leave it with the
first o//ortunity&
There was a (reat lord at ,ourt* nearly related to the .in(* and
for that reason alone used with res/e,t& He was universally
re,.oned the most i(norant and stu/id /erson amon( them& He had
/erformed many eminent servi,es for the ,rown* had (reat natural
and a,1uired /arts* adorned with inte(rity and honour- but so ill
an ear for musi,* that his detra,tors re/orted* 9he had been often
.nown to beat time in the wron( /la,e-9 neither ,ould his tutors*
without e0treme diffi,ulty* tea,h him to demonstrate the most easy
/ro/osition in the mathemati,s& He was /leased to show me many
mar.s of favour* often did me the honour of a visit* desired to be
informed in the affairs of Euro/e* the laws and ,ustoms* the
manners and learnin( of the several ,ountries where " had
travelled& He listened to me with (reat attention* and made very
wise observations on all " s/o.e& He had two fla//ers attendin(
him for state* but never made use of them* e0,e/t at ,ourt and in
visits of ,eremony* and would always ,ommand them to withdraw* when
we were alone to(ether&
" entreated this illustrious /erson* to inter,ede in my behalf with
his ma:esty* for leave to de/art- whi,h he a,,ordin(ly did* as he
was /leased to tell me* with re(ret< for indeed he had made me
several offers very advanta(eous* whi,h* however* " refused* with
e0/ressions of the hi(hest a,.nowled(ment&
#n the 6Cth of 4ebruary " too. leave of his ma:esty and the ,ourt&
The .in( made me a /resent to the value of about two hundred /ounds
En(lish* and my /rote,tor* his .insman* as mu,h more* to(ether with
a letter of re,ommendation to a friend of his in !a(ado* the
metro/olis& The island bein( then hoverin( over a mountain about
two miles from it* " was let down from the lowest (allery* in the
same manner as " had been ta.en u/&
The ,ontinent* as far as it is sub:e,t to the monar,h of the flyin(
island* /asses under the (eneral name of alnibarbi- and the
metro/olis* as " said before* is ,alled !a(ado& " felt some little
satisfa,tion in findin( myself on firm (round& " wal.ed to the
,ity without any ,on,ern* bein( ,lad li.e one of the natives* and
suffi,iently instru,ted to ,onverse with them& " soon found out
the /erson's house to whom " was re,ommended* /resented my letter
from his friend the (randee in the island* and was re,eived with
mu,h .indness& This (reat lord* whose name was +unodi* ordered me
an a/artment in his own house* where " ,ontinued durin( my stay*
and was entertained in a most hos/itable manner&
The ne0t mornin( after my arrival* he too. me in his ,hariot to see
the town* whi,h is about half the bi(ness of !ondon- but the houses
very stran(ely built* and most of them out of re/air& The /eo/le
in the streets wal.ed fast* loo.ed wild* their eyes fi0ed* and were
(enerally in ra(s& We /assed throu(h one of the town (ates* and
went about three miles into the ,ountry* where " saw many labourers with several sorts of tools in the (round* but was not able
to ,on:e,ture what they were about< neither did observe any
e0/e,tation either of ,orn or (rass* althou(h the soil a//eared to
be e0,ellent& " ,ould not forbear admirin( at these odd
a//earan,es* both in town and ,ountry- and " made bold to desire my
,ondu,tor* that he would be /leased to e0/lain to me* what ,ould be
meant by so many busy heads* hands* and fa,es* both in the streets
and the fields* be,ause " did not dis,over any (ood effe,ts they
/rodu,ed- but* on the ,ontrary* " never .new a soil so unha//ily
,ultivated* houses so ill ,ontrived and so ruinous* or a /eo/le
whose ,ountenan,es and habit e0/ressed so mu,h misery and want&
This lord +unodi was a /erson of the first ran.* and had been some
years (overnor of !a(ado- but* by a ,abal of ministers* was
dis,har(ed for insuffi,ien,y& However* the .in( treated him with
tenderness* as a wellAmeanin( man* but of a low ,ontem/tible
When " (ave that free ,ensure of the ,ountry and its inhabitants*
he made no further answer than by tellin( me* 9that " had not been
lon( enou(h amon( them to form a :ud(ment- and that the different
nations of the world had different ,ustoms-9 with other ,ommon
to/i,s to the same /ur/ose& ut* when we returned to his /ala,e*
he as.ed me 9how " li.ed the buildin(* what absurdities " observed*
and what 1uarrel " had with the dress or loo.s of his domesti,s?9
This he mi(ht safely do- be,ause every thin( about him was
ma(nifi,ent* re(ular* and /olite& " answered* 9that his
e0,ellen,y's /ruden,e* 1uality* and fortune* had e0em/ted him from
those defe,ts* whi,h folly and be((ary had /rodu,ed in others&9 He
said* 9if " would (o with him to his ,ountryAhouse* about twenty
miles distant* where his estate lay* there would be more leisure
for this .ind of ,onversation&9 " told his e0,ellen,y 9that " was
entirely at his dis/osal-9 and a,,ordin(ly we set out ne0t mornin(&
%urin( our :ourney he made me observe the several methods used by
farmers in mana(in( their lands* whi,h to me were wholly
una,,ountable- for* e0,e/t in some very few /la,es* " ,ould not
dis,over one ear of ,orn or blade of (rass& ut* in three hours
travellin(* the s,ene was wholly altered- we ,ame into a most
beautiful ,ountry- farmers' houses* at small distan,es* neatly
built- the fields en,losed* ,ontainin( vineyards* ,ornA(rounds* and
meadows& Neither do " remember to have seen a more deli(htful
/ros/e,t& His e0,ellen,y observed my ,ountenan,e to ,lear u/- he
told me* with a si(h* 9that there his estate be(an* and would
,ontinue the same* till we should ,ome to his house< that his
,ountrymen ridi,uled and des/ised him* for mana(in( his affairs no
better* and for settin( so ill an e0am/le to the .in(dom- whi,h*
however* was followed by very few* su,h as were old* and wilful*
and wea. li.e himself&9
We ,ame at len(th to the house* whi,h was indeed a noble stru,ture*
built a,,ordin( to the best rules of an,ient ar,hite,ture& The
fountains* (ardens* wal.s* avenues* and (roves* were all dis/osed
with e0a,t :ud(ment and taste& " (ave due /raises to every thin( "
saw* whereof his e0,ellen,y too. not the least noti,e till after
su//er- when* there bein( no third ,om/anion* he told me with a
very melan,holy air 9that he doubted he must throw down his houses
in town and ,ountry* to rebuild them after the /resent mode-
destroy all his /lantations* and ,ast others into su,h a form as
modern usa(e re1uired* and (ive the same dire,tions to all his
tenants* unless he would submit to in,ur the ,ensure of /ride*
sin(ularity* affe,tation* i(noran,e* ,a/ri,e* and /erha/s in,rease
his ma:esty's dis/leasure- that the admiration " a//eared to be
under would ,ease or diminish* when he had informed me of some
/arti,ulars whi,h* /robably* " never heard of at ,ourt* the /eo/le
there bein( too mu,h ta.en u/ in their own s/e,ulations* to have
re(ard to what /assed here below&9
The sum of his dis,ourse was to this effe,t< 9That about forty
years a(o* ,ertain /ersons went u/ to !a/uta* either u/on business
or diversion* and* after five months ,ontinuan,e* ,ame ba,. with a
very little smatterin( in mathemati,s* but full of volatile s/irits
a,1uired in that airy re(ion< that these /ersons* u/on their
return* be(an to disli.e the mana(ement of every thin( below* and
fell into s,hemes of /uttin( all arts* s,ien,es* lan(ua(es* and
me,hani,s* u/on a new foot& To this end* they /ro,ured a royal
/atent for ere,tin( an a,ademy of /ro:e,tors in !a(ado- and the
humour /revailed so stron(ly amon( the /eo/le* that there is not a
town of any ,onse1uen,e in the .in(dom without su,h an a,ademy& "n
these ,olle(es the /rofessors ,ontrive new rules and methods of
a(ri,ulture and buildin(* and new instruments* and tools for all
trades and manufa,tures- whereby* as they underta.e* one man shall
do the wor. of ten- a /ala,e may be built in a wee.* of materials
so durable as to last for ever without re/airin(& $ll the fruits
of the earth shall ,ome to maturity at whatever season we thin. fit
to ,hoose* and in,rease a hundred fold more than they do at
/resent- with innumerable other ha//y /ro/osals& The only
in,onvenien,e is* that none of these /ro:e,ts are yet brou(ht to
/erfe,tion- and in the mean time* the whole ,ountry lies miserably
waste* the houses in ruins* and the /eo/le without food or ,lothes&
y all whi,h* instead of bein( dis,oura(ed* they are fifty times
more violently bent u/on /rose,utin( their s,hemes* driven e1ually
on by ho/e and des/air< that as for himself* bein( not of an
enter/risin( s/irit* he was ,ontent to (o on in the old forms* to
live in the houses his an,estors had built* and a,t as they did* in
every /art of life* without innovation< that some few other
/ersons of 1uality and (entry had done the same* but were loo.ed on
with an eye of ,ontem/t and illAwill* as enemies to art* i(norant*
and ill ,ommonAwealth's men* /referrin( their own ease and sloth
before the (eneral im/rovement of their ,ountry&9
His lordshi/ added* 9That he would not* by any further /arti,ulars*
/revent the /leasure " should ,ertainly ta.e in viewin( the (rand
a,ademy* whither he was resolved " should (o&9 He only desired me
to observe a ruined buildin(* u/on the side of a mountain about
three miles distant* of whi,h he (ave me this a,,ount< 9That he
had a very ,onvenient mill within half a mile of his house* turned
by a ,urrent from a lar(e river* and suffi,ient for his own family*
as well as a (reat number of his tenants- that about seven years
a(o* a ,lub of those /ro:e,tors ,ame to him with /ro/osals to
destroy this mill* and build another on the side of that mountain*
on the lon( rid(e whereof a lon( ,anal must be ,ut* for a
re/ository of water* to be ,onveyed u/ by /i/es and en(ines to
su//ly the mill* be,ause the wind and air u/on a hei(ht a(itated
the water* and thereby made it fitter for motion* and be,ause the
water* des,endin( down a de,livity* would turn the mill with half
the ,urrent of a river whose ,ourse is more u/on a level&9 He
said* 9that bein( then not very well with the ,ourt* and /ressed by
many of his friends* he ,om/lied with the /ro/osal- and after
em/loyin( a hundred men for two years* the wor. mis,arried* the
/ro:e,tors went off* layin( the blame entirely u/on him* railin( at
him ever sin,e* and /uttin( others u/on the same e0/eriment* with
e1ual assuran,e of su,,ess* as well as e1ual disa//ointment&9
"n a few days we ,ame ba,. to town- and his e0,ellen,y* ,onsiderin(
the bad ,hara,ter he had in the a,ademy* would not (o with me
himself* but re,ommended me to a friend of his* to bear me ,om/any
thither& +y lord was /leased to re/resent me as a (reat admirer of
/ro:e,ts* and a /erson of mu,h ,uriosity and easy belief- whi,h*
indeed* was not without truth- for " had myself been a sort of
/ro:e,tor in my youn(er days&
2H$PTER 5&
'The author /ermitted to see the (rand a,ademy of !a(ado& The
a,ademy lar(ely des,ribed& The arts wherein the /rofessors em/loy
This a,ademy is not an entire sin(le buildin(* but a ,ontinuation
of several houses on both sides of a street* whi,h (rowin( waste*
was /ur,hased and a//lied to that use&
" was re,eived very .indly by the warden* and went for many days to
the a,ademy& Every room has in it one or more /ro:e,tors- and "
believe " ,ould not be in fewer than five hundred rooms&
The first man " saw was of a mea(re as/e,t* with sooty hands and
fa,e* his hair and beard lon(* ra((ed* and sin(ed in several
/la,es& His ,lothes* shirt* and* were all of the same ,olour&
He has been ei(ht years u/on a /ro:e,t for e0tra,tin( sunbeams out
of ,u,umbers* whi,h were to be /ut in /hials hermeti,ally sealed*
and let out to warm the air in raw in,lement summers& He told me*
he did not doubt* that* in ei(ht years more* he should be able to
su//ly the (overnor's (ardens with sunshine* at a reasonable rate<
but he ,om/lained that his sto,. was low* and entreated me 9to (ive
him somethin( as an en,oura(ement to in(enuity* es/e,ially sin,e
this had been a very dear season for ,u,umbers&9 " made him a
small /resent* for my lord had furnished me with money on /ur/ose*
be,ause he .new their /ra,ti,e of be((in( from all who (o to see
" went into another ,hamber* but was ready to hasten ba,.* bein(
almost over,ome with a horrible stin.& +y ,ondu,tor /ressed me
forward* ,on:urin( me in a whis/er 9to (ive no offen,e* whi,h would
be hi(hly resented-9 and therefore " durst not so mu,h as sto/ my
nose& The /ro:e,tor of this ,ell was the most an,ient student of
the a,ademy- his fa,e and beard were of a /ale yellow- his hands
and ,lothes daubed over with filth& When " was /resented to him*
he (ave me a ,lose embra,e* a ,om/liment " ,ould well have e0,used&
His em/loyment* from his first ,omin( into the a,ademy* was an
o/eration to redu,e human e0,rement to its ori(inal food* by
se/aratin( the several /arts* removin( the tin,ture whi,h it
re,eives from the (all* the odour e0hale* and s,ummin( off
the saliva& He had a allowan,e* from the so,iety* of a
vessel filled with human ordure* about the bi(ness of a ristol
" saw another at wor. to ,al,ine i,e into (un/owder- who li.ewise
showed me a treatise he had written ,on,ernin( the malleability of
fire* whi,h he intended to /ublish&
There was a most in(enious ar,hite,t* who had ,ontrived a new
method for buildin( houses* by be(innin( at the roof* and
downward to the foundation- whi,h he :ustified to me* by the li.e
/ra,ti,e of those two /rudent inse,ts* the bee and the s/ider&
There was a man born blind* who had several a//renti,es in his own
,ondition< their em/loyment was to mi0 ,olours for /ainters* whi,h
their master tau(ht them to distin(uish by feelin( and smellin(&
"t was indeed my misfortune to find them at that time not very
/erfe,t in their lessons* and the /rofessor himself ha//ened to be
(enerally mista.en& This artist is mu,h en,oura(ed and esteemed by
the whole fraternity&
"n another a/artment " was hi(hly /leased with a /ro:e,tor who had
found a devi,e of /lou(hin( the (round with ho(s* to save the
,har(es of /lou(hs* ,attle* and labour& The method is this< in an
a,re of (round you bury* at si0 in,hes distan,e and ei(ht dee/* a
1uantity of a,orns* dates* ,hestnuts* and other mast or ve(etables*
whereof these animals are fondest- then you drive si0 hundred or
more of them into the field* where* in a few days* they will root
u/ the whole (round in sear,h of their food* and ma.e it fit for
sowin(* at the same time manurin( it with their dun(< it is true*
u/on e0/eriment* they found the ,har(e and trouble very (reat* and
they had little or no ,ro/& However it is not doubted* that this
invention may be ,a/able of (reat im/rovement&
" went into another room* where the walls and ,eilin( were all hun(
round with ,obwebs* e0,e/t a narrow /assa(e for the artist to (o in
and out& $t my entran,e* he ,alled aloud to me* 9not to disturb
his webs&9 He lamented 9the fatal mista.e the world had been so
lon( in* of usin( sil.worms* while we had su,h /lenty of domesti,
inse,ts who infinitely e0,elled the former* be,ause they understood
how to weave* as well as s/in&9 $nd he /ro/osed further* 9that by
em/loyin( s/iders* the ,har(e of dyein( sil.s should be wholly
saved-9 whereof " was fully ,onvin,ed* when he showed me a vast
number of flies most beautifully ,oloured* wherewith he fed his
s/iders* assurin( us 9that the webs would ta.e a tin,ture from
them- and as he had them of all hues* he ho/ed to fit everybody's
fan,y* as soon as he ,ould find /ro/er food for the flies* of
,ertain (ums* oils* and other (lutinous matter* to (ive a stren(th
and ,onsisten,e to the threads&9
There was an astronomer* who had underta.en to /la,e a sunAdial
u/on the (reat weather,o,. on the townAhouse* by ad:ustin( the
annual and diurnal motions of the earth and sun* so as to answer
and ,oin,ide with all a,,idental turnin(s of the wind&
" was ,om/lainin( of a small fit of the ,oli,* u/on whi,h my
,ondu,tor led me into a room where a (reat /hysi,ian resided* who
was famous for ,urin( that disease* by ,ontrary o/erations from the
same instrument& He had a lar(e /air of bellows* with a lon(
slender mu@@le of ivory< this he ,onveyed ei(ht in,hes u/ the
anus* and drawin( in the wind* he affirmed he ,ould ma.e the (uts
as lan. as a dried bladder& ut when the disease was more stubborn
and violent* he let in the mu@@le while the bellows were full of
wind* whi,h he dis,har(ed into the body of the /atient- then
withdrew the instrument to re/lenish it* ,la//in( his thumb
stron(ly a(ainst the orifi,e of then fundament- and this bein(
re/eated three or four times* the adventitious wind would rush out*
brin(in( the no0ious alon( with it* =li.e water /ut into a /um/>*
and the /atient re,overed& " saw him try both e0/eriments u/on a
do(* but ,ould not dis,ern any effe,t from the former& $fter the
latter the animal was ready to burst* and made so violent a
dis,har(e as was very offensive to me and my ,om/anion& The do(
died on the s/ot* and we left the do,tor endeavourin( to re,over
him* by the same o/eration&
" visited many other a/artments* but shall not trouble my reader
with all the ,uriosities " observed* bein( studious of brevity&
" had hitherto seen only one side of the a,ademy* the other bein(
a//ro/riated to the advan,ers of s/e,ulative learnin(* of whom "
shall say somethin(* when " have mentioned one illustrious /erson
more* who is ,alled amon( them 9the universal artist&9 He told us
9he had been thirty years em/loyin( his thou(hts for the
im/rovement of human life&9 He had two lar(e rooms full of
wonderful ,uriosities* and fifty men at wor.& Some were ,ondensin(
air into a dry tan(ible substan,e* by e0tra,tin( the nitre* and
lettin( the a1ueous or fluid /arti,les /er,olate- others softenin(
marble* for /illows and /inA,ushions- others /etrifyin( the hoofs
of a livin( horse* to /reserve them from founderin(& The artist
himself was at that time busy u/on two (reat desi(ns- the first* to
sow land with ,haff* wherein he affirmed the true seminal virtue to
be ,ontained* as he demonstrated by several e0/eriments* whi,h "
was not s.ilful enou(h to ,om/rehend& The other was* by a ,ertain
,om/osition of (ums* minerals* and ve(etables* outwardly a//lied*
to /revent the (rowth of wool u/on two youn( lambs- and he ho/ed*
in a reasonable time to /ro/a(ate the breed of na.ed shee/* all
over the .in(dom&
We ,rossed a wal. to the other /art of the a,ademy* where* as "
have already said* the /ro:e,tors in s/e,ulative learnin( resided&
The first /rofessor " saw* was in a very lar(e room* with forty
/u/ils about him& $fter salutation* observin( me to loo. earnestly
u/on a frame* whi,h too. u/ the (reatest /art of both the len(th
and breadth of the room* he said* 9Perha/s " mi(ht wonder to see
him em/loyed in a /ro:e,t for im/rovin( s/e,ulative .nowled(e* by
/ra,ti,al and me,hani,al o/erations& ut the world would soon be
sensible of its usefulness- and he flattered himself* that a more
noble* e0alted thou(ht never s/ran( in any other man's head& Every
one .new how laborious the usual method is of attainin( to arts and
s,ien,es- whereas* by his ,ontrivan,e* the most i(norant /erson* at
a reasonable ,har(e* and with a little bodily labour* mi(ht write
boo.s in /hiloso/hy* /oetry* /oliti,s* laws* mathemati,s* and
theolo(y* without the least assistan,e from (enius or study&9 He
then led me to the frame* about the sides* whereof all his /u/ils
stood in ran.s& "t was twenty feet s1uare* /la,ed in the middle of
the room& The su/erfi,es was ,om/osed of several bits of wood*
about the bi(ness of a die* but some lar(er than others& They were
all lin.ed to(ether by slender wires& These bits of wood were
,overed* on every s1uare* with /a/er /asted on them- and on these
/a/ers were written all the words of their lan(ua(e* in their
several moods* tenses* and de,lensions- but without any order& The
/rofessor then desired me 9to observe- for he was (oin( to set his
en(ine at wor.&9 The /u/ils* at his ,ommand* too. ea,h of them
hold of an iron handle* whereof there were forty fi0ed round the
ed(es of the frame- and (ivin( them a sudden turn* the whole
dis/osition of the words was entirely ,han(ed& He then ,ommanded
si0AandAthirty of the lads* to read the several lines softly* as
they a//eared u/on the frame- and where they found three or four
words to(ether that mi(ht ma.e /art of a senten,e* they di,tated to
the four remainin( boys* who were s,ribes& This wor. was re/eated
three or four times* and at every turn* the en(ine was so
,ontrived* that the words shifted into new /la,es* as the s1uare
bits of wood moved u/side down&
Si0 hours a day the youn( students were em/loyed in this labour-
and the /rofessor showed me several volumes in lar(e folio* already
,olle,ted* of bro.en senten,es* whi,h he intended to /ie,e
to(ether* and out of those ri,h materials* to (ive the world a
,om/lete body of all arts and s,ien,es- whi,h* however* mi(ht be
still im/roved* and mu,h e0/edited* if the /ubli, would raise a
fund for and em/loyin( five hundred su,h frames in !a(ado*
and obli(e the mana(ers to ,ontribute in ,ommon their several
He assured me 9that this invention had em/loyed all his thou(hts
from his youth- that he had em/tied the whole vo,abulary into his
frame* and made the stri,test ,om/utation of the (eneral /ro/ortion
there is in boo.s between the numbers of /arti,les* nouns* and
verbs* and other /arts of s/ee,h&9
" made my humblest a,.nowled(ment to this illustrious /erson* for
his (reat ,ommuni,ativeness- and /romised* 9if ever " had the (ood
fortune to return to my native ,ountry* that " would do him
:usti,e* as the sole inventor of this wonderful ma,hine-9 the form
and ,ontrivan,e of whi,h " desired leave to delineate on /a/er* as
in the fi(ure here anne0ed& " told him* 9althou(h it were the
,ustom of our learned in Euro/e to steal inventions from ea,h
other* who had thereby at least this advanta(e* that it be,ame a
,ontroversy whi,h was the ri(ht owner- yet " would ta.e su,h
,aution* that he should have the honour entire* without a rival&9
We ne0t went to the s,hool of lan(ua(es* where three /rofessors sat
in ,onsultation u/on im/rovin( that of their own ,ountry&
The first /ro:e,t was* to shorten dis,ourse* by ,uttin(
/olysyllables into one* and leavin( out verbs and /arti,i/les*
be,ause* in reality* all thin(s ima(inable are but norms&
The other /ro:e,t was* a s,heme for entirely abolishin( all words
whatsoever- and this was ur(ed as a (reat advanta(e in /oint of
health* as well as brevity& 4or it is /lain* that every word we
s/ea. is* in some de(ree* a diminution of our lun(e by ,orrosion*
and* ,onse1uently* ,ontributes to the shortenin( of our lives& $n
e0/edient was therefore offered* 9that sin,e words are only names
for thin(s* it would be more ,onvenient for all men to ,arry about
them su,h thin(s as were ne,essary to e0/ress a /arti,ular business
they are to dis,ourse on&9 $nd this invention would ,ertainly have
ta.en /la,e* to the (reat ease as well as health of the sub:e,t* if
the women* in ,on:un,tion with the vul(ar and illiterate* had not
threatened to raise a rebellion unless they mi(ht be allowed the
liberty to s/ea. with their ton(ues* after the manner of their
forefathers- su,h ,onstant irre,on,ilable enemies to s,ien,e are
the ,ommon /eo/le& However* many of the most learned and wise
adhere to the new s,heme of e0/ressin( themselves by thin(s- whi,h
has only this in,onvenien,e attendin( it* that if a man's business
be very (reat* and of various .inds* he must be obli(ed* in
/ro/ortion* to ,arry a (reater bundle of thin(s u/on his ba,.*
unless he ,an afford one or two stron( servants to attend him& "
have often beheld two of those sa(es almost under the
wei(ht of their /a,.s* li.e /edlars amon( us* who* when they met in
the street* would lay down their loads* o/en their sa,.s* and hold
,onversation for an hour to(ether- then /ut u/ their im/lements*
hel/ ea,h other to resume their burdens* and ta.e their leave&
ut for short ,onversations* a man may ,arry im/lements in his
/o,.ets* and under his arms* enou(h to su//ly him- and in his
house* he ,annot be at a loss& Therefore the room where ,om/any
meet who /ra,tise this art* is full of all thin(s* ready at hand*
re1uisite to furnish matter for this .ind of artifi,ial ,onverse&
$nother (reat advanta(e /ro/osed by this invention was* that it
would serve as a universal lan(ua(e* to be understood in all
,ivilised nations* whose (oods and utensils are (enerally of the
same .ind* or nearly resemblin(* so that their uses mi(ht easily be
,om/rehended& $nd thus ambassadors would be 1ualified to treat
with forei(n /rin,es* or ministers of state* to whose ton(ues they
were utter stran(ers&
" was at the mathemati,al s,hool* where the master tau(ht his
/u/ils after a method s,ar,e ima(inable to us in Euro/e& The
/ro/osition* and demonstration* were fairly written on a thin
wafer* with in. ,om/osed of a ,e/hali, tin,ture& This* the student
was to swallow u/on a fastin( stoma,h* and for three days
followin(* eat nothin( but bread and water& $s the wafer di(ested*
the tin,ture mounted to his brain* bearin( the /ro/osition alon(
with it& ut the su,,ess has not hitherto been answerable* /artly
by some error in the 1uantum or ,om/osition* and /artly by the
/erverseness of lads* to whom this bolus is so nauseous* that they
(enerally steal aside* and dis,har(e it u/wards* before it ,an
o/erate- neither have they been yet /ersuaded to use so lon( an
abstinen,e* as the /res,ri/tion re1uires&
2H$PTER 5"&
'$ further a,,ount of the a,ademy& The author /ro/oses some
im/rovements* whi,h are honourably re,eived&)
"n the s,hool of /oliti,al /ro:e,tors* " was but ill entertained-
the /rofessors a//earin(* in my :ud(ment* wholly out of their
senses* whi,h is a s,ene that never fails to ma.e me melan,holy&
These unha//y /eo/le were /ro/osin( s,hemes for /ersuadin( monar,hs
to ,hoose favourites u/on the s,ore of their wisdom* ,a/a,ity* and
virtue- of tea,hin( ministers to ,onsult the /ubli, (ood- of
rewardin( merit* (reat abilities* eminent servi,es- of instru,tin(
/rin,es to .now their true interest* by /la,in( it on the same
foundation with that of their /eo/le- of ,hoosin( for em/loyments
/ersons 1ualified to e0er,ise them* with many other wild*
im/ossible ,himeras* that never entered before into the heart of
man to ,on,eive- and ,onfirmed in me the old observation* 9that
there is nothin( so e0trava(ant and irrational* whi,h some
/hiloso/hers have not maintained for truth&9
ut* however* " shall so far do :usti,e to this /art of the
$,ademy* as to a,.nowled(e that all of them were not so visionary&
There was a most in(enious do,tor* who seemed to be /erfe,tly
versed in the whole nature and system of (overnment& This
illustrious /erson had very usefully em/loyed his studies* in
findin( out effe,tual remedies for all diseases and ,orru/tions to
whi,h the several .inds of /ubli, administration are sub:e,t* by
the vi,es or infirmities of those who (overn* as well as by the
li,entiousness of those who are to obey& 4or instan,e< whereas
all writers and reasoners have a(reed* that there is a stri,t
universal resemblan,e between the natural and the /oliti,al body-
,an there be any thin( more evident* than that the health of both
must be /reserved* and the diseases ,ured* by the same
/res,ri/tions? "t is allowed* that senates and (reat ,oun,ils are
often troubled with redundant* ebullient* and other /e,,ant
humours- with many diseases of the head* and more of the heart-
with stron( ,onvulsions* with (rievous ,ontra,tions of the nerves
and sinews in both hands* but es/e,ially the ri(ht- with s/leen*
flatus* verti(os* and deliriums- with s,rofulous tumours* full of
fetid /urulent matter- with sour frothy ru,tations< with ,anine
a//etites* and ,rudeness of di(estion* besides many others*
needless to mention& This do,tor therefore /ro/osed* 9that u/on
the meetin( of the senate* ,ertain /hysi,ians should attend it the
three first days of their sittin(* and at the ,lose of ea,h day's
debate feel the /ulses of every senator- after whi,h* havin(
maturely ,onsidered and ,onsulted u/on the nature of the several
maladies* and the methods of ,ure* they should on the fourth day
return to the senate house* attended by their a/othe,aries stored
with /ro/er medi,ines- and before the members sat* administer to
ea,h of them lenitives* a/eritives* abstersives* ,orrosives*
restrin(ents* /alliatives* la0atives* ,e/halal(i,s* i,teri,s*
a/o/hle(mati,s* a,ousti,s* as their several ,ases re1uired- and*
a,,ordin( as these medi,ines should o/erate* re/eat* alter* or omit
them* at the ne0t meetin(&9
This /ro:e,t ,ould not be of any (reat e0/ense to the /ubli,- and
mi(ht in my /oor o/inion* be of mu,h use for the des/at,h of
business* in those ,ountries where senates have any share in the
le(islative /ower- be(et unanimity* shorten debates* o/en a few
mouths whi,h are now ,losed* and ,lose many more whi,h are now
o/en- ,urb the /etulan,y of the youn(* and ,orre,t the /ositiveness
of the old- rouse the stu/id* and dam/ the /ert&
$(ain< be,ause it is a (eneral ,om/laint* that the favourites of
/rin,es are troubled with short and wea. memories- the same do,tor
/ro/osed* 9that whoever attended a first minister* after havin(
told his business* with the utmost brevity and in the /lainest
words* should* at his de/arture* (ive the said minister a twea. by
the nose* or a .i,. in the belly* or tread on his ,orns* or lu( him
thri,e by both ears* or run a /in into his bree,h- or /in,h his arm
bla,. and blue* to /revent for(etfulness- and at every levee day*
re/eat the same o/eration* till the business were done* or
absolutely refused&9
He li.ewise dire,ted* 9that every senator in the (reat ,oun,il of a
nation* after he had delivered his o/inion* and ar(ued in the
defen,e of it* should be obli(ed to (ive his vote dire,tly
,ontrary- be,ause if that were done* the result would infallibly
terminate in the (ood of the /ubli,&9
When /arties in a state are violent* he offered a wonderful
,ontrivan,e to re,on,ile them& The method is this< 3ou ta.e a
hundred leaders of ea,h /arty- you dis/ose them into ,ou/les of
su,h whose heads are nearest of a si@e- then let two ni,e o/erators
saw off the o,,i/ut of ea,h ,ou/le at the same time* in su,h a
manner that the brain may be e1ually divided& !et the o,,i/uts*
thus ,ut off* be inter,han(ed* a//lyin( ea,h to the head of his
o//osite /artyAman& "t seems indeed to be a wor. that re1uires
some e0a,tness* but the /rofessor assured us* 9that if it were
de0terously /erformed* the ,ure would be infallible&9 4or he
ar(ued thus< 9that the two half brains bein( left to debate the
matter between themselves within the s/a,e of one s.ull* would soon
,ome to a (ood understandin(* and /rodu,e that moderation* as well
as re(ularity of* so mu,h to be wished for in the heads of
those* who ima(ine they ,ome into the world only to wat,h and
(overn its motion< and as to the differen,e of brains* in 1uantity
or 1uality* amon( those who are dire,tors in fa,tion* the do,tor
assured us* from his own .nowled(e* that 9it was a /erfe,t trifle&9
" heard a very warm debate between two /rofessors* about the most
,ommodious and effe,tual ways and means of raisin( money* without
(rievin( the sub:e,t& The first affirmed* 9the :ustest method
would be* to lay a ,ertain ta0 u/on vi,es and folly- and the sum
fi0ed u/on every man to be rated* after the fairest manner* by a
:ury of his nei(hbours&9 The se,ond was of an o/inion dire,tly
,ontrary- 9to ta0 those 1ualities of body and mind* for whi,h men
,hiefly value themselves- the rate to be more or less* a,,ordin( to
the de(rees of e0,ellin(- the de,ision whereof should be left
entirely to their own breast&9 The hi(hest ta0 was u/on men who
are the (reatest favourites of the other se0* and the assessments*
a,,ordin( to the number and nature of the favours they have
re,eived- for whi,h* they are allowed to be their own vou,hers&
Wit* valour* and /oliteness* were li.ewise /ro/osed to be lar(ely
ta0ed* and ,olle,ted in the same manner* by every /erson's (ivin(
his own word for the 1uantum of what he /ossessed& ut as to
honour* :usti,e* wisdom* and learnin(* they should not be ta0ed at
all- be,ause they are 1ualifi,ations of so sin(ular a .ind* that no
man will either allow them in his nei(hbour or value them in
The women were /ro/osed to be ta0ed a,,ordin( to their beauty and
s.ill in dressin(* wherein they had the same /rivile(e with the
men* to be determined by their own :ud(ment& ut ,onstan,y*
,hastity* (ood sense* and (ood nature* were not rated* be,ause they
would not bear the ,har(e of ,olle,tin(&
To .ee/ senators in the interest of the ,rown* it was /ro/osed that
the members should raffle for em/loyment- every man first an
oath* and (ivin( se,urity* that he would vote for the ,ourt*
whether he won or not- after whi,h* the losers had* in their turn*
the liberty of rafflin( u/on the ne0t va,an,y& Thus* ho/e and
e0/e,tation would be .e/t alive- none would ,om/lain of bro.en
/romises* but im/ute their disa//ointments wholly to fortune* whose
shoulders are broader and stron(er than those of a ministry&
$nother /rofessor showed me a lar(e /a/er of instru,tions for
dis,overin( /lots and ,ons/ira,ies a(ainst the (overnment& He
advised (reat statesmen to e0amine into the diet of all sus/e,ted
/ersons- their times of eatin(- u/on whi,h side they lay in bed-
with whi,h hand they wi/e their /osteriors- ta.e a stri,t view of
their e0,rements* and* from the ,olour* the odour* the taste* the
,onsisten,e* the ,rudeness or maturity of di(estion* form a
:ud(ment of their thou(hts and desi(ns- be,ause men are never so
serious* thou(htful* and intent* as when they are at stool* whi,h
he found by fre1uent e0/eriment- for* in su,h ,on:un,tures* when he
used* merely as a trial* to ,onsider whi,h was the best way of
murderin( the .in(* his ordure would have a tin,ture of (reen- but
1uite different* when he thou(ht only of raisin( an insurre,tion*
or burnin( the metro/olis&
The whole dis,ourse was written with (reat a,uteness* ,ontainin(
many observations* both ,urious and useful for /oliti,ians- but* as
" ,on,eived* not alto(ether ,om/lete& This " ventured to tell the
author* and offered* if he /leased* to su//ly him with some
additions& He re,eived my /ro/osition with more ,om/lian,e than is
usual amon( writers* es/e,ially those of the /ro:e,tin( s/e,ies*
/rofessin( 9he would be (lad to re,eive further information&9
" told him* 9that in the .in(dom of Tribnia* HEI by the natives
,alled !an(don* HBI where " had so:ourned some time in my travels*
the bul. of the /eo/le ,onsist in a manner wholly of dis,overers*
witnesses* informers* a,,users* /rose,utors* eviden,es* swearers*
to(ether with their several subservient and subaltern instruments*
all under the ,olours* the ,ondu,t* and the /ay of ministers of
state* and their de/uties& The /lots* in that .in(dom* are usually
the wor.manshi/ of those /ersons who desire to raise their own
,hara,ters of /rofound /oliti,ians- to restore new vi(our to a
,ra@y administration- to stifle or divert (eneral dis,ontents- to
fill their ,offers with forfeitures- and raise* or sin. the o/inion
of /ubli, ,redit* as either shall best answer their /rivate
advanta(e& "t is first a(reed and settled amon( them* what
sus/e,ted /ersons shall be a,,used of a /lot- then* effe,tual ,are
is ta.en to se,ure all their letters and /a/ers* and /ut the owners
in ,hains& These /a/ers are delivered to a set of artists* very
de0terous in findin( out the mysterious meanin(s of words*
syllables* and letters< for instan,e* they ,an dis,over a ,lose
stool* to si(nify a /rivy ,oun,il- a flo,. of (eese* a senate- a
lame do(* an invader- the /la(ue* a standin( army- a bu@@ard* a
/rime minister- the (out* a hi(h /riest- a (ibbet* a se,retary of
state- a ,hamber /ot* a ,ommittee of (randees- a sieve* a ,ourt
lady- a broom* a revolution- a mouseAtra/* an em/loyment- a
bottomless /it* a treasury- a sin.* a ,ourt- a ,a/ and bells* a
favourite- a bro.en reed* a ,ourt of :usti,e- an em/ty tun* a
(eneral- a runnin( sore* the administration& HGI
9When this method fails* they have two others more effe,tual* whi,h
the learned amon( them ,all a,rosti,s and ana(rams& 4irst* they
,an de,i/her all initial letters into /oliti,al meanin(s& Thus N*
shall si(nify a /lot- * a re(iment of horse- !* a fleet at sea-
or* se,ondly* by trans/osin( the letters of the al/habet in any
sus/e,ted /a/er* they ,an lay o/en the dee/est desi(ns of a
dis,ontented /arty& So* for e0am/le* if " should say* in a letter
to a friend* '#ur brother Tom has :ust (ot the /iles*' a s.ilful
de,i/herer would dis,over* that the same letters whi,h ,om/ose that
senten,e* may be analysed into the followin( words* 'Resist A* a
/lot is brou(ht homeAAThe tour&' $nd this is the ana(rammati,
The /rofessor made me (reat a,.nowled(ments for ,ommuni,atin( these
observations* and /romised to ma.e honourable mention of me in his
" saw nothin( in this ,ountry that ,ould invite me to a lon(er
,ontinuan,e* and be(an to thin. of returnin( home to En(land&
2H$PTER 5""&
'The author leaves !a(ado< arrives at +aldonada& No shi/ ready&
He a short voya(e to Glubbdubdrib& His re,e/tion by the
The ,ontinent* of whi,h this .in(dom is a/art* e0tends itself* as "
have reason to believe* eastward* to that un.nown tra,t of $meri,a
westward of 2alifornia- and north* to the Pa,ifi, #,ean* whi,h is
not above a hundred and fifty miles from !a(ado- where there is a
(ood /ort* and mu,h ,ommer,e with the (reat island of !u((na((*
situated to the northAwest about 8D de(rees north latitude* and 6BF
lon(itude& This island of !u((na(( stands southAeastward of Ja/an*
about a hundred lea(ues distant& There is a stri,t allian,e
between the Ja/anese em/eror and the .in( of !u((na((- whi,h
affords fre1uent o//ortunities of sailin( from one island to the
other& " determined therefore to dire,t my ,ourse this way* in
order to my return to Euro/e& " hired two mules* with a (uide* to
show me the way* and ,arry my small ba((a(e& " too. leave of my
noble /rote,tor* who had shown me so mu,h favour* and made me a
(enerous /resent at my de/arture&
+y :ourney was without any a,,ident or adventure worth relatin(&
When " arrived at the /ort of +aldonada =for so it is ,alled> there
was no shi/ in the harbour bound for !u((na((* nor li.ely to be in
some time& The town is about as lar(e as Portsmouth& " soon fell
into some a,1uaintan,e* and was very hos/itably re,eived& $
(entleman of distin,tion said to me* 9that sin,e the shi/s bound
for !u((na(( ,ould not be ready in less than a month* it mi(ht be
no disa(reeable amusement for me to ta.e a tri/ to the little
island of Glubbdubdrib* about five lea(ues off to the southAwest&9
He offered himself and a friend to a,,om/any me* and that " should
be /rovided with a small ,onvenient bar. for the voya(e&
Glubbdubdrib* as nearly as " ,an inter/ret the word* si(nifies the
island of sor,erers or ma(i,ians& "t is about one third as lar(e
as the "sle of Wi(ht* and e0tremely fruitful< it is (overned by
the head of a ,ertain tribe* who are all ma(i,ians& This tribe
marries only amon( ea,h other* and the eldest in su,,ession is
/rin,e or (overnor& He has a noble /ala,e* and a /ar. of about
three thousand a,res* surrounded by a wall of hewn stone twenty
feet hi(h& "n this /ar. are several small en,losures for ,attle*
,orn* and (ardenin(&
The (overnor and his family are served and attended by domesti,s of
a .ind somewhat unusual& y his s.ill in ne,roman,y he has a /ower
of ,allin( whom he /leases from the dead* and ,ommandin( their
servi,e for twentyAfour hours* but no lon(er- nor ,an he ,all the
same /ersons u/ a(ain in less than three months* e0,e/t u/on very
e0traordinary o,,asions&
When we arrived at the island* whi,h was about eleven in the
mornin(* one of the (entlemen who a,,om/anied me went to the
(overnor* and desired admittan,e for a stran(er* who ,ame on
/ur/ose to have the honour of attendin( on his hi(hness& This was
immediately (ranted* and we all three entered the (ate of the
/ala,e between two rows of (uards* armed and dressed after a very
anti, manner* and with somethin( in their ,ountenan,es that made my
flesh ,ree/ with a horror " ,annot e0/ress& We /assed throu(h
several a/artments* between servants of the same sort* ran.ed on
ea,h side as before* till we ,ame to the ,hamber of /resen,e-
where* after three /rofound obeisan,es* and a few (eneral
1uestions* we were /ermitted to sit on three stools* near the
lowest ste/ of his hi(hness's throne& He understood the lan(ua(e
of alnibarbi* althou(h it was different from that of this island&
He desired me to (ive him some a,,ount of my travels- and* to let
me see that " should be treated without ,eremony* he dismissed all
his attendants with a turn of his fin(er- at whi,h* to my (reat
astonishment* they vanished in an instant* li.e visions in a dream
when we awa.e on a sudden& " ,ould not re,over myself in some
time* till the (overnor assured me* 9that " should re,eive no
hurt<9 and observin( my two ,om/anions to be under no ,on,ern* who
had been often entertained in the same manner* " be(an to ta.e
,oura(e* and related to his hi(hness a short history of my several
adventures- yet not without some hesitation* and fre1uently
behind me to the /la,e where " had seen those domesti, s/e,tres& "
had the honour to dine with the (overnor* where a new set of (hosts
served u/ the meat* and waited at table& " now observed myself to
be less terrified than " had been in the mornin(& " stayed till
sunset* but humbly desired his hi(hness to e0,use me for not
a,,e/tin( his invitation of lod(in( in the /ala,e& +y two friends
and " lay at a /rivate house in the town ad:oinin(* whi,h is the
,a/ital of this little island- and the ne0t mornin( we returned to
/ay our duty to the (overnor* as he was /leased to ,ommand us&
$fter this manner we ,ontinued in the island for ten days* most
/art of every day with the (overnor* and at ni(ht in our lod(in(&
" soon (rew so familiari@ed to the si(ht of s/irits* that after the
third or fourth time they (ave me no emotion at all< or* if " had
any a//rehensions left* my ,uriosity /revailed over them& 4or his
hi(hness the (overnor ordered me 9to ,all u/ whatever /ersons "
would ,hoose to name* and in whatever numbers* amon( all the dead
from the be(innin( of the world to the /resent time* and ,ommand
them to answer any 1uestions " should thin. fit to as.- with this
,ondition* that my 1uestions must be ,onfined within the ,om/ass of
the times they lived in& $nd one thin( " mi(ht de/end u/on* that
they would ,ertainly tell me the truth* for lyin( was a talent of
no use in the lower world&9
" made my humble a,.nowled(ments to his hi(hness for so (reat a
favour& We were in a ,hamber* from when,e there was a fair
/ros/e,t into the /ar.& $nd be,ause my first in,lination was to be
entertained with s,enes of /om/ and ma(nifi,en,e* " desired to see
$le0ander the Great at the head of his army* :ust after the battle
of $rbela< whi,h* u/on a motion of the (overnor's fin(er*
immediately a//eared in a lar(e field* under the window where we
stood& $le0ander was ,alled u/ into the room< it was with (reat
diffi,ulty that " understood his Gree.* and had but little of my
own& He assured me u/on his honour 9that he was not /oisoned* but
died of a bad fever by e0,essive
Ne0t* " saw Hannibal /assin( the $l/s* who told me 9he had not a
dro/ of vine(ar in his ,am/&9
" saw 2aesar and Pom/ey at the head of their troo/s* :ust ready to
en(a(e& " saw the former* in his last (reat trium/h& " desired
that the senate of Rome mi(ht a//ear before me* in one lar(e
,hamber* and an assembly of somewhat a later a(e in ,ounterview* in
another& The first seemed to be an assembly of heroes and
demi(ods- the other* a .not of /edlars* /i,.A/o,.ets* hi(hwayman*
and bullies&
The (overnor* at my re1uest* (ave the si(n for 2aesar and rutus to
advan,e towards us& " was stru,. with a /rofound veneration at the
si(ht of rutus* and ,ould easily dis,over the most ,onsummate
virtue* the (reatest intre/idity and firmness of mind* the truest
love of his ,ountry* and (eneral benevolen,e for man.ind* in every
lineament of his ,ountenan,e& " observed* with mu,h /leasure* that
these two /ersons were in (ood intelli(en,e with ea,h other- and
2aesar freely ,onfessed to me* 9that the (reatest a,tions of his
own life were not e1ual* by many de(rees* to the (lory of it
away&9 " had the honour to have mu,h ,onversation with rutus- and
was told* 9that his an,estor Junius* So,rates* E/aminondas* 2ato
the youn(er* Sir Thomas +ore* and himself were /er/etually
to(ether<9 a se0tumvirate* to whi,h all the a(es of the world
,annot add a seventh&
"t would be tedious to trouble the reader with relatin( what vast
numbers of illustrious /ersons were ,alled u/ to (ratify that
insatiable desire " had to see the world in every /eriod of
anti1uity /la,ed before me& " ,hiefly fed mine eyes with beholdin(
the destroyers of tyrants and usur/ers* and the restorers of
liberty to o//ressed and in:ured nations& ut it is im/ossible to
e0/ress the satisfa,tion " re,eived in my own mind* after su,h a
manner as to ma.e it a suitable entertainment to the reader&
2H$PTER 5"""&
'$ further a,,ount of Glubbdubdrib& $n,ient and modern history
Havin( a desire to see those an,ients who were most renowned for
wit and learnin(* " set a/art one day on /ur/ose& " /ro/osed that
Homer and $ristotle mi(ht a//ear at the head of all their
,ommentators- but these were so numerous* that some hundreds were
for,ed to attend in the ,ourt* and outward rooms of the /ala,e& "
.new* and ,ould distin(uish those two heroes* at first si(ht* not
only from the ,rowd* but from ea,h other& Homer was the taller and
,omelier /erson of the two* wal.ed very ere,t for one of his a(e*
and his eyes were the most 1ui,. and /ier,in( " ever beheld&
$ristotle stoo/ed mu,h* and made use of a staff& His visa(e was
mea(re* his hair lan. and thin* and his voi,e hollow& " soon
dis,overed that both of them were /erfe,t stran(ers to the rest of
the ,om/any* and had never seen or heard of them before- and " had
a whis/er from a (host who shall be nameless* 9that these
,ommentators always .e/t in the most distant 1uarters from their
/rin,i/als* in the lower world* throu(h a ,ons,iousness of shame
and (uilt* be,ause they had so horribly misre/resented the meanin(
of those authors to /osterity&9 " introdu,ed %idymus and
Eustathius to Homer* and /revailed on him to treat them better than
/erha/s they deserved* for he soon found they wanted a (enius to
enter into the s/irit of a /oet& ut $ristotle was out of all
/atien,e with the a,,ount " (ave him of S,otus and Ramus* as "
/resented them to him- and he as.ed them* 9whether the rest of the
tribe were as (reat dun,es as themselves?9
" then desired the (overnor to ,all u/ %es,artes and Gassendi* with
whom " /revailed to e0/lain their systems to $ristotle& This (reat
/hiloso/her freely a,.nowled(ed his own in natural
/hiloso/hy* be,ause he /ro,eeded in many thin(s u/on ,on:e,ture* as
all men must do- and he found that Gassendi* who had made the
do,trine of E/i,urus as /alatable as he ,ould* and the vorti,es of
%es,artes* were e1ually to be e0/loded& He /redi,ted the same fate
to $TTR$2T"#N* whereof the /resent learned are su,h @ealous
asserters& He said* 9that new systems of nature were but new
fashions* whi,h would vary in every a(e- and even those* who
/retend to demonstrate them from mathemati,al /rin,i/les* would
flourish but a short /eriod of time* and be out of vo(ue when that
was determined&9
" s/ent five days in ,onversin( with many others of the an,ient
learned& " saw most of the first Roman em/erors& " /revailed on
the (overnor to ,all u/ Helio(abalus's ,oo.s to dress us a dinner*
but they ,ould not show us mu,h of their s.ill* for want of
materials& $ helot of $(esilaus made us a dish of S/artan broth*
but " was not able to (et down a se,ond s/oonful&
The two (entlemen* who ,ondu,ted me to the island* were /ressed by
their /rivate affairs to return in three days* whi,h " em/loyed in
seein( some of the modern dead* who had made the (reatest fi(ure*
for two or three hundred years /ast* in our own and other ,ountries
of Euro/e- and havin( been always a (reat admirer of old
illustrious families* " desired the (overnor would ,all u/ a do@en
or two of .in(s* with their an,estors in order for ei(ht or nine
(enerations& ut my disa//ointment was (rievous and une0/e,ted&
4or* instead of a lon( train with royal diadems* " saw in one
family two fiddlers* three s/ru,e ,ourtiers* and an "talian
/relate& "n another* a barber* an abbot* and two ,ardinals& "
have too (reat a veneration for ,rowned heads* to dwell any lon(er
on so ni,e a sub:e,t& ut as to ,ounts* mar1uises** earls*
and the li.e* " was not so s,ru/ulous& $nd " ,onfess* it was not
without some /leasure* that " found myself able to tra,e the
/arti,ular features* by whi,h ,ertain families are distin(uished*
u/ to their ori(inals& " ,ould /lainly dis,over when,e one family
derives a lon( ,hin- why a se,ond has abounded with .naves for two
(enerations* and fools for two more- why a third ha//ened to be
,ra,.Abrained* and a fourth to be shar/ers- when,e it ,ame* what
Polydore 5ir(il says of a ,ertain (reat house* Ne, vir fortis* ne,
foemina ,asta- how ,ruelty* falsehood* and ,owardi,e* (rew to be
,hara,teristi,s by whi,h ,ertain families are distin(uished as mu,h
as by their ,oats of arms- who first brou(ht the /o0 into a noble
house* whi,h has lineally des,ended s,rofulous tumours to their
/osterity& Neither ,ould " wonder at all this* when " saw su,h an
interru/tion of linea(es* by /a(es* la,.eys* valets* ,oa,hmen*
(amesters* fiddlers* /layers* ,a/tains* and /i,./o,.ets&
" was ,hiefly dis(usted with modern history& 4or havin( stri,tly
e0amined all the /ersons of (reatest name in the ,ourts of /rin,es*
for a hundred years /ast* " found how the world had been misled by
/rostitute writers* to as,ribe the (reatest e0/loits in war* to
,owards- the wisest ,ounsel* to fools- sin,erity* to flatterers-
Roman virtue* to betrayers of their ,ountry- /iety* to atheists-
,hastity* to sodomites- truth* to informers< how many inno,ent and
e0,ellent /ersons had been ,ondemned to death or banishment by the
/ra,tisin( of (reat ministers u/on the ,orru/tion of :ud(es* and
the mali,e of fa,tions< how many villains had been e0alted to the
hi(hest /la,es of trust* /ower* di(nity* and /rofit< how (reat a
share in the motions and events of ,ourts* ,oun,ils* and senates
mi(ht be ,hallen(ed by bawds* whores* /im/s* /arasites* and
buffoons& How low an o/inion " had of human wisdom and inte(rity*
when " was truly informed of the s/rin(s and motives of (reat
enter/rises and revolutions in the world* and of the ,ontem/tible
a,,idents to whi,h they owed their su,,ess&
Here " dis,overed the ro(uery and i(noran,e of those who /retend to
write ane,dotes* or se,ret history- who send so many .in(s to their
(raves with a ,u/ of /oison- will re/eat the dis,ourse between a
/rin,e and ,hief minister* where no witness was by- unlo,. the
thou(hts and ,abinets of ambassadors and se,retaries of state- and
have the /er/etual misfortune to be mista.en& Here " dis,overed
the true ,auses of many (reat events that have sur/rised the world-
how a whore ,an (overn the ba,.Astairs* the ba,.Astairs a ,oun,il*
and the ,oun,il a senate& $ (eneral ,onfessed* in my /resen,e*
9that he (ot a vi,tory /urely by the for,e of ,owardi,e and ill
,ondu,t-9 and an admiral* 9that* for want of /ro/er intelli(en,e*
he beat the enemy* to whom he intended to betray the fleet&9 Three
.in(s /rotested to me* 9that in their whole rei(ns they never did
on,e /refer any /erson of merit* unless by mista.e* or trea,hery of
some minister in whom they ,onfided- neither would they do it if
they were to live a(ain<9 and they showed* with (reat stren(th of
reason* 9that the royal throne ,ould not be su//orted without
,orru/tion* be,ause that /ositive* ,onfident* restiff tem/er* whi,h
virtue infused into a man* was a /er/etual ,lo( to /ubli,
" had the ,uriosity to in1uire in a /arti,ular manner* by what
methods (reat numbers had /ro,ured to themselves hi(h titles of
honour* and /rodi(ious estates- and " ,onfined my in1uiry to a very
modern /eriod< however* without (ratin( u/on /resent times*
be,ause " would be sure to (ive no offen,e even to forei(ners =for
" ho/e the reader need not be told* that " do not in the least
intend my own ,ountry* in what " say u/on this o,,asion*> a (reat
number of /ersons ,on,erned were ,alled u/- and* u/on a very sli(ht
e0amination* dis,overed su,h a s,ene of infamy* that " ,annot
refle,t u/on it without some seriousness& Per:ury* o//ression*
subornation* fraud* /andarism* and the li.e infirmities* were amon(
the most e0,usable arts they had to mention- and for these " (ave*
as it was reasonable* (reat allowan,e& ut when some ,onfessed
they owed their (reatness and wealth to sodomy* or in,est- others*
to the /rostitutin( of their own wives and dau(hters- others* to
the betrayin( of their ,ountry or their /rin,e- some* to /oisonin(-
more to the /ervertin( of :usti,e* in order to destroy the
inno,ent* " ho/e " may be /ardoned* if these dis,overies in,lined
me a little to abate of that /rofound veneration* whi,h " am
naturally a/t to /ay to /ersons of hi(h ran.* who ou(ht to be
treated with the utmost res/e,t due to their sublime di(nity* by us
their inferiors&
" had often read of some (reat servi,es done to /rin,es and states*
and desired to see the /ersons by whom those servi,es were
/erformed& U/on in1uiry " was told* 9that their names were to be
found on no re,ord* e0,e/t a few of them* whom history has
re/resented as the vilest of ro(ues and traitors&9 $s to the rest*
" had never on,e heard of them& They all a//eared with de:e,ted
loo.s* and in the meanest habit- most of them tellin( me* 9they
died in /overty and dis(ra,e* and the rest on a s,affold or a
$mon( others* there was one /erson* whose ,ase a//eared a little
sin(ular& He had a youth about ei(hteen years old standin( by his
side& He told me* 9he had for many years been ,ommander of a shi/-
and in the sea fi(ht at $,tium had the (ood fortune to brea.
throu(h the enemy's (reat line of battle* sin. three of their
,a/ital shi/s* and ta.e a fourth* whi,h was the sole ,ause of
$ntony's fli(ht* and of the vi,tory that ensued- that the youth
standin( by him* his only son* was .illed in the a,tion&9 He
added* 9that u/on the ,onfiden,e of some merit* the war bein( at an
end* he went to Rome* and soli,ited at the ,ourt of $u(ustus to be
/referred to a (reater shi/* whose ,ommander had been .illed- but*
without any re(ard to his /retensions* it was (iven to a boy who
had never seen the sea* the son of !ibertina* who waited on one of
the em/eror's mistresses& Returnin( ba,. to his own vessel* he was
,har(ed with ne(le,t of duty* and the shi/ (iven to a favourite
/a(e of Publi,ola* the vi,eAadmiral- whereu/on he retired to a /oor
farm at a (reat distan,e from Rome* and there ended his life&9 "
was so ,urious to .now the truth of this story* that " desired
$(ri//a mi(ht be ,alled* who was admiral in that fi(ht& He
a//eared* and ,onfirmed the whole a,,ount< but with mu,h more
advanta(e to the ,a/tain* whose modesty had e0tenuated or ,on,ealed
a (reat /art of his merit&
" was sur/rised to find ,orru/tion (rown so hi(h and so 1ui,. in
that em/ire* by the for,e of lu0ury so lately introdu,ed- whi,h
made me less wonder at many /arallel ,ases in other ,ountries*
where vi,es of all .inds have rei(ned so mu,h lon(er* and where the
whole /raise* as well as /illa(e* has been en(rossed by the ,hief
,ommander* who /erha/s had the least title to either&
$s every /erson ,alled u/ made e0a,tly the same a//earan,e he had
done in the world* it (ave me melan,holy refle,tions to observe how
mu,h the ra,e of human .ind was de(enerated amon( us within these
hundred years /ast- how the /o0* under all its ,onse1uen,es and
denominations had altered every lineament of an En(lish
,ountenan,e- shortened the si@e of bodies* unbra,ed the nerves*
rela0ed the sinews and mus,les* introdu,ed a sallow ,om/le0ion* and
rendered the flesh loose and ran,id&
" des,ended so low* as to desire some En(lish yeoman of the old
stam/ mi(ht be summoned to a//ear- on,e so famous for the
sim/li,ity of their manners* diet* and dress- for :usti,e in their
dealin(s- for their true s/irit of liberty- for their valour* and
love of their ,ountry& Neither ,ould " be wholly unmoved* after
,om/arin( the livin( with the dead* when " ,onsidered how all these
/ure native virtues were /rostituted for a /ie,e of money by their
(randA,hildren- who* in sellin( their votes and mana(in( at
ele,tions* have a,1uired every vi,e and ,orru/tion that ,an
/ossibly be learned in a ,ourt&
'The author returns to +aldonada& Sails to the .in(dom of
!u((na((& The author ,onfined& He is sent for to ,ourt& The
manner of his admittan,e& The .in('s (reat lenity to his
The day of our de/arture bein( ,ome* " too. leave of his hi(hness*
the Governor of Glubbdubdrib* and returned with my two ,om/anions
to +aldonada* where* after a fortni(ht's waitin(* a shi/ was ready
to sail for !u((na((& The two (entlemen* and some others* were so
(enerous and .ind as to furnish me with /rovisions* and see me on
board& " was a month in this voya(e& We had one violent storm*
and were under a ne,essity of steerin( westward to (et into the
trade wind* whi,h holds for above si0ty lea(ues& #n the 86st of
$/ril* 67FK* we sailed into the river of 2lume(ni(* whi,h is a
sea/ort town* at the southAeast /oint of !u((na((& We ,ast an,hor
within a lea(ue of the town* and made a si(nal for a /ilot& Two of
them ,ame on board in less than half an hour* by whom we were
(uided between ,ertain shoals and ro,.s* whi,h are very dan(erous
in the /assa(e* to a lar(e basin* where a fleet may ride in safety
within a ,able's len(th of the townAwall&
Some of our sailors* whether out of trea,hery or inadverten,e* had
informed the /ilots 9that " was a stran(er* and (reat traveller-9
whereof these (ave noti,e to a ,ustomAhouse offi,er* by whom " was
e0amined very stri,tly u/on my landin(& This offi,er s/o.e to me
in the lan(ua(e of alnibarbi* whi,h* by the for,e of mu,h
,ommer,e* is (enerally understood in that town* es/e,ially by
seamen and those em/loyed in the ,ustoms& " (ave him a short
a,,ount of some /arti,ulars* and made my story as /lausible and
,onsistent as " ,ould- but " thou(ht it ne,essary to dis(uise my
,ountry* and ,all myself a Hollander- be,ause my intentions were
for Ja/an* and " .new the %ut,h were the only Euro/eans /ermitted
to enter into that .in(dom& " therefore told the offi,er* 9that
havin( been shi/wre,.ed on the ,oast of alnibarbi* and ,ast on a
ro,.* " was re,eived u/ into !a/uta* or the flyin( island =of whi,h
he had often heard>* and was now endeavourin( to (et to Ja/an*
when,e " mi(ht find a ,onvenien,e of returnin( to my own ,ountry&9
The offi,er said* 9" must be ,onfined till he ,ould re,eive orders
from ,ourt* for whi,h he would write immediately* and ho/ed to
re,eive an answer in a fortni(ht&9 " was ,arried to a ,onvenient
lod(in( with a sentry /la,ed at the door- however* " had the
liberty of a lar(e (arden* and was treated with humanity enou(h*
bein( maintained all the time at the .in('s ,har(e& " was invited
by several /ersons* ,hiefly out of ,uriosity* be,ause it was
re/orted that " ,ame from ,ountries very remote* of whi,h they had
never heard&
" hired a youn( man* who ,ame in the same shi/* to be an
inter/reter- he was a native of !u((na((* but had lived some years
at +aldonada* and was a /erfe,t master of both lan(ua(es& y his
assistan,e* " was able to hold a ,onversation with those who ,ame
to visit me- but this ,onsisted only of their 1uestions* and my
The des/at,h ,ame from ,ourt about the time we e0/e,ted& "t
,ontained a warrant for ,ondu,tin( me and my retinue to
Traldra(dubh* or Trildro(drib =for it is /ronoun,ed both ways as
near as " ,an remember>* by a /arty of ten horse& $ll my retinue
was that /oor lad for an inter/reter* whom " /ersuaded into my
servi,e* and* at my humble re1uest* we had ea,h of us a mule to
ride on& $ messen(er was des/at,hed half a day's :ourney before
us* to (ive the .in( noti,e of my a//roa,h* and to desire* 9that
his ma:esty would /lease to a//oint a day and hour* when it would
by his (ra,ious /leasure that " mi(ht have the honour to li,. the
dust before his footstool&9 This is the ,ourt style* and " found
it to be more than matter of form< for* u/on my admittan,e two
days after my arrival* " was ,ommanded to ,rawl u/on my belly* and
li,. the floor as " advan,ed- but* on a,,ount of my bein( a
stran(er* ,are was ta.en to have it made so ,lean* that the dust
was not offensive& However* this was a /e,uliar (ra,e* not allowed
to any but /ersons of the hi(hest ran.* when they desire an
admittan,e& Nay* sometimes the floor is strewed with dust on
/ur/ose* when the /erson to be admitted ha//ens to have /owerful
enemies at ,ourt- and " have seen a (reat lord with his mouth so
,rammed* that when he had ,re/t to the /ro/er distan,e from the
throne- he was not able to s/ea. a word& Neither is there any
remedy- be,ause it is ,a/ital for those* who re,eive an audien,e to
s/it or wi/e their mouths in his ma:esty's /resen,e& There is
indeed another ,ustom* whi,h " ,annot alto(ether a//rove of< when
the .in( has a mind to /ut any of his nobles to death in a (entle
indul(ent manner* he ,ommands the floor to be strewed with a
,ertain brown /owder of a deadly ,om/osition* whi,h bein( li,.ed
u/* infallibly .ills him in twentyAfour hours& ut in :usti,e to
this /rin,e's (reat ,lemen,y* and the ,are he has of his sub:e,ts'
lives =wherein it were mu,h to be wished that the +onar,hs of
Euro/e would imitate him>* it must be mentioned for his honour*
that stri,t orders are (iven to have the infe,ted /arts of the
floor well washed after every su,h e0e,ution* whi,h* if his
domesti,s ne(le,t* they are in dan(er of in,urrin( his royal
dis/leasure& " myself heard him (ive dire,tions* that one of his
/a(es should be whi//ed* whose turn it was to (ive noti,e about
washin( the floor after an e0e,ution* but mali,iously had omitted
it- by whi,h ne(le,t a youn( lord of (reat ho/es* ,omin( to an
audien,e* was unfortunately /oisoned* althou(h the .in( at that
time had no desi(n a(ainst his life& ut this (ood /rin,e was so
(ra,ious as to for(ive the /oor /a(e his whi//in(* u/on /romise
that he would do so no more* without s/e,ial orders&
To return from this di(ression& When " had ,re/t within four yards
of the throne* " raised myself (ently u/on my .nees* and then my forehead seven times a(ainst the (round* " /ronoun,ed
the followin( words* as they had been tau(ht me the ni(ht before*
"n,./lin( (loffthrobb s1uut serummblhio/ mlashnalt @win
tnodbal.uffh slhio/had (urdlubh asht& This is the ,om/liment*
established by the laws of the land* for all /ersons admitted to
the .in('s /resen,e& "t may be rendered into En(lish thus< 9+ay
your ,elestial ma:esty outlive the sun* eleven moons and a halfL9
To this the .in( returned some answer* whi,h* althou(h " ,ould not
understand* yet " re/lied as " had been dire,ted< 4luft drin
yaleri,. dwuldom /rastrad mir/ush* whi,h /ro/erly si(nifies* 9+y
ton(ue is in the mouth of my friend-9 and by this e0/ression was
meant* that " desired leave to brin( my inter/reter- whereu/on the
youn( man already mentioned was a,,ordin(ly introdu,ed* by whose
intervention " answered as many 1uestions as his ma:esty ,ould /ut
in above an hour& " s/o.e in the alnibarbian ton(ue* and my
inter/reter delivered my meanin( in that of !u((na((&
The .in( was mu,h deli(hted with my ,om/any* and ordered his
bliffmar.lub* or hi(hA,hamberlain* to a//oint a lod(in( in the
,ourt for me and my inter/reter- with a daily allowan,e for my
table* and a lar(e /urse of (old for my ,ommon e0/enses&
" staid three months in this ,ountry* out of /erfe,t obedien,e to
his ma:esty- who was /leased hi(hly to favour me* and made me very
honourable offers& ut " thou(ht it more ,onsistent with /ruden,e
and :usti,e to /ass the remainder of my days with my wife and
'The !u((na((ians ,ommended& $ /arti,ular des,ri/tion of the
Struldbru(s* with many ,onversations between the author and some
eminent /ersons u/on that sub:e,t&)
The !u((na((ians are a /olite and (enerous /eo/le- and althou(h
they are not without some share of that /ride whi,h is /e,uliar to
all Eastern ,ountries* yet they show themselves ,ourteous to
stran(ers* es/e,ially su,h who are ,ountenan,ed by the ,ourt& "
had many a,1uaintan,e* and amon( /ersons of the best fashion- and
bein( always attended by my inter/reter* the ,onversation we had
was not disa(reeable&
#ne day* in mu,h (ood ,om/any* " was as.ed by a /erson of 1uality*
9whether " had seen any of their struldbru(s* or immortals?9 "
said* 9" had not-9 and desired he would e0/lain to me 9what he
meant by su,h an a//ellation* a//lied to a mortal ,reature&9 He
told me 9that sometimes* thou(h very rarely* a ,hild ha//ened to be
born in a family* with a red ,ir,ular s/ot in the forehead*
dire,tly over the left eyebrow* whi,h was an infallible mar. that
it should never die&9 The s/ot* as he des,ribed it* 9was about the
,om/ass of a silver three/en,e* but in the ,ourse of time (rew
lar(er* and ,han(ed its ,olour- for at twelve years old it be,ame
(reen* so ,ontinued till five and twenty* then turned to a dee/
blue< at five and forty it (rew ,oal bla,.* and as lar(e as an
En(lish shillin(- but never admitted any further alteration&9 He
said* 9these births were so rare* that he did not believe there
,ould be above eleven hundred struldbru(s* of both se0es* in the
whole .in(dom- of whi,h he ,om/uted about fifty in the metro/olis*
and* amon( the rest* a youn( (irl born- about three years a(o<
that these /rodu,tions were not /e,uliar to any family* but a mere
effe,t of ,han,e- and the ,hildren of the struldbru(s themselves
were e1ually mortal with the rest of the /eo/le&9
" freely own myself to have been stru,. with ine0/ressible deli(ht*
u/on hearin( this a,,ount< and the /erson who (ave it me ha//enin(
to understand the alnibarbian lan(ua(e* whi,h " s/o.e very well* "
,ould not forbear out into e0/ressions* /erha/s a little
too e0trava(ant& " ,ried out* as in a ra/ture* 9Ha//y nation*
where every ,hild hath at least a ,han,e for bein( immortalL Ha//y
/eo/le* who en:oy so many livin( e0am/les of an,ient virtue* and
have masters ready to instru,t them in the wisdom of all former
a(esL but ha//iest* beyond all ,om/arison* are those e0,ellent
struldbru(s* who* bein( born e0em/t from that universal ,alamity of
human nature* have their minds free and disen(a(ed* without the
wei(ht and de/ression of s/irits ,aused by the ,ontinual
a//rehensions of deathL9 " dis,overed my admiration that " had not
observed any of these illustrious /ersons at ,ourt- the bla,. s/ot
on the forehead bein( so a distin,tion* that " ,ould not
have easily overloo.ed it< and it was im/ossible that his ma:esty*
a most :udi,ious /rin,e* should not /rovide himself with a (ood
number of su,h wise and able ,ounsellors& 3et /erha/s the virtue
of those reverend sa(es was too stri,t for the ,orru/t and
libertine manners of a ,ourt< and we often find by e0/erien,e*
that youn( men are too o/inionated and volatile to be (uided by the
sober di,tates of their seniors& However* sin,e the .in( was
/leased to allow me a,,ess to his royal /erson* " was resolved*
u/on the very first o,,asion* to deliver my o/inion to him on this
matter freely and at lar(e* by the hel/ of my inter/reter- and
whether he would /lease to ta.e my advi,e or not* yet in one thin(
" was determined* that his ma:esty havin( fre1uently offered me an
establishment in this ,ountry* " would* with (reat than.fulness*
a,,e/t the favour* and /ass my life here in the ,onversation of
those su/erior bein(s the struldbru(s* if they would /lease to
admit me&9
The (entleman to whom " addressed my dis,ourse* be,ause =as " have
already observed> he s/o.e the lan(ua(e of alnibarbi* said to me*
with a sort of a smile whi,h usually arises from /ity to the
i(norant* 9that he was (lad of any o,,asion to .ee/ me amon( them*
and desired my /ermission to e0/lain to the ,om/any what " had
s/o.e&9 He did so* and they tal.ed to(ether for some time in their
own lan(ua(e* whereof " understood not a syllable* neither ,ould "
observe by their ,ountenan,es* what im/ression my dis,ourse had
made on them& $fter a short silen,e* the same /erson told me*
9that his friends and mine =so he thou(ht fit to e0/ress himself>
were very mu,h /leased with the :udi,ious remar.s " had made on the
(reat ha//iness and advanta(es of immortal life* and they were
desirous to .now* in a /arti,ular manner* what s,heme of livin( "
should have formed to myself* if it had fallen to my lot to have
been born a struldbru(&9
" answered* 9it was easy to be elo1uent on so ,o/ious and
deli(htful a sub:e,t* es/e,ially to me* who had been often a/t to
amuse myself with visions of what " should do* if " were a .in(* a
(eneral* or a (reat lord< and u/on this very ,ase* " had
fre1uently run over the whole system how " should em/loy myself*
and /ass the time* if " were sure to live for ever&
9That* if it had been my (ood fortune to ,ome into the world a
struldbru(* as soon as " ,ould dis,over my own ha//iness* by
understandin( the differen,e between life and death* " would first
resolve* by all arts and methods* whatsoever* to /ro,ure myself
ri,hes& "n the /ursuit of whi,h* by thrift and mana(ement* " mi(ht
reasonably e0/e,t* in about two hundred years* to be the wealthiest
man in the .in(dom& "n the se,ond /la,e* " would* from my earliest
youth* a//ly myself to the study of arts and s,ien,es* by whi,h "
should arrive in time to e0,el all others in learnin(& !astly* "
would ,arefully re,ord every a,tion and event of ,onse1uen,e* that
ha//ened in the /ubli,* im/artially draw the ,hara,ters of the
several su,,essions of /rin,es and (reat ministers of state* with
my own observations on every /oint& " would e0a,tly set down the
several ,han(es in ,ustoms* lan(ua(e* fashions of dress* diet* and
diversions& y all whi,h a,1uirements* " should be a livin(
treasure of .nowled(e and wisdom* and ,ertainly be,ome the ora,le
of the nation&
9" would never marry after threes,ore* but live in a hos/itable
manner* yet still on the savin( side& " would entertain myself in
formin( and dire,tin( the minds of ho/eful youn( men* by ,onvin,in(
them* from my own remembran,e* e0/erien,e* and observation*
fortified by numerous e0am/les* of the usefulness of virtue in
/ubli, and /rivate life& ut my ,hoi,e and ,onstant ,om/anions
should be a set of my own immortal brotherhood- amon( whom* " would
ele,t a do@en from the most an,ient* down to my own ,ontem/oraries&
Where any of these wanted fortunes* " would /rovide them with
,onvenient lod(es round my own estate* and have some of them always
at my table- only min(lin( a few of the most valuable amon( you
mortals* whom len(th of time would harden me to lose with little or
no relu,tan,e* and treat your /osterity after the same manner- :ust
as a man diverts himself with the annual su,,ession of /in.s and
tuli/s in his (arden* without re(rettin( the loss of those whi,h
withered the /re,edin( year&
9These struldbru(s and " would mutually ,ommuni,ate our
observations and memorials* throu(h the ,ourse of time- remar. the
several (radations by whi,h ,orru/tion steals into the world* and
o//ose it in every ste/* by (ivin( /er/etual warnin( and
instru,tion to man.ind- whi,h* added to the stron( influen,e of our
own e0am/le* would /robably /revent that ,ontinual de(enera,y of
human nature so :ustly ,om/lained of in all a(es&
9$dd to this* the /leasure of seein( the various revolutions of
states and em/ires- the ,han(es in the lower and u//er world-
an,ient ,ities in ruins* and obs,ure villa(es be,ome the seats of
.in(s- famous rivers lessenin( into shallow broo.s- the o,ean
leavin( one ,oast dry* and overwhelmin( another- the dis,overy of
many ,ountries yet un.nown- barbarity overrunnin( the /olitest
nations* and the most barbarous be,ome ,ivili@ed& " should then
see the dis,overy of the lon(itude* the /er/etual motion* the
universal medi,ine* and many other (reat inventions* brou(ht to the
utmost /erfe,tion&
9What wonderful dis,overies should we ma.e in astronomy* by
outlivin( and ,onfirmin( our own /redi,tions- by observin( the
/ro(ress and return of ,omets* with the ,han(es of motion in the
sun* moon* and starsL9
" enlar(ed u/on many other to/i,s* whi,h the natural desire of
endless life* and sublunary ha//iness* ,ould easily furnish me
with& When " had ended* and the sum of my dis,ourse had been
inter/reted* as before* to the rest of the ,om/any* there was a
(ood deal of tal. amon( them in the lan(ua(e of the ,ountry* not
without some lau(hter at my e0/ense& $t last* the same (entleman
who had been my inter/reter* said* 9he was desired by the rest to
set me ri(ht in a few* whi,h " had fallen into throu(h the
,ommon imbe,ility of human nature* and u/on that allowan,e was less
answerable for them& That this breed of struldbru(s was /e,uliar
to their ,ountry* for there were no su,h /eo/le either in
alnibarbi or Ja/an* where he had the honour to be ambassador from
his ma:esty* and found the natives in both those .in(doms very hard
to believe that the fa,t was /ossible< and it a//eared from my
astonishment when he first mentioned the matter to me* that "
re,eived it as a thin( wholly new* and s,ar,ely to be ,redited&
That in the two .in(doms above mentioned* where* durin( his
residen,e* he had ,onversed very mu,h* he observed lon( life to be
the universal desire and wish of man.ind& That whoever had one
foot in the (rave was sure to hold ba,. the other as stron(ly as he
,ould& That the oldest had still ho/es of livin( one day lon(er*
and loo.ed on death as the (reatest evil* from whi,h nature always
/rom/ted him to retreat& #nly in this island of !u((na(( the
a//etite for livin( was not so ea(er* from the ,ontinual e0am/le of
the struldbru(s before their eyes&
9That the system of livin( ,ontrived by me* was unreasonable and
un:ust- be,ause it su//osed a /er/etuity of youth* health* and
vi(our* whi,h no man ,ould be so foolish to ho/e* however
e0trava(ant he may be in his wishes& That the 1uestion therefore
was not* whether a man would ,hoose to be always in the /rime of
youth* attended with /ros/erity and health- but how he would /ass a
/er/etual life under all the usual disadvanta(es whi,h old a(e
brin(s alon( with it& 4or althou(h few men will avow their desires
of bein( immortal* u/on su,h hard ,onditions* yet in the two
.in(doms before mentioned* of alnibarbi and Ja/an* he observed
that every man desired to /ut off death some time lon(er* let it
a//roa,h ever so late< and he rarely heard of any man who died
willin(ly* e0,e/t he were in,ited by the e0tremity of (rief or
torture& $nd he a//ealed to me* whether in those ,ountries " had
travelled* as well as my own* " had not observed the same (eneral
$fter this /refa,e* he (ave me a /arti,ular a,,ount of the
struldbru(s amon( them& He said* 9they ,ommonly a,ted li.e mortals
till about thirty years old- after whi,h* by de(rees* they (rew
melan,holy and de:e,ted* in,reasin( in both till they ,ame to
fours,ore& This he learned from their own ,onfession< for
otherwise* there not bein( above two or three of that s/e,ies born
in an a(e* they were too few to form a (eneral observation by&
When they ,ame to fours,ore years* whi,h is re,.oned the e0tremity
of livin( in this ,ountry* they had not only all the follies and
infirmities of other old men* but many more whi,h arose from the
dreadful /ros/e,t of never dyin(& They were not only o/inionative*
/eevish* ,ovetous* morose* vain* tal.ative* but in,a/able of
friendshi/* and dead to all natural affe,tion* whi,h never
des,ended below their (rand,hildren& Envy and im/otent desires are
their /revailin( /assions& ut those ob:e,ts a(ainst whi,h their
envy seems /rin,i/ally dire,ted* are the vi,es of the youn(er sort
and the deaths of the old& y refle,tin( on the former* they find
themselves ,ut off from all /ossibility of /leasure- and whenever
they see a funeral* they lament and re/ine that others have (one to
a harbour of rest to whi,h they themselves never ,an ho/e to
arrive& They have no remembran,e of anythin( but what they learned
and observed in their youth and middleAa(e* and even that is very
im/erfe,t- and for the truth or /arti,ulars of any fa,t* it is
safer to de/end on ,ommon tradition* than u/on their best
re,olle,tions& The least miserable amon( them a//ear to be those
who turn to dota(e* and entirely lose their memories- these meet
with more /ity and assistan,e* be,ause they want many bad 1ualities
whi,h abound in others&
9"f a struldbru( ha//en to marry one of his own .ind* the marria(e
is dissolved of ,ourse* by the ,ourtesy of the .in(dom* as soon as
the youn(er of the two ,omes to be fours,ore- for the law thin.s it
a reasonable indul(en,e* that those who are ,ondemned* without any
fault of their own* to a /er/etual ,ontinuan,e in the world* should
not have their misery doubled by the load of a wife&
9$s soon as they have ,om/leted the term of ei(hty years* they are
loo.ed on as dead in law- their heirs immediately su,,eed to their
estates- only a small /ittan,e is reserved for their su//ort- and
the /oor ones are maintained at the /ubli, ,har(e& $fter that
/eriod* they are held in,a/able of any em/loyment of trust or
/rofit- they ,annot /ur,hase lands* or ta.e leases- neither are
they allowed to be witnesses in any ,ause* either ,ivil or
,riminal* not even for the de,ision of meers and bounds&
9$t ninety* they lose their teeth and hair- they have at that a(e
no distin,tion of taste* but eat and drin. whatever they ,an (et*
without relish or a//etite& The diseases they were sub:e,t to
still ,ontinue* without in,reasin( or diminishin(& "n*
they for(et the ,ommon a//ellation of thin(s* and the names of
/ersons* even of those who are their nearest friends and relations&
4or the same reason* they never ,an amuse themselves with readin(*
be,ause their memory will not serve to ,arry them from the
be(innin( of a senten,e to the end- and by this defe,t* they are
de/rived of the only entertainment whereof they mi(ht otherwise be
The lan(ua(e of this ,ountry bein( always u/on the flu0* the
struldbru(s of one a(e do not understand those of another- neither
are they able* after two hundred years* to hold any ,onversation
=farther than by a few (eneral words> with their nei(hbours the
mortals- and thus they lie under the disadvanta(e of livin( li.e
forei(ners in their own ,ountry&9
This was the a,,ount (iven me of the struldbru(s* as near as " ,an
remember& " afterwards saw five or si0 of different a(es* the
youn(est not above two hundred years old* who were brou(ht to me at
several times by some of my friends- but althou(h they were told*
9that " was a (reat traveller* and had seen all the world*9 they
had not the least ,uriosity to as. me a 1uestion- only desired 9"
would (ive them slums.udas.*9 or a to.en of remembran,e- whi,h is a
modest way of be((in(* to avoid the law* that stri,tly forbids it*
be,ause they are /rovided for by the /ubli,* althou(h indeed with a
very s,anty allowan,e&
They are des/ised and hated by all sorts of /eo/le& When one of
them is born* it is re,.oned ominous* and their birth is re,orded
very /arti,ularly so that you may .now their a(e by ,onsultin( the
re(ister* whi,h* however* has not been .e/t above a thousand years
/ast* or at least has been destroyed by time or /ubli,
disturban,es& ut the usual way of ,om/utin( how old they are* is
by them what .in(s or (reat /ersons they ,an remember* and
then ,onsultin( history- for infallibly the last /rin,e in their
mind did not be(in his rei(n after they were fours,ore years old&
They were the most mortifyin( si(ht " ever beheld- and the women
more horrible than the men& esides the usual deformities in
e0treme old a(e* they a,1uired an additional (hastliness* in
/ro/ortion to their number of years* whi,h is not to be des,ribed-
and amon( half a do@en* " soon distin(uished whi,h was the eldest*
althou(h there was not above a ,entury or two between them&
The reader will easily believe* that from what " had hear and seen*
my .een a//etite for /er/etuity of life was mu,h abated& " (rew
heartily ashamed of the /leasin( visions " had formed- and thou(ht
no tyrant ,ould invent a death into whi,h " would not run with
/leasure* from su,h a life& The .in( heard of all that had /assed
between me and my friends u/on this o,,asion* and rallied me very
/leasantly- wishin( " ,ould send a ,ou/le of struldbru(s to my own
,ountry* to arm our /eo/le a(ainst the fear of death- but this* it
seems* is forbidden by the fundamental laws of the .in(dom* or else
" should have been well ,ontent with the trouble and e0/ense of
trans/ortin( them&
" ,ould not but a(ree* that the laws of this .in(dom relative to
the struldbru(s were founded u/on the stron(est reasons* and su,h
as any other ,ountry would be under the ne,essity of ena,tin(* in
the li.e ,ir,umstan,es& #therwise* as avari,e is the ne,essary
,onse1uen,e of old a(e* those immortals would in time be,ome
/ro/rietors of the whole nation* and en(ross the ,ivil /ower*
whi,h* for want of abilities to mana(e* must end in the ruin of the
'The author leaves !u((na((* and sails to Ja/an& 4rom then,e he
returns in a %ut,h shi/ to $msterdam* and from $msterdam to
" thou(ht this a,,ount of the struldbru(s mi(ht be some
entertainment to the reader* be,ause it seems to be a little out of
the ,ommon way- at least " do not remember to have met the li.e in
any boo. of travels that has ,ome to my hands< and if " am
de,eived* my e0,use must be* that it is ne,essary for travellers
who des,ribe the same ,ountry* very often to a(ree in dwellin( on
the same /arti,ulars* without deservin( the ,ensure of havin(
borrowed or trans,ribed from those who wrote before them&
There is indeed a /er/etual ,ommer,e between this .in(dom and the
(reat em/ire of Ja/an- and it is very /robable* that the Ja/anese
authors may have (iven some a,,ount of the struldbru(s- but my stay
in Ja/an was so short* and " was so entirely a stran(er to the
lan(ua(e* that " was not 1ualified to ma.e any in1uiries& ut "
ho/e the %ut,h* u/on this noti,e* will be ,urious and able enou(h
to su//ly my defe,ts&
His ma:esty havin( often /ressed me to a,,e/t some em/loyment in
his ,ourt* and findin( me absolutely determined to return to my
native ,ountry* was /leased to (ive me his li,ense to de/art- and
honoured me with a letter of re,ommendation* under his own hand* to
the Em/eror of Ja/an& He li.ewise /resented me with four hundred
and fortyAfour lar(e /ie,es of (old =this nation deli(htin( in even
numbers>* and a red diamond* whi,h " sold in En(land for eleven
hundred /ounds&
#n the Cth of +ay* 67FD* " too. a solemn leave of his ma:esty* and
all my friends& This /rin,e was so (ra,ious as to order a (uard to
,ondu,t me to Glan(uenstald* whi,h is a royal /ort to the southA
west /art of the island& "n si0 days " found a vessel ready to
,arry me to Ja/an* and s/ent fifteen days in the voya(e& We landed
at a small /ortAtown ,alled Mamos,hi* situated on the southAeast
/art of Ja/an- the town lies on the western /oint* where there is a
narrow strait leadin( northward into alon( arm of the sea* u/on the
northAwest /art of whi,h* 3edo* the metro/olis* stands& $t
landin(* " showed the ,ustomAhouse offi,ers my letter from
he .in(
of !u((na(( to his im/erial ma:esty& They .new the seal /erfe,tly
well- it was as broad as the /alm of my hand& The im/ression was*
$ J"NG !"4T"NG UP $ !$+E EGG$R 4R#+ THE E$RTH& The ma(istrates of
the town* hearin( of my letter* re,eived me as a /ubli, minister&
They /rovided me with ,arria(es and servants* and bore my ,har(es
to 3edo- where " was admitted to an audien,e* and delivered my
letter* whi,h was o/ened with (reat ,eremony* and e0/lained to the
Em/eror by an inter/reter* who then (ave me noti,e* by his
ma:esty's order* 9that " should si(nify my re1uest* and* whatever
it were* it should be (ranted* for the sa.e of his royal brother of
!u((na((&9 This inter/reter was a /erson em/loyed to transa,t
affairs with the Hollanders& He soon ,on:e,tured* by my
,ountenan,e* that " was a Euro/ean* and therefore re/eated his
ma:esty's ,ommands in !ow %ut,h* whi,h he s/o.e /erfe,tly well& "
answered* as " had before determined* 9that " was a %ut,h mer,hant*
shi/wre,.ed in a very remote ,ountry* when,e " had travelled by sea
and land to !u((na((* and then too. shi//in( for Ja/an- where "
.new my ,ountrymen often traded* and with some of these " ho/ed to
(et an o//ortunity of returnin( into Euro/e< " therefore most
humbly entreated his royal favour* to (ive order that " should be
,ondu,ted in safety to Nan(asa,&9 To this " added another
/etition* 9that for the sa.e of my /atron the .in( of !u((na((* his
ma:esty would ,ondes,end to e0,use my /erformin( the ,eremony
im/osed on my ,ountrymen* of tram/lin( u/on the ,ru,ifi0< be,ause
" had been thrown into his .in(dom by my misfortunes* without any
intention of tradin(&9 When this latter /etition was inter/reted
to the Em/eror* he seemed a little sur/rised- and said* 9he
believed " was the first of my ,ountrymen who ever made any s,ru/le
in this /oint- and that he be(an to doubt* whether " was a real
Hollander* or not- but rather sus/e,ted " must be a 2hristian&
However* for the reasons " had offered* but ,hiefly to (ratify the
.in( of !u((na(( by an un,ommon mar. of his favour* he would ,om/ly
with the sin(ularity of my humour- but the affair must be mana(ed
with de0terity* and his offi,ers should be ,ommanded to let me
/ass* as it were by for(etfulness& 4or he assured me* that if the
se,ret should be dis,overed by my ,ountrymen the %ut,h* they would
,ut my throat in the voya(e&9 " returned my than.s* by the
inter/reter* for so unusual a favour- and some troo/s bein( at that
time on their mar,h to Nan(asa,* the ,ommandin( offi,er had orders
to ,onvey me safe thither* with /arti,ular instru,tions about the
business of the ,ru,ifi0&
#n the Dth day of June* 67FD* " arrived at Nan(asa,* after a very
lon( and troublesome :ourney& " soon fell into the ,om/any of some
%ut,h sailors belon(in( to the $mboyna* of $msterdam* a stout shi/
of BGF tons& " had lived lon( in Holland* /ursuin( my studies at
!eyden* and " s/o.e %ut,h well& The seamen soon .new when,e " ,ame
last< they were ,urious to in1uire into my voya(es and ,ourse of
life& " made u/ a story as short and /robable as " ,ould* but
,on,ealed the (reatest /art& " .new many /ersons in Holland& "
was able to invent names for my /arents* whom " /retended to be
obs,ure /eo/le in the /rovin,e of Gelderland& " would have (iven
the ,a/tain =one Theodorus 5an(rult> what he /leased to as. for my
voya(e to Holland- but understandin( " was a sur(eon* he was
,ontented to ta.e half the usual rate* on ,ondition that " would
serve him in the way of my ,allin(& efore we too. shi//in(* " was
often as.ed by some of the ,rew* whether " had /erformed the
,eremony above mentioned? " evaded the 1uestion by (eneral
answers- 9that " had satisfied the Em/eror and ,ourt in all
/arti,ulars&9 However* a mali,ious ro(ue of a s.i//er went to an
offi,er* and /ointin( to me* told him* 9" had not yet tram/led on
the ,ru,ifi0-9 but the other* who had re,eived instru,tions to let
me /ass* (ave the ras,al twenty on the shoulders with a
bamboo- after whi,h " was no more troubled with su,h 1uestions&
Nothin( ha//ened worth mentionin( in this voya(e& We sailed with a
fair wind to the 2a/e of Good Ho/e* where we staid only to ta.e in
fresh water& #n the 6Fth of $/ril* 676F* we arrived safe at
$msterdam* havin( lost only three men by si,.ness in the voya(e*
and a fourth* who fell from the foremast into the sea* not far from
the ,oast of Guinea& 4rom $msterdam " soon after set sail for
En(land* in a small vessel belon(in( to that ,ity&
#n the 6Cth of $/ril we /ut in at the %owns& " landed ne0t
mornin(* and saw on,e more my native ,ountry* after an absen,e of
five years and si0 months ,om/lete& " went strai(ht to Redriff*
where " arrived the same day at two in the afternoon* and found my
wife and family in (ood health&
P$RT "5AA$ 5#3$GE T# THE 2#UNTR3 #4 THE H#U3HNHN+S&
2H$PTER "&
'The author sets out as ,a/tain of a shi/& His men ,ons/ire
a(ainst him* ,onfine him a lon( time to his ,abin* and set him on
shore in an un.nown land& He travels u/ into the ,ountry& The
3ahoos* a stran(e sort of animal* des,ribed& The author meets two
" ,ontinued at home with my wife and ,hildren about five months* in
a very ha//y ,ondition* if " ,ould have learned the lesson of
.nowin( when " was well& " left my /oor wife bi( with ,hild* and
a,,e/ted an advanta(eous offer made me to be ,a/tain of the
$dventurer* a stout mer,hantman of EGF tons< for " understood
navi(ation well* and bein( (rown weary of a sur(eon's em/loyment at
sea* whi,h* however* " ,ould e0er,ise u/on o,,asion* " too. a
s.ilful youn( man of that ,allin(* one Robert Purefoy* into my
shi/& We set sail from Portsmouth u/on the 7th day of Se/tember*
676F- on the 6Bth we met with 2a/tain Po,o,.* of ristol* at
Teneriffe* who was (oin( to the bay of 2am/e,hy to ,ut lo(wood& #n
the 6Cth* he was /arted from us by a storm- " heard sin,e my
return* that his shi/ foundered* and none es,a/ed but one ,abin
boy& He was an honest man* and a (ood sailor* but a little too
/ositive in his own o/inions* whi,h was the ,ause of his
destru,tion* as it has been with several others- for if he had
followed my advi,e* he mi(ht have been safe at home with his family
at this time* as well as myself&
" had several men who died in my shi/ of ,alentures* so that " was
for,ed to (et re,ruits out of arbadoes and the !eeward "slands*
where " tou,hed* by the dire,tion of the mer,hants who em/loyed me-
whi,h " had soon too mu,h ,ause to re/ent< for " found afterwards*
that most of them had been bu,,aneers& " had fifty hands onboard-
and my orders were* that " should trade with the "ndians in the
SouthASea* and ma.e what dis,overies " ,ould& These ro(ues* whom "
had /i,.ed u/* debau,hed my other men* and they all formed a
,ons/ira,y to sei@e the shi/* and se,ure me- whi,h they did one
mornin(* rushin( into my ,abin* and bindin( me hand and foot*
threatenin( to throw me overboard* if " offered to stir& " told
them* 9" was their /risoner* and would submit&9 This they made me
swear to do* and then they unbound me* only fastenin( one of my
le(s with a ,hain* near my bed* and /la,ed a sentry at my door with
his /ie,e ,har(ed* who was ,ommanded to shoot me dead if "
attem/ted my liberty& They sent me own vi,tuals and drin.* and
too. the (overnment of the shi/ to themselves& Their desi(n was to
turn /irates and* /lunder the S/aniards* whi,h they ,ould not do
till they (ot more men& ut first they resolved to sell the (oods
the shi/* and then (o to +ada(as,ar for re,ruits* several amon(
them havin( died sin,e my ,onfinement& They sailed many wee.s* and
traded with the "ndians- but " .new not what ,ourse they too.*
bein( .e/t a ,lose /risoner in my ,abin* and e0/e,tin( nothin( less
than to be murdered* as they often threatened me&
U/on the Dth day of +ay* 6766* one James Wel,h ,ame down to my
,abin* and said* 9he had orders from the ,a/tain to set me ashore&9
" e0/ostulated with him* but in vain- neither would he so mu,h as
tell me who their new ,a/tain was& They for,ed me into the lon(A
boat* lettin( me /ut on my best suit of ,lothes* whi,h were as (ood
as new* and ta.e a small bundle of linen* but no arms* e0,e/t my
han(er- and they were so ,ivil as not to sear,h my /o,.ets* into
whi,h " ,onveyed what money " had* with some other little
ne,essaries& They rowed about a lea(ue* and then set me down on a
strand& " desired them to tell me what ,ountry it was& They all
swore* 9they .new no more than myself-9 but said* 9that the
,a/tain9 =as they ,alled him> 9was resolved* after they had sold
the ladin(* to (et rid of me in the first /la,e where they ,ould
dis,over land&9 They /ushed off immediately* advisin( me to ma.e
haste for fear of bein( overta.en by the tide* and so bade me
"n this desolate ,ondition " advan,ed forward* and soon (ot u/on
firm (round* where " sat down on a ban. to rest myself* and
,onsider what " had best do& When " was a little refreshed* " went
u/ into the ,ountry* resolvin( to deliver myself to the first
sava(es " should meet* and /ur,hase my life from them by some
bra,elets* (lass rin(s* and other toys* whi,h sailors usually
/rovide themselves with in those voya(es* and whereof " had some
about me& The land was divided by lon( rows of trees* not
re(ularly /lanted* but naturally (rowin(- there was (reat /lenty of
(rass* and several fields of oats& " wal.ed very ,ir,ums/e,tly*
for fear of bein( sur/rised* or suddenly shot with an arrow from
behind* or on either side& " fell into a beaten road* where " saw
many tra,ts of human feet* and some of ,ows* but most of horses&
$t last " beheld several animals in a field* and one or two of the
same .ind sittin( in trees& Their sha/e was very sin(ular and
deformed* whi,h a little dis,om/osed me* so that " lay down behind
a thi,.et to observe them better& Some of them ,omin( forward near
the /la,e where " lay* (ave me an o//ortunity of distin,tly
their form& Their heads and breasts were ,overed with a thi,.
hair* some fri@@led* and others lan.- they had beards li.e (oats*
and a lon( rid(e of hair down their ba,.s* and the fore /arts of
their le(s and feet- but the rest of their bodies was bare* so that
" mi(ht see their s.ins* whi,h were of a brown buff ,olour& They
had no tails* nor any hair at all on their butto,.s* e0,e/t about
the anus* whi,h* " /resume* nature had /la,ed there to defend them
as they sat on the (round* for this /osture they used* as well as
lyin( down* and often stood on their hind feet& They ,limbed hi(h
trees as nimbly as a s1uirrel* for they had stron( e0tended ,laws
before and behind* terminatin( in shar/ /oints* and hoo.ed& They
would often s/rin(* and bound* and lea/* with /rodi(ious a(ility&
The females were not so lar(e as the males- they had lon( lan. hair
on their heads* but none on their fa,es* nor any thin( more than a
sort of down on the rest of their bodies* e0,e/t about the anus and
/udenda& The du(s hun( between their fore feet* and often rea,hed
almost to the (round as they wal.ed& The hair of both se0es was of
several ,olours* brown* red* bla,.* and yellow& U/on the whole* "
never beheld* in all my travels* so disa(reeable an animal* or one
a(ainst whi,h " naturally ,on,eived so stron( an anti/athy& So
that* " had seen enou(h* full of ,ontem/t and aversion* "
(ot u/* and /ursued the beaten road* ho/in( it mi(ht dire,t me to
the ,abin of some "ndian& " had not (ot far* when " met one of
these ,reatures full in my way* and ,omin( u/ dire,tly to me& The
u(ly monster* when he saw me* distorted several ways* every feature
of his visa(e* and stared* as at an ob:e,t he had never seen
before- then a//roa,hin( nearer* lifted u/ his foreA/aw* whether
out of ,uriosity or mis,hief " ,ould not tell- but " drew my
han(er* and (ave him a (ood blow with the flat side of it* for "
durst not stri.e with the ed(e* fearin( the inhabitants mi(ht be
/rovo.ed a(ainst me* if they should ,ome to .now that " had .illed
or maimed any of their ,attle& When the beast felt the smart* he
drew ba,.* and roared so loud* that a herd of at least forty ,ame
flo,.in( about me from the ne0t field* howlin( and odious
fa,es- but " ran to the body of a tree* and leanin( my ba,. a(ainst
it* .e/t them off by wavin( my han(er& Several of this ,ursed
brood* (ettin( hold of the bran,hes behind* lea/ed u/ into the
tree* when,e they be(an to dis,har(e their e0,rements on my head-
however* " es,a/ed /retty well by sti,.in( ,lose to the stem of the
tree* but was almost stifled with the filth* whi,h fell about me on
every side&
"n the midst of this distress* " observed them all to run away on a
sudden as fast as they ,ould- at whi,h " ventured to leave the tree
and /ursue the road* wonderin( what it was that ,ould /ut them into
this fri(ht& ut on my left hand* " saw a horse
softly in the field- whi,h my /erse,utors havin( sooner dis,overed*
was the ,ause of their fli(ht& The horse started a little* when he
,ame near me* but soon re,overin( himself* loo.ed full in my fa,e
with manifest to.ens of wonder- he viewed my hands and feet* round me several times& " would have /ursued my :ourney*
but he /la,ed himself dire,tly in the way* yet with a very
mild as/e,t* never offerin( the least violen,e& We stood (a@in( at
ea,h other for some time- at last " too. the boldness to rea,h my
hand towards his ne,. with a desi(n to stro.e it* usin( the ,ommon
style and whistle of :o,.eys* when they are (oin( to handle a
stran(e horse& ut this animal seemed to re,eive my ,ivilities
with disdain* shoo. his head* and bent his brows* softly raisin( u/
his ri(ht foreAfoot to remove my hand& Then he nei(hed three or
four times* but in so different a ,aden,e* that " almost be(an to
thin. he was s/ to himself* in some lan(ua(e of his own&
While he and " were thus em/loyed* another horse ,ame u/- who
a//lyin( himself to the first in a very formal manner* they (ently
stru,. ea,h other's ri(ht hoof before* nei(hin( several times by
turns* and varyin( the sound* whi,h seemed to be almost arti,ulate&
They went some /a,es off* as if it were to ,onfer to(ether*
side by side* ba,.ward and forward* li.e /ersons deliberatin( u/on
some affair of wei(ht* but often turnin( their eyes towards me* as
it were to wat,h that " mi(ht not es,a/e& " was ama@ed to see su,h
a,tions and behaviour in brute beasts- and ,on,luded with myself*
that if the inhabitants of this ,ountry were endued with a
/ro/ortionable de(ree of reason* they must needs be the wisest
/eo/le u/on earth& This thou(ht (ave me so mu,h ,omfort* that "
resolved to (o forward* until " ,ould dis,over some house or
villa(e* or meet with any of the natives* leavin( the two horses to
dis,ourse to(ether as they /leased& ut the first* who was a
da//le (ray* observin( me to steal off* nei(hed after me in so
e0/ressive a tone* that " fan,ied myself to understand what he
meant- whereu/on " turned ba,.* and ,ame near to him to e0/e,t his
farther ,ommands< but ,on,ealin( my fear as mu,h as " ,ould* for "
be(an to be in some /ain how this adventure mi(ht terminate- and
the reader will easily believe " did not mu,h li.e my /resent
The two horses ,ame u/ ,lose to me* with (reat earnestness
u/on my fa,e and hands& The (ray steed rubbed my hat all round
with his ri(ht foreAhoof* and dis,om/osed it so mu,h that " was
for,ed to ad:ust it better by it off and settlin( it a(ain-
whereat* both he and his ,om/anion =who was a brown bay> a//eared
to be mu,h sur/rised< the latter felt the la//et of my ,oat* and
findin( it to han( loose about me* they both loo.ed with new si(ns
of wonder& He stro.ed my ri(ht hand* seemin( to admire the
softness and ,olour- but he s1uee@ed it so hard between his hoof
and his /astern* that " was for,ed to roar- after whi,h they both
tou,hed me with all /ossible tenderness& They were under (reat
/er/le0ity about my shoes and sto,.in(s* whi,h they felt very
often* nei(hin( to ea,h other* and usin( various (estures* not
unli.e those of a /hiloso/her* when he would attem/t to solve some
new and diffi,ult /henomenon&
U/on the whole* the behaviour of these animals was so orderly and
rational* so a,ute and :udi,ious* that " at last ,on,luded they
must needs be ma(i,ians* who had thus metamor/hosed themselves u/on
some desi(n* and seein( a stran(er in the way* resolved to divert
themselves with him- or* /erha/s* were really ama@ed at the si(ht
of a man so very different in habit* feature* and ,om/le0ion* from
those who mi(ht /robably live in so remote a ,limate& U/on the
stren(th of this reasonin(* " ventured to address them in the
followin( manner< 9Gentlemen* if you be ,on:urers* as " have (ood
,ause to believe* you ,an understand my lan(ua(e- therefore " ma.e
bold to let your worshi/s .now that " am a /oor distressed
En(lishman* driven by his misfortunes u/on your ,oast- and "
entreat one of you to let me ride u/on his ba,.* as if he were a
real horse* to some house or villa(e where " ,an be relieved& "n
return of whi,h favour* " will ma.e you a /resent of this .nife and
bra,elet*9 them out of my /o,.et& The two ,reatures stood
silent while " s/o.e* seemin( to listen with (reat attention* and
when " had ended* they nei(hed fre1uently towards ea,h other* as if
they were en(a(ed in serious ,onversation& " /lainly observed that
their lan(ua(e e0/ressed the /assions very well* and the words
mi(ht* with little /ains* be resolved into an al/habet more easily
than the 2hinese&
" ,ould fre1uently distin(uish the word 3ahoo* whi,h was re/eated
by ea,h of them several times< and althou(h it was im/ossible for
me to ,on:e,ture what it meant* yet while the two horses were busy
in ,onversation* " endeavoured to /ra,tise this word u/on my
ton(ue- and as soon as they were silent* " boldly /ronoun,ed 3ahoo
in a loud voi,e* imitatin( at the same time* as near as " ,ould*
the nei(hin( of a horse- at whi,h they were both visibly sur/rised-
and the (ray re/eated the same word twi,e* as if he meant to tea,h
me the ri(ht a,,ent- wherein " s/o.e after him as well as " ,ould*
and found myself /er,eivably to im/rove every time* thou(h very far
from any de(ree of /erfe,tion& Then the bay tried me with a se,ond
word* mu,h harder to be /ronoun,ed- but redu,in( it to the En(lish
ortho(ra/hy* may be s/elt thus* Houyhnhnm& " did not su,,eed in
this so well as in the former- but after two or three farther
trials* " had better fortune- and they both a//eared ama@ed at my
$fter some further dis,ourse* whi,h " then ,on:e,tured mi(ht relate
to me* the two friends too. their leaves* with the same ,om/liment
of ea,h other's hoof- and the (ray made me si(ns that "
should wal. before him- wherein " thou(ht it /rudent to ,om/ly*
till " ,ould find a better dire,tor& When " offered to sla,.en my
/a,e* he would ,ry hhuun hhuun< " (uessed his meanin(* and (ave
him to understand* as well as " ,ould* 9that " was weary* and not
able to wal. faster-9 u/on whi,h he would stand awhile to let me
2H$PTER ""&
'The author ,ondu,ted by a Houyhnhnm to his house& The house
des,ribed& The author's re,e/tion& The food of the Houyhnhnms&
The author in distress for want of meat& "s at last relieved& His
manner of feedin( in this ,ountry&)
Havin( travelled about three miles* we ,ame to a lon( .ind of
buildin(* made of timber stu,. in the (round* and wattled a,ross-
the roof was low and ,overed with straw& " now be(an to be a
little ,omforted- and too. out some toys* whi,h travellers usually
,arry for /resents to the sava(e "ndians of $meri,a* and other
/arts* in ho/es the /eo/le of the house would be thereby en,oura(ed
to re,eive me .indly& The horse made me a si(n to (o in first- it
was a lar(e room with a smooth ,lay floor* and a ra,. and man(er*
e0tendin( the whole len(th on one side& There were three na(s and
two mares* not eatin(* but some of them sittin( down u/on their
hams* whi,h " very mu,h wondered at- but wondered more to see the
rest em/loyed in domesti, business- these seemed but ordinary
,attle& However* this ,onfirmed my first o/inion* that a /eo/le
who ,ould so far ,ivilise brute animals* must needs e0,el in wisdom
all the nations of the world& The (ray ,ame in :ust after* and
thereby /revented any ill treatment whi,h the others mi(ht have
(iven me& He nei(hed to them several times in a style of
authority* and re,eived answers&
eyond this room there were three others* rea,hin( the len(th of
the house* to whi,h you /assed throu(h three doors* o//osite to
ea,h other* in the manner of a vista& We went throu(h the se,ond
room towards the third& Here the (ray wal.ed in first* be,.onin(
me to attend< " waited in the se,ond room* and (ot ready my
/resents for the master and mistress of the house- they were two
.nives* three bra,elets of false /earls* a small* and
a bead ne,.la,e& The horse nei(hed three or four times* and "
waited to hear some answers in a human voi,e* but " heard no other
returns than in the same diale,t* only one or two a little shriller
than his& " be(an to thin. that this house must belon( to some
/erson of (reat note amon( them* be,ause there a//eared so mu,h
,eremony before " ,ould (ain admittan,e& ut* that a man of
1uality should be served all by horses* was beyond my
,om/rehension& " feared my brain was disturbed by my sufferin(s
and misfortunes& " roused myself* and loo.ed about me in the room
where " was left alone< this was furnished li.e the first* only
after a more ele(ant manner& " rubbed my eyes often* but the same
ob:e,ts still o,,urred& " /in,hed my arms and sides to awa.e
myself* ho/in( " mi(ht be in a dream& " then absolutely ,on,luded*
that all these a//earan,es ,ould be nothin( else but ne,roman,y and
ma(i,& ut " had no time to /ursue these refle,tions- for the (ray
horse ,ame to the door* and made me a si(n to follow him into the
third room where " saw a very ,omely mare* to(ether with a ,olt and
foal* sittin( on their haun,hes u/on mats of straw* not unartfully
made* and /erfe,tly neat and ,lean&
The mare soon after my entran,e rose from her mat* and ,omin( u/
,lose* after havin( ni,ely observed my hands and fa,e* (ave me a
most ,ontem/tuous loo.- and turnin( to the horse* " heard the word
3ahoo often re/eated betwi0t them- the meanin( of whi,h word "
,ould not then ,om/rehend* althou(h it was the first " had learned
to /ronoun,e& ut " was soon better informed* to my everlastin(
mortifi,ation- for the horse* be,.onin( to me with his head* and
re/eatin( the hhuun* hhuun* as he did u/on the road* whi,h "
understood was to attend him* led me out into a .ind of ,ourt*
where was another buildin(* at some distan,e from the house& Here
we entered* and " saw three of those detestable ,reatures* whi,h "
first met after my landin(* feedin( u/on roots* and the flesh of
some animals* whi,h " afterwards found to be that of asses and
do(s* and now and then a ,ow* dead by a,,ident or disease& They
were all tied by the ne,. with stron( withes fastened to a beam-
they held their food between the ,laws of their fore feet* and tore
it with their teeth&
The master horse ordered a sorrel na(* one of his servants* to
untie the lar(est of these animals* and ta.e him into the yard&
The beast and " were brou(ht ,lose to(ether* and by our
,ountenan,es dili(ently ,om/ared both by master and servant* who
thereu/on re/eated several times the word 3ahoo& +y horror and
astonishment are not to be des,ribed* when " observed in this
abominable animal* a /erfe,t human fi(ure< the fa,e of it indeed
was flat and broad* the nose de/ressed* the li/s lar(e* and the
mouth wide- but these differen,es are ,ommon to all sava(e nations*
where the lineaments of the ,ountenan,e are distorted* by the
natives sufferin( their infants to lie (rovellin( on the earth* or
by ,arryin( them on their ba,.s* nu@@lin( with their fa,e a(ainst
the mothers' shoulders& The foreAfeet of the 3ahoo differed from
my hands in nothin( else but the len(th of the nails* the
,oarseness and brownness of the /alms* and the hairiness on the
ba,.s& There was the same resemblan,e between our feet* with the
same differen,es- whi,h " .new very well* thou(h the horses did
not* be,ause of my shoes and sto,.in(s- the same in every /art of
our bodies e0,e/t as to hairiness and ,olour* whi,h " have already
The (reat diffi,ulty that seemed to sti,. with the two horses* was
to see the rest of my body so very different from that of a 3ahoo*
for whi,h " was obli(ed to my ,lothes* whereof they had no
,on,e/tion& The sorrel na( offered me a root* whi,h he held =after
their manner* as we shall des,ribe in its /ro/er /la,e> between his
hoof and /astern- " too. it in my hand* and* havin( smelt it*
returned it to him a(ain as ,ivilly as " ,ould& He brou(ht out of
the 3ahoos' .ennel a /ie,e of ass's flesh- but it smelt so
offensively that " turned from it with loathin(< he then threw it
to the 3ahoo* by whom it was (reedily devoured& He afterwards
showed me a wis/ of hay* and a fetlo,. full of oats- but " shoo. my
head* to si(nify that neither of these were food for me& $nd
indeed " now a//rehended that " must absolutely starve* if " did
not (et to some of my own s/e,ies- for as to those filthy 3ahoos*
althou(h there were few (reater lovers of man.ind at that time than
myself* yet " ,onfess " never saw any sensitive bein( so detestable
on all a,,ounts- and the more " ,ame near them the more hateful
they (rew* while " stayed in that ,ountry& This the master horse
observed by my behaviour* and therefore sent the 3ahoo ba,. to his
.ennel& He then /ut his foreAhoof to his mouth* at whi,h " was
mu,h sur/rised* althou(h he did it with ease* and with a motion
that a//eared /erfe,tly natural* and made other si(ns* to .now what
" would eat- but " ,ould not return him su,h an answer as he was
able to a//rehend- and if he had understood me* " did not see how
it was /ossible to ,ontrive any way for findin( myself nourishment&
While we were thus en(a(ed* " observed a ,ow /assin( by* whereu/on
" /ointed to her* and e0/ressed a desire to (o and mil. her& This
had its effe,t- for he led me ba,. into the house* and ordered a
mareAservant to o/en a room* where a (ood store of mil. lay in
earthen and wooden vessels* after a very orderly and ,leanly
manner& She (ave me a lar(e bowlful* of whi,h " dran. very
heartily* and found myself well refreshed&
$bout noon* " saw ,omin( towards the house a .ind of vehi,le drawn
li.e a sled(e by four 3ahoos& There was in it an old steed* who
seemed to be of 1uality- he ali(hted with his hindAfeet forward*
havin( by a,,ident (ot a hurt in his left foreAfoot& He ,ame to
dine with our horse* who re,eived him with (reat ,ivility& They
dined in the best room* and had oats boiled in mil. for the se,ond
,ourse* whi,h the old horse ate warm* but the rest ,old& Their
man(ers were /la,ed ,ir,ular in the middle of the room* and divided
into several /artitions* round whi,h they sat on their haun,hes*
u/on bosses of straw& "n the middle was a lar(e ra,.* with an(les
answerin( to every /artition of the man(er- so that ea,h horse and
mare ate their own hay* and their own mash of oats and mil.* with
mu,h de,en,y and re(ularity& The behaviour of the youn( ,olt and
foal a//eared very modest* and that of the master and mistress
e0tremely ,heerful and ,om/laisant to their (uest& The (ray
ordered me to stand by him- and mu,h dis,ourse /assed between him
and his friend ,on,ernin( me* as " found by the stran(er's often on me* and the fre1uent re/etition of the word 3ahoo&
" ha//ened to wear my (loves* whi,h the master (ray observin(*
seemed /er/le0ed* dis,overin( si(ns of wonder what " had done to my
foreAfeet& He /ut his hoof three or four times to them* as if he
would si(nify* that " should redu,e them to their former sha/e*
whi,h " /resently did* /ullin( off both my (loves* and /uttin( them
into my /o,.et& This o,,asioned farther tal.- and " saw the
,om/any was /leased with my behaviour* whereof " soon found the
(ood effe,ts& " was ordered to s/ea. the few words " understood-
and while they were at dinner* the master tau(ht me the names for
oats* mil.* fire* water* and some others* whi,h " ,ould readily
/ronoun,e after him* havin( from my youth a (reat fa,ility in
learnin( lan(ua(es&
When dinner was done* the master horse too. me aside* and by si(ns
and words made me understand the ,on,ern he was in that " had
nothin( to eat& #ats in their ton(ue are ,alled hlunnh& This word
" /ronoun,ed two or three times- for althou(h " had refused them at
first* yet* u/on se,ond thou(hts* " ,onsidered that " ,ould
,ontrive to ma.e of them a .ind of bread* whi,h mi(ht be
suffi,ient* with mil.* to .ee/ me alive* till " ,ould ma.e my
es,a/e to some other ,ountry* and to ,reatures of my own s/e,ies&
The horse immediately ordered a white mare servant of his family to
brin( me a (ood 1uantity of oats in a sort of wooden tray& These "
heated before the fire* as well as " ,ould* and rubbed them till
the hus.s ,ame off* whi,h " made a shift to winnow from the (rain&
" (round and beat them between two stones- then too. water* and
made them into a /aste or ,a.e* whi,h " toasted at the fire and eat
warm with mil.& "t was at first a very insi/id diet* thou(h ,ommon
enou(h in many /arts of Euro/e* but (rew tolerable by time- and
havin( been often redu,ed to hard fare in my life* this was not the
first e0/eriment " had made how easily nature is satisfied& $nd "
,annot but observe* that " never had one hours si,.ness while "
stayed in this island& "t is true* " sometimes made a shift to
,at,h a rabbit* or bird* by s/rin(s made of 3ahoo's hairs- and "
often (athered wholesome herbs* whi,h " boiled* and ate as salads
with my bread- and now and then* for a rarity* " made a little
butter* and dran. the whey& " was at first at a (reat loss for
salt* but ,ustom soon re,on,iled me to the want of it- and " am
,onfident that the fre1uent use of salt amon( us is an effe,t of
lu0ury* and was first introdu,ed only as a /rovo,ative to drin.*
e0,e/t where it is ne,essary for /reservin( flesh in lon( voya(es*
or in /la,es remote from (reat mar.ets- for we observe no animal to
be fond of it but man* and as to myself* when " left this ,ountry*
it was a (reat while before " ,ould endure the taste of it in
anythin( that " ate&
This is enou(h to say u/on the sub:e,t of my diet* wherewith other
travellers fill their boo.s* as if the readers were /ersonally
,on,erned whether we fare well or ill& However* it was ne,essary
to mention this matter* lest the world should thin. it im/ossible
that " ,ould find sustenan,e for three years in su,h a ,ountry* and
amon( su,h inhabitants&
When it (rew towards evenin(* the master horse ordered a /la,e for
me to lod(e in- it was but si0 yards from the house and se/arated
from the stable of the 3ahoos& Here " (ot some straw* and ,overin(
myself with my own ,lothes* sle/t very sound& ut " was in a short
time better a,,ommodated* as the reader shall .now hereafter* when
" ,ome to treat more /arti,ularly about my way of livin(&
2H$PTER """&
'The author studies to learn the lan(ua(e& The Houyhnhnm* his
master* assists in tea,hin( him& The lan(ua(e des,ribed& Several
Houyhnhnms of 1uality ,ome out of ,uriosity to see the author& He
(ives his master a short a,,ount of his voya(e&)
+y /rin,i/al endeavour was to learn the lan(ua(e* whi,h my master
=for so " shall hen,eforth ,all him>* and his ,hildren* and every
servant of his house* were desirous to tea,h me- for they loo.ed
u/on it as a /rodi(y* that a brute animal should dis,over su,h
mar.s of a rational ,reature& " /ointed to every thin(* and
in1uired the name of it* whi,h " wrote down in my :ournalAboo. when
" was alone* and ,orre,ted my bad a,,ent by desirin( those of the
family to /ronoun,e it often& "n this em/loyment* a sorrel na(*
one of the underAservants* was very ready to assist me&
"n s/* they /ronoun,ed throu(h the nose and throat* and their
lan(ua(e a//roa,hes nearest to the Hi(hA%ut,h* or German* of any "
.now in Euro/e- but is mu,h more (ra,eful and si(nifi,ant& The
em/eror 2harles 5& made almost the same observation* when he said
9that if he were to s/ea. to his horse* it should be in Hi(hA
The ,uriosity and im/atien,e of my master were so (reat* that he
s/ent many hours of his leisure to instru,t me& He was ,onvin,ed
=as he afterwards told me> that " must be a 3ahoo- but my
tea,hableness* ,ivility* and ,leanliness* astonished him- whi,h
were 1ualities alto(ether o//osite to those animals& He was most
/er/le0ed about my ,lothes* reasonin( sometimes with himself*
whether they were a /art of my body< for " never /ulled them off
till the family were aslee/* and (ot them on before they wa.ed in
the mornin(& +y master was ea(er to learn 9when,e " ,ame- how "
a,1uired those a//earan,es of reason* whi,h " dis,overed in all my
a,tions- and to .now my story from my own mouth* whi,h he ho/ed he
should soon do by the (reat /rofi,ien,y " made in learnin( and
/ronoun,in( their words and senten,es&9 To hel/ my memory* "
formed all " learned into the En(lish al/habet* and writ the words
down* with the translations& This last* after some time* "
ventured to do in my master's /resen,e& "t ,ost me mu,h trouble to
e0/lain to him what " was doin(- for the inhabitants have not the
least idea of boo.s or literature&
"n about ten wee.s time* " was able to understand most of his
1uestions- and in three months* ,ould (ive him some tolerable
answers& He was e0tremely ,urious to .now 9from what /art of the
,ountry " ,ame* and how " was tau(ht to imitate a rational
,reature- be,ause the 3ahoos =whom he saw " e0a,tly resembled in my
head* hands* and fa,e* that were only visible>* with some
a//earan,e of ,unnin(* and the stron(est dis/osition to mis,hief*
were observed to be the most untea,hable of all brutes&9 "
answered* 9that " ,ame over the sea* from a far /la,e* with many
others of my own .ind* in a (reat hollow vessel made of the bodies
of trees< that my ,om/anions for,ed me to land on this ,oast* and
then left me to shift for myself&9 "t was with some diffi,ulty*
and by the hel/ of many si(ns* that " brou(ht him to understand me&
He re/lied* 9that " must needs be mista.en* or that " said the
thin( whi,h was not-9 for they have no word in their lan(ua(e to
e0/ress lyin( or falsehood& 9He .new it was im/ossible that there
,ould be a ,ountry beyond the sea* or that a /ar,el of brutes ,ould
move a wooden vessel whither they /leased u/on water& He was sure
no Houyhnhnm alive ,ould ma.e su,h a vessel* nor would trust 3ahoos
to mana(e it&9
The word Houyhnhnm* in their ton(ue* si(nifies a H#RSE* and* in its
etymolo(y* the PER4E2T"#N #4 N$TURE& " told my master* 9that " was
at a loss for e0/ression* but would im/rove as fast as " ,ould- and
ho/ed* in a short time* " should be able to tell him wonders&9 He
was /leased to dire,t his own mare* his ,olt* and foal* and the
servants of the family* to ta.e all o//ortunities of instru,tin(
me- and every day* for two or three hours* he was at the same /ains
himself& Several horses and mares of 1uality in the nei(hbourhood
,ame often to our house* u/on the re/ort s/read of 9a wonderful
3ahoo* that ,ould s/ea. li.e a Houyhnhnm* and seemed* in his words
and a,tions* to dis,over some (limmerin(s of reason&9 These
deli(hted to ,onverse with me< they /ut many 1uestions* and
re,eived su,h answers as " was able to return& y all these
advanta(es " made so (reat a /ro(ress* that* in five months from my
arrival " understood whatever was s/o.en* and ,ould e0/ress myself
tolerably well&
The Houyhnhnms* who ,ame to visit my master out of a desi(n of
seein( and with me* ,ould hardly believe me to be a ri(ht
3ahoo* be,ause my body had a different ,overin( from others of my
.ind& They were astonished to observe me without the usual hair or* e0,e/t on my head* fa,e* and hands- but " dis,overed that
se,ret to my master u/on an a,,ident whi,h ha//ened about a
fortni(ht before&
" have already told the reader* that every ni(ht* when the family
were (one to bed* it was my ,ustom to stri/* and ,over myself with
my ,lothes& "t ha//ened* one mornin( early* that my master sent
for me by the sorrel na(* who was his valet& When he ,ame " was
fast aslee/* my ,lothes fallen off on one side* and my shirt above
my waist& " awa.ed at the noise he made* and observed him to
deliver his messa(e in some disorder- after whi,h he went to my
master* and in a (reat fri(ht (ave him a very ,onfused a,,ount of
what he had seen& This " /resently dis,overed* for* (oin( as soon
as " was dressed to /ay my attendan,e u/on his honour* he as.ed me
9the meanin( of what his servant had re/orted* that " was not the
same thin( when " sle/t* as " a//eared to be at other times- that
his vale assured him* some /art of me was white* some yellow* at
least not so white* and some brown&9
" had hitherto ,on,ealed the se,ret of my dress* in order to
distin(uish myself* as mu,h as /ossible* from that ,ursed ra,e of
3ahoos- but now " found it in vain to do so any lon(er& esides* "
,onsidered that my ,lothes and shoes would soon wear out* whi,h
already were in a de,linin( ,ondition* and must be su//lied by some
,ontrivan,e from the hides of 3ahoos* or other brutes- whereby the
whole se,ret would be .nown& " therefore told my master* 9that in
the ,ountry when,e " ,ame* those of my .ind always ,overed their
bodies with the hairs of ,ertain animals /re/ared by art* as well
for de,en,y as to avoid the in,lemen,ies of air* both hot and ,old-
of whi,h* as to my own /erson* " would (ive him immediate
,onvi,tion* if he /leased to ,ommand me< only desirin( his e0,use*
if " did not e0/ose those /arts that nature tau(ht us to ,on,eal&9
He said* 9my dis,ourse was all very stran(e* but es/e,ially the
last /art- for he ,ould not understand* why nature should tea,h us
to ,on,eal what nature had (iven- that neither himself nor family
were ashamed of any /arts of their bodies- but* however* " mi(ht do
as " /leased&9 Whereu/on " first unbuttoned my ,oat* and /ulled it
off& " did the same with my waist,oat& " drew off my shoes*
sto,.in(s* and bree,hes& " let my shirt down to my waist* and drew
u/ the bottom- fastenin( it li.e a (irdle about my middle* to hide
my na.edness&
+y master observed the whole /erforman,e with (reat si(ns of
,uriosity and admiration& He too. u/ all my ,lothes in his
/astern* one /ie,e after another* and e0amined them dili(ently- he
then stro.ed my body very (ently* and loo.ed round me several
times- after whi,h* he said* it was /lain " must be a /erfe,t
3ahoo- but that " differed very mu,h from the rest of my s/e,ies in
the softness* whiteness* and smoothness of my my want of hair
in several /arts of my body- the sha/e and shortness of my ,laws
behind and before- and my affe,tation of ,ontinually on my
two hinder feet& He desired to see no more- and (ave me leave to
/ut on my ,lothes a(ain* for " was shudderin( with ,old&
" e0/ressed my uneasiness at his (ivin( me so often the a//ellation
of 3ahoo* an odious animal* for whi,h " had so utter a hatred and
,ontem/t< " be((ed he would forbear a//lyin( that word to me* and
ma.e the same order in his family and amon( his friends whom he
suffered to see me& " re1uested li.ewise* 9that the se,ret of my
havin( a false ,overin( to my body* mi(ht be .nown to none but
himself* at least as lon( as my /resent ,lothin( should last- for
as to what the sorrel na(* his valet* had observed* his honour
mi(ht ,ommand him to ,on,eal it&9
$ll this my master very (ra,iously ,onsented to- and thus the
se,ret was .e/t till my ,lothes be(an to wear out* whi,h " was
for,ed to su//ly by several ,ontrivan,es that shall hereafter be
mentioned& "n the meantime* he desired 9" would (o on with my
utmost dili(en,e to learn their lan(ua(e* be,ause he was more
astonished at my ,a/a,ity for s/ee,h and reason* than at the fi(ure
of my body* whether it were ,overed or not-9 addin(* 9that he
waited with some im/atien,e to hear the wonders whi,h " /romised to
tell him&9
Then,eforward he doubled the /ains he had been at to instru,t me<
he brou(ht me into all ,om/any* and made them treat me with
,ivility- 9be,ause*9 as he told them* /rivately* 9this would /ut me
into (ood humour* and ma.e me more divertin(&9
Every day* when " waited on him* beside the trouble he was at in
tea,hin(* he would as. me several 1uestions ,on,ernin( myself*
whi,h " answered as well as " ,ould* and by these means he had
already re,eived some (eneral ideas* thou(h very im/erfe,t& "t
would be tedious to relate the several ste/s by whi,h " advan,ed to
a more re(ular ,onversation- but the first a,,ount " (ave of myself
in any order and len(th was to this /ur/ose<
9That " ,ame from a very far ,ountry* as " already had attem/ted to
tell him* with about fifty more of my own s/e,ies- that we
travelled u/on the seas in a (reat hollow vessel made of wood* and
lar(er than his honour's house& " des,ribed the shi/ to him in the
best terms " ,ould* and e0/lained* by the hel/ of my,hief
dis/layed* how it was driven forward by the wind& That u/on a
1uarrel amon( us* " was set on shore on this ,oast* where " wal.ed
forward* without .nowin( whither* till he delivered me from the
/erse,ution of those e0e,rable 3ahoos&9 He as.ed me* 9who made the
shi/* and how it was /ossible that the Houyhnhnms of my ,ountry
would leave it to the mana(ement of brutes?9 +y answer was* 9that
" durst /ro,eed no further in my relation* unless he would (ive me
his word and honour that he would not be offended* and then " would
tell him the wonders " had so often /romised&9 He a(reed- and "
went on by assurin( him* that the shi/ was made by ,reatures li.e
myself- who* in all the ,ountries " had travelled* as well as in my
own* were the only (overnin( rational animals- and that u/on my
arrival hither* " was as mu,h astonished to see the Houyhnhnms a,t
li.e rational bein(s* as he* or his friends* ,ould be* in findin(
some mar.s of reason in a ,reature he was /leased to ,all a 3ahoo-
to whi,h " owned my resemblan,e in every /art* but ,ould not
a,,ount for their de(enerate and brutal nature& " said farther*
9that if (ood fortune ever restored me to my native ,ountry* to
relate my travels hither* as " resolved to do* everybody would
believe* that " said the thin( that was not* that " invented the
story out of my own head- and =with all /ossible res/e,t to
himself* his family* and friends* and under his /romise of not
bein( offended> our ,ountrymen would hardly thin. it /robable that
a Houyhnhnm should be the /residin( ,reature of a nation* and a
3ahoo the brute&9
2H$PTER "5&
'The Houyhnhnm's notion of truth and falsehood& The author's
dis,ourse disa//roved by his master& The author (ives a more
/arti,ular a,,ount of himself* and the a,,idents of his voya(e&)
+y master heard me with (reat a//earan,es of uneasiness in his
,ountenan,e- be,ause doubtin(* or not believin(* are so little
.nown in this ,ountry* that the inhabitants ,annot tell how to
behave themselves under su,h ,ir,umstan,es& $nd " remember* in
fre1uent dis,ourses with my master ,on,ernin( the nature of manhood
in other /arts of the world* havin( o,,asion to tal. of lyin( and
false re/resentation* it was with mu,h diffi,ulty that he
,om/rehended what " meant* althou(h he had otherwise a most a,ute
:ud(ment& 4or he ar(ued thus< 9that the use of s/ee,h was to ma.e
us understand one another* and to re,eive information of fa,ts-
now* if any one said the thin( whi,h was not* these ends were
defeated* be,ause " ,annot /ro/erly be said to understand him- and
" am so far from re,eivin( information* that he leaves me worse
than in i(noran,e- for " am led to believe a thin( bla,.* when it
is white* and short* when it is lon(&9 $nd these were all the
notions he had ,on,ernin( that fa,ulty of lyin(* so /erfe,tly well
understood* and so universally /ra,tised* amon( human ,reatures&
To return from this di(ression& When " asserted that the 3ahoos
were the only (overnin( animals in my ,ountry* whi,h my master said
was alto(ether /ast his ,on,e/tion* he desired to .now* 9whether we
had Houyhnhnms amon( us* and what was their em/loyment?9 " told
him* 9we had (reat numbers- that in summer they (ra@ed in the
fields* and in winter were .e/t in houses with hay and oats* where
3ahoo servants were em/loyed to rub their s.ins smooth* ,omb their
manes* /i,. their feet* serve them with food* and ma.e their beds&9
9" understand you well*9 said my master< 9it is now very /lain*
from all you have s/o.en* that whatever share of reason the 3ahoos
/retend to* the Houyhnhnms are your masters- " heartily wish our
3ahoos would be so tra,table&9 " be((ed 9his honour would /lease
to e0,use me from /ro,eedin( any further* be,ause " was very
,ertain that the a,,ount he e0/e,ted from me would be hi(hly
dis/leasin(&9 ut he insisted in ,ommandin( me to let him .now the
best and the worst& " told him 9he should be obeyed&9 " owned
9that the Houyhnhnms amon( us* whom we ,alled horses* were the most
(enerous and ,omely animals we had- that they e0,elled in stren(th
and swiftness- and when they belon(ed to /ersons of 1uality* were
em/loyed in travellin(* ra,in(* or drawin( ,hariots- they were
treated with mu,h .indness and ,are* till they fell into diseases*
or be,ame foundered in the feet- but then they were sold* and used
to all .ind of drud(ery till they died- after whi,h their s.ins
were stri//ed* and sold for what they were worth* and their bodies
left to be devoured by do(s and birds of /rey& ut the ,ommon ra,e
of horses had not so (ood fortune* bein( .e/t by farmers and
,arriers* and other mean /eo/le* who /ut them to (reater labour*
and fed them worse&9 " des,ribed* as well as " ,ould* our way of
ridin(- the sha/e and use of a bridle* a saddle* a s/ur* and a
whi/- of harness and wheels& " added* 9that we fastened /lates of
a ,ertain hard substan,e* ,alled iron* at the bottom of their feet*
to /reserve their hoofs from bein( bro.en by the stony ways* on
whi,h we often travelled&9
+y master* after some e0/ressions of (reat indi(nation* wondered
9how we dared to venture u/on a Houyhnhnm's ba,.- for he was sure*
that the wea.est servant in his house would be able to sha.e off
the stron(est 3ahoo- or by lyin( down and rollin( on his ba,.*
s1uee@e the brute to death&9 " answered 9that our horses were
trained u/* from three or four years old* to the several uses we
intended them for- that if any of them /roved intolerably vi,ious*
they were em/loyed for ,arria(es- that they were severely beaten*
while they were youn(* for any mis,hievous tri,.s- that the males*
desi(ned for the ,ommon use of ridin( or drau(ht* were (enerally
,astrated about two years after their birth* to ta.e down their
s/irits* and ma.e them more tame and (entle- that they were indeed
sensible of rewards and /unishments- but his honour would /lease to
,onsider* that they had not the least tin,ture of reason* any more
than the 3ahoos in this ,ountry&9
"t /ut me to the /ains of many ,ir,umlo,utions* to (ive my master a
ri(ht idea of what " s/o.e- for their lan(ua(e does not abound in
variety of words* be,ause their wants and /assions are fewer than
amon( us& ut it is im/ossible to e0/ress his noble resentment at
our sava(e treatment of the Houyhnhnm ra,e- /arti,ularly after "
had e0/lained the manner and use of ,astratin( horses amon( us* to
hinder them from /ro/a(atin( their .ind* and to render them more
servile& He said* 9if it were /ossible there ,ould be any ,ountry
where 3ahoos alone were endued with reason* they ,ertainly must be
the (overnin( animal- be,ause reason in time will always /revail
a(ainst brutal stren(th& ut* ,onsiderin( the frame of our bodies*
and es/e,ially of mine* he thou(ht no ,reature of e1ual bul. was so
illA,ontrived for em/loyin( that reason in the ,ommon offi,es of
life-9 whereu/on he desired to .now whether those amon( whom "
lived resembled me* or the 3ahoos of his ,ountry?9 " assured him*
9that " was as well sha/ed as most of my a(e- but the youn(er* and
the females* were mu,h more soft and tender* and the s.ins of the
latter (enerally as white as mil.&9 He said* 9" differed indeed
from other 3ahoos* bein( mu,h more ,leanly* and not alto(ether so
deformed- but* in /oint of real advanta(e* he thou(ht " differed
for the worse< that my nails were of no use either to my fore or
hinder feet- as to my fore feet* he ,ould not /ro/erly ,all them by
that name* for he never observed me to wal. u/on them- that they
were too soft to bear the (round- that " (enerally went with them
un,overed- neither was the ,overin( " sometimes wore on them of the
same sha/e* or so stron( as that on my feet behind< that " ,ould
not wal. with any se,urity* for if either of my hinder feet
sli//ed* " must inevitably fail&9 He then be(an to find fault with
other /arts of my body< 9the flatness of my fa,e* the /rominen,e
of my nose* mine eyes /la,ed dire,tly in front* so that " ,ould not
loo. on either side without turnin( my head< that " was not able
to feed myself* without liftin( one of my foreAfeet to my mouth<
and therefore nature had /la,ed those :oints to answer that
ne,essity& He .new not what ,ould be the use of those several
,lefts and divisions in my feet behind- that these were too soft to
bear the hardness and shar/ness of stones* without a ,overin( made
from the of some other brute- that my whole body wanted a
fen,e a(ainst heat and ,old* whi,h " was for,ed to /ut on and off
every day* with tediousness and trouble< and lastly* that he
observed every animal in this ,ountry naturally to abhor the
3ahoos* whom the avoided* and the stron(er drove from them&
So that* su//osin( us to have the (ift of reason* he ,ould not see
how it were /ossible to ,ure that natural anti/athy* whi,h every
,reature dis,overed a(ainst us- nor ,onse1uently how we ,ould tame
and render them servi,eable& However* he would*9 as he said*
9debate the matter no farther* be,ause he was more desirous to .now
my own story* the ,ountry where " was born* and the several a,tions
and events of my life* before " ,ame hither&9
" assured him* 9how e0tremely desirous " was that he should be
satisfied on every /oint- but " doubted mu,h* whether it would be
/ossible for me to e0/lain myself on several sub:e,ts* whereof his
honour ,ould have no ,on,e/tion- be,ause " saw nothin( in his
,ountry to whi,h " ,ould resemble them- that* however* " would do
my best* and strive to e0/ress myself by similitudes* humbly
desirin( his assistan,e when " wanted /ro/er words-9 whi,h he was
/leased to /romise me&
" said* 9my birth was of honest /arents* in an island ,alled
En(land- whi,h was remote from his ,ountry* as many days' :ourney
as the stron(est of his honour's servants ,ould travel in the
annual ,ourse of the sun- that " was bred a sur(eon* whose trade it
is to ,ure wounds and hurts in the body* (otten by a,,ident or
violen,e- that my ,ountry was (overned by a female man* whom we
,alled 1ueen- that " left it to (et ri,hes* whereby " mi(ht
maintain myself and family* when " should return- that* in my last
voya(e* " was ,ommander of the shi/* and had about fifty 3ahoos
under me* many of whi,h died at sea* and " was for,ed to su//ly
them by others /i,.ed out from several nations- that our shi/ was
twi,e in dan(er of bein( sun.* the first time by a (reat storm* and
the se,ond by a(ainst a ro,.&9 Here my master inter/osed*
by me* 9how " ,ould /ersuade stran(ers* out of different
,ountries* to venture with me* after the losses " had sustained*
and the ha@ards " had run?9 " said* 9they were fellows of
des/erate fortunes* for,ed to fly from the /la,es of their birth on
a,,ount of their /overty or their ,rimes& Some were undone by
lawsuits- others s/ent all they had in* whorin(* and
(amin(- others fled for treason- many for murder* theft* /oisonin(*
robbery* /er:ury* for(ery* ,oinin( false money* for ,ommittin(
ra/es* or sodomy- for flyin( from their ,olours* or desertin( to
the enemy- and most of them had bro.en /rison- none of these durst
return to their native ,ountries* for fear of bein( han(ed* or of
starvin( in a :ail- and therefore they were under the ne,essity of a livelihood in other /la,es&9
%urin( this dis,ourse* my master was /leased to interru/t me
several times& " had made use of many ,ir,umlo,utions in
des,ribin( to him the nature of the several ,rimes for whi,h most
of our ,rew had been for,ed to fly their ,ountry& This labour too.
u/ several days' ,onversation* before he was able to ,om/rehend me&
He was wholly at a loss to .now what ,ould be the use or ne,essity
of /ra,tisin( those vi,es& To ,lear u/ whi,h* " endeavoured to
(ive some ideas of the desire of /ower and ri,hes- of the terrible
effe,ts of lust* intem/eran,e* mali,e* and envy& $ll this " was
for,ed to define and des,ribe by /uttin( ,ases and
su//ositions& $fter whi,h* li.e one whose ima(ination was stru,.
with somethin( never seen or heard of before* he would lift u/ his
eyes with ama@ement and indi(nation& Power* (overnment* war* law*
/unishment* and a thousand other thin(s* had no terms wherein that
lan(ua(e ,ould e0/ress them* whi,h made the diffi,ulty almost
insu/erable* to (ive my master any ,on,e/tion of what " meant& ut
bein( of an e0,ellent understandin(* mu,h im/roved by ,ontem/lation
and ,onverse* he at last arrived at a ,om/etent .nowled(e of what
human nature* in our /arts of the world* is ,a/able to /erform* and
desired " would (ive him some /arti,ular a,,ount of that land whi,h
we ,all Euro/e* but es/e,ially of my own ,ountry&
2H$PTER 5&
'The author at his master's ,ommand* informs him of the state of
En(land& The ,auses of war amon( the /rin,es of Euro/e& The author
be(ins to e0/lain the En(lish ,onstitution&)
The reader may /lease to observe* that the followin( e0tra,t of
many ,onversations " had with my master* ,ontains a summary of the
most material /oints whi,h were dis,oursed at several times for
above two years- his honour often desirin( fuller satisfa,tion* as
" farther im/roved in the Houyhnhnm ton(ue& " laid before him* as
well as " ,ould* the whole state of Euro/e- " dis,oursed of trade
and manufa,tures* of arts and s,ien,es- and the answers " (ave to
all the 1uestions he made* as they arose u/on several sub:e,ts*
were a fund of ,onversation not to be e0hausted& ut " shall here
only set down the substan,e of what /assed between us ,on,ernin( my
own ,ountry* redu,in( it in order as well as " ,an* without any
re(ard to time or other ,ir,umstan,es* while " stri,tly adhere to
truth& +y only ,on,ern is* that " shall hardly be able to do
:usti,e to my master's ar(uments and e0/ressions* whi,h must needs
suffer by my want of ,a/a,ity* as well as by a translation into our
barbarous En(lish&
"n obedien,e* therefore* to his honour's ,ommands* " related to him
the Revolution under the Prin,e of #ran(e- the lon( war with
4ran,e* entered into by the said /rin,e* and renewed by his
su,,essor* the /resent 1ueen* wherein the (reatest /owers of
2hristendom were en(a(ed* and whi,h still ,ontinued< " ,om/uted*
at his re1uest* 9that about a million of 3ahoos mi(ht have been
.illed in the whole /ro(ress of it- and /erha/s a hundred or more
,ities ta.en* and five times as many shi/s burnt or sun.&9
He as.ed me* 9what were the usual ,auses or motives that made one
,ountry (o to war with another?9 " answered 9they were
innumerable- but " should only mention a few of the ,hief&
Sometimes the ambition of /rin,es* who never thin. they have land
or /eo/le enou(h to (overn- sometimes the ,orru/tion of ministers*
who en(a(e their master in a war* in order to stifle or divert the
,lamour of the sub:e,ts a(ainst their evil administration&
%ifferen,e in o/inions has ,ost many millions of lives< for
instan,e* whether flesh be bread* or bread be flesh- whether the
:ui,e of a ,ertain berry be blood or wine- whether whistlin( be a
vi,e or a virtue- whether it be better to .iss a /ost* or throw it
into the fire- what is the best ,olour for a ,oat* whether bla,.*
white* red* or (ray- and whether it should be lon( or short* narrow
or wide* dirty or ,lean- with many more& Neither are any wars so
furious and bloody* or of so lon( a ,ontinuan,e* as those
o,,asioned by differen,e in o/inion* es/e,ially if it be in thin(s
9Sometimes the 1uarrel between two /rin,es is to de,ide whi,h of
them shall dis/ossess a third of his dominions* where neither of
them /retend to any ri(ht& Sometimes one /rin,e 1uarrels with
another for fear the other should 1uarrel with him& Sometimes a
war is entered u/on* be,ause the enemy is too stron(- and
sometimes* be,ause he is too wea.& Sometimes our nei(hbours want
the thin(s whi,h we have* or have the thin(s whi,h we want* and we
both fi(ht* till they ta.e ours* or (ive us theirs& "t is a very
:ustifiable ,ause of a war* to invade a ,ountry after the /eo/le
have been wasted by famine* destroyed by /estilen,e* or embroiled
by fa,tions amon( themselves& "t is :ustifiable to enter into war
a(ainst our nearest ally* when one of his towns lies ,onvenient for
us* or a territory of land* that would render our dominions round
and ,om/lete& "f a /rin,e sends for,es into a nation* where the
/eo/le are /oor and i(norant* he may lawfully /ut half of them to
death* and ma.e slaves of the rest* in order to ,ivili@e and redu,e
them from their barbarous way of livin(& "t is a very .in(ly*
honourable* and fre1uent /ra,ti,e* when one /rin,e desires the
assistan,e of another* to se,ure him a(ainst an invasion* that the
assistant* when he has driven out the invader* should sei@e on the
dominions himself* and .ill* im/rison* or banish* the /rin,e he
,ame to relieve& $llian,e by blood* or marria(e* is a fre1uent
,ause of war between /rin,es- and the nearer the .indred is* the
(reater their dis/osition to 1uarrel- /oor nations are hun(ry* and
ri,h nations are /roud- and /ride and hun(er will ever be at
varian,e& 4or these reasons* the trade of a soldier is held the
most honourable of all others- be,ause a soldier is a 3ahoo hired
to .ill* in ,old blood* as many of his own s/e,ies* who have never
offended him* as /ossibly he ,an&
9There is li.ewise a .ind of be((arly /rin,es in Euro/e* not able
to ma.e war by themselves* who hire out their troo/s to ri,her
nations* for so mu,h a day to ea,h man- of whi,h they .ee/ threeA
fourths to themselves* and it is the best /art of their
maintenan,e< su,h are those in many northern /arts of Euro/e&9
9What you have told me*9 said my master* 9u/on the sub:e,t of war*
does indeed dis,over most admirably the effe,ts of that reason you
/retend to< however* it is ha//y that the shame is (reater than
the dan(er- and that nature has left you utterly in,a/able of doin(
mu,h mis,hief& 4or* your mouths lyin( flat with your fa,es* you
,an hardly bite ea,h other to any /ur/ose* unless by ,onsent& Then
as to the ,laws u/on your feet before and behind* they are so short
and tender* that one of our 3ahoos would drive a do@en of yours
before him& $nd therefore* in re,ountin( the numbers of those who
have been .illed in battle* " ,annot but thin. you have said the
thin( whi,h is not&9
" ,ould not forbear my head* and smilin( a little at his
i(noran,e& $nd bein( no stran(er to the art of war* " (ave him a
des,ri/tion of ,annons* ,ulverins* mus.ets* ,arabines* /istols*
bullets* /owder* swords* bayonets* battles* sie(es* retreats*
atta,.s* undermines* ,ountermines* bombardments* sea fi(hts* shi/s
sun. with a thousand men* twenty thousand .illed on ea,h side*
dyin( (roans* limbs flyin( in the air* smo.e* noise* ,onfusion*
tram/lin( to death under horses' feet* fli(ht* /ursuit* vi,tory-
fields strewed with ,ar,ases* left for food to do(s and wolves and
birds of /rey- /lunderin(* stri//in(* ravishin(* burnin(* and
destroyin(& $nd to set forth the valour of my own dear ,ountrymen*
" assured him* 9that " had seen them blow u/ a hundred enemies at
on,e in a sie(e* and as many in a shi/* and beheld the dead bodies
dro/ down in /ie,es from the ,louds* to the (reat diversion of the
" was (oin( on to more /arti,ulars* when my master ,ommanded me
silen,e& He said* 9whoever understood the nature of 3ahoos* mi(ht
easily believe it /ossible for so vile an animal to be ,a/able of
every a,tion " had named* if their stren(th and ,unnin( e1ualled
their mali,e& ut as my dis,ourse had in,reased his abhorren,e of
the whole s/e,ies* so he found it (ave him a disturban,e in his
mind to whi,h he was wholly a stran(er before& He thou(ht his
ears* bein( used to su,h abominable words* mi(ht* by de(rees* admit
them with less detestation< that althou(h he hated the 3ahoos of
this ,ountry* yet he no more blamed them for their odious
1ualities* than he did a (nnayh =a bird of /rey> for its ,ruelty*
or a shar/ stone for ,uttin( his hoof& ut when a ,reature
/retendin( to reason ,ould be ,a/able of su,h enormities* he
dreaded lest the ,orru/tion of that fa,ulty mi(ht be worse than
brutality itself& He seemed therefore ,onfident* that* instead of
reason we were only /ossessed of some 1uality fitted to in,rease
our natural vi,es- as the refle,tion from a troubled stream returns
the ima(e of an ill sha/en body* not only lar(er but more
He added* 9that he had heard too mu,h u/on the sub:e,t of war* both
in this and some former dis,ourses& There was another /oint* whi,h
a little /er/le0ed him at /resent& " had informed him* that some
of our ,rew left their ,ountry on a,,ount of bein( ruined by law-
that " had already e0/lained the meanin( of the word- but he was at
a loss how it should ,ome to /ass* that the law* whi,h was intended
for every man's /reservation* should be any man's ruin& Therefore
he desired to be further satisfied what " meant by law* and the
dis/ensers thereof* a,,ordin( to the /resent /ra,ti,e in my own
,ountry- be,ause he thou(ht nature and reason were suffi,ient
(uides for a reasonable animal* as we /retended to be* in showin(
us what he ou(ht to do* and what to avoid&9
" assured his honour* 9that the law was a s,ien,e in whi,h " had
not mu,h ,onversed* further than by em/loyin( advo,ates* in vain*
u/on some in:usti,es that had been done me< however* " would (ive
him all the satisfa,tion " was able&9
" said* 9there was a so,iety of men amon( us* bred u/ from their
youth in the art of /rovin(* by words multi/lied for the /ur/ose*
that white is bla,.* and bla,. is white* a,,ordin( as they are
/aid& To this so,iety all the rest of the /eo/le are slaves& 4or
e0am/le* if my nei(hbour has a mind to my ,ow* he has a lawyer to
/rove that he ou(ht to have my ,ow from me& " must then hire
another to defend my ri(ht* it bein( a(ainst all rules of law that
any man should be allowed to s/ea. for himself& Now* in this ,ase*
"* who am the ri(ht owner* lie under two (reat disadvanta(es<
first* my lawyer* bein( /ra,tised almost from his ,radle in
defendin( falsehood* is 1uite out of his element when he would be
an advo,ate for :usti,e* whi,h is an unnatural offi,e he always
attem/ts with (reat aw.wardness* if not with illAwill& The se,ond
disadvanta(e is* that my lawyer must /ro,eed with (reat ,aution* or
else he will be re/rimanded by the :ud(es* and abhorred by his
brethren* as one that would lessen the /ra,ti,e of the law& $nd
therefore " have but two methods to /reserve my ,ow& The first is*
to (ain over my adversary's lawyer with a double fee* who will then
betray his ,lient by insinuatin( that he hath :usti,e on his side&
The se,ond way is for my lawyer to ma.e my ,ause a//ear as un:ust
as he ,an* by allowin( the ,ow to belon( to my adversary< and
this* if it be s.ilfully done* will ,ertainly bes/ea. the favour of
the ben,h& Now your honour is to .now* that these :ud(es are
/ersons a//ointed to de,ide all ,ontroversies of /ro/erty* as well
as for the trial of ,riminals* and /i,.ed out from the most
de0terous lawyers* who are (rown old or la@y- and havin( been
biassed all their lives a(ainst truth and e1uity* lie under su,h a
fatal ne,essity of favourin( fraud* /er:ury* and o//ression* that "
have .nown some of them refuse a lar(e bribe from the side where
:usti,e lay* rather than in:ure the fa,ulty* by doin( any thin(
unbe,omin( their nature or their offi,e&
9"t is a ma0im amon( these lawyers that whatever has been done
before* may le(ally be done a(ain< and therefore they ta.e s/e,ial
,are to re,ord all the de,isions formerly made a(ainst ,ommon
:usti,e* and the (eneral reason of man.ind& These* under the name
of /re,edents* they /rodu,e as authorities to :ustify the most
ini1uitous o/inions- and the :ud(es never fail of dire,tin(
9"n /leadin(* they studiously avoid enterin( into the merits of the
,ause- but are loud* violent* and tedious* in dwellin( u/on all
,ir,umstan,es whi,h are not to the /ur/ose& 4or instan,e* in the
,ase already mentioned- they never desire to .now what ,laim or
title my adversary has to my ,ow- but whether the said ,ow were red
or bla,.- her horns lon( or short- whether the field " (ra@e her in
be round or s1uare- whether she was mil.ed at home or abroad- what
diseases she is sub:e,t to* and the li.e- after whi,h they ,onsult
/re,edents* ad:ourn the ,ause from time to time* and in ten*
twenty* or thirty years* ,ome to an issue&
9"t is li.ewise to be observed* that this so,iety has a /e,uliar
,ant and :ar(on of their own* that no other mortal ,an understand*
and wherein all their laws are written* whi,h they ta.e s/e,ial
,are to multi/ly
whereby they have wholly ,onfounded the very
essen,e of truth and falsehood* of ri(ht and wron(- so that it will
ta.e thirty years to de,ide* whether the field left me by my
an,estors for si0 (enerations belon(s to me* or to a stran(er three
hundred miles off&
9"n the trial of /ersons a,,used for ,rimes a(ainst the state* the
method is mu,h more short and ,ommendable< the :ud(e first sends
to sound the dis/osition of those in /ower* after whi,h he ,an
easily han( or save a ,riminal* stri,tly /reservin( all due forms
of law&9
Here my master inter/osin(* said* 9it was a /ity* that ,reatures
endowed with su,h /rodi(ious abilities of mind* as these lawyers*
by the des,ri/tion " (ave of them* must ,ertainly be* were not
rather en,oura(ed to be instru,tors of others in wisdom and
.nowled(e&9 "n answer to whi,h " assured his honour* 9that in all
/oints out of their own trade* they were usually the most i(norant
and stu/id (eneration amon( us* the most des/i,able in ,ommon
,onversation* avowed enemies to all .nowled(e and learnin(* and
e1ually dis/osed to /ervert the (eneral reason of man.ind in every
other sub:e,t of dis,ourse as in that of their own /rofession&9
2H$PTER 5"&
'$ ,ontinuation of the state of En(land under ;ueen $nne& The
,hara,ter of a first minister of state in Euro/ean ,ourts&)
+y master was yet wholly at a loss to understand what motives ,ould
in,ite this ra,e of lawyers to /er/le0* dis1uiet* and weary
themselves* and en(a(e in a ,onfedera,y of in:usti,e* merely for
the sa.e of in:urin( their fellowAanimals- neither ,ould he
,om/rehend what " meant in sayin(* they did it for hire& Whereu/on
" was at mu,h /ains to des,ribe to him the use of money* the
materials it was made of* and the value of the metals- 9that when a
3ahoo had (ot a (reat store of this /re,ious substan,e* he was able
to /ur,hase whatever he had a mind to- the finest ,lothin(* the
noblest houses* (reat tra,ts of land* the most ,ostly meats and
drin.s* and have his ,hoi,e of the most beautiful females&
Therefore sin,e money alone was able to /erform all these feats*
our 3ahoos thou(ht they ,ould never have enou(h of it to s/end* or
to save* as they found themselves in,lined* from their natural bent
either to /rofusion or avari,e- that the ri,h man en:oyed the fruit
of the /oor man's labour* and the latter were a thousand to one in
/ro/ortion to the former- that the bul. of our /eo/le were for,ed
to live miserably* by labourin( every day for small wa(es* to ma.e
a few live /lentifully&9
" enlar(ed myself mu,h on these* and many other /arti,ulars to the
same /ur/ose- but his honour was still to see.- for he went u/on a
su//osition* that all animals had a title to their share in the
/rodu,tions of the earth* and es/e,ially those who /resided over
the rest& Therefore he desired " would let him .now* 9what these
,ostly meats were* and how any of us ha//ened to want them?9
Whereu/on " enumerated as many sorts as ,ame into my head* with the
various methods of dressin( them* whi,h ,ould not be done without
sendin( vessels by sea to every /art of the world* as well for
li1uors to drin. as for sau,es and innumerable other ,onvenien,es&
" assured him 9that this whole (lobe of earth must be at least
three times (one round before one of our better female 3ahoos ,ould
(et her* or a ,u/ to /ut it in&9 He said 9that must
needs be a miserable ,ountry whi,h ,annot furnish food for its own
inhabitants& ut what he ,hiefly wondered at was* how su,h vast
tra,ts of (round as " des,ribed should be wholly without fresh
water* and the /eo/le /ut to the ne,essity of sendin( over the sea
for drin.&9 " re/lied 9that En(land =the dear /la,e of my
nativity> was ,om/uted to /rodu,e three times the 1uantity of food
more than its inhabitants are able to ,onsume* as well as li1uors
e0tra,ted from (rain* or /ressed out of the fruit of ,ertain trees*
whi,h made e0,ellent drin.* and the same /ro/ortion in every other
,onvenien,e of life& ut* in order to feed the lu0ury and
intem/eran,e of the males* and the vanity of the females* we sent
away the (reatest /art of our ne,essary thin(s to other ,ountries*
when,e* in return* we brou(ht the materials of diseases* folly* and
vi,e* to s/end amon( ourselves& Hen,e it follows of ne,essity*
that vast numbers of our /eo/le are ,om/elled to see. their
livelihood by be((in(* robbin(* stealin(* ,heatin(* /im/in(*
flatterin(* subornin(* forswearin(* for(in(* (amin(* lyin(*
fawnin(* he,torin(* votin(* s,ribblin(* starA(a@in(* /oisonin(*
whorin(* ,antin(* libellin(** and the li.e
o,,u/ations<9 every one of whi,h terms " was at mu,h /ains to ma.e
him understand&
9That wine was not im/orted amon( us from forei(n ,ountries to
su//ly the want of water or other drin.s* but be,ause it was a sort
of li1uid whi,h made us merry by /uttin( us out of our senses*
diverted all melan,holy thou(hts* be(at wild e0trava(ant
ima(inations in the brain* raised our ho/es and banished our fears*
sus/ended every offi,e of reason for a time* and de/rived us of the
use of our limbs* till we fell into a /rofound slee/- althou(h it
must be ,onfessed* that we always awa.ed si,. and dis/irited- and
that the use of this li1uor filled us with diseases whi,h made our
lives un,omfortable and short&
9ut beside all this* the bul. of our /eo/le su//orted themselves
by furnishin( the ne,essities or ,onvenien,es of life to the ri,h
and to ea,h other& 4or instan,e* when " am at home* and dressed as
" ou(ht to be* " ,arry on my body the wor.manshi/ of a hundred
tradesmen- the buildin( and furniture of my house em/loy as many
more* and five times the number to adorn my wife&9
" was (oin( on to tell him of another sort of /eo/le* who (et their
livelihood by attendin( the si,.* havin(* u/on some o,,asions*
informed his honour that many of my ,rew had died of diseases& ut
here it was with the utmost diffi,ulty that " brou(ht him to
a//rehend what " meant& 9He ,ould easily ,on,eive* that a
Houyhnhnm* (rew wea. and heavy a few days before his death* or by
some a,,ident mi(ht hurt a limb- but that nature* who wor.s all
thin(s to /erfe,tion* should suffer any /ains to breed in our
bodies* he thou(ht im/ossible* and desired to .now the reason of so
una,,ountable an evil&9
" told him 9we fed on a thousand thin(s whi,h o/erated ,ontrary to
ea,h other- that we ate when we were not hun(ry* and dran. without
the /rovo,ation of thirst- that we sat whole ni(hts stron(
li1uors* without eatin( a bit* whi,h dis/osed us to sloth* inflamed
our bodies* and /re,i/itated or /revented di(estion- that
/rostitute female 3ahoos a,1uired a ,ertain malady* whi,h bred
rottenness in the bones of those who fell into their embra,es- that
this* and many other diseases* were /ro/a(ated from father to son-
so that (reat numbers ,ame into the world with ,om/li,ated maladies
u/on them- that it would be endless to (ive him a ,atalo(ue of all
diseases in,ident to human bodies* for they would not be fewer than
five or si0 hundred* s/read over every limb and :ointAAin short*
every /art* e0ternal and intestine* havin( diseases a//ro/riated to
itself& To remedy whi,h* there was a sort of /eo/le bred u/ amon(
us in the /rofession* or /reten,e* of ,urin( the si,.& $nd be,ause
" had some s.ill in the fa,ulty* " would* in (ratitude to his
honour* let him .now the whole mystery and method by whi,h they
9Their fundamental is* that all diseases arise from re/letion-
when,e they ,on,lude* that a (reat eva,uation of the body is
ne,essary* either throu(h the natural /assa(e or u/wards at the
mouth& Their ne0t business is from herbs* minerals* (ums* oils*
shells* salts* :ui,es* seaAweed* e0,rements* bar.s of trees*
ser/ents* toads* fro(s* s/iders* dead men's flesh and bones* birds*
beasts* and fishes* to form a ,om/osition* for smell and taste* the
most abominable* nauseous* and detestable* they ,an /ossibly
,ontrive* whi,h the stoma,h immediately re:e,ts with loathin(* and
this they ,all a vomit- or else* from the same storeAhouse* with
some other /oisonous additions* they ,ommand us to ta.e in at the
orifi,e above or below =:ust as the /hysi,ian then ha//ens to be
dis/osed> a medi,ine e1ually annoyin( and dis(ustful to the bowels-
whi,h* rela0in( the belly* drives down all before it- and this they
,all a /ur(e* or a ,lyster& 4or nature =as the /hysi,ians alle(e>
havin( intended the su/erior anterior orifi,e only for the
intromission of solids and li1uids* and the inferior /osterior for
e:e,tion* these artists in(eniously ,onsiderin( that in all
diseases nature is for,ed out of her seat* therefore* to re/la,e
her in it* the body must be treated in a manner dire,tly ,ontrary*
by inter,han(in( the use of ea,h orifi,e- for,in( solids and
li1uids in at the anus* and eva,uations at the mouth&
9ut* besides real diseases* we are sub:e,t to many that are only
ima(inary* for whi,h the /hysi,ians have invented ima(inary ,ures-
these have their several names* and so have the dru(s that are
/ro/er for them- and with these our female 3ahoos are always
9#ne (reat e0,ellen,y in this tribe* is their s.ill at /ro(nosti,s*
wherein they seldom fail- their /redi,tions in real diseases* when
they rise to any de(ree of mali(nity* (enerally /ortendin( death*
whi,h is always in their /ower* when re,overy is not< and
therefore* u/on any une0/e,ted si(ns of amendment* after they have
/ronoun,ed their senten,e* rather than be a,,used as false
/ro/hets* they .now how to a//rove their sa(a,ity to the world* by
a seasonable dose&
9They are li.ewise of s/e,ial use to husbands and wives who are
(rown weary of their mates- to eldest sons* to (reat ministers of
state* and often to /rin,es&9
" had formerly* u/on o,,asion* dis,oursed with my master u/on the
nature of (overnment in (eneral* and /arti,ularly of our own
e0,ellent ,onstitution* deservedly the wonder and envy of the whole
world& ut havin( here a,,identally mentioned a minister of state*
he ,ommanded me* some time after* to inform him* 9what s/e,ies of
3ahoo " /arti,ularly meant by that a//ellation&9
" told him* 9that a first or ,hief minister of state* who was the
/erson " intended to des,ribe* was the ,reature wholly e0em/t from
:oy and (rief* love and hatred* /ity and an(er- at least* use
of no other /assions* but a violent desire of wealth* /ower* and
titles- that he a//lies his words to all uses* e0,e/t to the
indi,ation of his mind- that he never tells a truth but with an
intent that you should ta.e it for a lie- nor a lie* but with a
desi(n that you should ta.e it for a truth- that those he s/ea.s
worst of behind their ba,.s are in the surest way of /referment-
and whenever he be(ins to /raise you to others* or to yourself* you
are from that day forlorn& The worst mar. you ,an re,eive is a
/romise* es/e,ially when it is ,onfirmed with an oath- after whi,h*
every wise man retires* and (ives over all ho/es&
9There are three methods* by whi,h a man may rise to be ,hief
minister& The first is* by .nowin( how* with /ruden,e* to dis/ose
of a wife* a dau(hter* or a sister- the se,ond* by betrayin( or
underminin( his /rede,essor- and the third is* by a furious @eal*
in /ubli, assemblies* a(ainst the ,orru/tion's of the ,ourt& ut a
wise /rin,e would rather ,hoose to em/loy those who /ra,tise the
last of these methods- be,ause su,h @ealots /rove always the most
obse1uious and subservient to the will and /assions of their
master& That these ministers* havin( all em/loyments at their
dis/osal* /reserve themselves in /ower* by bribin( the ma:ority of
a senate or (reat ,oun,il- and at last* by an e0/edient* ,alled an
a,t of indemnity9 =whereof " des,ribed the nature to him>* 9they
se,ure themselves from afterAre,.onin(s* and retire from the /ubli,
laden with the s/oils of the nation&
9The /ala,e of a ,hief minister is a seminary to breed u/ others in
his own trade< the /a(es* la,.eys* and /orters* by imitatin( their
master* be,ome ministers of state in their several distri,ts* and
learn to e0,el in the three /rin,i/al in(redients* of insolen,e*
lyin(* and bribery& $,,ordin(ly* they have a subaltern ,ourt /aid
to them by /ersons of the best ran.- and sometimes by the for,e of
de0terity and im/uden,e* arrive* throu(h several (radations* to be
su,,essors to their lord&
9He is usually (overned by a de,ayed wen,h* or favourite footman*
who are the tunnels throu(h whi,h all (ra,es are ,onveyed* and may
/ro/erly be ,alled* in the last resort* the (overnors of the
#ne day* in dis,ourse* my master* havin( heard me mention the
nobility of my ,ountry* was /leased to ma.e me a ,om/liment whi,h "
,ould not /retend to deserve< 9that he was sure " must have been
born of some noble family* be,ause " far e0,eeded in sha/e* ,olour*
and ,leanliness* all the 3ahoos of his nation* althou(h " seemed to
fail in stren(th and a(ility* whi,h must be im/uted to my different
way of livin( from those other brutes- and besides " was not only
endowed with the fa,ulty of s/ee,h* but li.ewise with some
rudiments of reason* to a de(ree that* with all his a,1uaintan,e* "
/assed for a /rodi(y&9
He made me observe* 9that amon( the Houyhnhnms* the white* the
sorrel* and the ironA(ray* were not so e0a,tly sha/ed as the bay*
the da//leA(ray* and the bla,.- nor born with e1ual talents of
mind* or a ,a/a,ity to im/rove them- and therefore ,ontinued always
in the ,ondition of servants* without ever as/irin( to mat,h out of
their own ra,e* whi,h in that ,ountry would be re,.oned monstrous
and unnatural&9
" made his honour my most humble a,.nowled(ments for the (ood
o/inion he was /leased to ,on,eive of me* but assured him at the
same time* 9that my birth was of the lower sort* havin( been born
of /lain honest /arents* who were :ust able to (ive me a tolerable
edu,ation- that nobility* amon( us* was alto(ether a different
thin( from the idea he had of it- that our youn( noblemen are bred
from their ,hildhood in idleness and lu0ury- that* as soon as years
will /ermit* they ,onsume their vi(our* and ,ontra,t odious
diseases amon( lewd females- and when their fortunes are almost
ruined* they marry some woman of mean birth* disa(reeable /erson*
and unsound ,onstitution =merely for the sa.e of money>* whom they
hate and des/ise& That the /rodu,tions of su,h marria(es are
(enerally s,rofulous* ri,.ety* or deformed ,hildren- by whi,h means
the family seldom ,ontinues above three (enerations* unless the
wife ,are to /rovide a healthy father* amon( her nei(hbours
or domesti,s* in order to im/rove and ,ontinue the breed& That a
wea. diseased body* a mea(re ,ountenan,e* and sallow ,om/le0ion*
are the true mar.s of noble blood- and a healthy robust a//earan,e
is so dis(ra,eful in a man of 1uality* that the world ,on,ludes his
real father to have been a (room or a ,oa,hman& The im/erfe,tions
of his mind run /arallel with those of his body* bein( a
,om/osition of s/leen* dullness* i(noran,e* ,a/ri,e* sensuality*
and /ride&
9Without the ,onsent of this illustrious body* no law ,an be
ena,ted* re/ealed* or altered< and these nobles have li.ewise the
de,ision of all our /ossessions* without a//eal&9 HCI
2H$PTER 5""&
'The author's (reat love of his native ,ountry& His master's
observations u/on the ,onstitution and administration of En(land*
as des,ribed by the author* with /arallel ,ases and ,om/arisons&
His master's observations u/on human nature&)
The reader may be dis/osed to wonder how " ,ould /revail on myself
to (ive so free a re/resentation of my own s/e,ies* amon( a ra,e of
mortals who are already too a/t to ,on,eive the vilest o/inion of
human.ind* from that entire ,on(ruity between me and their 3ahoos&
ut " must freely ,onfess* that the many virtues of those e0,ellent
1uadru/eds* /la,ed in o//osite view to human ,orru/tions* had so
far o/ened my eyes and enlar(ed my understandin(* that " be(an to
view the a,tions and /assions of man in a very different li(ht* and
to thin. the honour of my own .ind not worth mana(in(- whi,h*
besides* it was im/ossible for me to do* before a /erson of so
a,ute a :ud(ment as my master* who daily ,onvin,ed me of a thousand
faults in myself* whereof " had not the least /er,e/tion before*
and whi,h* with us* would never be numbered even amon( human
infirmities& " had li.ewise learned* from his e0am/le* an utter
detestation of all falsehood or dis(uise- and truth a//eared so
amiable to me* that " determined u/on sa,rifi,in( every thin( to
!et me deal so ,andidly with the reader as to ,onfess that there
was yet a mu,h stron(er motive for the freedom " too. in my
re/resentation of thin(s& " had not yet been a year in this
,ountry before " ,ontra,ted su,h a love and veneration for the
inhabitants* that " entered on a firm resolution never to return to
human.ind* but to /ass the rest of my life amon( these admirable
Houyhnhnms* in the ,ontem/lation and /ra,ti,e of every virtue*
where " ,ould have no e0am/le or in,itement to vi,e& ut it was
de,reed by fortune* my /er/etual enemy* that so (reat a feli,ity
should not fall to my share& However* it is now some ,omfort to
refle,t* that in what " said of my ,ountrymen* " e0tenuated their
faults as mu,h as " durst before so stri,t an e0aminer- and u/on
every arti,le (ave as favourable a turn as the matter would bear&
4or* indeed* who is there alive that will not be swayed by his bias
and /artiality to the /la,e of his birth?
" have related the substan,e of several ,onversations " had with my
master durin( the (reatest /art of the time " had the honour to be
in his servi,e- but have* indeed* for brevity sa.e* omitted mu,h
more than is here set down&
When " had answered all his 1uestions* and his ,uriosity seemed to
be fully satisfied* he sent for me one mornin( early* and ,ommanded
me to sit down at some distan,e =an honour whi,h he had never
before ,onferred u/on me>& He said* 9he had been very seriously
,onsiderin( my whole story* as far as it related both to myself and
my ,ountry- that he loo.ed u/on us as a sort of animals* to whose
share* by what a,,ident he ,ould not ,on:e,ture* some small
/ittan,e of reason had fallen* whereof we made no other use* than
by its assistan,e* to a((ravate our natural ,orru/tions* and to
a,1uire new ones* whi,h nature had not (iven us- that we disarmed
ourselves of the few abilities she had bestowed- had been very
su,,essful in multi/lyin( our ori(inal wants* and seemed to s/end
our whole lives in vain endeavours to su//ly them by our own
inventions- that* as to myself* it was manifest " had neither the
stren(th nor a(ility of a ,ommon 3ahoo- that " wal.ed infirmly on
my hinder feet- had found out a ,ontrivan,e to ma.e my ,laws of no
use or defen,e* and to remove the hair from my ,hin* whi,h was
intended as a shelter from the sun and the weather< lastly* that "
,ould neither run with s/eed* nor ,limb trees li.e my brethren*9 as
he ,alled them* 9the 3ahoos in his ,ountry&
9That our institutions of (overnment and law were /lainly owin( to
our (ross defe,ts in reason* and by ,onse1uen,e in virtue- be,ause
reason alone is suffi,ient to (overn a rational ,reature- whi,h
was* therefore* a ,hara,ter we had no /reten,e to ,hallen(e* even
from the a,,ount " had (iven of my own /eo/le- althou(h he
manifestly /er,eived* that* in order to favour them* " had
,on,ealed many /arti,ulars* and often said the thin( whi,h was not&
9He was the more ,onfirmed in this o/inion* be,ause* he observed*
that as " a(reed in every feature of my body with other 3ahoos*
e0,e/t where it was to my real disadvanta(e in /oint of stren(th*
s/eed* and a,tivity* the shortness of my ,laws* and some other
/arti,ulars where nature had no /art- so from the re/resentation "
had (iven him of our lives* our manners* and our a,tions* he found
as near a resemblan,e in the dis/osition of our minds&9 He said*
9the 3ahoos were .nown to hate one another* more than they did any
different s/e,ies of animals- and the reason usually assi(ned was*
the odiousness of their own sha/es* whi,h all ,ould see in the
rest* but not in themselves& He had therefore be(un to thin. it
not unwise in us to ,over our bodies* and by that invention ,on,eal
many of our deformities from ea,h other* whi,h would else be hardly
su//ortable& ut he now found he had been mista.en* and that the
dissensions of those brutes in his ,ountry were owin( to the same
,ause with ours* as " had des,ribed them& 4or if*9 said he* 9you
throw amon( five 3ahoos as mu,h food as would be suffi,ient for
fifty* they will* instead of eatin( /ea,eably* fall to(ether by the
ears* ea,h sin(le one im/atient to have all to itself- and
therefore a servant was usually em/loyed to stand by while they
were feedin( abroad* and those .e/t at home were tied at a distan,e
from ea,h other< that if a ,ow died of a(e or a,,ident* before a
Houyhnhnm ,ould se,ure it for his own 3ahoos* those in the
nei(hbourhood would ,ome in herds to sei@e it* and then would ensue
su,h a battle as " had des,ribed* with terrible wounds made by
their ,laws on both sides* althou(h they seldom were able to .ill
one another* for want of su,h ,onvenient instruments of death as we
had invented& $t other times* the li.e battles have been fou(ht
between the 3ahoos of several nei(hbourhoods* without any visible
,ause- those of one distri,t wat,hin( all o//ortunities to sur/rise
the ne0t* before they are /re/ared& ut if they find their /ro:e,t
has mis,arried* they return home* and* for want of enemies* en(a(e
in what " ,all a ,ivil war amon( themselves&
9That in some fields of his ,ountry there are ,ertain shinin(
stones of several ,olours* whereof the 3ahoos are violently fond<
and when /art of these stones is fi0ed in the earth* as it
sometimes ha//ens* they will di( with their ,laws for whole days to
(et them out- then ,arry them away* and hide them by hea/s in their
.ennels- but still round with (reat ,aution* for fear their
,omrades should find out their treasure&9 +y master said* 9he
,ould never dis,over the reason of this unnatural a//etite* or how
these stones ,ould be of any use to a 3ahoo- but now he believed it
mi(ht /ro,eed from the same /rin,i/le of avari,e whi,h " had
as,ribed to man.ind& That he had on,e* by way of e0/eriment*
/rivately removed a hea/ of these stones from the /la,e where one
of his 3ahoos had buried it- whereu/on the sordid animal* missin(
his treasure* by his loud lamentin( brou(ht the whole herd to the
/la,e* there miserably howled* then fell to bitin( and tearin( the
rest* be(an to /ine away* would neither eat* nor slee/* nor wor.*
till he ordered a servant /rivately to ,onvey the stones into the
same hole* and hide them as before- whi,h* when his 3ahoo had
found* he /resently re,overed his s/irits and (ood humour* but too.
(ood ,are to remove them to a better hidin( /la,e* and has ever
sin,e been a very servi,eable brute&9
+y master further assured me* whi,h " also observed myself* 9that
in the fields where the shinin( stones abound* the fier,est and
most fre1uent battles are fou(ht* o,,asioned by /er/etual inroads
of the nei(hbourin( 3ahoos&9
He said* 9it was ,ommon* when two 3ahoos dis,overed su,h a stone in
a field* and were ,ontendin( whi,h of them should be the
/ro/rietor* a third would ta.e the advanta(e* and ,arry it away
from them both-9 whi,h my master would needs ,ontend to have some
.ind of resemblan,e with our suits at law- wherein " thou(ht it for
our ,redit not to unde,eive him- sin,e the de,ision he mentioned
was mu,h more e1uitable than many de,rees amon( us- be,ause the
/laintiff and defendant there lost nothin( beside the stone they
,ontended for< whereas our ,ourts of e1uity would never have
dismissed the ,ause* while either of them had any thin( left&
+y master* ,ontinuin( his dis,ourse* said* 9there was nothin( that
rendered the 3ahoos more odious* than their undistin(uishin(
a//etite to devour every thin( that ,ame in their way* whether
herbs* roots* berries* the ,orru/ted flesh of animals* or all
min(led to(ether< and it was /e,uliar in their tem/er* that they
were fonder of what they ,ould (et by ra/ine or stealth* at a
(reater distan,e* than mu,h better food /rovided for them at home&
"f their /rey held out* they would eat till they were ready to
burst- after whi,h* nature had /ointed out to them a ,ertain root
that (ave them a (eneral eva,uation&
9There was also another .ind of root* very :ui,y* but somewhat rare
and diffi,ult to be found* whi,h the 3ahoos sou(ht for with mu,h
ea(erness* and would su,. it with (reat deli(ht- it /rodu,ed in
them the same effe,ts that wine has u/on us& "t would ma.e them
sometimes hu(* and sometimes tear one another- they would howl* and
(rin* and ,hatter* and reel* and tumble* and then fall aslee/ in
the mud&9
" did indeed observe that the 3ahoos were the only animals in this
,ountry sub:e,t to any diseases- whi,h* however* were mu,h fewer
than horses have amon( us* and ,ontra,ted* not by any illAtreatment
they meet with* but by the nastiness and (reediness of that sordid
brute& Neither has their lan(ua(e any more than a (eneral
a//ellation for those maladies* whi,h is borrowed from the name of
the beast* and ,alled hneaAyahoo* or 3ahoo's evil- and the ,ure
/res,ribed is a mi0ture of their own dun( and urine* for,ibly /ut
down the 3ahoo's throat& This " have sin,e often .nown to have
been ta.en with su,,ess* and do here freely re,ommend it to my
,ountrymen for the /ubli, (ood* as an admirable s/e,ifi, a(ainst
all diseases /rodu,ed by re/letion&
9$s to learnin(* (overnment* arts* manufa,tures* and the li.e*9 my
master ,onfessed* 9he ,ould find little or no resemblan,e between
the 3ahoos of that ,ountry and those in ours- for he only meant to
observe what /arity there was in our natures& He had heard*
indeed* some ,urious Houyhnhnms observe* that in most herds there
was a sort of rulin( 3ahoo =as amon( us there is (enerally some
leadin( or /rin,i/al sta( in a /ar.>* who was always more deformed
in body* and mis,hievous in dis/osition* than any of the rest- that
this leader had usually a favourite as li.e himself as he ,ould
(et* whose em/loyment was to li,. his master's feet and /osteriors*
and drive the female 3ahoos to his .ennel- for whi,h he was now and
then rewarded with a /ie,e of ass's flesh& This favourite is hated
by the whole herd* and therefore* to /rote,t himself* .ee/s always
near the /erson of his leader& He usually ,ontinues in offi,e till
a worse ,an be found- but the very moment he is dis,arded* his
su,,essor* at the head of all the 3ahoos in that distri,t* youn(
and old* male and female* ,ome in a body* and dis,har(e their
e0,rements u/on him from head to foot& ut how far this mi(ht be
a//li,able to our ,ourts* and favourites* and ministers of state*
my master said " ,ould best determine&9
" durst ma.e no return to this mali,ious insinuation* whi,h debased
human understandin( below the sa(a,ity of a ,ommon hound* who has
:ud(ment enou(h to distin(uish and follow the ,ry of the ablest do(
in the /a,.* without bein( ever mista.en&
+y master told me* 9there were some 1ualities in the
3ahoos* whi,h he had not observed me to mention* or at least very
sli(htly* in the a,,ounts " had (iven of human.ind&9 He said*
9those animals* li.e other brutes* had their females in ,ommon- but
in this they differed* that the she 3ahoo would admit the males
while she was /re(nant- and that the hes would 1uarrel and fi(ht
with the females* as fier,ely as with ea,h other- both whi,h
/ra,ti,es were su,h de(rees of infamous brutality* as no other
sensitive ,reature ever arrived at&
9$nother thin( he wondered at in the 3ahoos* was their stran(e
dis/osition to nastiness and dirt- whereas there a//ears to be a
natural love of ,leanliness in all other animals&9 $s to the two
former a,,usations* " was (lad to let them /ass without any re/ly*
be,ause " had not a word to offer u/on them in defen,e of my
s/e,ies* whi,h otherwise " ,ertainly had done from my own
in,linations& ut " ,ould have easily vindi,ated human.ind from
the im/utation of sin(ularity u/on the last arti,le* if there had
been any swine in that ,ountry =as unlu,.ily for me there were
not>* whi,h* althou(h it may be a sweeter 1uadru/ed than a 3ahoo*
,annot* " humbly ,on,eive* in :usti,e* /retend to more ,leanliness-
and so his honour himself must have owned* if he had seen their
filthy way of feedin(* and their ,ustom of wallowin( and slee/in(
in the mud&
+y master li.ewise mentioned another 1uality whi,h his servants had
dis,overed in several 3ahoos* and to him was wholly una,,ountable&
He said* 9a fan,y would sometimes ta.e a 3ahoo to retire into a
,orner* to lie down* and howl* and (roan* and s/urn away all that
,ame near him* althou(h he were youn( and fat* wanted neither food
nor water* nor did the servant ima(ine what ,ould /ossibly ail him&
$nd the only remedy they found was* to set him to hard wor.* after
whi,h he would infallibly ,ome to himself&9 To this " was silent
out of /artiality to my own .ind- yet here " ,ould /lainly dis,over
the true seeds of s/leen* whi,h only sei@es on the la@y* the
lu0urious* and the ri,h- who* if they were for,ed to under(o the
same re(imen* " would underta.e for the ,ure&
His honour had further observed* 9that a female 3ahoo would often
stand behind a ban. or a bush* to (a@e on the youn( males /assin(
by* and then a//ear* and hide* usin( many anti, (estures and
(rima,es* at whi,h time it was observed that she had a most
offensive smell- and when any of the males advan,ed* would slowly
retire* often ba,.* and with a ,ounterfeit show of fear*
run off into some ,onvenient /la,e* where she .new the male would
follow her&
9$t other times* if a female stran(er ,ame amon( them* three or
four of her own se0 would (et about her* and stare* and ,hatter*
and (rin* and smell her all over- and then turn off with (estures*
that seemed to e0/ress ,ontem/t and disdain&9
Perha/s my master mi(ht refine a little in these s/e,ulations*
whi,h he had drawn from what he observed himself* or had been told
him by others- however* " ,ould not refle,t without some ama@ement*
and mu,h sorrow* that the rudiments of lewdness* ,o1uetry* ,ensure*
and s,andal* should have /la,e by instin,t in woman.ind&
" e0/e,ted every moment that my master would a,,use the 3ahoos of
those unnatural a//etites in both se0es* so ,ommon amon( us& ut
nature* it seems* has not been so e0/ert a s,hoolAmistress- and
these /oliter /leasures are entirely the /rodu,tions of art and
reason on our side of the (lobe&
2H$PTER 5"""&
'The author relates several /arti,ulars of the 3ahoos& The (reat
virtues of the Houyhnhnms& The edu,ation and e0er,ise of their
youth& Their (eneral assembly&)
$s " ou(ht to have understood human nature mu,h better than "
su//osed it /ossible for my master to do* so it was easy to a//ly
the ,hara,ter he (ave of the 3ahoos to myself and my ,ountrymen-
and " believed " ,ould yet ma.e further dis,overies* from my own
observation& " therefore often be((ed his honour to let me (o
amon( the herds of 3ahoos in the nei(hbourhood- to whi,h he always
very (ra,iously ,onsented* bein( /erfe,tly ,onvin,ed that the
hatred " bore these brutes would never suffer me to be ,orru/ted by
them- and his honour ordered one of his servants* a stron( sorrel
na(* very honest and (oodAnatured* to be my (uard- without whose
/rote,tion " durst not underta.e su,h adventures& 4or " have
already told the reader how mu,h " was /estered by these odious
animals* u/on my first arrival- and " afterwards failed very
narrowly* three or four times* of fallin( into their ,lut,hes* when
" ha//ened to stray at any distan,e without my han(er& $nd " have
reason to believe they had some ima(ination that " was of their own
s/e,ies* whi,h " often assisted myself by stri//in( u/ my sleeves*
and showin( my na.ed arms and breasts in their si(ht* when my
/rote,tor was with me& $t whi,h times they would a//roa,h as near
as they durst* and imitate my a,tions after the manner of mon.eys*
but ever with (reat si(ns of hatred- as a tame :a,.daw with ,a/ and
sto,.in(s is always /erse,uted by the wild ones* when he ha//ens to
be (ot amon( them&
They are /rodi(iously nimble from their infan,y& However* " on,e
,au(ht a youn( male of three years old* and endeavoured* by all
mar.s of tenderness* to ma.e it 1uiet- but the little im/ fell a
s1uallin(* and s,rat,hin(* and bitin( with su,h violen,e* that "
was for,ed to let it (o- and it was hi(h time* for a whole troo/ of
old ones ,ame about us at the noise* but findin( the ,ub was safe
=for away it ran>* and my sorrel na( bein( by* they durst not
venture near us& " observed the youn( animal's flesh to smell very
ran.* and the stin. was somewhat between a weasel and a fo0* but
mu,h more disa(reeable& " for(ot another ,ir,umstan,e =and /erha/s
" mi(ht have the reader's /ardon if it were wholly omitted>* that
while " held the odious vermin in my hands* it voided its filthy
e0,rements of a yellow li1uid substan,e all over my ,lothes- but by
(ood fortune there was a small broo. hard by* where " washed myself
as ,lean as " ,ould- althou(h " durst not ,ome into my master's
/resen,e until " were suffi,iently aired&
y what " ,ould dis,over* the 3ahoos a//ear to be the most
untea,hable of all animals< their ,a/a,ity never rea,hin( hi(her
than to draw or ,arry burdens& 3et " am of o/inion* this defe,t
arises ,hiefly from a /erverse* restive dis/osition- for they are
,unnin(* mali,ious* trea,herous* and reven(eful& They are stron(
and hardy* but of a ,owardly s/irit* and* by ,onse1uen,e* insolent*
ab:e,t* and ,ruel& "t is observed* that the red haired of both
se0es are more libidinous and mis,hievous than the rest* whom yet
they mu,h e0,eed in stren(th and a,tivity&
The Houyhnhnms .ee/ the 3ahoos for /resent use in huts not far from
the house- but the rest are sent abroad to ,ertain fields* where
they di( u/ roots* eat several .inds of herbs* and sear,h about for
,arrion* or sometimes ,at,h weasels and luhimuhs =a sort of wild
rat>* whi,h they (reedily devour& Nature has tau(ht them to di(
dee/ holes with their nails on the side of a risin( (round* wherein
they lie by themselves- only the .ennels of the females are lar(er*
suffi,ient to hold two or three ,ubs&
They swim from their infan,y li.e fro(s* and are able to ,ontinue
lon( under water* where they often ta.e fish* whi,h the females
,arry home to their youn(& $nd* u/on this o,,asion* " ho/e the
reader will /ardon my relatin( an odd adventure&
ein( one day abroad with my /rote,tor the sorrel na(* and the
weather e0,eedin( hot* " entreated him to let me bathe in a river
that was near& He ,onsented* and " immediately stri//ed myself
star. na.ed* and went down softly into the stream& "t ha//ened
that a youn( female 3ahoo* standin( behind a ban.* saw the whole
/ro,eedin(* and inflamed by desire* as the na( and " ,on:e,tured*
,ame runnin( with all s/eed* and lea/ed into the water* within five
yards of the /la,e where " bathed& " was never in my life so
terribly fri(htened& The na( was (ra@in( at some distan,e* not
sus/e,tin( any harm& She embra,ed me after a most fulsome manner&
" roared as loud as " ,ould* and the na( ,ame (allo/in( towards me*
whereu/on she 1uitted her (ras/* with the utmost relu,tan,y* and
lea/ed u/on the o//osite ban.* where she stood (a@in( and howlin(
all the time " was /uttin( on my ,lothes&
This was a matter of diversion to my master and his family* as well
as of mortifi,ation to myself& 4or now " ,ould no lon(er deny that
" was a real 3ahoo in every limb and feature* sin,e the females had
a natural /ro/ensity to me* as one of their own s/e,ies& Neither
was the hair of this brute of a red ,olour =whi,h mi(ht have been
some e0,use for an a//etite a little irre(ular>* but bla,. as a
sloe* and her ,ountenan,e did not ma.e an a//earan,e alto(ether so
hideous as the rest of her .ind- for " thin. she ,ould not be above
eleven years old&
Havin( lived three years in this ,ountry* the reader* " su//ose*
will e0/e,t that " should* li.e other travellers* (ive him some
a,,ount of the manners and ,ustoms of its inhabitants* whi,h it was
indeed my /rin,i/al study to learn&
$s these noble Houyhnhnms are endowed by nature with a (eneral
dis/osition to all virtues* and have no ,on,e/tions or ideas of
what is evil in a rational ,reature* so their (rand ma0im is* to
,ultivate reason* and to be wholly (overned by it& Neither is
reason amon( them a /oint /roblemati,al* as with us* where men ,an
ar(ue with /lausibility on both sides of the 1uestion* but
you with immediate ,onvi,tion- as it must needs do* where it is not
min(led* obs,ured* or dis,oloured* by /assion and interest& "
remember it was with e0treme diffi,ulty that " ,ould brin( my
master to understand the meanin( of the word o/inion* or how a
/oint ,ould be dis/utable- be,ause reason tau(ht us to affirm or
deny only where we are ,ertain- and beyond our .nowled(e we ,annot
do either& So that ,ontroversies* wran(lin(s* dis/utes* and
/ositiveness* in false or dubious /ro/ositions* are evils un.nown
amon( the Houyhnhnms& "n the li.e manner* when " used to e0/lain
to him our several systems of natural /hiloso/hy* he would lau(h*
9that a ,reature /retendin( to reason* should value itself u/on the
.nowled(e of other /eo/le's ,on:e,tures* and in thin(s where that
.nowled(e* if it were ,ertain* ,ould be of no use&9 Wherein he
a(reed entirely with the sentiments of So,rates* as Plato delivers
them- whi,h " mention as the hi(hest honour " ,an do that /rin,e of
/hiloso/hers& " have often sin,e refle,ted* what destru,tion su,h
do,trine would ma.e in the libraries of Euro/e- and how many /aths
of fame would be then shut u/ in the learned world&
4riendshi/ and benevolen,e are the two /rin,i/al virtues amon( the
Houyhnhnms- and these not ,onfined to /arti,ular ob:e,ts* but
universal to the whole ra,e- for a stran(er from the remotest /art
is e1ually treated with the nearest nei(hbour* and wherever he
(oes* loo.s u/on himself as at home& They /reserve de,en,y and
,ivility in the hi(hest de(rees* but are alto(ether i(norant of
,eremony& They have no fondness for their ,olts or foals* but the
,are they ta.e in edu,atin( them /ro,eeds entirely from the
di,tates of reason& $nd " observed my master to show the same
affe,tion to his nei(hbour's issue* that he had for his own& They
will have it that nature tea,hes them to love the whole s/e,ies*
and it is reason only that a distin,tion of /ersons* where
there is a su/erior de(ree of virtue&
When the matron Houyhnhnms have /rodu,ed one of ea,h se0* they no
lon(er a,,om/any with their ,onsorts* e0,e/t they lose one of their
issue by some ,asualty* whi,h very seldom ha//ens- but in su,h a
,ase they meet a(ain- or when the li.e a,,ident befalls a /erson
whose wife is /ast bearin(* some other ,ou/le bestow on him one of
their own ,olts* and then (o to(ether a(ain until the mother is
/re(nant& This ,aution is ne,essary* to /revent the ,ountry from
bein( overburdened with numbers& ut the ra,e of inferior
Houyhnhnms* bred u/ to be servants* is not so stri,tly limited u/on
this arti,le< these are allowed to /rodu,e three of ea,h se0* to
be domesti,s in the noble families&
"n their marria(es* they are e0a,tly ,areful to ,hoose su,h ,olours
as will not ma.e any disa(reeable mi0ture in the breed& Stren(th
is ,hiefly valued in the male* and ,omeliness in the female- not
u/on the a,,ount of love* but to /reserve the ra,e from
de(eneratin(- for where a female ha//ens to e0,el in stren(th* a
,onsort is ,hosen* with re(ard to ,omeliness&
2ourtshi/* love* /resents* :ointures* settlements have no /la,e in
their thou(hts* or terms whereby to e0/ress them in their lan(ua(e&
The youn( ,ou/le meet* and are :oined* merely be,ause it is the
determination of their /arents and friends- it is what they see
done every day* and they loo. u/on it as one of the ne,essary
a,tions of a reasonable bein(& ut the violation of marria(e* or
any other un,hastity* was never heard of- and the married /air /ass
their lives with the same friendshi/ and mutual benevolen,e* that
they bear to all others of the same s/e,ies who ,ome in their way*
without :ealousy* fondness* 1uarrellin(* or dis,ontent&
"n edu,atin( the youth of both se0es* their method is admirable*
and hi(hly deserves our imitation& These are not suffered to taste
a (rain of oats* e0,e/t u/on ,ertain days* till ei(hteen years old-
nor mil.* but very rarely- and in summer they (ra@e two hours in
the mornin(* and as many in the evenin(* whi,h their /arents
li.ewise observe- but the servants are not allowed above half that
time* and a (reat /art of their (rass is brou(ht home* whi,h they
eat at the most ,onvenient hours* when they ,an be best s/ared from
Tem/eran,e* industry* e0er,ise* and ,leanliness* are the lessons
e1ually en:oined to the youn( ones of both se0es< and my master
thou(ht it monstrous in us* to (ive the females a different .ind of
edu,ation from the males* e0,e/t in some arti,les of domesti,
mana(ement- whereby* as he truly observed* one half of our natives
were (ood for nothin( but brin(in( ,hildren into the world- and to
trust the ,are of our ,hildren to su,h useless animals* he said*
was yet a (reater instan,e of brutality&
ut the Houyhnhnms train u/ their youth to stren(th* s/eed* and
hardiness* by e0er,isin( them in runnin( ra,es u/ and down stee/
hills* and over hard stony (rounds- and when they are all in a
sweat* they are ordered to lea/ over head and ears into a /ond or
river& 4our times a year the youth of a ,ertain distri,t meet to
show their /rofi,ien,y in runnin( and lea/in(* and other feats of
stren(th and a(ility- where the vi,tor is rewarded with a son( in
his or her /raise& #n this festival* the servants drive a herd of
3ahoos into the field* laden with hay* and oats* and mil.* for a
re/ast to the Houyhnhnms- after whi,h* these brutes are immediately
driven ba,. a(ain* for fear of bein( noisome to the assembly&
Every fourth year* at the vernal e1uino0* there is a re/resentative
,oun,il of the whole nation* whi,h meets in a /lain about twenty
miles from our house* and ,ontinues about five or si0 days& Here
they in1uire into the state and ,ondition of the several distri,ts-
whether they abound or be defi,ient in hay or oats* or ,ows* or
3ahoos- and wherever there is any want =whi,h is but seldom> it is
immediately su//lied by unanimous ,onsent and ,ontribution& Here
li.ewise the re(ulation of ,hildren is settled< as for instan,e*
if a Houyhnhnm has two males* he ,han(es one of them with another
that has two females- and when a ,hild has been lost by any
,asualty* where the mother is /ast breedin(* it is determined what
family in the distri,t shall breed another to su//ly the loss&
'$ (rand debate at the (eneral assembly of the Houyhnhnms* and how
it was determined& The learnin( of the Houyhnhnms& Their
buildin(s& Their manner of burials& The defe,tiveness of their
#ne of these (rand assemblies was held in my time* about three
months before my de/arture* whither my master went as the
re/resentative of our distri,t& "n this ,oun,il was resumed their
old debate* and indeed the only debate that ever ha//ened in their
,ountry- whereof my master* after his return* (ive me a very
/arti,ular a,,ount&
The 1uestion to be debated was* 9whether the 3ahoos should be
e0terminated from the fa,e of the earth?9 #ne of the members for
the affirmative offered several ar(uments of (reat stren(th and
wei(ht* alle(in(* 9that as the 3ahoos were the most filthy*
noisome* and deformed animals whi,h nature ever /rodu,ed* so they
were the most restive and indo,ible* mis,hievous and mali,ious-
they would /rivately su,. the teats of the Houyhnhnms' ,ows* .ill
and devour their ,ats* tram/le down their oats and (rass* if they
were not ,ontinually wat,hed* and ,ommit a thousand other
e0trava(an,ies&9 He too. noti,e of a (eneral tradition* 9that
3ahoos had not been always in their ,ountry- but that many a(es
a(o* two of these brutes a//eared to(ether u/on a mountain- whether
/rodu,ed by the heat of the sun u/on ,orru/ted mud and slime* or
from the oo@e and froth of the sea* was never .nown- that these
3ahoos en(endered* and their brood* in a short time* (rew so
numerous as to overrun and infest the whole nation- that the
Houyhnhnms* to (et rid of this evil* made a (eneral huntin(* and at
last en,losed the whole herd- and destroyin( the elder* every
Houyhnhnm .e/t two youn( ones in a .ennel* and brou(ht them to su,h
a de(ree of tameness* as an animal* so sava(e by nature* ,an be
,a/able of a,1uirin(* usin( them for drau(ht and ,arria(e- that
there seemed to be mu,h truth in this tradition* and that those
,reatures ,ould not be yinhniamshy =or abori(ines of the land>*
be,ause of the violent hatred the Houyhnhnms* as well as all other
animals* bore them* whi,h* althou(h their evil dis/osition
suffi,iently deserved* ,ould never have arrived at so hi(h a de(ree
if they had been abori(ines* or else they would have lon( sin,e
been rooted out- that the inhabitants* a fan,y to use the
servi,e of the 3ahoos* had* very im/rudently* ne(le,ted to
,ultivate the breed of asses* whi,h are a ,omely animal* easily
.e/t* more tame and orderly* without any offensive smell* stron(
enou(h for labour* althou(h they yield to the other in a(ility of
body* and if their brayin( be no a(reeable sound* it is far
/referable to the horrible howlin(s of the 3ahoos&9
Several others de,lared their sentiments to the same /ur/ose* when
my master /ro/osed an e0/edient to the assembly* whereof he had
indeed borrowed the hint from me& 9He a//roved of the tradition
mentioned by the honourable member who s/o.e before* and affirmed*
that the two 3ahoos said to be seen first amon( them* had been
driven thither over the sea- that ,omin( to land* and bein(
forsa.en by their ,om/anions* they retired to the mountains* and
de(eneratin( by de(rees* be,ame in /ro,ess of time mu,h more sava(e
than those of their own s/e,ies in the ,ountry when,e these two
ori(inals ,ame& The reason of this assertion was* that he had now
in his /ossession a ,ertain wonderful 3ahoo =meanin( myself> whi,h
most of them had heard of* and many of them had seen& He then
related to them how he first found me- that my body was all ,overed
with an artifi,ial ,om/osure of the s.ins and hairs of other
animals- that " s/o.e in a lan(ua(e of my own* and had thorou(hly
learned theirs- that " had related to him the a,,idents whi,h
brou(ht me thither- that when he saw me without my ,overin(* " was
an e0a,t 3ahoo in every /art* only of a whiter ,olour* less hairy*
and with shorter ,laws& He added* how " had endeavoured to
/ersuade him* that in my own and other ,ountries* the 3ahoos a,ted
as the (overnin(* rational animal* and held the Houyhnhnms in
servitude- that he observed in me all the 1ualities of a 3ahoo*
only a little more ,ivili@ed by some tin,ture of reason* whi,h*
however* was in a de(ree as far inferior to the Houyhnhnm ra,e* as
the 3ahoos of their ,ountry were to me- that* amon( other thin(s* "
mentioned a ,ustom we had of ,astratin( Houyhnhnms when they were
youn(* in order to render them tame- that the o/eration was easy
and safe- that it was no shame to learn wisdom from brutes* as
industry is tau(ht by the ant* and buildin( by the swallow =for so
" translate the word lyhannh* althou(h it be a mu,h lar(er fowl>-
that this invention mi(ht be /ra,tised u/on the youn(er 3ahoos
here* whi,h besides renderin( them tra,table and fitter for use*
would in an a(e /ut an end to the whole s/e,ies* without destroyin(
life- that in the mean time the Houyhnhnms should be e0horted to
,ultivate the breed of asses* whi,h* as they are in all res/e,ts
more valuable brutes* so they have this advanta(e* to be fit for
servi,e at five years old* whi,h the others are not till twelve&9
This was all my master thou(ht fit to tell me* at that time* of
what /assed in the (rand ,oun,il& ut he was /leased to ,on,eal
one /arti,ular* whi,h related /ersonally to myself* whereof " soon
felt the unha//y effe,t* as the reader will .now in its /ro/er
/la,e* and when,e " date all the su,,eedin( misfortunes of my life&
The Houyhnhnms have no letters* and ,onse1uently their .nowled(e is
all traditional& ut there ha//enin( few events of any moment
amon( a /eo/le so well united* naturally dis/osed to every virtue*
wholly (overned by reason* and ,ut off from all ,ommer,e with other
nations* the histori,al /art is easily /reserved without burdenin(
their memories& " have already observed that they are sub:e,t to
no diseases* and therefore ,an have no need of /hysi,ians&
However* they have e0,ellent medi,ines* ,om/osed of herbs* to ,ure
a,,idental bruises and ,uts in the /astern or fro( of the foot* by
shar/ stones* as well as other maims and hurts in the several /arts
of the body&
They ,al,ulate the year by the revolution of the sun and moon* but
use no subdivisions into wee.s& They are well enou(h a,1uainted
with the motions of those two luminaries* and understand the nature
of e,li/ses- and this is the utmost /ro(ress of their astronomy&
"n /oetry* they must be allowed to e0,el all other mortals- wherein
the :ustness of their similes* and the minuteness as well as
e0a,tness of their des,ri/tions* are indeed inimitable& Their
verses abound very mu,h in both of these* and usually ,ontain
either some e0alted notions of friendshi/ and benevolen,e or the
/raises of those who were vi,tors in ra,es and other bodily
e0er,ises& Their buildin(s* althou(h very rude and sim/le* are not
in,onvenient* but well ,ontrived to defend them from all in:uries
of and heat& They have a .ind of tree* whi,h at forty years old
loosens in the root* and falls with the first storm< it (rows very
strai(ht* and bein( /ointed li.e with a shar/ stone =for the
Houyhnhnms .now not the use of iron>* they sti,. them ere,t in the
(round* about ten in,hes asunder* and then weave in oat straw* or
sometimes wattles* between them& The roof is made after the same
manner* and so are the doors&
The Houyhnhnms use the hollow /art* between the /astern and the
hoof of their foreAfoot* as we do our hands* and this with (reater
de0terity than " ,ould at first ima(ine& " have seen a white mare
of our family thread a needle =whi,h " lent her on /ur/ose> with
that :oint& They mil. their ,ows* rea/ their oats* and do all the
wor. whi,h re1uires hands* in the same manner& They have a .ind of
hard flints* whi,h* by (rindin( a(ainst other stones* they form
into instruments* that serve instead of wed(es* a0es* and hammers&
With tools made of these flints* they li.ewise ,ut their hay* and
rea/ their oats* whi,h there (row naturally in several fields- the
3ahoos draw home the sheaves in ,arria(es* and the servants tread
them in ,ertain ,overed huts to (et out the (rain* whi,h is .e/t in
stores& They ma.e a rude .ind of earthen and wooden vessels* and
ba.e the former in the sun&
"f they ,an avoid ,asualties* they die only of old a(e* and are
buried in the obs,urest /la,es that ,an be found* their friends and
relations e0/ressin( neither :oy nor (rief at their de/arture- nor
does the dyin( /erson dis,over the least re(ret that he is leavin(
the world* any more than if he were u/on returnin( home from a
visit to one of his nei(hbours& " remember my master havin( on,e
made an a//ointment with a friend and his family to ,ome to his
house* u/on some affair of im/ortan,e< on the day fi0ed* the
mistress and her two ,hildren ,ame very late- she made two e0,uses*
first for her husband* who* as she said* ha//ened that very mornin(
to shnuwnh& The word is stron(ly e0/ressive in their lan(ua(e* but
not easily rendered into En(lish- it si(nifies* 9to retire to his
first mother&9 Her e0,use for not ,omin( sooner* was* that her
husband dyin( late in the mornin(* she was a (ood while ,onsultin(
her servants about a ,onvenient /la,e where his body should be
laid- and " observed* she behaved herself at our house as
,heerfully as the rest& She died about three months after&
They live (enerally to seventy* or seventyAfive years* very seldom
to fours,ore& Some wee.s before their death* they feel a (radual
de,ay- but without /ain& %urin( this time they are mu,h visited by
their friends* be,ause they ,annot (o abroad with their usual ease
and satisfa,tion& However* about ten days before their death*
whi,h they seldom fail in ,om/utin(* they return the visits that
have been made them by those who are nearest in the nei(hbourhood*
bein( ,arried in a ,onvenient sled(e drawn by 3ahoos- whi,h vehi,le
they use* not only u/on this o,,asion* but when they (row old* u/on
lon( :ourneys* or when they are lamed by any a,,ident< and
therefore when the dyin( Houyhnhnms return those visits* they ta.e
a solemn leave of their friends* as if they were (oin( to some
remote /art of the ,ountry* where they desi(ned to /ass the rest of
their lives&
" .now not whether it may be worth observin(* that the Houyhnhnms
have no word in their lan(ua(e to e0/ress any thin( that is evil*
e0,e/t what they borrow from the deformities or ill 1ualities of
the 3ahoos& Thus they denote the folly of a servant* an omission
of a ,hild* a stone that ,uts their feet* a ,ontinuan,e of foul or
unseasonable weather* and the li.e* by addin( to ea,h the e/ithet
of 3ahoo& 4or instan,e* hhnm 3ahoo- whnaholm 3ahoo* ynlhmndwihlma
3ahoo* and an illA,ontrived house ynholmhnmrohlnw 3ahoo&
" ,ould* with (reat /leasure* enlar(e further u/on the manners and
virtues of this e0,ellent /eo/le- but intendin( in a short time to
/ublish a volume by itself* e0/ressly u/on that sub:e,t* " refer
the reader thither- and* in the mean time* /ro,eed to relate my own
sad ,atastro/he&
'The author's e,onomy* and ha//y life* amon( the Houyhnhnms& His
(reat im/rovement in virtue by ,onversin( with them& Their
,onversations& The author has noti,e (iven him by his master* that
he must de/art from the ,ountry& He falls into a swoon for (rief-
but submits& He ,ontrives and finishes a ,anoe by the hel/ of a
fellowAservant* and /uts to sea at a venture&)
" had settled my little e,onomy to my own heart's ,ontent& +y
master had ordered a room to be made for me* after their manner*
about si0 yards from the house< the sides and floors of whi,h "
/lastered with ,lay* and ,overed with rushAmats of my own
,ontrivin(& " had beaten hem/* whi,h there (rows wild* and made of
it a sort of ti,.in(- this " filled with the feathers of several
birds " had ta.en with s/rin(es made of 3ahoos' hairs* and were
e0,ellent food& " had wor.ed two ,hairs with my .nife* the sorrel
na( hel/in( me in the (rosser and more laborious /art& When my
,lothes were worn to ra(s* " made myself others with the s.ins of
rabbits* and of a ,ertain beautiful animal* about the same si@e*
,alled nnuhnoh* the of whi,h is ,overed with a fine down& #f
these " also made very tolerable sto,.in(s& " soled my shoes with
wood* whi,h " ,ut from a tree* and fitted to the u//erAleather- and
when this was worn out* " su//lied it with the s.ins of 3ahoos
dried in the sun& " often (ot honey out of hollow trees* whi,h "
min(led with water* or ate with my bread& No man ,ould more verify
the truth of these two ma0ims* 9That nature is very easily
satisfied-9 and* 9That ne,essity is the mother of invention&9 "
en:oyed /erfe,t health of body* and tran1uillity of mind- " did not
feel the trea,hery or in,onstan,y of a friend* nor the in:uries of
a se,ret or o/en enemy& " had no o,,asion of bribin(* flatterin(*
or /im/in(* to /ro,ure the favour of any (reat man* or of his
minion- " wanted no fen,e a(ainst fraud or o//ression< here was
neither /hysi,ian to destroy my body* nor lawyer to ruin my
fortune- no informer to wat,h my words and a,tions* or for(e
a,,usations a(ainst me for hire< here were no (ibers* ,ensurers*
ba,.biters* /i,./o,.ets* hi(hwaymen* housebrea.ers* attorneys*
bawds* buffoons* (amesters* /oliti,ians* wits* s/leneti,s* tedious
tal.ers* ,ontrovertists* ravishers* murderers* robbers* virtuosos-
no leaders* or followers* of /arty and fa,tion- no en,oura(ers to
vi,e* by sedu,ement or e0am/les- no dun(eon* a0es* (ibbets*
whi//in(A/osts* or /illories- no ,heatin( sho/.ee/ers or me,hani,s-
no /ride* vanity* or affe,tation- no fo/s* bullies* drun.ards*
strollin( whores* or /o0es- no rantin(* lewd* e0/ensive wives- no
stu/id* /roud /edants- no im/ortunate* overbearin(* 1uarrelsome*
noisy* roarin(* em/ty* ,on,eited* swearin( ,om/anions- no
s,oundrels raised from the dust u/on the merit of their vi,es* or
nobility thrown into it on a,,ount of their virtues- no lords*
fiddlers* :ud(es* or dan,in(Amasters&
" had the favour of bein( admitted to several Houyhnhnms* who ,ame
to visit or dine with my master- where his honour (ra,iously
suffered me to wait in the room* and listen to their dis,ourse&
oth he and his ,om/any would often des,end to as. me 1uestions*
and re,eive my answers& " had also sometimes the honour of
attendin( my master in his visits to others& " never /resumed to
s/ea.* e0,e/t in answer to a 1uestion- and then " did it with
inward re(ret* be,ause it was a loss of so mu,h time for im/rovin(
myself- but " was infinitely deli(hted with the station of an
humble auditor in su,h ,onversations* where nothin( /assed but what
was useful* e0/ressed in the fewest and most si(nifi,ant words-
where* as " have already said* the (reatest de,en,y was observed*
without the least de(ree of ,eremony- where no /erson s/o.e without
bein( /leased himself* and /leasin( his ,om/anions- where there was
no interru/tion* tediousness* heat* or differen,e of sentiments&
They have a notion* that when /eo/le are met to(ether* a short
silen,e does mu,h im/rove ,onversation< this " found to be true-
for durin( those little intermissions of tal.* new ideas would
arise in their minds* whi,h very mu,h enlivened the dis,ourse&
Their sub:e,ts are* (enerally on friendshi/ and benevolen,e* on
order and e,onomy- sometimes u/on the visible o/erations of nature*
or an,ient traditions- u/on the bounds and limits of virtue- u/on
the unerrin( rules of reason* or u/on some determinations to be
ta.en at the ne0t (reat assembly< and often u/on the various
e0,ellen,es of /oetry& " may add* without vanity* that my /resen,e
often (ave them suffi,ient matter for dis,ourse* be,ause it
afforded my master an o,,asion of lettin( his friends into the
history of me and my ,ountry* u/on whi,h they were all /leased to
des,ant* in a manner not very advanta(eous to human.ind< and for
that reason " shall not re/eat what they said- only " may be
allowed to observe* that his honour* to my (reat admiration*
a//eared to understand the nature of 3ahoos mu,h better than
myself& He went throu(h all our vi,es and follies* and dis,overed
many* whi,h " had never mentioned to him* by only su//osin( what
1ualities a 3ahoo of their ,ountry* with a small /ro/ortion of
reason* mi(ht be ,a/able of e0ertin(- and ,on,luded* with too mu,h
/robability* 9how vile* as well as miserable* su,h a ,reature must
" freely ,onfess* that all the little .nowled(e " have of any
value* was a,1uired by the le,tures " re,eived from my master* and
from hearin( the dis,ourses of him and his friends- to whi,h "
should be /rouder to listen* than to di,tate to the (reatest and
wisest assembly in Euro/e& " admired the stren(th* ,omeliness* and
s/eed of the inhabitants- and su,h a ,onstellation of virtues* in
su,h amiable /ersons* /rodu,ed in me the hi(hest veneration& $t
first* indeed* " did not feel that natural awe* whi,h the 3ahoos
and all other animals bear toward them- but it (rew u/on me by
de,rees* mu,h sooner than " ima(ined* and was min(led with a
res/e,tful love and (ratitude* that they would ,ondes,end to
distin(uish me from the rest of my s/e,ies&
When " thou(ht of my family* my friends* my ,ountrymen* or the
human ra,e in (eneral* " ,onsidered them* as they really were*
3ahoos in sha/e and dis/osition* /erha/s a little more ,ivili@ed*
and 1ualified with the (ift of s/ee,h- but no other use of
reason* than to im/rove and multi/ly those vi,es whereof their
brethren in this ,ountry had only the share that nature allotted
them& When " ha//ened to behold the refle,tion of my own form in a
la.e or fountain* " turned away my fa,e in horror and detestation
of myself* and ,ould better endure the si(ht of a ,ommon 3ahoo than
of my own /erson& y ,onversin( with the Houyhnhnms* and
u/on them with deli(ht* " fell to imitate their (ait and (esture*
whi,h is now (rown into a habit- and my friends often tell me* in a
blunt way* 9that " trot li.e a horse-9 whi,h* however* " ta.e for a
(reat ,om/liment& Neither shall " disown* that in s/ " am
a/t to fall into the voi,e and manner of the Houyhnhnms* and hear
myself ridi,uled on that a,,ount* without the least mortifi,ation&
"n the midst of all this ha//iness* and when " loo.ed u/on myself
to be fully settled for life* my master sent for me one mornin( a
little earlier than his usual hour& " observed by his ,ountenan,e
that he was in some /er/le0ity* and at a loss how to be(in what he
had to s/ea.& $fter a short silen,e* he told me* 9he did not .now
how " would ta.e what he was (oin( to say< that in the last
(eneral assembly* when the affair of the 3ahoos was entered u/on*
the re/resentatives had ta.en offen,e at his .ee/in( a 3ahoo
=meanin( myself> in his family* more li.e a Houyhnhnm than a brute
animal- that he was .nown fre1uently to ,onverse with me* as if he
,ould re,eive some advanta(e or /leasure in my ,om/any- that su,h a
/ra,ti,e was not a(reeable to reason or nature* or a thin( ever
heard of before amon( them- the assembly did therefore e0hort him
either to em/loy me li.e the rest of my s/e,ies* or ,ommand me to
swim ba,. to the /la,e when,e " ,ame< that the first of these
e0/edients was utterly re:e,ted by all the Houyhnhnms who had ever
seen me at his house or their own- for they alle(ed* that be,ause "
had some rudiments of reason* added to the natural /ravity of those
animals* it was to be feared " mi(ht be able to sedu,e them into
the woody and mountainous /arts of the ,ountry* and brin( them in
troo/s by ni(ht to destroy the Houyhnhnms' ,attle* as bein(
naturally of the ravenous .ind* and averse from labour&9
+y master added* 9that he was daily /ressed by the Houyhnhnms of
the nei(hbourhood to have the assembly's e0hortation e0e,uted*
whi,h he ,ould not /ut off mu,h lon(er& He doubted it would be
im/ossible for me to swim to another ,ountry- and therefore wished
" would ,ontrive some sort of vehi,le* resemblin( those " had
des,ribed to him* that mi(ht ,arry me on the sea- in whi,h wor. "
should have the assistan,e of his own servants* as well as those of
his nei(hbours&9 He ,on,luded* 9that for his own /art* he ,ould
have been ,ontent to .ee/ me in his servi,e as lon( as " lived-
be,ause he found " had ,ured myself of some bad habits and
dis/ositions* by endeavourin(* as far as my inferior nature was
,a/able* to imitate the Houyhnhnms&9
" should here observe to the reader* that a de,ree of the (eneral
assembly in this ,ountry is e0/ressed by the word hnhloayn* whi,h
si(nifies an e0hortation* as near as " ,an render it- for they have
no ,on,e/tion how a rational ,reature ,an be ,om/elled* but only
advised* or e0horted- be,ause no /erson ,an disobey reason* without
(ivin( u/ his ,laim to be a rational ,reature&
" was stru,. with the utmost (rief and des/air at my master's
dis,ourse- and bein( unable to su//ort the a(onies " was under* "
fell into a swoon at his feet& When " ,ame to myself* he told me
9that he ,on,luded " had been dead-9 for these /eo/le are sub:e,t
to no su,h imbe,ilities of nature& " answered in a faint voi,e*
9that death would have been too (reat a ha//iness- that althou(h "
,ould not blame the assembly's e0hortation* or the ur(en,y of his
friends- yet* in my wea. and ,orru/t :ud(ment* " thou(ht it mi(ht
,onsist with reason to have been less ri(orous- that " ,ould not
swim a lea(ue* and /robably the nearest land to theirs mi(ht be
distant above a hundred< that many materials* ne,essary for
a small vessel to ,arry me off* were wholly wantin( in this
,ountry- whi,h* however* " would attem/t* in obedien,e and
(ratitude to his honour* althou(h " ,on,luded the thin( to be
im/ossible* and therefore loo.ed on myself as already devoted to
destru,tion- that the ,ertain /ros/e,t of an unnatural death was
the least of my evils- for* su//osin( " should es,a/e with life by
some stran(e adventure* how ,ould " thin. with tem/er of /assin( my
days amon( 3ahoos* and rela/sin( into my old ,orru/tions* for want
of e0am/les to lead and .ee/ me within the /aths of virtue? that "
.new too well u/on what solid reasons all the determinations of the
wise Houyhnhnms were founded* not to be sha.en by ar(uments of
mine* a miserable 3ahoo- and therefore* after /resentin( him with
my humble than.s for the offer of his servants' assistan,e in a vessel* and desirin( a reasonable time for so diffi,ult a
wor.* " told him " would endeavour to /reserve a wret,hed bein(-
and if ever " returned to En(land* was not without ho/es of bein(
useful to my own s/e,ies* by ,elebratin( the /raises of the
renowned Houyhnhnms* and /ro/osin( their virtues to the imitation
of man.ind&9
+y master* in a few words* made me a very (ra,ious re/ly- allowed
me the s/a,e of two months to finish my boat- and ordered the
sorrel na(* my fellowAservant =for so* at this distan,e* " may
/resume to ,all him>* to follow my instru,tion- be,
use " told my
master* 9that his hel/ would be suffi,ient* and " .new he had a
tenderness for me&9
"n his ,om/any* my first business was to (o to that /art of the
,oast where my rebellious ,rew had ordered me to be set on shore&
" (ot u/on a hei(ht* and on every side into the sea-
fan,ied " saw a small island toward the northAeast& " too. out my
/o,.et (lass* and ,ould then ,learly distin(uish it above five
lea(ues off* as " ,om/uted- but it a//eared to the sorrel na( to be
only a blue ,loud< for as he had no ,on,e/tion of any ,ountry
beside his own* so he ,ould not be as e0/ert in distin(uishin(
remote ob:e,ts at sea* as we who so mu,h ,onverse in that element&
$fter " had dis,overed this island* " ,onsidered no further- but
resolved it should if /ossible* be the first /la,e of my
banishment* leavin( the ,onse1uen,e to fortune&
" returned home* and ,onsultin( with the sorrel na(* we went into a
,o/se at some distan,e* where " with my .nife* and he with a shar/
flint* fastened very artifi,ially after their manner* to a wooden
handle* ,ut down several oa. wattles* about the thi,.ness of a* and some lar(er /ie,es& ut " shall not trouble the
reader with a /arti,ular des,ri/tion of my own me,hani,s- let it
suffi,e to say* that in si0 wee.s time with the hel/ of the sorrel
na(* who /erformed the /arts that re1uired most labour* " finished
a sort of "ndian ,anoe* but mu,h lar(er* ,overin( it with the s.ins
of 3ahoos* well stit,hed to(ether with hem/en threads of my own +y sail was li.ewise ,om/osed of the s.ins of the same
animal- but " made use of the youn(est " ,ould (et* the older bein(
too tou(h and thi,.- and " li.ewise /rovided myself with four
/addles& " laid in a sto,. of boiled flesh* of rabbits and fowls*
and too. with me two vessels* one filled with mil. and the other
with water&
" tried my ,anoe in a lar(e /ond* near my master's house* and then
,orre,ted in it what was amiss- sto//in( all the ,hin.s with
3ahoos' tallow* till " found it staun,h* and able to bear me and my
frei(ht- and* when it was as ,om/lete as " ,ould /ossibly ma.e it*
" had it drawn on a ,arria(e very (ently by 3ahoos to the seaAside*
under the ,ondu,t of the sorrel na( and another servant&
When all was ready* and the day ,ame for my de/arture* " too. leave
of my master and lady and the whole family* my eyes flowin( with
tears* and my heart 1uite sun. with (rief& ut his honour* out of
,uriosity* and* /erha/s* =if " may s/ea. without vanity*> /artly
out of .indness* was determined to see me in my ,anoe* and (ot
several of his nei(hbourin( friends to a,,om/any him& " was for,ed
to wait above an hour for the tide- and then observin( the wind
very fortunately bearin( toward the island to whi,h " intended to
steer my ,ourse* " too. a se,ond leave of my master< but as " was
(oin( to /rostrate myself to .iss his hoof* he did me the honour to
raise it (ently to my mouth& " am not i(norant how mu,h " have
been ,ensured for mentionin( this last /arti,ular& %etra,tors are
/leased to thin. it im/robable* that so illustrious a /erson should
des,end to (ive so (reat a mar. of distin,tion to a ,reature so
inferior as "& Neither have " for(otten how a/t some travellers
are to boast of e0traordinary favours they have re,eived& ut* if
these ,ensurers were better a,1uainted with the noble and ,ourteous
dis/osition of the Houyhnhnms* they would soon ,han(e their
" /aid my res/e,ts to the rest of the Houyhnhnms in his honour's
,om/any- then (ettin( into my ,anoe* " /ushed off from shore&
'The author's dan(erous voya(e& He arrives at New Holland* ho/in(
to settle there& "s wounded with an arrow by one of the natives&
"s sei@ed and ,arried by for,e into a Portu(uese shi/& The (reat
,ivilities of the ,a/tain& The author arrives at En(land&)
" be(an this des/erate voya(e on 4ebruary 6G* 676BA6G* at nine
o',lo,. in the mornin(& The wind was very favourable- however* "
made use at first only of my /addles- but ,onsiderin( " should soon
be weary* and that the wind mi(ht ,ho/ about* " ventured to set u/
my little sail- and thus* with the hel/ of the tide* " went at the
rate of a lea(ue and a half an hour* as near as " ,ould (uess& +y
master and his friends ,ontinued on the shore till " was almost out
of si(ht- and " often heard the sorrel na( =who always loved me>
,ryin( out* 9Hnuy illa nyha* ma:ah 3ahoo-9 9Ta.e ,are of thyself*
(entle 3ahoo&9
+y desi(n was* if /ossible* to dis,over some small island
uninhabited* yet suffi,ient* by my labour* to furnish me with the
ne,essaries of life* whi,h " would have thou(ht a (reater
ha//iness* than to be first minister in the /olitest ,ourt of
Euro/e- so horrible was the idea " ,on,eived of returnin( to live
in the so,iety* and under the (overnment of 3ahoos& 4or in su,h a
solitude as " desired* " ,ould at least en:oy my own thou(hts* and
refle,t with deli(ht on the virtues of those inimitable Houyhnhnms*
without an o//ortunity of de(eneratin( into the vi,es and
,orru/tions of my own s/e,ies&
The reader may remember what " related* when my ,rew ,ons/ired
a(ainst me* and ,onfined me to my ,abin- how " ,ontinued there
several wee.s without .nowin( what ,ourse we too.- and when " was
/ut ashore in the lon(Aboat* how the sailors told me* with oaths*
whether true or false* 9that they .new not in what /art of the
world we were&9 However* " did then believe us to be about 6F
de(rees southward of the 2a/e of Good Ho/e* or about BG de(rees
southern latitude* as " (athered from some (eneral words "
overheard amon( them* bein( " su//osed to the southAeast in their
intended voya(e to +ada(as,ar& $nd althou(h this were little
better than ,on:e,ture* yet " resolved to steer my ,ourse eastward*
ho/in( to rea,h the southAwest ,oast of New Holland* and /erha/s
some su,h island as " desired lyin( westward of it& The wind was
full west* and by si0 in the evenin( " ,om/uted " had (one eastward
at least ei(hteen lea(ues- when " s/ied a very small island about
half a lea(ue off* whi,h " soon rea,hed& "t was nothin( but a
ro,.* with one ,ree. naturally ar,hed by the for,e of tem/ests&
Here " /ut in my ,anoe* and ,limbin( a /art of the ro,.* " ,ould
/lainly dis,over land to the east* e0tendin( from south to north&
" lay all ni(ht in my ,anoe- and re/eatin( my voya(e early in the
mornin(* " arrived in seven hours to the southAeast /oint of New
Holland& This ,onfirmed me in the o/inion " have lon( entertained*
that the ma/s and ,harts /la,e this ,ountry at least three de(rees
more to the east than it really is- whi,h thou(ht " ,ommuni,ated
many years a(o to my worthy friend* +r& Herman +oll* and (ave him
my reasons for it* althou(h he has rather ,hosen to follow other
" saw no inhabitants in the /la,e where " landed* and bein(
unarmed* " was afraid of venturin( far into the ,ountry& " found
some shellfish on the shore* and ate them raw* not darin( to .indle
a fire* for fear of bein( dis,overed by the natives& " ,ontinued
three days feedin( on oysters and lim/ets* to save my own
/rovisions- and " fortunately found a broo. of e0,ellent water*
whi,h (ave me (reat relief&
#n the fourth day* venturin( out early a little too far* " saw
twenty or thirty natives u/on a hei(ht not above five hundred yards
from me& They were star. na.ed* men* women* and ,hildren* round a
fire* as " ,ould dis,over by the smo.e& #ne of them s/ied me* and
(ave noti,e to the rest- five of them advan,ed toward me* leavin(
the women and ,hildren at the fire& " made what haste " ,ould to
the shore* and* (ettin( into my ,anoe* shoved off< the sava(es*
observin( me retreat* ran after me< and before " ,ould (et far
enou(h into the sea* dis,har(ed an arrow whi,h wounded me dee/ly on
the inside of my left .nee< " shall ,arry the mar. to my (rave& "
a//rehended the arrow mi(ht be /oisoned* and /addlin( out of the
rea,h of their darts =bein( a ,alm day>* " made a shift to su,. the
wound* and dress it as well as " ,ould&
" was at a loss what to do* for " durst not return to the same
landin(A/la,e* but stood to the north* and was for,ed to /addle*
for the wind* thou(h very (entle* was a(ainst me* blowin( northA
west& $s " was about for a se,ure landin(A/la,e* " saw a
sail to the northAnorthAeast* whi,h a//earin( every minute more
visible* " was in some doubt whether " should wait for them or not-
but at last my detestation of the 3ahoo ra,e /revailed< and
turnin( my ,anoe* " sailed and /addled to(ether to the south* and
(ot into the same ,ree. when,e " set out in the mornin(* ,hoosin(
rather to trust myself amon( these barbarians* than live with
Euro/ean 3ahoos& " drew u/ my ,anoe as ,lose as " ,ould to the
shore* and hid myself behind a stone by the little broo.* whi,h* as
" have already said* was e0,ellent water&
The shi/ ,ame within half a lea(ue of this ,ree.* and sent her lon(
boat with vessels to ta.e in fresh water =for the /la,e* it seems*
was very well .nown>- but " did not observe it* till the boat was
almost on shore- and it was too late to see. another hidin(A/la,e&
The seamen at their landin( observed my ,anoe* and rumma(in( it all
over* easily ,on:e,tured that the owner ,ould not be far off& 4our
of them* well armed* sear,hed every ,ranny and* till
at last they found me flat on my fa,e behind the stone& They (a@ed
awhile in admiration at my stran(e un,outh dress- my ,oat made of
s.ins* my woodenAsoled shoes* and my furred sto,.in(s- when,e*
however* they ,on,luded* " was not a native of the /la,e* who all
(o na.ed& #ne of the seamen* in Portu(uese* bid me rise* and as.ed
who " was& " understood that lan(ua(e very well* and (ettin( u/on
my feet* said* 9" was a /oor 3ahoo banished from the Houyhnhnms*
and desired they would /lease to let me de/art&9 They admired to
hear me answer them in their own ton(ue* and saw by my ,om/le0ion "
must be a Euro/ean- but were at a loss to .now what " meant by
3ahoos and Houyhnhnms- and at the same time fell aAlau(hin( at my
stran(e tone in s/* whi,h resembled the nei(hin( of a horse&
" trembled all the while betwi0t fear and hatred& " a(ain desired
leave to de/art* and was (ently movin( to my ,anoe- but they laid
hold of me* desirin( to .now* 9what ,ountry " was of? when,e "
,ame?9 with many other 1uestions& " told them 9" was born in
En(land* when,e " ,ame about five years a(o* and then their ,ountry
and ours were at /ea,e& " therefore ho/ed they would not treat me
as an enemy* sin,e " meant them no harm* but was a /oor 3ahoo some desolate /la,e where to /ass the remainder of his
unfortunate life&9
When they be(an to tal.* " thou(ht " never heard or saw any thin(
more unnatural- for it a//eared to me as monstrous as if a do( or a
,ow should s/ea. in En(land* or a 3ahoo in Houyhnhnmland& The
honest Portu(uese were e1ually ama@ed at my stran(e dress* and the
odd manner of deliverin( my words* whi,h* however* they understood
very well& They s/o.e to me with (reat humanity* and said* 9they
were sure the ,a/tain would ,arry me (ratis to !isbon* when,e "
mi(ht return to my own ,ountry- that two of the seamen would (o
ba,. to the shi/* inform the ,a/tain of what they had seen* and
re,eive his orders- in the mean time* unless " would (ive my solemn
oath not to fly* they would se,ure me by for,e& " thou(ht it best
to ,om/ly with their /ro/osal& They were very ,urious to .now my
story* but " (ave them very little satisfa,tion* and they all
,on:e,tured that my misfortunes had im/aired my reason& "n two
hours the boat* whi,h went laden with vessels of water* returned*
with the ,a/tain's ,ommand to fet,h me on board& " fell on my
.nees to /reserve my liberty- but all was in vain- and the men*
havin( tied me with ,ords* heaved me into the boat* when,e " was
ta.en into the shi/* and then,e into the ,a/tain's ,abin&
His name was Pedro de +ende@- he was a very ,ourteous and (enerous
/erson& He entreated me to (ive some a,,ount of myself* and
desired to .now what " would eat or drin.- said* 9" should be used
as well as himself-9 and s/o.e so many obli(in( thin(s* that "
wondered to find su,h ,ivilities from a 3ahoo& However* " remained
silent and sullen- " was ready to faint at the very smell of him
and his men& $t last " desired somethin( to eat out of my own
,anoe- but he ordered me a ,hi,.en* and some e0,ellent wine* and
then dire,ted that " should be /ut to bed in a very ,lean ,abin& "
would not undress myself* but lay on the bedA,lothes* and in half
an hour stole out* when " thou(ht the ,rew was at dinner* and
(ettin( to the side of the shi/* was (oin( to lea/ into the sea*
and swim for my life* rather than ,ontinue amon( 3ahoos& ut one
of the seamen /revented me* and havin( informed the ,a/tain* " was
,hained to my ,abin&
$fter dinner* %on Pedro ,ame to me* and desired to .now my reason
for so des/erate an attem/t- assured me* 9he only meant to do me
all the servi,e he was able-9 and s/o.e so very movin(ly* that at
last " des,ended to treat him li.e an animal whi,h had some little
/ortion of reason& " (ave him a very short relation of my voya(e-
of the ,ons/ira,y a(ainst me by my own men- of the ,ountry where
they set me on shore* and of my five years residen,e there& $ll
whi,h he loo.ed u/on as if it were a dream or a vision- whereat "
too. (reat offen,e- for " had 1uite for(ot the fa,ulty of lyin(* so
/e,uliar to 3ahoos* in all ,ountries where they /reside* and*
,onse1uently* their dis/osition of sus/e,tin( truth in others of
their own s/e,ies& " as.ed him* 9whether it were the ,ustom in his
,ountry to say the thin( whi,h was not?9 " assured him* 9" had
almost for(ot what he meant by falsehood* and if " had lived a
thousand years in Houyhnhnmland* " should never have heard a lie
from the meanest servant- that " was alto(ether indifferent whether
he believed me or not- but* however* in return for his favours* "
would (ive so mu,h allowan,e to the ,orru/tion of his nature* as to
answer any ob:e,tion he would /lease to ma.e* and then he mi(ht
easily dis,over the truth&9
The ,a/tain* a wise man* after many endeavours to ,at,h me tri//in(
in some /art of my story* at last be(an to have a better o/inion of
my vera,ity& ut he added* 9that sin,e " /rofessed so inviolable
an atta,hment to truth* " must (ive him my word and honour to bear
him ,om/any in this voya(e* without attem/tin( any thin( a(ainst my
life- or else he would ,ontinue me a /risoner till we arrived at
!isbon&9 " (ave him the /romise he re1uired- but at the same time
/rotested* 9that " would suffer the (reatest hardshi/s* rather than
return to live amon( 3ahoos&9
#ur voya(e /assed without any ,onsiderable a,,ident& "n (ratitude
to the ,a/tain* " sometimes sat with him* at his earnest re1uest*
and strove to ,on,eal my anti/athy a(ainst human .ind* althou(h it
often bro.e out- whi,h he suffered to /ass without observation&
ut the (reatest /art of the day " ,onfined myself to my ,abin* to
avoid seein( any of the ,rew& The ,a/tain had often entreated me
to stri/ myself of my sava(e dress* and offered to lend me the best
suit of ,lothes he had& This " would not be /revailed on to
a,,e/t* abhorrin( to ,over myself with any thin( that had been on
the ba,. of a 3ahoo& " only desired he would lend me two ,lean
shirts* whi,h* havin( been washed sin,e he wore them* " believed
would not so mu,h defile me& These " ,han(ed every se,ond day* and
washed them myself&
We arrived at !isbon* Nov& G* 676G& $t our landin(* the ,a/tain
for,ed me to ,over myself with his ,loa.* to /revent the rabble
from ,rowdin( about me& " was ,onveyed to his own house- and at my
earnest re1uest he led me u/ to the hi(hest room ba,.wards& "
,on:ured him 9to ,on,eal from all /ersons what " had told him of
the Houyhnhnms- be,ause the least hint of su,h a story would not
only draw numbers of /eo/le to see me* but /robably /ut me in
dan(er of bein( im/risoned* or burnt by the "n1uisition&9 The
,a/tain /ersuaded me to a,,e/t a suit of ,lothes newly made- but "
would not suffer the tailor to ta.e my measure- however* %on Pedro
bein( almost of my si@e* they fitted me well enou(h& He a,,outred
me with other ne,essaries* all new* whi,h " aired for twentyAfour
hours before " would use them&
The ,a/tain had no wife* nor above three servants* none of whi,h
were suffered to attend at meals- and his whole de/ortment was so
obli(in(* added to very (ood human understandin(* that " really
be(an to tolerate his ,om/any& He (ained so far u/on me* that "
ventured to loo. out of the ba,. window& y de(rees " was brou(ht
into another room* when,e " /ee/ed into the street* but drew my
head ba,. in a fri(ht& "n a wee.'s time he sedu,ed me down to the
door& " found my terror (radually lessened* but my hatred and
,ontem/t seemed to in,rease& " was at last bold enou(h to wal. the
street in his ,om/any* but .e/t my nose well sto//ed with rue* or
sometimes with toba,,o&
"n ten days* %on Pedro* to whom " had (iven some a,,ount of my
domesti, affairs* /ut it u/on me* as a matter of honour and
,ons,ien,e* 9that " ou(ht to return to my native ,ountry* and live
at home with my wife and ,hildren&9 He told me* 9there was an
En(lish shi/ in the /ort :ust ready to sail* and he would furnish
me with all thin(s ne,essary&9 "t would be tedious to re/eat his
ar(uments* and my ,ontradi,tions& He said* 9it was alto(ether
im/ossible to find su,h a solitary island as " desired to live in-
but " mi(ht ,ommand in my own house* and /ass my time in a manner
as re,luse as " /leased&9
" ,om/lied at last* findin( " ,ould not do better& " left !isbon
the 8Bth day of November* in an En(lish mer,hantman* but who was
the master " never in1uired& %on Pedro a,,om/anied me to the shi/*
and lent me twenty /ounds& He too. .ind leave of me* and embra,ed
me at /artin(* whi,h " bore as well as " ,ould& %urin( this last
voya(e " had no ,ommer,e with the master or any of his men- but*
/retendin( " was si,.* .e/t ,lose in my ,abin& #n the fifth of
%e,ember* 676G* we ,ast an,hor in the %owns* about nine in the
mornin(* and at three in the afternoon " (ot safe to my house at
Rotherhith& H7I
+y wife and family re,eived me with (reat sur/rise and :oy* be,ause
they ,on,luded me ,ertainly dead- but " must freely ,onfess the
si(ht of them filled me only with hatred* dis(ust* and ,ontem/t-
and the more* by refle,tin( on the near allian,e " had to them&
4or althou(h* sin,e my unfortunate e0ile from the Houyhnhnm
,ountry* " had ,om/elled myself to tolerate the si(ht of 3ahoos*
and to ,onverse with %on Pedro de +ende@* yet my memory and
ima(ination were /er/etually filled with the virtues and ideas of
those e0alted Houyhnhnms& $nd when " be(an to ,onsider that* by
,o/ulatin( with one of the 3ahoo s/e,ies " had be,ome a /arent of
more* it stru,. me with the utmost shame* ,onfusion* and horror&
$s soon as " entered the house* my wife too. me in her arms* and
.issed me- at whi,h* havin( not been used to the tou,h of that
odious animal for so many years* " fell into a swoon for almost an
hour& $t the time " am writin(* it is five years sin,e my last
return to En(land& %urin( the first year* " ,ould not endure my
wife or ,hildren in my /resen,e- the very smell of them was
intolerable- mu,h less ,ould " suffer them to eat in the same room&
To this hour they dare not /resume to tou,h my bread* or drin. out
of the same ,u/* neither was " ever able to let one of them ta.e me
by the hand& The first money " laid out was to buy two youn(
stoneAhorses* whi,h " .ee/ in a (ood stable- and ne0t to them* the
(room is my (reatest favourite* for " feel my s/irits revived by
the smell he ,ontra,ts in the stable& +y horses understand me
tolerably well- " ,onverse with them at least four hours every day&
They are stran(ers to bridle or saddle- they live in (reat amity
with me and friendshi/ to ea,h other&
2H$PTER M""&
'The author's vera,ity& His desi(n in /ublishin( this wor.& His
,ensure of those travellers who swerve from the truth& The author
,lears himself from any sinister ends in writin(& $n ob:e,tion
answered& The method of /lantin( ,olonies& His native ,ountry
,ommended& The ri(ht of the ,rown to those ,ountries des,ribed by
the author is :ustified& The diffi,ulty of ,on1uerin( them& The
author his last leave of the reader- /ro/oses his manner of
livin( for the future- (ives (ood advi,e* and ,on,ludes&)
Thus* (entle reader* " have (iven thee a faithful history of my
travels for si0teen years and above seven months< wherein " have
not been so studious of ornament as of truth& " ,ould* /erha/s*
li.e others* have astonished thee with stran(e im/robable tales-
but " rather ,hose to relate /lain matter of fa,t* in the sim/lest
manner and style- be,ause my /rin,i/al desi(n was to inform* and
not to amuse thee&
"t is easy for us who travel into remote ,ountries* whi,h are
seldom visited by En(lishmen or other Euro/eans* to form
des,ri/tions of wonderful animals both at sea and land& Whereas a
traveller's ,hief aim should be to ma.e men wiser and better* and
to im/rove their minds by the bad* as well as (ood* e0am/le of what
they deliver ,on,ernin( forei(n /la,es&
" ,ould heartily wish a law was ena,ted* that every traveller*
before he were /ermitted to /ublish his voya(es* should be obli(ed
to ma.e oath before the !ord Hi(h 2han,ellor* that all he intended
to /rint was absolutely true to the best of his .nowled(e- for then
the world would no lon(er be de,eived* as it usually is* while some
writers* to ma.e their wor.s /ass the better u/on the /ubli,*
im/ose the (rossest falsities on the unwary reader& " have /erused
several boo.s of travels with (reat deli(ht in my youn(er days- but
havin( sin,e (one over most /arts of the (lobe* and been able to
,ontradi,t many fabulous a,,ounts from my own observation* it has
(iven me a (reat dis(ust a(ainst this /art of readin(* and some
indi(nation to see the ,redulity of man.ind so im/udently abused&
Therefore* sin,e my a,1uaintan,e were /leased to thin. my /oor
endeavours mi(ht not be una,,e/table to my ,ountry* " im/osed on
myself* as a ma0im never to be swerved from* that " would stri,tly
adhere to truth- neither indeed ,an " be ever under the least
tem/tation to vary from it* while " retain in my mind the le,tures
and e0am/le of my noble master and the other illustrious Houyhnhnms
of whom " had so lon( the honour to be an humble hearer&
A Ne, si miserum 4ortuna Sinonem
4in0it* vanum etiam* menda,em1ue im/roba fin(et&
" .now very well* how little re/utation is to be (ot by writin(s
whi,h re1uire neither (enius nor learnin(* nor indeed any other
talent* e0,e/t a (ood memory* or an e0a,t :ournal& " .now
li.ewise* that writers of travels* li.e di,tionaryAma.ers* are sun.
into oblivion by the wei(ht and bul. of those who ,ome last* and
therefore lie u//ermost& $nd it is hi(hly /robable* that su,h
travellers* who shall hereafter visit the ,ountries des,ribed in
this wor. of mine* may* by dete,tin( my errors =if there be any>*
and addin( many new dis,overies of their own* :ustle me out of
vo(ue* and stand in my /la,e* the world for(et that ever "
was an author& This indeed would be too (reat a mortifi,ation* if
" wrote for fame< but as my sole intention was the /ubli, (ood* "
,annot be alto(ether disa//ointed& 4or who ,an read of the virtues
" have mentioned in the (lorious Houyhnhnms* without bein( ashamed
of his own vi,es* when he ,onsiders himself as the reasonin(*
(overnin( animal of his ,ountry? " shall say nothin( of those
remote nations where 3ahoos /reside- amon( whi,h the least
,orru/ted are the robdin(na(ians- whose wise ma0ims in morality
and (overnment it would be our ha//iness to observe& ut " forbear
des,antin( further* and rather leave the :udi,ious reader to his
own remar.s and a//li,ation&
" am not a little /leased that this wor. of mine ,an /ossibly meet
with no ,ensurers< for what ob:e,tions ,an be made a(ainst a
writer* who relates only /lain fa,ts* that ha//ened in su,h distant
,ountries* where we have not the least interest* with res/e,t
either to trade or ne(otiations? " have ,arefully avoided every
fault with whi,h ,ommon writers of travels are often too :ustly
,har(ed& esides* " meddle not the least with any /arty* but write
without /assion* /re:udi,e* or illAwill a(ainst any man* or number
of men* whatsoever& " write for the noblest end* to inform and
instru,t man.ind- over whom " may* without brea,h of modesty*
/retend to some su/eriority* from the advanta(es " re,eived by
,onversin( so lon( amon( the most a,,om/lished Houyhnhnms& " write
without any view to /rofit or /raise& " never suffer a word to
/ass that may loo. li.e refle,tion* or /ossibly (ive the least
offen,e* even to those who are most ready to ta.e it& So that "
ho/e " may with :usti,e /ronoun,e myself an author /erfe,tly
blameless- a(ainst whom the tribes of $nswerers* 2onsiderers*
#bservers* Refle,tors* %ete,tors* Remar.ers* will never be able to
find matter for e0er,isin( their talents&
" ,onfess* it was whis/ered to me* 9that " was bound in duty* as a
sub:e,t of En(land* to have (iven in a memorial to a se,retary of
state at my first ,omin( over- be,ause* whatever lands are
dis,overed by a sub:e,t belon( to the ,rown&9 ut " doubt whether
our ,on1uests in the ,ountries " treat of would be as easy as those
of 4erdinando 2orte@ over the na.ed $meri,ans& The !illi/utians* "
thin.* are hardly worth the ,har(e of a fleet and army to redu,e
them- and " 1uestion whether it mi(ht be /rudent or safe to attem/t
the robdin(na(ians- or whether an En(lish army would be mu,h at
their ease with the 4lyin( "sland over their heads& The Houyhnhnms
indeed a//ear not to be so well /re/ared for war* a s,ien,e to
whi,h they are /erfe,t stran(ers* and es/e,ially a(ainst missive
wea/ons& However* su//osin( myself to be a minister of state* "
,ould never (ive my advi,e for invadin( them& Their /ruden,e*
unanimity* una,1uaintedness with fear* and their love of their
,ountry* would am/ly su//ly all defe,ts in the military art&
"ma(ine twenty thousand of them into the midst of an
Euro/ean army* ,onfoundin( the ran.s* overturnin( the ,arria(es*
batterin( the warriors' fa,es into mummy by terrible yer.s from
their hinder hoofs- for they would well deserve the ,hara,ter (iven
to $u(ustus* Re,al,itrat undi1ue tutus& ut* instead of /ro/osals
for ,on1uerin( that ma(nanimous nation* " rather wish they were in
a ,a/a,ity* or dis/osition* to send a suffi,ient number of their
inhabitants for ,ivili@in( Euro/e* by tea,hin( us the first
/rin,i/les of honour* :usti,e* truth* tem/eran,e* /ubli, s/irit*
fortitude* ,hastity* friendshi/* benevolen,e* and fidelity& The
names of all whi,h virtues are still retained amon( us in most
lan(ua(es* and are to be met with in modern* as well as an,ient
authors- whi,h " am able to assert from my own small readin(&
ut " had another reason* whi,h made me less forward to enlar(e his
ma:esty's dominions by my dis,overies& To say the truth* " had
,on,eived a few s,ru/les with relation to the distributive :usti,e
of /rin,es u/on those o,,asions& 4or instan,e* a ,rew of /irates
are driven by a storm they .now not whither- at len(th a boy
dis,overs land from the to/mast- they (o on shore to rob and
/lunder* they see a harmless /eo/le* are entertained with .indness-
they (ive the ,ountry a new name- they ta.e formal /ossession of it
for their .in(- they set u/ a rotten /lan.* or a stone* for a
memorial- they murder two or three do@en of the natives* brin( away
a ,ou/le more* by for,e* for a sam/le- return home* and (et their
/ardon& Here ,ommen,es a new dominion a,1uired with a title by
divine ri(ht& Shi/s are sent with the first o//ortunity- the
natives driven out or destroyed- their /rin,es tortured to dis,over
their (old- a free li,ense (iven to all a,ts of inhumanity and
lust* the earth with the blood of its inhabitants< and
this e0e,rable ,rew of but,hers* em/loyed in so /ious an
e0/edition* is a modern ,olony* sent to ,onvert and ,ivili@e an
idolatrous and barbarous /eo/leL
ut this des,ri/tion* " ,onfess* does by no means affe,t the
ritish nation* who may be an e0am/le to the whole world for their
wisdom* ,are* and :usti,e in /lantin( ,olonies- their liberal
endowments for the advan,ement of reli(ion and learnin(- their
,hoi,e of devout and able /astors to /ro/a(ate 2hristianity- their
,aution in sto,.in( their /rovin,es with /eo/le of sober lives and
,onversations from this the mother .in(dom- their stri,t re(ard to
the distribution of :usti,e* in su//lyin( the ,ivil administration
throu(h all their ,olonies with offi,ers of the (reatest abilities*
utter stran(ers to ,orru/tion- and* to ,rown all* by sendin( the
most vi(ilant and virtuous (overnors* who have no other views than
the ha//iness of the /eo/le over whom they /reside* and the honour
of the .in( their master&
ut as those ,ountries whi,h " have des,ribed do not a//ear to have
any desire of bein( ,on1uered and enslaved* murdered or driven out
by ,olonies* nor abound either in (old* silver* su(ar* or toba,,o*
" did humbly ,on,eive* they were by no means /ro/er ob:e,ts of our
@eal* our valour* or our interest& However* if those whom it more
,on,erns thin. fit to be of another o/inion* " am ready to de/ose*
when " shall be lawfully ,alled* that no Euro/ean did ever visit
those ,ountries before me& " mean* if the inhabitants ou(ht to be
believed* unless a dis/ute may arise ,on,ernin( the two 3ahoos*
said to have been seen many years a(o u/on a mountain in
ut* as to the formality of /ossession in my soverei(n's
name* it never ,ame on,e into my thou(hts- and if it had* yet* as
my affairs then stood* " should /erha/s* in /oint of /ruden,e and
selfA/reservation* have /ut it off to a better o//ortunity&
Havin( thus answered the only ob:e,tion that ,an ever be raised
a(ainst me as a traveller* " here ta.e a final leave of all my
,ourteous readers* and return to en:oy my own s/e,ulations in my
little (arden at Redriff- to a//ly those e0,ellent lessons of
virtue whi,h " learned amon( the Houyhnhnms- to instru,t the 3ahoos
of my own family* is far as " shall find them do,ible animals- to
behold my fi(ure often in a (lass* and thus* if /ossible* habituate
myself by time to tolerate the si(ht of a human ,reature- to lament
the brutality to Houyhnhnms in my own ,ountry* but always treat
their /ersons with res/e,t* for the sa.e of my noble master* his
family* his friends* and the whole Houyhnhnm ra,e* whom these of
ours have the honour to resemble in all their lineaments* however
their intelle,tuals ,ame to de(enerate&
" be(an last wee. to /ermit my wife to sit at dinner with me* at
the farthest end of a lon( table- and to answer =but with the
utmost brevity> the few 1uestions " as.ed her& 3et* the smell of a
3ahoo ,ontinuin( very offensive* " always .ee/ my nose well sto//ed
with rue* lavender* or toba,,o leaves& $nd* althou(h it be hard
for a man late in life to remove old habits* " am not alto(ether
out of ho/es* in some time* to suffer a nei(hbour 3ahoo in my
,om/any* without the a//rehensions " am yet under of his teeth or
his ,laws&
+y re,on,ilement to the 3ahoo .ind in (eneral mi(ht not be so
diffi,ult* if they would be ,ontent with those vi,es and follies
only whi,h nature has entitled them to& " am not in the least
/rovo.ed at the si(ht of a lawyer* a /i,./o,.et* a ,olonel* a fool*
a lord* a (amester* a /oliti,ian* a whoremon(er* a /hysi,ian* an
eviden,e* a suborner* an attorney* a traitor* or the li.e- this is
all a,,ordin( to the due ,ourse of thin(s< but when " behold a
lum/ of deformity and diseases* both in body and mind* smitten with
/ride* it immediately brea.s all the measures of my /atien,e-
neither shall " be ever able to ,om/rehend how su,h an animal* and
su,h a vi,e* ,ould tally to(ether& The wise and virtuous
Houyhnhnms* who abound in all e0,ellen,es that ,an adorn a rational
,reature* have no name for this vi,e in their lan(ua(e* whi,h has
no terms to e0/ress any thin( that is evil* e0,e/t those whereby
they des,ribe the detestable 1ualities of their 3ahoos* amon( whi,h
they were not able to distin(uish this of /ride* for want of
thorou(hly understandin( human nature* as it shows itself in other
,ountries where that animal /resides& ut "* who had more
e0/erien,e* ,ould /lainly observe some rudiments of it amon( the
wild 3ahoos&
ut the Houyhnhnms* who live under the (overnment of reason* are no
more /roud of the (ood 1ualities they /ossess* than " should be for
not wantin( a le( or an arm- whi,h no man in his wits would boast
of* althou(h he must be miserable without them& " dwell the lon(er
u/on this sub:e,t from the desire " have to ma.e the so,iety of an
En(lish 3ahoo by any means not insu//ortable- and therefore " here
entreat those who have any tin,ture of this absurd vi,e* that they
will not /resume to ,ome in my si(ht&
H6I $ stan( is a /ole or /er,h- si0teen feet and a half&
H8I $n a,t of /arliament has been sin,e /assed by whi,h some
brea,hes of trust have been made ,a/ital&
HEI ritannia&AASir W& S,ott&
HBI !ondon&AASir W& S,ott&
HGI This is the revised te0t ado/ted by %r& Haw.sworth =67CC>&
The above /ara(ra/h in the ori(inal editions =678C> another
form* ,ommen,in(<A 9" told him that should " ha//en to live in a
.in(dom where lots were in vo(ue*9 N,& The names Tribnia and
!an(don an not mentioned* and the 9,lose stool9 and its
si(nifi,ation do not o,,ur&
HCI This /ara(ra/h is not in the ori(inal editions&
H7I The ori(inal editions and Haw.sworth's have Rotherhith here*
thou(h earlier in the wor.* Redriff is said to have been Gulliver's home in

better entertainment to our young noblemen, than the common scribbles of politics and party. This volume would have been at least twice as large, if I had not made bold to strike out innumerable passages relating to the winds and tides, as well as to the variations and bearings in the several voyages, together with the minute descriptions of the management of the ship in storms, in the style of sailors; likewise the account of longitudes and latitudes; wherein I have reason to apprehend, that Mr. Gulliver may be a little dissatisfied. But I was resolved to fit the work as much as possible to the general capacity of readers. However, if my own ignorance in sea affairs shall have led me to commit some mistakes, I alone am answerable for them. And if any traveller hath a curiosity to see the whole work at large, as it came from the hands of the author, I will be ready to gratify him. As for any further particulars relating to the author, the reader will receive satisfaction from the first pages of the book. RICHARD SYMPSON.


WRITTEN IN THE YEAR 1727. I hope you will be ready to own publicly, whenever you shall be called to it, that by your great and frequent urgency you prevailed on me to publish a very loose and uncorrect account of my travels, with directions to hire some young gentleman of either university to put them in order, and correct the style, as my cousin Dampier did, by my advice, in his book called "A Voyage round the world." But I do not remember I gave you power to consent that any thing should be omitted, and much less that any thing should be inserted; therefore, as to the latter, I do here renounce every thing of that kind; particularly a paragraph about her majesty Queen Anne, of most pious and glorious memory; although I did reverence and esteem her more than any of human species. But you, or your interpolator, ought to have considered, that it was not my inclination, so was it not decent to praise any animal of our composition before my master Houyhnhnm: And besides, the fact was altogether false; for to my knowledge, being in England during some part of her majesty's

reign, she did govern by a chief minister; nay even by two successively, the first whereof was the lord of Godolphin, and the second the lord of Oxford; so that you have made me say the thing that was not. Likewise in the account of the academy of projectors, and several passages of my discourse to my master Houyhnhnm, you have either omitted some material circumstances, or minced or changed them in such a manner, that I do hardly know my own work. When I formerly hinted to you something of this in a letter, you were pleased to answer that you were afraid of giving offence; that people in power were very watchful over the press, and apt not only to interpret, but to punish every thing which looked like an innuendo (as I think you call it). But, pray how could that which I spoke so many years ago, and at about five thousand leagues distance, in another reign, be applied to any of the Yahoos, who now are said to govern the herd; especially at a time when I little thought, or feared, the unhappiness of living under them? Have not I the most reason to complain, when I see these very Yahoos carried by Houyhnhnms in a vehicle, as if they were brutes, and those the rational creatures? And indeed to avoid so monstrous and detestable a sight was one principal motive of my retirement hither. Thus much I thought proper to tell you in relation to yourself, and to the trust I reposed in you. I do, in the next place, complain of my own great want of judgment, in being prevailed upon by the entreaties and false reasoning of you and some others, very much against my own opinion, to suffer my travels to be published. Pray bring to your mind how often I desired you to consider, when you insisted on the motive of public good, that the Yahoos were a species of animals utterly incapable of amendment by precept or example: and so it has proved; for, instead of seeing a full stop put to all abuses and corruptions, at least in this little island, as I had reason to expect; behold, after above six months warning, I cannot learn that my book has produced one single effect according to my intentions. I desired you would let me know, by a letter, when party and faction were extinguished; judges learned and upright; pleaders honest and modest, with some tincture of common sense, and Smithfield blazing with pyramids of law books; the young nobility's education entirely changed; the physicians banished; the female Yahoos abounding in virtue, honour, truth, and good sense; courts and levees of great ministers thoroughly weeded and swept; wit, merit, and learning rewarded; all disgracers of the press in prose and verse condemned to eat nothing but their own cotton, and quench their thirst with their own ink. These, and a thousand other reformations, I firmly

counted upon by your encouragement; as indeed they were plainly deducible from the precepts delivered in my book. And it must be owned, that seven months were a sufficient time to correct every vice and folly to which Yahoos are subject, if their natures had been capable of the least disposition to virtue or wisdom. Yet, so far have you been from answering my expectation in any of your letters; that on the contrary you are loading our carrier every week with libels, and keys, and reflections, and memoirs, and second parts; wherein I see myself accused of reflecting upon great state folk; of degrading human nature (for so they have still the confidence to style it), and of abusing the female sex. I find likewise that the writers of those bundles are not agreed among themselves; for some of them will not allow me to be the author of my own travels; and others make me author of books to which I am wholly a stranger. I find likewise that your printer has been so careless as to confound the times, and mistake the dates, of my several voyages and returns; neither assigning the true year, nor the true month, nor day of the month: and I hear the original manuscript is all destroyed since the publication of my book; neither have I any copy left: however, I have sent you some corrections, which you may insert, if ever there should be a second edition: and yet I cannot stand to them; but shall leave that matter to my judicious and candid readers to adjust it as they please. I hear some of our sea Yahoos find fault with my sea-language, as not proper in many parts, nor now in use. I cannot help it. In my first voyages, while I was young, I was instructed by the oldest mariners, and learned to speak as they did. But I have since found that the sea Yahoos are apt, like the land ones, to become newfangled in their words, which the latter change every year; insomuch, as I remember upon each return to my own country their old dialect was so altered, that I could hardly understand the new. And I observe, when any Yahoo comes from London out of curiosity to visit me at my house, we neither of us are able to deliver our conceptions in a manner intelligible to the other. If the censure of the Yahoos could any way affect me, I should have great reason to complain, that some of them are so bold as to think my book of travels a mere fiction out of mine own brain, and have gone so far as to drop hints, that the Houyhnhnms and Yahoos have no more existence than the inhabitants of Utopia. Indeed I must confess, that as to the people of Lilliput, Brobdingrag (for so the word should have been spelt, and not

I was able in the compass of two years (although I confess with the utmost difficulty) to remove that infernal habit of lying. 1727 PART I--A VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. and particularly those of my own family. some corruptions of my Yahoo nature have revived in me by conversing with a few of your species. than the neighing of those two degenerate Houyhnhnms I keep in my stable. The united praise of the whole race would be of less consequence to me. or the facts I have related concerning them. I have never yet heard of any Yahoo so presumptuous as to dispute their being. it is well known through all Houyhnhnmland. I must freely confess. Do these miserable animals presume to think. and not their approbation. . by an unavoidable necessity. degenerate as they are. because from these. deceiving. but I forbear troubling myself or you any further. I have other complaints to make upon this vexatious occasion.erroneously Brobdingnag). especially the Europeans. that. there are so many thousands even in this country. because they use a sort of jabber. and Laputa. shuffling. April 2. CHAPTER I. and equivocating. that I am so degenerated as to defend my veracity? Yahoo as I am. and do not go naked? I wrote for their amendment. when it is manifest as to the latter. because the truth immediately strikes every reader with conviction. that since my last return. else I should never have attempted so absurd a project as that of reforming the Yahoo race in this kingdom: But I have now done with all such visionary schemes for ever. so deeply rooted in the very souls of all my species. who only differ from their brother brutes in Houyhnhnmland. And is there less probability in my account of the Houyhnhnms or Yahoos. by the instructions and example of my illustrious master. I still improve in some virtues without any mixture of vice.

my master. wherein I had a great facility. for my conscience would not suffer me to imitate the bad practice of too many among my brethren. My father now and then sending me small sums of money. where I resided three years. I laid them out in learning navigation. I grew weary . in observing the manners and dispositions of the people. I took part of a small house in the Old Jewry. but the charge of maintaining me. and some of my acquaintance. The last of these voyages not proving very fortunate. I went down to my father: where. His first inducements to travel. knowing it would be useful in long voyages. I was recommended by my good master. for six years. and applied myself close to my studies. hosier. by the strength of my memory. I married Mrs. and carried up the country. and swims for his life. My hours of leisure I spent in reading the best authors. as I always believed it would be. an eminent surgeon in London. in Newgate-street. and a promise of thirty pounds a year to maintain me at Leyden: there I studied physic two years and seven months. Soon after my return from Leyden. I determined to go again to sea. and being advised to alter my condition. my business began to fail. commander. by the assistance of him and my uncle John. When I came back I resolved to settle in London. When I left Mr. But my good master Bates dying in two years after. second daughter to Mr. with whom I continued four years. I got forty pounds. Bates. although I had a very scanty allowance. with whom I continued three years and a half. James Bates. by which I got some addition to my fortune. useful to those who intend to travel. ancient and modern. and other parts of the mathematics. Bates. and made several voyages. to which Mr. I was bound apprentice to Mr. Mary Burton. and I having few friends. Having therefore consulted with my wife. Edmund Burton. some time or other. I was surgeon successively in two ships. He sent me to Emanuel College in Cambridge at fourteen years old. to be surgeon to the Swallow. and some other parts.[The author gives some account of himself and family. as well as learning their language. and by him I was recommended to several patients. Bates. Mr. Gets safe on shore in the country of Lilliput. Captain Abraham Pannel. and when I was ashore. with whom I received four hundred pounds for a portion. to the East and West Indies. my fortune to do. being too great for a narrow fortune. being always provided with a good number of books. making a voyage or two into the Levant. is made a prisoner. encouraged me.] My father had a small estate in Nottinghamshire: I was the third of five sons. He is shipwrecked. and some other relations.

at least I was in so weak a condition. it was just day-light. Twelve of our crew were dead by immoderate labour and ill food. who was making a voyage to the South Sea. I removed from the Old Jewry to Fetter Lane. I was extremely tired. I cannot tell. the rest were in a very weak condition. What became of my companions in the boat. and by this time the storm was much abated. but when I was almost gone. and about half a pint of brandy that I drank as I left the ship. I found my arms and legs were strongly fastened on . 1699. that I walked near a mile before I got to the shore. We set sail from Bristol. for when I awaked. and was pushed forward by wind and tide. but was not able to stir: for. we found ourselves in the latitude of 30 degrees 2 minutes south. as well as of those who escaped on the rock. I accepted an advantageous offer from Captain William Prichard. We therefore trusted ourselves to the mercy of the waves. to trouble the reader with the particulars of our adventures in those seas. as I reckoned. but could not discover any sign of houses or inhabitants. and. the weather being very hazy. but the wind was so strong. but it would not turn to account. till we were able to work no longer. hoping to get business among the sailors. being already spent with labour while we were in the ship. and immediately split. made a shift to get clear of the ship and the rock. which was the beginning of summer in those parts. or were left in the vessel. and from thence to Wapping. having let down the boat into the sea. and with that. where I slept sounder than ever I remembered to have done in my life. we were driven by a violent storm to the north-west of Van Diemen's Land. By an observation.of the sea. which I conjectured was about eight o'clock in the evening. and able to struggle no longer. I swam as fortune directed me. I attempted to rise. It would not be proper. I found myself within my depth. that in our passage from thence to the East Indies. which was very short and soft. that I did not observe them. and our voyage was at first very prosperous. and the heat of the weather. We rowed. On the 5th of November. for some reasons. I lay down on the grass. let it suffice to inform him. master of the Antelope. After three years expectation that things would mend. the seamen spied a rock within half a cable's length of the ship. as I happened to lie on my back. I often let my legs drop. that we were driven directly upon it. and could feel no bottom. I found myself much inclined to sleep. and intended to stay at home with my wife and family. but conclude they were all lost. and in about half an hour the boat was overset by a sudden flurry from the north. about nine hours. May 4. For my own part. by my computation. The declivity was so small. I then advanced forward near half a mile. about three leagues. Six of the crew. of whom I was one.

who ventured so far as to get a full sight of my face. by lifting it up to my face. cried out in a shrill but distinct voice. could see nothing except the sky. were hurt with the falls they got by leaping from my sides upon the ground. and wrench out the pegs that fastened my left arm to the ground. I could easily free myself: and as for the inhabitants. In a little time I felt something alive moving on my left leg. and my hair. But fortune disposed otherwise of me. and roared so loud. I could only look upwards. I discovered the methods they had taken to bind me. but by good luck I had on a buff jerkin. When this shower of arrows was over. and the light offended my eyes. when. which I immediately covered with my left hand. I thought it the most prudent method to lie still. which. they shot another flight into the air. However. (though I felt them not). I felt at least forty more of the same kind (as I conjectured) following the first. lifting up his hands and eyes by way of admiration. and some of them attempted with spears to stick me in the sides. but then I knew not what they meant. my left hand being already loose. fell on my body. before I could seize them. with a bow and arrow in his hands.each side to the ground. they soon returned. which was long and thick. tied down in the same manner. as we do bombs in Europe. But the creatures ran off a second time. whereupon there was a great shout in a very shrill accent. when in an instant I felt above a hundred arrows discharged on my left hand. I perceived it to be a human creature not six inches high. and then striving again to get loose. When the people . and some on my face. but in the posture I lay. and after it ceased I heard one of them cry aloud Tolgo phonac. I heard a confused noise about me. they discharged another volley larger than the first. which gave me excessive pain. pricked me like so many needles. as I was afterwards told. when. and one of them. and some of them. I was in the utmost astonishment. I lay all this while. whereof many. and at the same time with a violent pull. as the reader may believe. I had reason to believe I might be a match for the greatest army they could bring against me. I suppose. which they could not pierce. struggling to get loose. if they were all of the same size with him that I saw. which advancing gently forward over my breast. from my arm-pits to my thighs. I a little loosened the strings that tied down my hair on the left side. I fell a groaning with grief and pain. for. At length. the sun began to grow hot. in great uneasiness. so that I was just able to turn my head about two inches. came almost up to my chin. and my design was to continue so till night. I likewise felt several slender ligatures across my body. In the mean time. Hekinah degul: the others repeated the same words several times. and a quiver at his back. bending my eyes downwards as much as I could. and besides. I had the fortune to break the strings. that they all ran back in a fright.

and took three loaves at a time. that I wanted drink. but could not distinguish them by the taste. and very well dressed. pity. and . whereupon. He descended from the stage. that before the principal person began his oration. They supplied me as fast as they could. and loins. laden with baskets full of meat. and being a most ingenious people. legs. the other two stood one on each side to support him. having not eaten a morsel for some hours before I left the ship. and commanded that several ladders should be applied to my sides. about fifty of the inhabitants came and cut the strings that fastened the left side of my head. when turning my head that way. upon the first intelligence he received of me. as calling him for a witness. about the bigness of musket bullets. who seemed to be a person of quality. but in the most submissive manner. with two or three ladders to mount it: from whence one of them. He appeared to be of a middle age. but smaller than the wings of a lark. shaped like those of mutton. which had been provided and sent thither by the king's orders. that I could not forbear showing my impatience (perhaps against the strict rules of decency) by putting my finger frequently to my mouth. and others of promises. as I afterwards learnt) understood me very well. I answered in a few words. made me a long speech. and taller than any of the other three who attended him. immediately. one of their largest hogsheads. I then made another sign. over against my right ear. to signify that I wanted food. I ate them by two or three at a mouthful. I observed there was the flesh of several animals. capable of holding four of the inhabitants. I heard a knocking for above an hour. They found by my eating that a small quantity would not suffice me. and both my eyes to the sun. showing a thousand marks of wonder and astonishment at my bulk and appetite. I found the demands of nature so strong upon me. I knew their numbers increased. by the noise I heard. and I could observe many periods of threatenings. they slung up. lifting up my left hand. But I should have mentioned. like that of people at work. then rolled it towards my hand. and seemed to be somewhat longer than my middle finger. and of observing the person and gesture of him that was to speak. and kindness. he cried out three times. There were shoulders. on which above a hundred of the inhabitants mounted and walked towards my mouth. but. and being almost famished with hunger.observed I was quiet. as well as the pegs and strings would permit me. whereof I understood not one syllable. I saw a stage erected about a foot and a half from the ground. which gave me the liberty of turning it to the right. whereof one was a page that held up his train. they discharged no more arrows. Langro dehul san (these words and the former were afterwards repeated and explained to me). The hurgo (for so they call a great lord. He acted every part of an orator. and about four yards from me. with great dexterity.

They made me a sign that I should throw down the two hogsheads. to a people who had treated me with so much expense and magnificence. and made signs for more. Whereupon I once more thought of attempting to break my bonds. while one of my hands was at liberty. It appeared that he understood me well enough. However.beat out the top. but to no purpose. and very good treatment. when I felt the smart of their arrows upon my face and hands. His excellency. I gave tokens to let them know that . which he applied close to my eyes. but they had none to give me. but first warning the people below to stand out of the way. I confess I was often tempted. having mounted on the small of my right leg. to seize forty or fifty of the first that came in my reach. there appeared before me a person of high rank from his imperial majesty. advanced forwards up to my face. for he shook his head by way of disapprobation. I now considered myself as bound by the laws of hospitality. there was a universal shout of Hekinah degul. when they observed that I made no more demands for meat. After some time. They brought me a second hogshead. with about a dozen of his retinue. Besides. which were all in blisters. which I drank in the same manner. crying aloud. and the promise of honour I made them--for so I interpreted my submissive behaviour-soon drove out these imaginations. and danced upon my breast. who durst venture to mount and walk upon my body. which I might well do. and when they saw the vessels in the air. and dash them against the ground. repeating several times as they did at first. but again. and made a sign with my hand that was loose. he made other signs to let me understand that I should have meat and drink enough. and held his hand in a posture to show that I must be carried as a prisoner. in my thoughts I could not sufficiently wonder at the intrepidity of these diminutive mortals. to signify that I desired my liberty. while they were passing backwards and forwards on my body. without trembling at the very sight of so prodigious a creature as I must appear to them. and many of the darts still sticking in them. they shouted for joy. which. and tasted like a small wine of Burgundy. spoke about ten minutes without any signs of anger. Hekinah degul. When I had performed these wonders. which probably might not be the worst they could do. However. putting it to the other (but over his excellency's head for fear of hurting him or his train) and then to my own head and body. and producing his credentials under the signet royal. I answered in few words. but with a kind of determinate resolution. whither it was agreed by his majesty in council that I must be conveyed. but much more delicious. as I afterwards found. about half a mile distant. and observing likewise that the number of my enemies increased. often pointing forwards. was towards the capital city. I drank it off at a draught. for it did not hold half a pint. Borach mevolah. But the remembrance of what I had felt.

they had daubed my face and both my hands with a sort of ointment. about . removed all the smart of their arrows. very pleasant to the smell. which. It seems. the emperor had early notice of it by an express. in a few minutes. This prince has several machines fixed on wheels. who. and has them carried on these engines three or four hundred yards to the sea. as to have enabled me to break the strings wherewith I was tied. and it was no wonder. with frequent repetitions of the words Peplom selan. This resolution perhaps may appear very bold and dangerous. added to the refreshment I had received by their victuals and drink. I should certainly have awaked with the first sense of smart. and arrived to a great perfection in mechanics. supposing these people had endeavoured to kill me with their spears and arrows. as I was afterwards assured. (which was done in the night while I slept. I slept about eight hours. immediately opened to the right and left on that side. in the woods where the timber grows. conjecturing by my motion what I was going to do. which I very plentifully did. whereof some are nine feet long. But before this. to the great astonishment of the people. as they were not able to make resistance. These people are most excellent mathematicians.they might do with me what they pleased. and to ease myself with making water. it was extremely prudent. which might so far have roused my rage and strength. while I was asleep. and I felt great numbers of people on my left side relaxing the cords to such a degree. and I am confident would not be imitated by any prince in Europe on the like occasion. disposed me to sleep. for the carriage of trees and other great weights. However. had mingled a sleepy potion in the hogsheads of wine. These circumstances. by the countenance and encouragement of the emperor. to avoid the torrent.) that plenty of meat and drink should be sent to me. with much civility and cheerful countenances. which were very nourishing. He often builds his largest men of war. which fell with such noise and violence from me. after my landing. by the emperor's order. who is a renowned patron of learning. that I was able to turn upon my right. It was a frame of wood raised three inches from the ground. the hurgo and his train withdrew. that upon the first moment I was discovered sleeping on the ground. and determined in council. as well as generous: for. in my opinion. after which. that I should be tied in the manner I have related. Upon this. Soon after I heard a general shout. so they could expect no mercy. Five hundred carpenters and engineers were immediately set at work to prepare the greatest engine they had. for the physicians. and a machine prepared to carry me to the capital city.

they climbed up into the engine. which. We made a long march the remaining part of the day. ready to shoot me if I should offer to stir. and arrived within two hundred yards of the city gates about feet long. which the workmen had girt round my neck. by the force of that soporiferous medicine infused into my liquor. was half a mile distant. according to the zeal of those people. and thus. having been polluted some years before by an unnatural murder. an officer in the guards. for. came out to meet us. and it was three weeks before I knew the cause of my waking so suddenly. were erected for this purpose. It was brought parallel to me. half with torches. But the principal difficulty was to raise and place me in this vehicle. esteemed to be the largest in the whole kingdom. while the operation was performing. The next morning at sun-rise we continued our march. and made me sneeze violently. All this I was told. and all the ornaments and furniture carried away. were fastened by hooks to many bandages. two or three of the young natives had the curiosity to see how I looked when I was asleep. each of one foot high. At the place where the carriage stopped there stood an ancient temple. and four wide. for the carriage being stopped a while. one of them. I awaked by a very ridiculous accident. moving upon twenty-two wheels. not above six inches . set out in four hours after my landing. as I lay. my hands. and. which. Eighty poles. I lay in a profound sleep. which tickled my nose like a straw. which. by many pulleys fastened on the poles. and almost two feet wide. Fifteen hundred of the emperor's largest horses. I was raised and slung into the engine. On each side of the gate was a small window. and all his court. as I said. and advancing very softly to my face. it seems. in less than three hours. and there tied fast. and my legs. and therefore had been applied to common use. of the bigness of packthread. looked upon as profane. and half with bows and arrows. was. and very strong cords. my body. In this edifice it was determined I should lodge. put the sharp end of his half-pike a good way up into my left nostril. each about four inches and a half high. to adjust something that was out of order. rested at night with five hundred guards on each side of me. The shout I heard was upon the arrival of this engine. through which I could easily creep. whereupon they stole off unperceived. About four hours after we began our journey. were employed to draw me towards the metropolis. Nine hundred of the strongest men were employed to draw up these cords. but his great officers would by no means suffer his majesty to endanger his person by mounting on my body. The great gate fronting to the north was about four feet high. The emperor.

resembled so many beds of flowers. But the noise and astonishment of the people. like those that hang to a lady's watch in Europe. appeared to be seven feet high. and almost as large. The country around appeared like a continued garden. I believe there could not be fewer than ten thousand at several times. with many principal lords of his court. to have an opportunity of viewing me. which looked like the painted scene of a city in a theatre. to forbid it upon pain of death. on the other side of the great highway. being fixed within four inches of the gate.from the ground: into that on the left side. Over against this temple. He gains favour by his mild disposition. with as melancholy a disposition as ever I had in my life. and his sword and pistols taken from him. But a proclamation was soon issued. for I could not see them. I viewed the town on my left hand. and. The chains that held my left leg were about two yards long. as I could judge. comes to see the author in his confinement. I looked about me. whereupon I rose up. are not to be expressed. When the workmen found it was impossible for me to break loose. The emperor's person and habit described. and gave me not only the liberty of walking backwards and forwards in a semicircle. CHAPTER II. at twenty feet distance.] When I found myself on my feet. there was a turret at least five feet high. they cut all the strings that bound me. and the enclosed fields. but. Here the emperor ascended. and lie at my full length in the temple. which were generally forty feet square. it being almost two days since I had . These fields were intermingled with woods of half a stang. I had been for some hours extremely pressed by the necessities of nature. allowed me to creep in. It was reckoned that above a hundred thousand inhabitants came out of the town upon the same errand. attended by several of the nobility. which were locked to my left leg with six-and-thirty padlocks. in spite of my guards. as I was told. His pockets are searched. {1} and the tallest trees. [The emperor of Lilliput. at seeing me rise and walk. and must confess I never beheld a more entertaining prospect. the king's smith conveyed fourscore and eleven chains. which was no wonder. who mounted my body by the help of ladders. Learned men appointed to teach the author their language.

and his deportment majestic. twenty of them were filled with meat. kept his seat. but upon the accident that happened to the emperor's horse. while his majesty had time to dismount. may appear not very momentous. if I had not thought it necessary to justify my character.last disburdened myself. for which I cannot but hope the candid reader will give some allowance. yet wholly unused to such a sight. who is an excellent horseman. His features are strong and masculine. he surveyed me round with great admiration. with an Austrian lip and arched nose. his countenance erect. after he has maturely and impartially considered my case. drinking it off at a draught. for the beast. at the full extent of my chain. his complexion olive. into one vehicle. reared up on its hinder feet: but that prince. attended by many ladies. I took these vehicles and soon emptied them all. I was under great difficulties between urgency and shame. they alighted. some of my maligners have been pleased. each of the former afforded me two or three good mouthfuls. than any of his court. his body and limbs well proportioned. all his motions graceful. having occasion for fresh air. and young princes of the blood of both sexes. to call in question. He ordered his cooks and butlers. which appeared as if a mountain moved before him. and discharged my body of that uneasy load. The best expedient I could think of. though very well trained. which alone is enough to strike an awe into the beholders. which they pushed forward in a sort of vehicles upon wheels. sat at some distance in their chairs. to the world. which was contained in earthen vials. as soon as I rose. But this was the only time I was ever guilty of so uncleanly an action. upon this and other occasions. The emperor was already descended from the tower. I am told. The empress. in point of cleanliness. was to creep into my house. which I accordingly did. and ten with liquor. and shutting the gate after me. and advancing on horseback towards me. and held the bridle. and due care was taken every morning before company came. which I am now going to describe. to perform that business in open air. and I emptied the liquor of ten vessels. who were already prepared. to give me victuals and drink. When he alighted. perhaps. I came back out of my house. and so I did with the rest. He is taller by almost the breadth of my nail. by two servants appointed for that purpose. at first sight. I went as far as the length of my chain would suffer. From this time my constant practice was. which. He was then . I would not have dwelt so long upon a circumstance that. and came near his person. When this adventure was at an end. till I could reach them. till his attendants ran in. that the offensive matter should be carried off in wheel-barrows. and the distress I was in. but kept beyond the length of my chain. which had like to have cost him dear.

taking them one by one out of my pocket. which some of his soldiers accordingly did. The ladies and courtiers were all most magnificently clad. and immediately cutting the strings he was bound with. and he stood but three yards off: however. and I was left with a strong guard. which was represented very much to my advantage at court. during . and therefore cannot be deceived in the description. pushing them forward with the butt-ends of their pikes into my reach. where I lay on the ground. and continued to do so about a fortnight. For the better convenience of beholding him. French. and generally victorious. if I should happen to break loose. and as to the sixth. I have had him since many times in my hand. Towards night I got with some difficulty into my house. adorned with jewels. Italian. Latin. for. who were commanded to address themselves to me. and I could distinctly hear it when I stood up. and some of them had the impudence to shoot their arrows at me. to prevent the impertinence. His dress was very plain and simple. I treated the rest in the same manner. His imperial majesty spoke often to me. who were very impatient to crowd about me as near as they durst. being twenty-eight years and three quarters old. I made a countenance as if I would eat him alive. and a plume on the crest. and probably the malice of the rabble. I lay on my side. embroidered with figures of gold and silver. I set him gently on the ground. I took them all in my right hand. but very clear and articulate. and Lingua Franca. of which he had reigned about seven in great felicity. put five of them into my coat-pocket. But the colonel ordered six of the ringleaders to be seized. and I returned answers: but neither of us could understand a syllable. it was almost three inches long. the hilt and scabbard were gold enriched with diamonds. and thought no punishment so proper as to deliver them bound into my hands. which were High and Low Dutch. but all to no purpose. whereof one very narrowly missed my left eye. and the colonel and his officers were in much pain. so that my face was parallel to his. but he had on his head a light helmet of gold. Spanish. and the fashion of it between the Asiatic and the European. so that the spot they stood upon seemed to resemble a petticoat spread upon the ground. He held his sword drawn in his hand to defend himself. especially when they saw me take out my penknife: but I soon put them out of fear. and away he ran. and I spoke to them in as many languages as I had the least smattering of. There were several of his priests and lawyers present (as I conjectured by their habits). and I observed both the soldiers and people were highly delighted at this mark of my clemency. The poor man squalled terribly. as I sat on the ground by the door of my house.past his prime. After about two hours the court retired. looking mildly. His voice was shrill.

blankets. which would soon despatch me. seldom.which time. that my diet would be very expensive. made up the breadth and length. and not presume to come within fifty yards of my house. and other liquors. It was likewise ordered. and probably spread through the whole kingdom. together with a proportionable quantity of bread. that three hundred . Six hundred beds of the common measure were brought in carriages. and other victuals for my sustenance. idle. his majesty gave assignments upon his treasury:. a person of great quality. and I was afterwards assured by a particular friend. and these were four double: which. in my behalf. By the same computation. raising any subsidies upon his subjects. gave an account of my behaviour to the six criminals above-mentioned. a hundred and fifty of their beds. and wine. and tents built for them very conveniently on each side of my door. if his imperial majesty had not provided. sewn together.for this prince lives chiefly upon his own demesnes. As the news of my arrival spread through the kingdom. by several proclamations and orders of state. it brought prodigious numbers of rich. and curious people to see me. He directed that those who had already beheld me should return home. they provided me with sheets. and coverlets. but again they considered. nine hundred yards round the city. obliging all the villages. and might cause a famine. which made so favourable an impression in the breast of his majesty and the whole board. that an imperial commission was issued out. who was as much in the secret as any. to debate what course should be taken with me. In the midst of these consultations. that the court was under many difficulties concerning me. whereby the secretaries of state got considerable fees. and two of them being admitted. or at least to shoot me in the face and hands with poisoned arrows. so that the villages were almost emptied. however. to deliver in every morning six beeves. Sometimes they determined to starve me. against this inconveniency. without license from the court. for the due payment of which. In the mean time the emperor held frequent councils. forty sheep. and great neglect of tillage and household affairs must have ensued. except upon great occasions. that the stench of so large a carcass might produce a plague in the metropolis. They apprehended my breaking loose. and worked up in my house. the emperor gave orders to have a bed prepared for me. An establishment was also made of six hundred persons to be my domestics. who had board-wages allowed for their maintenance. that was of smooth stone. kept me but very indifferently from the hardness of the floor. tolerable enough for one who had been so long inured to hardships. who are bound to attend him in his wars at their own expense. several officers of the army went to the door of the great council-chamber.

to accustom themselves to me. and when they had done. that I should be used with all kindness. that he knew this could not be done without my consent and assistance. and is. and paper. we found only one great piece of coarse-cloth. by my patience and discreet behaviour. and he had so good an opinion of my generosity and justice. should be returned when I left the country. during which time the emperor frequently honoured me with his visits." He desired "I would not take it ill. His answer. and part in signs. swear a peace with him and his kingdom. as to trust their persons in my hands. not to be thought on without the advice of his council. These gentlemen. made an exact inventory of every thing they saw. In one of my fobs there was a silver watch. and in about three weeks I made a great progress in learning their language. and those of the nobility and troops of guards. This inventory I afterwards translated into English. as I could comprehend it. He replied. if they answered the bulk of so prodigious a person. for I was ready to strip myself. and that first I must lumos kelmin pesso desmar lon emposo. about them. "that. by the laws of the kingdom." which I every day repeated on my knees. I must be searched by two of his officers. desired I would set them down. as follows: "Imprimis: In the right coat-pocket of the great man-mountain" (for so I interpret the words quinbus flestrin. "His majesty should be satisfied." This I delivered part in words." I said. and lastly." I took up the two officers in my hands. ink. which I had no mind should be searched. word for word. was. However. and the first words I learnt. should be frequently exercised in my sight. put them first into my coat-pockets. that whatever they took from me. And he advised me to "acquire. and another secret pocket. that the emperor's horses. and then into every other pocket about me. large enough to be a foot-cloth for your majesty's chief room of . or paid for at the rate which I would set upon them. wherein I had some little necessaries that were of no consequence to any but myself. and in the other a small quantity of gold in a purse. We began already to converse together in some sort. except my two fobs.tailors should make me a suit of clothes. and turn up my pockets before him. were to express my desire "that he would please give me my liberty. that they might deliver it to the emperor. and was pleased to assist my masters in teaching me. All these orders were duly put in execution. if he gave orders to certain proper officers to search me. which must needs be dangerous things.) "after the strictest search." that is. after the fashion of the country. for probably I might carry about me several weapons. the good opinion of himself and his subjects. "that this must be a work of time. that six of his majesty's greatest scholars should be employed to instruct me in their language. having pen.

for we did not always trouble him with questions. were huge pieces of iron sticking out. with a wonderful kind of engine at the bottom. In his right waistcoat-pocket we found a prodigious bundle of white thin substances. We desired it should be opened. resembling the pallisados before your majesty's court: wherewith we conjecture the manmountain combs his head. We directed him to draw out whatever was at the end of that chain. reach the top of them. on the right side of his middle cover" (so I translate the word ranfulo. some of the white. half silver. and cut his meat with the other. by our orders. because we found it a great difficulty to make him understand us. because we apprehended they might be dangerous engines. about twice the bigness of our heads. and half of some transparent metal.state. which we humbly conceive to be writings. till we found our fingers stopped by the lucid substance. fastened to a strong piece of timber larger than the pillar. and one of us stepping into it. for. that my comrade and I could hardly lift them. without difficulty. on the transparent side. One of them was covered. In the left pocket were two black pillars irregularly shaped: we could not. which made an incessant noise. by which they meant my breeches. with a cover of the same metal. about the bigness of three men. which we know not what to make of. found himself up to the mid leg in a sort of dust. which we. another engine of the same kind. In the large pocket. were so large and heavy. were several round flat pieces of white and red metal. and told us. about the length of a man. and marked with black figures. In the left pocket we saw a huge silver chest. In the smaller pocket on the right side. He took them out of their cases. tied with a strong cable. some part whereof flying up to our faces set us both a sneezing for several times together. we obliged him to show us. every letter almost half as large as the palm of our hands. and thought we could touch them. and upon one side of the pillar. cut into strange figures. of different bulk. There were two pockets which we could not enter: these he called his fobs. the searchers. from the back of which were extended twenty long poles. which appeared to be a globe. they were two large slits cut into the top of his middle cover. Within each of these was enclosed a prodigious plate of steel. like that of a water- . Out of the right fob hung a great silver chain. as we stood at the bottom of his pocket. which. but squeezed close by the pressure of his belly. which seemed to be silver. that in his own country his practice was to shave his beard with one of these. He put this engine into our ears.) "we saw a hollow pillar of iron. and seemed all of a piece: but at the upper end of the other there appeared a white round substance. folded one over another. were not able to lift. In the left there was a sort of engine. In the left pocket. we saw certain strange figures circularly drawn.

From the left fob he took out a net almost large enough for a fisherman. but we are more inclined to the latter opinion. was less daunted than I could expect: he ordered me to return it into the scabbard. or the god that he worships. about the bigness of our heads. scabbard and all. he directed me. which I took out. and on the right. and the reflection dazzled their eyes. (if we understood him right. He then desired me to draw my scimitar. on the left side. who is a most magnanimous prince. as I waved the scimitar to and fro in my hand. In one of these cells were several globes. for mine eyes were wholly fixed upon his majesty. diligently searched all his pockets. "This is an exact inventory of what we found about the body of the man-mountain. in obedience to your majesty's commands." When this inventory was read over to the emperor. if they be real gold. and requiring a strong hand to lift them: the other cell contained a heap of certain black grains. was. with their bows and arrows just ready to discharge. about . He called it his oracle. a bag or pouch divided into two cells. CLEFRIN FRELOCK. because he assured us. and said. each cell capable of holding three of your majesty's subjects. and served him for the same use: we found therein several massy pieces of yellow metal. must be of immense value.mill: and we conjecture it is either some unknown animal. or balls. who used us with great civility. MARSI FRELOCK. we observed a girdle about his waist made of the hide of some prodigious animal. He first called for my scimitar. which. but I did not observe it. In the mean time he ordered three thousand of his choicest troops (who then attended him) to surround me at a distance. although it had got some rust by the sea water. and cast it on the ground as gently as I could. in most parts. and due respect to your majesty's commission. His majesty. for the sun shone clear. for he expressed himself very imperfectly) that he seldom did any thing without consulting it. Signed and sealed on the fourth day of the eighty-ninth moon of your majesty's auspicious reign. I did so. hung a sword of the length of five men. to deliver up the several particulars. exceeding bright. which. although in very gentle terms. of a most ponderous metal. but of no great bulk or weight. for we could hold above fifty of them in the palms of our hands. from which. but contrived to open and shut like a purse. "Having thus. it pointed out the time for every action of his life. and immediately all the troops gave a shout between terror and surprise.

six feet from the end of my chain. The next thing he demanded was one of the hollow iron pillars; by which he meant my pocket pistols. I drew it out, and at his desire, as well as I could, expressed to him the use of it; and charging it only with powder, which, by the closeness of my pouch, happened to escape wetting in the sea (an inconvenience against which all prudent mariners take special care to provide,) I first cautioned the emperor not to be afraid, and then I let it off in the air. The astonishment here was much greater than at the sight of my scimitar. Hundreds fell down as if they had been struck dead; and even the emperor, although he stood his ground, could not recover himself for some time. I delivered up both my pistols in the same manner as I had done my scimitar, and then my pouch of powder and bullets; begging him that the former might be kept from fire, for it would kindle with the smallest spark, and blow up his imperial palace into the air. I likewise delivered up my watch, which the emperor was very curious to see, and commanded two of his tallest yeomen of the guards to bear it on a pole upon their shoulders, as draymen in England do a barrel of ale. He was amazed at the continual noise it made, and the motion of the minute-hand, which he could easily discern; for their sight is much more acute than ours: he asked the opinions of his learned men about it, which were various and remote, as the reader may well imagine without my repeating; although indeed I could not very perfectly understand them. I then gave up my silver and copper money, my purse, with nine large pieces of gold, and some smaller ones; my knife and razor, my comb and silver snuff-box, my handkerchief and journal-book. My scimitar, pistols, and pouch, were conveyed in carriages to his majesty's stores; but the rest of my goods were returned me. I had as I before observed, one private pocket, which escaped their search, wherein there was a pair of spectacles (which I sometimes use for the weakness of mine eyes,) a pocket perspective, and some other little conveniences; which, being of no consequence to the emperor, I did not think myself bound in honour to discover, and I apprehended they might be lost or spoiled if I ventured them out of my possession.


[The author diverts the emperor, and his nobility of both sexes, in a very uncommon manner. The diversions of the court of Lilliput

described. The author has his liberty granted him upon certain conditions.] My gentleness and good behaviour had gained so far on the emperor and his court, and indeed upon the army and people in general, that I began to conceive hopes of getting my liberty in a short time. I took all possible methods to cultivate this favourable disposition. The natives came, by degrees, to be less apprehensive of any danger from me. I would sometimes lie down, and let five or six of them dance on my hand; and at last the boys and girls would venture to come and play at hide-and-seek in my hair. I had now made a good progress in understanding and speaking the language. The emperor had a mind one day to entertain me with several of the country shows, wherein they exceed all nations I have known, both for dexterity and magnificence. I was diverted with none so much as that of the rope-dancers, performed upon a slender white thread, extended about two feet, and twelve inches from the ground. Upon which I shall desire liberty, with the reader's patience, to enlarge a little. This diversion is only practised by those persons who are candidates for great employments, and high favour at court. They are trained in this art from their youth, and are not always of noble birth, or liberal education. When a great office is vacant, either by death or disgrace (which often happens,) five or six of those candidates petition the emperor to entertain his majesty and the court with a dance on the rope; and whoever jumps the highest, without falling, succeeds in the office. Very often the chief ministers themselves are commanded to show their skill, and to convince the emperor that they have not lost their faculty. Flimnap, the treasurer, is allowed to cut a caper on the straight rope, at least an inch higher than any other lord in the whole empire. I have seen him do the summerset several times together, upon a trencher fixed on a rope which is no thicker than a common packthread in England. My friend Reldresal, principal secretary for private affairs, is, in my opinion, if I am not partial, the second after the treasurer; the rest of the great officers are much upon a par. These diversions are often attended with fatal accidents, whereof great numbers are on record. I myself have seen two or three candidates break a limb. But the danger is much greater, when the ministers themselves are commanded to show their dexterity; for, by contending to excel themselves and their fellows, they strain so far that there is hardly one of them who has not received a fall, and some of them two or three. I was assured that, a year or two

before my arrival, Flimnap would infallibly have broke his neck, if one of the king's cushions, that accidentally lay on the ground, had not weakened the force of his fall. There is likewise another diversion, which is only shown before the emperor and empress, and first minister, upon particular occasions. The emperor lays on the table three fine silken threads of six inches long; one is blue, the other red, and the third green. These threads are proposed as prizes for those persons whom the emperor has a mind to distinguish by a peculiar mark of his favour. The ceremony is performed in his majesty's great chamber of state, where the candidates are to undergo a trial of dexterity very different from the former, and such as I have not observed the least resemblance of in any other country of the new or old world. The emperor holds a stick in his hands, both ends parallel to the horizon, while the candidates advancing, one by one, sometimes leap over the stick, sometimes creep under it, backward and forward, several times, according as the stick is advanced or depressed. Sometimes the emperor holds one end of the stick, and his first minister the other; sometimes the minister has it entirely to himself. Whoever performs his part with most agility, and holds out the longest in leaping and creeping, is rewarded with the bluecoloured silk; the red is given to the next, and the green to the third, which they all wear girt twice round about the middle; and you see few great persons about this court who are not adorned with one of these girdles. The horses of the army, and those of the royal stables, having been daily led before me, were no longer shy, but would come up to my very feet without starting. The riders would leap them over my hand, as I held it on the ground; and one of the emperor's huntsmen, upon a large courser, took my foot, shoe and all; which was indeed a prodigious leap. I had the good fortune to divert the emperor one day after a very extraordinary manner. I desired he would order several sticks of two feet high, and the thickness of an ordinary cane, to be brought me; whereupon his majesty commanded the master of his woods to give directions accordingly; and the next morning six woodmen arrived with as many carriages, drawn by eight horses to each. I took nine of these sticks, and fixing them firmly in the ground in a quadrangular figure, two feet and a half square, I took four other sticks, and tied them parallel at each corner, about two feet from the ground; then I fastened my handkerchief to the nine sticks that stood erect; and extended it on all sides, till it was tight as the top of a drum; and the four parallel sticks, rising about five inches higher than the handkerchief, served as ledges on each side. When I had finished

my work, I desired the emperor to let a troop of his best horses twenty-four in number, come and exercise upon this plain. His majesty approved of the proposal, and I took them up, one by one, in my hands, ready mounted and armed, with the proper officers to exercise them. As soon as they got into order they divided into two parties, performed mock skirmishes, discharged blunt arrows, drew their swords, fled and pursued, attacked and retired, and in short discovered the best military discipline I ever beheld. The parallel sticks secured them and their horses from falling over the stage; and the emperor was so much delighted, that he ordered this entertainment to be repeated several days, and once was pleased to be lifted up and give the word of command; and with great difficulty persuaded even the empress herself to let me hold her in her close chair within two yards of the stage, when she was able to take a full view of the whole performance. It was my good fortune, that no ill accident happened in these entertainments; only once a fiery horse, that belonged to one of the captains, pawing with his hoof, struck a hole in my handkerchief, and his foot slipping, he overthrew his rider and himself; but I immediately relieved them both, and covering the hole with one hand, I set down the troop with the other, in the same manner as I took them up. The horse that fell was strained in the left shoulder, but the rider got no hurt; and I repaired my handkerchief as well as I could: however, I would not trust to the strength of it any more, in such dangerous enterprises. About two or three days before I was set at liberty, as I was entertaining the court with this kind of feat, there arrived an express to inform his majesty, that some of his subjects, riding near the place where I was first taken up, had seen a great black substance lying on the around, very oddly shaped, extending its edges round, as wide as his majesty's bedchamber, and rising up in the middle as high as a man; that it was no living creature, as they at first apprehended, for it lay on the grass without motion; and some of them had walked round it several times; that, by mounting upon each other's shoulders, they had got to the top, which was flat and even, and, stamping upon it, they found that it was hollow within; that they humbly conceived it might be something belonging to the man-mountain; and if his majesty pleased, they would undertake to bring it with only five horses. I presently knew what they meant, and was glad at heart to receive this intelligence. It seems, upon my first reaching the shore after our shipwreck, I was in such confusion, that before I came to the place where I went to sleep, my hat, which I had fastened with a string to my head while I was rowing, and had stuck on all the time I was swimming, fell off after I came to land; the string, as I

it received less damage than I expected. His majesty gave orders. I was demanded to swear to the performance of them. that his majesty at length mentioned the matter. That minister was galbet. the foot by twenty-four abreast. with my legs as far asunder as I conveniently could. that every soldier in his march should observe the strictest decency with regard to my person. within an inch and half of the edge. However. describing to him the use and the nature of it: and the next day the waggoners arrived with it. they had bored two holes in the brim. and confirmed by the emperor. and a great patron of mine) to draw up the troops in close order. and thus my hat was dragged along for above half an English mile. breaking by some accident. took a fancy of diverting himself in a very singular manner. and then in a full council. or admiral of the realm. He then commanded his general (who was an old experienced leader. But it was carried against him by the whole board. he was at length persuaded to comply. upon pain of death. I entreated his imperial majesty to give orders it might be brought to me as soon as possible. my breeches were at that time in so ill a condition. the ground in that country being extremely smooth and level. who was pleased. and to place the middle finger of my right hand on the . except Skyresh Bolgolam. should be drawn up by himself. and a thousand horse. that they afforded some opportunities for laughter and admiration. colours flying. first in the manner of my own country. and a person well versed in affairs. This body consisted of three thousand foot. these hooks were tied by a long cord to the harness. but of a morose and sour complexion. He desired I would stand like a Colossus. the emperor. which was. and the horse by sixteen.conjecture. and several persons of distinction. but not in a very good condition. very much in his master's confidence. and march them under me. to confess the truth. and pikes advanced. Two days after this adventure. but thought my hat had been lost at sea. I had sent so many memorials and petitions for my liberty. first in the cabinet. where it was opposed by none. with drums beating. and afterwards in the method prescribed by their laws. to be in readiness. having ordered that part of his army which quarters in and about his metropolis. but prevailed that the articles and conditions upon which I should be set free. and fastened two hooks in the holes. and to which I must swear. to be my mortal enemy. which however could not prevent some of the younger officers from turning up their eyes as they passed under me: and. without any provocation. but. which I never observed. After they were read. to hold my right foot in my left hand. These articles were brought to me by Skyresh Bolgolam in person attended by two under-secretaries.

at whose nod the princes of the earth shake their knees. fruitful as autumn. which is now preparing to invade us. But because the reader may be curious to have some idea of the style and manner of expression peculiar to that people. He shall not presume to come into our metropolis. If an express requires extraordinary despatch. word for word. and my thumb on the tip of my right ear. "2d. most mighty Emperor of Lilliput. whose feet press down to the centre. nor take any of our subjects into his hands without their own consent. as near as I was able. without our express order. or lie down. once in every moon. "4th. their horses. delight and terror of the universe. "3d. in a meadow or field of corn. and return the said messenger back (if so required) safe to our imperial presence. as well as to know the article upon which I recovered my liberty. . and do his utmost to destroy their fleet. he shall take the utmost care not to trample upon the bodies of any of our loving subjects. and whose head strikes against the sun. The man-mountain shall not depart from our dominions. lately arrived at our celestial dominions. whose dominions extend five thousand blustrugs (about twelve miles in circumference) to the extremities of the globe. The said man-mountain shall confine his walks to our principal high roads. which. taller than the sons of men. by a solemn oath. comfortable as the summer. without our license under our great seal. or carriages. "Golbasto Momarem Evlame Gurdilo Shefin Mully Ully Gue. the inhabitants shall have two hours warning to keep within doo rs. in his pocket. the manmountain shall be obliged to carry. the following articles. which I here offer to the public. and not offer to walk. the messenger and horse a six days journey. at which time. pleasant as the spring. he shall be obliged to perform:"1st. "6th. dreadful as winter: his most sublime majesty proposes to the man-mountain. As he walks the said roads. monarch of all of my head. He shall be our ally against our enemies in the island of Blefuscu. I have made a translation of the whole instrument. "5th.

and after many gracious expressions." The reader may please to observe. they concluded from the similarity of their bodies. the twelfth day of the ninety-first moon of our reign. Some time after. "8th. in person. that. and well deserve all the favours he had already conferred upon me. the said man-mountain shall have a daily allowance of meat and drink sufficient for the support of 1724 of our subjects. having taken the height of my body by the help of a quadrant. "Lastly. in two moons' time. and consequently would require as much food as was necessary to support that number of Lilliputians. in the last article of the recovery of my liberty. as well as the prudent and exact economy of so great a prince. towards covering the wall of the principal park. he told me that his majesty's mathematicians." I swore and subscribed to these articles with great cheerfulness and content. to avoid the censure of vanity. he added. upon his solemn oath to observe all the above articles. CHAPTER IV. in helping to raise certain great stones. at his times of leisure. or might do for the future. That the said man-mountain shall. That. the emperor stipulates to allow me a quantity of meat and drink sufficient for the support of 1724 Lilliputians. that mine must contain at least 1724 of theirs. and other marks of our favour. be aiding and assisting to our workmen. and finding it to exceed theirs in the proportion of twelve to one. I made my acknowledgements by prostrating myself at his majesty's feet: but he commanded me to rise."7th. "that he hoped I should prove a useful servant. The emperor himself. by a computation of his own paces round the coast. although some of them were not so honourable as I could have wished. Given at our palace at Belfaborac. did me the honour to be by at the whole ceremony. deliver in an exact survey of the circumference of our dominions. . asking a friend at court how they came to fix on that determinate number. and other our royal buildings. and I was at full liberty. That the said man-mountain shall. the high-admiral: whereupon my chains were immediately unlocked. which proceeded wholly from the malice of Skyresh Bolgolam. By which the reader may conceive an idea of the ingenuity of that people. with free access to our royal person. I shall not repeat. which.

but found it extremely difficult. though the walls were strongly built of hewn stone. for the great gates. are five feet wide. and twenty feet distance from the buildings. It is enclosed by a wall of two feet high. I walked with the utmost circumspection. The two great streets. and it is flanked with strong towers at ten feet distance. the metropolis. were but eighteen inches high. by proclamation. The author's offers to serve the emperor in his wars. and passed very gently. the metropolis of Lilliput. The town is capable of holding five hundred thousand souls: the houses are from three to five stories: the shops and markets well provided. through the two principal streets. each side of the wall being five hundred feet long. and sidling. to avoid treading on any stragglers who might remain in the streets.[Mildendo. The garret windows and tops of houses were so crowded with spectators. which run across and divide it into four quarters. the space being so wide between that and the palace. although the orders were very strict. described. that I thought in all my travels I had not seen a more populous place. that I might have license to see Mildendo. and seven inches wide. and at least eleven inches broad. A conversation between the author and a principal secretary. At the . but only view them as I passed. The outward court is a square of forty feet. after I had obtained my liberty. from one square into another. for fear of damaging the roofs and eaves of the houses with the skirts of my coat. I had his majesty's permission to step over this wall. that all people should keep in their houses. The people had notice. and four inches thick. but with a special charge to do no hurt either to the inhabitants or their houses. at their own peril. together with the emperor's palace. only in my short waistcoat. The city is an exact square. The lanes and alleys. are from twelve to eighteen inches. which the emperor easily granted me. and. Now the buildings of the outer court were at least five feet high. of my design to visit the town. and it was impossible for me to stride over them without infinite damage to the pile. was. I stepped over the great western gate. so that a coach and horses may be driven very safely round it. concerning the affairs of that empire.] The first request I made. The emperor's palace is in the centre of the city where the two great streets meet. I could easily view it on every side. The wall which encompassed it is two feet and a half high. which I was very desirous to see. and includes two other courts: in the inmost are the royal apartments. which I could not enter.

with their chief attendants about them. perhaps I might not have obtained it so soon. on account of his quality and personal merits. their peculiar manners and customs. He began with compliments on my liberty. Reldresal." said he. but he chose rather to let me hold him in my hand during our conversation. learning.same time the emperor had a great desire that I should see the magnificence of his palace. but this I was not able to do till three days after. which I readily consented to. each about three feet high. Of these trees I made two stools. "that if it had not been for the present situation of things at court. about a hundred yards distant from the city. and drew up the first after me with a hooked stick. through along series of princes. He ordered his coach to wait at a distance. which were left open on purpose. principal secretary (as they style him) for private affairs. came to my house attended only by one servant. I offered to lie down that he might the more conveniently reach my ear. from its first erection. which I spent in cutting down with my knife some of the largest trees in the royal park. and religion. my chief design at present being only to relate such events and transactions as happened to the public or to myself during a residence of about nine months in that empire. and desired I would give him an hours audience. which was eight feet wide. For. and strong enough to bear my weight. When I came to the side of the outer court. I applied my face to the windows of the middle stories. in their several lodgings. One morning. said "he might pretend to some merit in it. The people having received notice a second time. this I lifted over the roof. I went again through the city to the palace with my two stools in my hands. By this contrivance I got into the inmost court. which is now almost ready for the press. But I shall not anticipate the reader with further descriptions of this kind. and. and gently set it down on the space between the first and second court. with other matters very curious and useful. with a particular account of their wars and politics. laws. and discovered the most splendid apartments that can be imagined. "as flourishing a . because I reserve them for a greater work. There I saw the empress and the young princes. however. containing a general description of this empire. lying down upon my side. Her imperial majesty was pleased to smile very graciously upon me. added. their plants and animals. I stood upon one stool. I then stept over the building very conveniently from one stool to the other. as well as of the many good offices he had done me during my solicitations at court. and took the other in my hand." but. about a fortnight after I had obtained my liberty. and gave me out of the window her hand to kiss.

As to the first. which gives him a hobble in his gait. The animosities between these two parties run so high. but. upon great penalties. We apprehend his imperial highness. almost as large and powerful as this of his majesty. The people so highly resented this law. by a most potent enemy. our histories of six thousand moons make no mention of any other regions than the two great empires of Lilliput and Blefuscu. from the high and low heels of their shoes. These civil commotions were constantly fomented by the monarchs of Blefuscu. been engaged in a most obstinate war for six-and-thirty moons past. that the high heels are most agreeable to our ancient constitution. we labour under two mighty evils: a violent faction at home. Whereupon the emperor his father published an edict. under the names of Tramecksan and Slamecksan. the heir to the crown. and when they were quelled. while he was a boy. and breaking it according to the ancient practice. we are threatened with an invasion from the island of Blefuscu. nor drink. that they will neither eat. by which they distinguish themselves. or one of the stars. Which two mighty powers have. and particularly that his majesty's imperial heels are lower at least by a drurr than any of his court (drurr is a measure about the fourteenth part of an inch). commanding all his subjects. you are to understand. that for about seventy moons past there have been two struggling parties in this empire. as I was going to tell you. because it is certain. his majesty has determined to make use only of low heels in the administration of the government. the exiles always fled for . which is the other great empire of the universe. It is allowed on all hands. or high heels. that the primitive way of breaking eggs. that there are other kingdoms and states in the world inhabited by human creatures as large as yourself. Now. to exceed us in number. wherein one emperor lost his life. We compute the Tramecksan. before we eat them. at least we can plainly discover that one of his heels is higher than the other. but his present majesty's grandfather. and the danger of an invasion. from abroad. It began upon the following occasion. that a hundred mortals of your bulk would in a short time destroy all the fruits and cattle of his majesty's dominions: besides. but the power is wholly on our side. nor talk with each other. For as to what we have heard you affirm. there have been six rebellions raised on that account. and another his crown. was upon the larger end. our philosophers are in much doubt. in the midst of these intestine disquiets. and would rather conjecture that you dropped from the moon. that our histories tell us. and all offices in the gift of the crown.condition as we may appear to be in to foreigners. indeed. to have some tendency towards the high heels. happened to cut one of his fingers. to break the smaller end of their eggs. It is alleged. as you cannot but observe. however this be. going to eat an egg.

however. during which time we have lost forty capital ships. to defend his person and state against all invaders. placing great confidence in your valour and strength. that a bloody war has been carried on between the two empires for six-and-thirty moons.refuge to that empire.' And which is the convenient end. for the words are these: 'that all true believers break their eggs at the convenient end. by an extraordinary stratagem. This. A high title of honour is conferred upon him. However. but I was ready. to interfere with parties. and so much private assistance and encouragement from their party here at home. It is computed that eleven thousand persons have at several times suffered death.] . has commanded me to lay this account of his affairs before you. and are just preparing to make a descent upon us. in the fifty-fourth chapter of the Blundecral (which is their Alcoran). [The author. who was a foreigner. the Big-endian exiles have found so much credit in the emperor of Blefuscu's court. and a much a greater number of smaller vessels. Many hundred large volumes have been published upon this controversy: but the books of the Bigendians have been long forbidden." CHAPTER V. and sue for peace. by offending against a fundamental doctrine of our great prophet Lustrog. the emperors of Blefusca did frequently expostulate by their ambassadors. "that I thought it would not become me. in my humble opinion to be left to every man's conscience. and the whole party rendered incapable by law of holding employments." I desired the secretary to present my humble duty to the emperor. and his imperial majesty. with the hazard of my life. with various success. rather than submit to break their eggs at the smaller end. and the damage received by the enemy is reckoned to be somewhat greater than ours. together with thirty thousand of our best seamen and soldiers. the author instrumental in saving the rest of the palace. and to let him know. is thought to be a mere strain upon the text. During the course of these troubles. Ambassadors arrive from the emperor of Blefuscu. they have now equipped a numerous fleet. Now. seems. The empress's apartment on fire by an accident. prevents an invasion. accusing us of making a schism in religion. or at least in the power of the chief magistrate to determine.

I kept. lying down behind a hillock. I had not yet seen it. and a great number of transports: I then came back to my house. the enemy discharged several thousand arrows. walked into the sea. shoes. who told me. in my leathern jerkin. fastening a hook to the hole at the prow of each. I walked towards the north-east coast. and for the same reason I twisted three of the iron bars together. many of which stuck in my hands and face. who had received no intelligence of me. I arrived at the fleet in less than half an hour. I avoided appearing on that side of the coast. ready to sail with the first fair wind. gave me much disturbance in my work. Having thus fixed fifty hooks to as many cables. and an embargo laid by our emperor upon all vessels whatsoever. where there could not be fewer than thirty thousand souls. it was seventy glumgluffs deep. a pair of spectacles in a private pocket. over against Blefuscu. as our scouts assured us. My greatest apprehension was for mine eyes. bending the extremities into a hook. and stockings. which they had often plumbed. that they leaped out of their ships. all intercourse between the two empires having been strictly forbidden during the war. I then took my tackling. from which it is parted only by a channel of eight hundred yards wide. further . if I had not suddenly thought of an expedient. and viewed the enemy's fleet at anchor. I took out my small perspective glass. which. where. for fear of being discovered. and upon this notice of an intended invasion. consisting of about fifty men of war. about half an hour before high water. I consulted the most experienced seamen upon the depth of the channel. as I observed before. The cable was about as thick as packthread and the bars of the length and size of a knitting-needle. upon pain of death. I communicated to his majesty a project I had formed of seizing the enemy's whole fleet. at high-water. and the rest of it fifty glumgluffs at most. and swam in the middle about thirty yards. which is about six feet of European measure. by some of the enemy's ships. beside the excessive smart. which I should have infallibly lost. and. in spite of the enemy's arrows. These I took out and fastened as strongly as I could upon my nose. that in the middle. and swam to shore. among other little necessaries. till I felt ground. and thus armed. and. I tied all the cords together at the end. I trebled the cable to make it stronger. I went back to the north-east coast. many of which struck against the glasses of my spectacles. I waded with what haste I could. The enemy was so frightened when they saw me. and gave orders (for which I had a warrant) for a great quantity of the strongest cable and bars of iron. lay at anchor in the harbour. While I was thus employed. but without any other effect.The empire of Blefuscu is an island situated to the north-east of Lilliput. which. had escaped the emperor's searchers. went on boldly with my work. and putting off my coat.

they were yet more in pain. The emperor concluded me to be drowned. The emperor and his whole court stood on the shore. and saw me pulling at the end. and with great ease drew fifty of the enemy's largest men of war after me. I then took off my spectacles. I stopped awhile to pick out the arrows that stuck in my hands and face. which is the highest title of honour among them. began to pull. They had seen me cut the cables. that he seemed to think of nothing less than reducing the whole empire of Blefuscu into a province. who was up to my breast in water. and. they set up such a scream of grief and despair as it is almost impossible to describe or conceive. When I had got out of danger. expecting the issue of this great adventure. "Long live the most puissant king of Lilliput!" This great prince received me at my landing with all possible encomiums. taking the knot in my hand. as I have formerly mentioned. but not a ship would stir. I waded through the middle with my cargo. so that the boldest part of my enterprise remained. and leaving the looks fixed to the ships. and created me a nardac upon the spot. and compelling that people to break the smaller end . because I was under water to my neck. and governing it. for the channel growing shallower every step I made. to which my hooks were tied. and arrived safe at the royal port of Lilliput. by a viceroy. and holding up the end of the cable. who had not the least imagination of what I intended.than a little to discompose them. and thought my design was only to let the ships run adrift or fall foul on each other: but when they perceived the whole fleet moving in order. were at first confounded with astonishment. for they were all too fast held by their anchors. receiving about two hundred shots in my face and hands. I came in a short time within hearing. and waiting about an hour. but could not discern me. till the tide was a little fallen. His majesty desired I would take some other opportunity of bringing all the rest of his enemy's ships into his ports. And so unmeasureable is the ambition of princes. I resolutely cut with my knife the cables that fastened the anchors. When I advanced to the middle of the channel. I therefore let go the cord. I had now fastened all the hooks. by which the fleet was fastened. and rubbed on some of the same ointment that was given me at my first arrival. then I took up the knotted end of the cables. and that the enemy's fleet was approaching in a hostile manner: but he was soon eased of his fears. They saw the ships move forward in a large half-moon. I cried in a loud voice. of destroying the Bigendian exiles. The Blefuscudians.

their excellencies. When their treaty was finished. wherewith I shall not trouble the reader. upon conditions very advantageous to our emperor. This open bold declaration of mine was so opposite to the schemes and politics of his imperial majesty. by which he would remain the sole monarch of the whole world. who were my secret enemies. Accordingly. He mentioned it in a very artful manner at council. And from this time began an intrigue between his majesty and a junto of ministers. and the importance of their business. About three weeks after this exploit. the wisest part of the ministry were of my opinion.of their eggs. maliciously bent against me. by many arguments drawn from the topics of policy as well as justice. with a train of about five hundred persons. . who were privately told how much I had been their friend. suitable to the grandeur of their master. made me a visit in form. that he could never forgive me. and whose royal person I resolved to attend. when the matter was debated in council. which broke out in less than two months. which he was pleased to grant me. the next time I had the honour to see our emperor. but shall not trouble the reader with the particulars. and had like to have ended in my utter destruction. wherein I readily obliged them. to be of my opinion. There were six ambassadors. When I had for some time entertained their excellencies. when put into the balance with a refusal to gratify their passions. but others. and desired me to show them some proofs of my prodigious strength. "that I would never be an instrument of bringing a free and brave people into slavery. wherein I did them several good offices by the credit I now had. and their entry was very magnificent. invited me to that kingdom in the emperor their master's name. They began with many compliments upon my valour and generosity. and I plainly protested. or at least appeared to have. Of so little weight are the greatest services to princes. But I endeavoured to divert him from this design. to their infinite satisfaction and surprise. at least by their silence. reflected on me. the renown of whose virtues had so justly filled the whole world with admiration. I desired his general license to wait on the Blefuscudian monarch. there arrived a solemn embassy from Blefuscu. before I returned to my own country. which was soon concluded. where I was told that some of the wisest appeared. I desired they would do me the honour to present my most humble respects to the emperor their master." And. could not forbear some expressions which. of which they had heard so many wonders. with humble offers of a peace. by a side-wind. at court.

being suddenly awaked. or I could perceive. and make their speech. in the midst of great misfortunes. But being now a nardac of the highest rank in that empire. proved a very happy adventure to me. And it must be confessed. in a very cold manner. with an avowed contempt for that of their neighbour. when I went to pay my respects to the emperor of Blefuscu. entreated me to come immediately to the palace. neither could anything but an extreme necessity have forced me to submit. in each empire. in order to polish themselves by seeing the world. such offices were looked upon as below my dignity. obliged them to deliver their credentials. it was not long before I had an opportunity of doing his majesty. till I had a whisper from a certain person. and from the custom. The reader may remember. a most signal service. who dwell in the maritime parts. but what can hold conversation in both tongues. by an interpreter. and orders being given to clear the way before me. and understanding men and manners. never once mentioned them to me. in the Lilliputian tongue. and it being likewise a moonshine night. and each nation priding itself upon the antiquity. beauty. by the carelessness of a maid of honour. And this was the first time I began to conceive some imperfect idea of courts and ministers. from the continual reception of exiles which is mutual among them. "that Flimnap and Bolgolam had represented my intercourse with those ambassadors as a mark of disaffection. the languages of both empires differing as much from each other as any two in Europe. where her imperial majesty's apartment was on fire. to send their young nobility and richer gentry to the other. at least as I then thought. yet our emperor. there were some which I disliked. through the malice of my enemies. making their way through the crowd. However. It is to be observed. there are few persons of distinction. which. but could not guess the reason. I got up in an instant. I heard the word Burglum repeated incessantly: several of the emperor's court. that these ambassadors spoke to me. upon account of their being too servile. that from the great intercourse of trade and commerce between both realms. I made a shift to get to the palace without trampling on any of the people. and energy of their own tongue. by which. I was alarmed at midnight with the cries of many hundred people at my door. and the emperor (to do him justice). I found they had already applied ladders to the ." from which I am sure my heart was wholly free. or merchants. that when I signed those articles upon which I recovered my liberty. as I found some weeks after. standing upon the advantage he had got by the seizure of their fleet. who fell asleep while she was reading a romance. I was in some kind of terror. as I shall relate in its proper place.

and I was privately assured. by a presence of mind unusual to me. and were well provided with buckets. the evening before. His vindication of a great lady. I could not obtain. although I had done a very eminent piece of service. and customs. yet I could not tell how his majesty might resent the manner by which I had performed it: for. made the wine begin to operate by urine. and I returned to my house without waiting to congratulate with the emperor: because.] . (the Blefuscudians call it flunec. laws. [Of the inhabitants of Lilliput.walls of the apartment. but ours is esteemed the better sort. which I unfortunately left behind me for haste. it is capital in any person. of what quality soever. firmly resolved that those buildings should never be repaired for her use: and.) which is very diuretic. I might easily have stifled it with my coat. which had cost so many ages in erecting. removed to the most distant side of the court. that in three minutes the fire was wholly extinguished. The case seemed wholly desperate and deplorable. drunk plentifully of a most delicious wine called glimigrim. But I was a little comforted by a message from his majesty. to make water within the precincts of the palace. "that he would give orders to the grand justiciary for passing my pardon in form:" which." CHAPTER VI. By the luckiest chance in the world. and this magnificent palace would have infallibly been burnt down to the ground. preserved from destruction. in the presence of her chief confidents could not forbear vowing revenge. "that the empress. and applied so well to the proper places. and came away only in my leathern jerkin. however. which I voided in such a quantity. and the rest of that noble pile. but the water was at some distance. their learning. I had not suddenly thought of an expedient. and by labouring to quench them. and the poor people supplied me with them as fast as they could: but the flame was so violent that they did little good. I had. I had not discharged myself of any part of it. These buckets were about the size of large thimbles. conceiving the greatest abhorrence of what I had done. if. by the fundamental laws of the realm. The heat I had contracted by coming very near the flames. The author's way of living in that country. the manner of educating their children. It was now day-light.

but at no great distance. The first I shall mention. yet. as well as plants and trees: for instance. which. relates to informers. but aslant. in the mean time. that in eleven thousand moons they are all to rise again. like the Arabians. And. and if they were not so directly contrary to those of my own dear country. nor from the right to the left. has flourished in all its branches among them: but their manner of writing is very peculiar. I shall say but little at present of their learning. but this I leave to the reader's imagination. being neither from the left to the right. the accuser is immediately put to an ignominious death. and out of his goods or lands the innocent person is quadruply . in compliance to the vulgar. the sheep an inch and half. I have been much pleased with observing a cook pulling a lark. but the practice still continues. like the Europeans. I should be tempted to say a little in their justification. It is only to be wished they were as well executed. more or less: their geese about the bigness of a sparrow. from one corner of the paper to the other. because they hold an opinion. As the common size of the natives is somewhat under six inches high. were almost invisible. There are some laws and customs in this empire very peculiar. so there is an exact proportion in all other animals. are punished here with the utmost severity. be found ready standing on their feet.Although I intend to leave the description of this empire to a particular treatise. which to my sight. if the person accused makes his innocence plainly to appear upon his trial. and so the several gradations downwards till you come to the smallest. nor from up to down. in which period the earth (which they conceive to be flat) will turn upside down. like the Chinese. like ladies in England. the tallest horses and oxen are between four and five inches in height. I am content to gratify the curious reader with some general ideas. which was not so large as a common fly. but nature has adapted the eyes of the Lilliputians to all objects proper for their view: they see with great exactness. the tops whereof I could but just reach with my fist clenched. for many ages. All crimes against the state. but. They bury their dead with their heads directly downward. to show the sharpness of their sight towards objects that are near. The other vegetables are in the same proportion. Their tallest trees are about seven feet high: I mean some of those in the great royal park. and by this means they shall. The learned among them confess the absurdity of this doctrine. at their resurrection. and a young girl threading an invisible needle with invisible silk.

by way of extenuation. I was heartily ashamed. In choosing persons for all employments. to show she is more disposed to reward than to punish. that different nations had different customs. for. and truly I had little to say in return. if that fund be deficient. and on each side one. or has no law to punish it. has a claim to certain privileges. according to his quality or condition of life. when I was once interceding with the emperor for a criminal who had wronged his master of a great sum of money. It is upon this account that the image of Justice. the emperor thought it monstrous in me to offer as a defence the greatest aggravation of the crime. that it was only a breach of trust. with a very common understanding. for they allege. They look upon fraud as a greater crime than theft. The emperor also confers on him some public mark of his favour. with a proportionable sum of money out of a fund appropriated for that use: he likewise acquires the title of snilpall. or legal. and for all the charges he has been at in making his defence. for the danger he underwent. and. and dealing upon credit. in their courts of judicature. {2} Although we usually call reward and punishment the two hinges upon which all government turns. with a bag of gold open in her right hand. may preserve a man's goods from thieves. when I told them that our laws were enforced only by penalties. they believe. which is added to his name. that the common size of human . but does not descend to his posterity. but honesty has no defence against superior cunning. since it is necessary that there should be a perpetual intercourse of buying and selling. or. for the hardship of his imprisonment. for. which he had received by order and ran away with. is formed with six eyes. and proclamation is made of his innocence through the whole city. that care and vigilance. where fraud is permitted and connived at. two before. they have more regard to good morals than to great abilities. it is largely supplied by the crown. and a sword sheathed in her left. since government is necessary to mankind. and therefore seldom fail to punish it with death. Whoever can there bring sufficient proof. and happening to tell his majesty.recompensed for the loss of his time. I confess. I remember. the honest dealer is always undone. and the knave gets the advantage. without any mention of reward. And these people thought it a prodigious defect of policy among us. yet I could never observe this maxim to be put in practice by any nation except that of Lilliput. to signify circumspection. as many behind. farther than the common answer. that he has strictly observed the laws of his country for seventy-three moons.

would qualify any man for the service of his country. as to that infamous practice of acquiring great employments by dancing on the ropes. Ingratitude is among them a capital crime. except where a course of study is required. since kings avow themselves to be the deputies of Providence. as we read it to have been in some other countries: for they reason thus. and defend his corruptions. But they thought the want of moral virtues was so far from being supplied by superior endowments of the mind. into which these people are fallen by the degenerate nature of man. the reader is to observe. in a virtuous disposition. that employments could never be put into such dangerous hands as those of persons so qualified. and therefore such a man is not fit to live. that men and women are joined together. whose inclinations led him to be corrupt. and who had great abilities to manage. like other animals. I would only be understood to mean the original institutions. to multiply. assisted by experience and a good intention. from whom he has received no obligation. Their notions relating to the duties of parents and children differ extremely from ours. and grew to the present height by the gradual increase of party and faction. In relating these and the following laws. for. would never be of such fatal consequence to the public weal. that they were first introduced by the grandfather of the emperor now reigning. and not the most scandalous corruptions. the Lilliputians will needs have it. must needs be a common enemy to the rest of mankind. to be in every man's power. that the mistakes committed by ignorance. and that their tenderness towards their young proceeds from the like natural principle: for which reason they . and the like. In like manner. or badges of favour and distinction by leaping over sticks and creeping under them. For. the practice of which virtues. in order to propagate and continue the species. by the motives of concupiscence. justice. that whoever makes ill returns to his benefactor. since the conjunction of male and female is founded upon the great law of nature. at least. as the practices of a man. the Lilliputians think nothing can be more absurd than for a prince to employ such men as disown the authority under which he acts.understanding is fitted to some station or other. of which there seldom are three born in an age: but they suppose truth. For. and that Providence never intended to make the management of public affairs a mystery to be comprehended only by a few persons of sublime genius. temperance. and. the disbelief of a Divine Providence renders a man incapable of holding any public station.

and then of the female. considering the miseries of human life. They are dressed by men till four years of age. traders. and therefore they have in every town public nurseries. or to his mother for bringing him into the world. as well as inclinations. which. when they come to the age of twenty moons. is levied by the emperor's officers. merchants. will not suffer them to whisper. and the women attendant. Their parents are suffered to see them only twice a year. and both sexes. The clothes and food of the children are plain and simple. nor intended so by his parents. upon failure of due payment. Upon these. they are allowed to kiss the child at meeting and parting. the visit is to last but an hour. They have certain professors well skilled in preparing children for such a condition of life as befits the rank of their parents. except cottagers and labourers. and two hours for diversions consisting of bodily exercises. although their quality be ever so great. I shall first say something of the male nurseries. courage. and the like. and handicrafts. are obliged to send their infants of both sexes to be reared and educated. or use any fondling expressions. The nurseries for children of ordinary gentlemen. or bring any presents of toys.will never allow that a child is under any obligation to his father for begetting him. or one of his deputies. are provided with grave and learned professors. The nurseries for males of noble or eminent birth. and always in the presence of a professor. perform only the most menial offices. and their own capacities. except in the times of eating and sleeping. The pension from each family for the education and entertainment of a child. and love of their country. they are always employed in some business. modesty. suited to different qualities. clemency. but go together in smaller or greater numbers to take their diversions. whereby they avoid those early bad impressions of folly and vice. who always stands by on those occasions. who are aged proportionably to ours at fifty. their opinion is. These schools are of several kinds. at which time they are supposed to have some rudiments of docility. religion. but a professor. were otherwise employed. that parents are the last of all others to be trusted with the education of their own children. was neither a benefit in itself. sweetmeats. and then are obliged to dress themselves. which are very short. where all parents. They are bred up in the principles of honour. are managed proportionably after the same . justice. to which our children are subject. and their several deputies. They are never suffered to converse with servants. whose thoughts. in their love encounters. and the like reasonings.

till they come to dress themselves. and that some rules were given them relating to domestic life. When the girls are twelve years old. because she cannot always be young. only they are dressed by orderly servants of their own sex.manner. whereas those of persons of quality continue in their exercises till fifteen. And if it be found that these nurses ever presume to entertain the girls with frightful or foolish stories. In the nurseries of females of the meaner sort. the young girls of quality are educated much like the males. the rest are kept to eleven. that among peoples of quality. and their several degrees: those intended for apprentices are dismissed at seven years old. which is at five years old. beyond decency and cleanliness: neither did I perceive any difference in their education made by their difference of sex. As to persons of quality. only that the exercises of the females were not altogether so robust. but always in the presence of a professor or deputy. to return to the steward of the nursery a small monthly share of their gettings. they give security to appropriate a certain sum for each child. they are publicly whipped thrice about the city. and these funds are always managed with good husbandry and the most exact justice. The cottagers and labourers keep their children at home. in subservience to their own appetites. only those designed for trades are put out apprentices at eleven years old. which among them is the marriageable age. Thus the young ladies are as much ashamed of being cowards and fools as the men. and leave the burthen of supporting them on the public. a wife should be always a reasonable and agreeable companion. The meaner families who have children at these nurseries. or the common follies practised by chambermaids among us. imprisoned for a year. which answers to twenty-one with us: but the confinement is gradually lessened for the last three years. with great expressions of gratitude to the professors. which is as low as possible. to bring children into the world. and seldom without tears of the young lady and her companions. In the female nurseries. are obliged. besides their annual pension. the children are instructed in all kinds of works proper for their sex. and therefore all parents are limited in their expenses by the law. than for people. to be a portion for the child. For the Lilliputians think nothing can be more unjust. and a smaller compass of learning was enjoined them: for their maxim is. suitable to their condition. and banished for life to the most desolate part of the country. their parents or guardians take them home. their . and despise all personal ornaments.

in a very ingenious manner. where they and their families lived. and three feet make a piece. I had three hundred cooks to dress my victuals. The sempstresses took my measure as I lay on the ground. for the thickest was some degrees finer than lawn. and placed them on the table: a hundred more attended below on the ground. perhaps. for begging is a trade unknown in this empire. and my manner of living in this being only to till and cultivate the earth. and a barrel of their liquor a reasonable draught. they were forced to quilt together in several folds. all which the waiters above drew up. and they raised a ladder from the ground to my neck. I have had a sirloin so large. which I displayed on the ground before them for a pattern. and linen for my bed and table. all of the strongest and coarsest kind they could get. and desired no more. by certain cords. are supported by hospitals. as I wanted. one standing at my neck. A dish of their meat was a good mouthful. while a third measured the length of the cord with a rule of an inch long. but they had another contrivance for taking my measure. and prepared me two dishes a-piece. and so on to the neck and the waist. that each held by the end. which just answered the length of my coat: but my waist and arms I measured myself. and being likewise forced by necessity. that I . I kneeled down. Their mutton yields to ours. and thirteen days. to give some account of my domestics. divert the curious reader. that twice round the thumb is once round the wrist. and therefore their education is of little consequence to the public: but the old and diseased among them. Then they measured my right thumb. When my clothes were finished. and by the help of my old shirt. some with dishes of meat. with a strong cord extended. they looked like the patch-work made by the ladies in England. Three hundred tailors were employed in the same manner to make me clothes. and some with barrels of wine and other liquors slung on their shoulders. however. Two hundred sempstresses were employed to make me shirts. in little convenient huts built about my house. during a residence of nine months. and let fall a plumb-line from my collar to the floor. and another at my mid-leg. for by a mathematical computation. only that mine were all of a colour. I took up twenty waiters in my hand. Having a head mechanically turned. which. they fitted me exactly. as we draw the bucket up a well in Europe. And here it may. I had made for myself a table and chair convenient enough. out of the largest trees in the royal park. but their beef is excellent. Their linen is usually three inches wide. which was done in my house (for the largest of theirs would not have been able to hold them). upon this ladder one of them mounted.

to take up the coach and two horses very . I have some private reasons to believe. On those occasions. One day his imperial majesty. and the court scandal ran for some time. but always publicly." as he was pleased to call it.have been forced to make three bites of it." They came accordingly. but this was common to many other ladies of the court. bones and all. upon the whole. in honour to my dear country. but ate more than usual. about the bigness of a spangle) "and. further than that her grace was pleased to treat me with all innocent marks of freedom and friendship. and I confess they far exceed ours. He represented to the emperor "the low condition of his treasury. Flimnap. from the malice of some evil tongues. who informed him that her grace had taken a violent affection for my person. with their guards about them. that it would be advisable in the emperor to take the first fair occasion of dismissing me. Of their smaller fowl I could take up twenty or thirty at the end of my knife. desired "that himself and his royal consort. who were usually her sister and young daughter. that this visit from his majesty gave Flimnap an opportunity of doing me ill offices to his master. might have the happiness. with the young princes of the blood of both sexes. the lord high treasurer. just over against me. that she once came privately to my lodging. I own she came often to my house. This I solemnly declare to be a most infamous falsehood. being informed of my way of living." I am here obliged to vindicate the reputation of an excellent lady. after paying my respects. as in our country we do the leg of a lark. whether they at any time saw a coach at my door. who was an innocent sufferer upon my account. when a servant had given me notice. and I placed them in chairs of state. that I had cost his majesty above a million and a half of sprugs" (their greatest gold coin. but this is rare. without any grounds. which I would not seem to regard. upon my table. nor ever without three more in the coach. The treasurer took a fancy to be jealous of his wife. Their geese and turkeys I usually ate at a mouthful. and I observed he often looked on me with a sour countenance. And I still appeal to my servants round. that exchequer bills would not circulate under nine per cent. my custom was to go immediately to the door. attended there likewise with his white staff. and some particular acquaintance. below par. as well as to fill the court with admiration. though he outwardly caressed me more than was usual to the moroseness of his nature. that he was forced to take up money at a great discount. and. without knowing what persons were in it. That minister had always been my secret enemy. My servants were astonished to see me eat it. "of dining with me.

in so remote a country. CHAPTER VII. by very different maxims from those in Europe. yet I allow he preceded me in right of his post. yet I lost all credit with him. governed. but never expected to have found such terrible effects of them. His reception there. to prevent accidents. and found my interest decline very fast with the emperor himself. for which I was unqualified by the meanness of my condition. or his two informers (I will name them. though I then had the honour to be a nardac. and when I was engaged with one set. made the treasurer show his lady for some time an ill countenance. I had been hitherto. that he is only a glumglum. and let them make the best of it) Clustril and Drunlo. and me a worse. the coachmen would gently drive the others round my table. it may be proper to inform the reader of a private intrigue which had been for two months forming against me. where I had fixed a movable rim quite round. who was sent by express command of his imperial majesty. as that of a marquis is to a duke in England.] Before I proceed to give an account of my leaving this kingdom. full of company. except the secretary Reldresal. leaning my face towards them. all my life. a stranger to courts. makes his escape to Blefuscu. of five inches high. These false informations. too much governed by that favourite. who was. I should not have dwelt so long upon this particular. if there were six horses. to prove that any person ever came to me incognito. . I have passed many an afternoon very agreeably in these conversations. a title inferior by one degree.) and place them on a table.carefully in my hands (for. And I have often had four coaches and horses at once on my table. for all the world knows. as I have before related. to say nothing of my own. and although he was at last undeceived and reconciled to her. indeed. But I defy the treasurer. which the treasurer himself is not. if it had not been a point wherein the reputation of a great lady is so nearly concerned. I had indeed heard and read enough of the dispositions of great princes and ministers. being informed of a design to accuse him of hightreason. while I sat in my chair. the postillion always unharnessed four. as I thought. which I afterwards came to the knowledge of by an accident not proper to mention. [The author.

"that several committees of council have been lately called. and sat down by it. being conscious of my own merits and innocence. placed the chair on the table. with his lordship in it. have prepared articles of impeachment against you. in a close chair. The chairmen were dismissed. to say I was indisposed and gone to sleep. and a copy of the articles. when he entreated me to be silent. This lord. almost ever since your arrival. observing his lordship's countenance full of concern. His original reasons I know not. (the ManMountain. or highadmiral) "has been your mortal enemy." said he. whose enmity against you is notorious on account of his lady. a considerable person at court (to whom I had been very serviceable. I procured information of the whole proceedings. in the most private manner.) ARTICLE I. by which his glory as admiral is much obscured. and it is but two days since his majesty came to a full resolution. wherein I venture my head for your service. . Limtoc the general. and inquiring into the reason. that I was going to interrupt him. but his hatred is increased since your great success against Blefuscu. "'Articles of Impeachment against QUINBUS FLESTRIN. according to my usual custom. he desired "I would hear him with patience. desired admittance. for treason and other capital crimes. into my coat-pocket: and. I put the chair. and thus proceeded:"Out of gratitude for the favours you have done me. in conjunction with Flimnap the high-treasurer." This preface made me so impatient. I fastened the door of my house. on your account. Lalcon the chamberlain. and Balmuff the grand justiciary.When I was just preparing to pay my attendance on the emperor of Blefuscu. and. giving orders to a trusty servant. without sending his name. for I took notes of it as soon as he left me:"You are to know. "You are very sensible that Skyresh Bolgolam" (galbet. at a time when he lay under the highest displeasure of his imperial majesty) came to my house very privately at night. After the common salutations were over." His speech was to the following effect. in a matter that highly concerned my honour and my life.

serene. contrary to the duty of a faithful subject. it is enacted. so lately an enemy. shall be liable to the pains and penalties of high-treason. and thereby to aid. did maliciously. whoever shall make water within the precincts of the royal palace. under colour of extinguishing the fire kindled in the apartment of his majesty's most dear imperial consort. but likewise all the people of that empire who would not immediately forsake the Big-endian heresy. etc. like a false traitor against his most auspicious. although he knew them to be servants to a prince who was lately an open enemy to his imperial majesty. under colour of the said license. "'That. against the duty."'Whereas. and in an open war against his said majesty. did.' . abet. the said ambassadors. imperial majesty. and. whereas certain ambassadors arrived from the Court of Blefuscu. comfort. for which he has received only verbal license from his imperial majesty. the said Flestrin. by discharge of his urine. "'That the said Quinbus Flestrin. and reduce that empire to a province. notwithstanding. the said Quinbus Flestrin. like a false traitor. the said Flestrin. by a statute made in the reign of his imperial majesty Calin Deffar Plune. does falsely and traitorously intend to take the said voyage. and devilishly. upon pretence of unwillingness to force the consciences. did petition to be excused from the said service. aid. that. and being afterwards commanded by his imperial majesty to seize all the other ships of the said empire of Blefuscu. is now preparing to make a voyage to the court and empire of Blefuscu. in open breach of the said law. and to destroy and put to death. not only all the Big-endian exiles. to sue for peace in his majesty's court. ARTICLE IV. comfort. etc. he. ARTICLE II. put out the said fire kindled in the said apartment. against the statute in that case provided. and abet the emperor of Blefuscu. he. and divert. ARTICLE III. having brought the imperial fleet of Blefuscu into the royal port. to be governed by a viceroy from hence. and in open war with his imperial majesty aforesaid. "'That the said Quinbus Flestrin. or destroy the liberties and lives of an innocent people. lying and being within the precincts of the said royal palace. traitorously.

but that still there was room for mercy. and the general was to attend with twenty thousand men. that perhaps the most honourable board might think him partial. by setting fire to your house at night. in consideration of your services. he humbly conceived. and endeavouring to extenuate your crimes. The treasurer and admiral insisted that you should be put to the most painful and ignominious death. and all the world would applaud the lenity of the emperor. as well as the fair and generous proceedings of those who have the honour to be his counsellors. and therein justified the good thoughts you have of him. and pursuant to his own merciful disposition. in obedience to the command he had received. He allowed your crimes to be great. to spare your life. the friendship between you and him was so well known to the world. at last brought off the chamberlain. which he accordingly did. "Upon this incident. was commanded by the emperor to deliver his opinion. of which I have read you an abstract. since the greatest princes do no more. but his majesty resolving. That if his majesty."There are some other articles. Reldresal. often urging the services you had done him. "In the several debates upon this impeachment. could not preserve his temper. The general came into the same opinion. armed with poisoned arrows. to shoot you on the face and hands. He said. would please to spare your life. that the fear you had for your eyes. by concealing dangers from us. he would freely offer his sentiments. which would soon make you tear your own flesh. . and only give orders to put out both your eyes. principal secretary for private affairs. and die in the utmost torture. however. the admiral. "This proposal was received with the utmost disapprobation by the whole board. who always approved himself your true friend. That the loss of your eyes would be no impediment to your bodily strength. and for which his majesty was so justly celebrated. that by this expedient justice might in some measure be satisfied. was the greatest difficulty in bringing over the enemy's fleet. so that for a long time there was a majority against you. but these are the most important. if possible. that blindness is an addition to courage. the most commendable virtue in a prince. it must be confessed that his majesty gave many marks of his great lenity. Some of your servants were to have private orders to strew a poisonous juice on your shirts and sheets. and it would be sufficient for you to see by the eyes of the ministers. Bolgolam. by which you might still be useful to his majesty.

take it away by cart-loads. before it appears in overt-acts. the whole affair was compromised. and therefore insisted you should be put to death. "But his imperial majesty. that he had good reasons to think you were a Big-endian in your heart. so he accused you as a traitor on that account. that his sacred majesty and the council. and immediately upon your death five or six thousand of his majesty's subjects might. when it should become more than half diminished. and consequently. who are your judges. cut your flesh from your bones. neither would the stench of your carcass be then so dangerous. that it would probably increase it. rising up in fury. that you. and lose your appetite. was graciously pleased to say. leaving the skeleton as a monument of admiration to posterity. was so far from being a remedy against this evil. in answer to what the treasurer had objected. It was strictly enjoined. to carry it back. at another time. fully determined against capital punishment. in their own consciences. after which they fed the faster. humbly desiring to be heard again. some other way may be inflicted hereafter. upon the first discontent.but. for want of sufficient for you would grow weak and faint. "Thus. as treason begins in the heart. that his excellency. And your friend the secretary. as is manifest from the common practice of blinding some kind of fowls. said. and. without the formal proofs required by the strict letter of the law. that the secretary's expedient of putting out your eyes. and consume in a few months. that the services you had performed were. he wondered how the secretary durst presume to give his opinion for preserving the life of a traitor. and grew sooner fat. and the same strength which enabled you to bring over the enemy's fleet. might. who were able to extinguish the fire by discharge of urine in her majesty's apartment (which he mentioned with horror). that the project of . might easily provide against that evil. to drown the whole palace. by gradually lessening your establishment. who had the sole disposal of the emperor's revenue. were. concerning the great charge his majesty was at in maintaining you. by which. raise an inundation by the same means. said. in two or three days. and bury it in distant parts. to prevent infection. which would soon grow insupportable. which was a sufficient argument to condemn you to death. might serve. the great aggravation of your crimes. decay. by the charge of maintaining you. that since the council thought the loss of your eyes too easy a censure. "The treasurer was of the same opinion: he showed to what straits his majesty's revenue was reduced. by all true reasons of state. fully convinced of your guilt. by the great friendship of the secretary.

who. that I could not discover the lenity and favour of this sentence. It was a custom introduced by this prince and his ministry (very different. either by my birth or education.starving you by degrees should be kept a secret. which I ever observed to terminate as the judges thought fit to direct. although I could not deny the facts alleged in the several articles. was perpetually instigated by her majesty to insist upon your death. whereby you are only condemned to the loss of your eyes. and then to signify the great lenity and favour of his majesty and council. "In three days your friend the secretary will be directed to come to your house. in so critical a juncture. I sometimes thought of standing my trial. I must immediately return in as private a manner as I came. as I have been assured. in order to see the operation well performed. I durst not rely on so dangerous a decision. because it was observed. and the sufferer more innocent. but conceived it (perhaps erroneously) rather to be rigorous than gentle. "I leave to your prudence what measures you will take. I must confess. This speech was immediately published throughout the kingdom." His lordship did so. and I remained alone. and to avoid suspicion. as to myself. as qualities known and confessed by all the world. having never been designed for a courtier. yet I hoped they would admit of some extenuation. and twenty of his majesty's surgeons will attend.) that after the court had decreed any cruel execution. expressing his great lenity and tenderness. and . I was so ill a judge of things. or the malice of a favourite. but the sentence of putting out your eyes was entered on the books. the more inhuman was the punishment. and read before you the articles of impeachment. the emperor always made a speech to his whole council. which his majesty does not question you will gratefully and humbly submit to. for. Yet. nor did any thing terrify the people so much as those encomiums on his majesty's mercy. by discharging very sharp-pointed arrows into the balls of your eyes. as you lie on the ground. on account of that infamous and illegal method you took to extinguish the fire in her apartment. But having in my life perused many state-trials. she having borne perpetual malice against you. being a creature of the empress. except Bolgolam the admiral. either to gratify the monarch's resentment. under many doubts and perplexities of mind. that the more these praises were enlarged and insisted on. none dissenting. from the practice of former times.

and let him know. I should. and having his imperial majesty's license to pay my attendance upon the emperor of Blefuscu. was coming out to receive me. and to offer him any service in my power. because I had hitherto no regular information of it. and with the license of the emperor my master. Once I was strongly bent upon resistance. to persuade myself. "that I was come according to my promise.against such powerful enemies. for. drawing it after me." I had an answer in about an hour. for I confess I owe the preserving of mine eyes. to my own great rashness and want of experience. and their methods of treating criminals less obnoxious than myself. I lay on the ground to kiss his majesty's and the empress's hands. with great alacrity and readiness. and. neither could I . and great officers of the court. because. but I soon rejected that project with horror. and I did not perceive they were in any fright or concern. I there waited his majesty's command. and desired them "to signify my arrival to one of the secretaries. and might suppose myself wholly ignorant of any such design. where the people had long expected me: they lent me two guides to direct me to the capital city. I fixed upon a resolution. tied a cable to the prow. I took this opportunity." not mentioning a word of my disgrace. attended by the royal family." I advanced a hundred yards. which I carried under my arm) into the vessel. and. But hurried on by the precipitancy of youth. and consequently my liberty. lifting up the anchors. without waiting for an answer. I seized a large man of war. and the high title of nardac he conferred upon me. signifying my resolution of setting out that morning for Blefuscu. The emperor and his train alighted from their horses. At last. which is of the same name. I went to that side of the island where our fleet lay. between wading and swimming arrived at the royal port of Blefuscu. which I have since observed in many other courts. Neither had I so soon learned the gratitude of courtiers. the empress and ladies from their coaches. and. till I came within two hundred yards of the gate. I stripped myself. the favours I received from him. pursuant to the leave I had got. and I might easily with stones pelt the metropolis to pieces. to have the honour of seeing so mighty a monarch. I told his majesty. before the three days were elapsed. to send a letter to my friend the secretary. have submitted to so easy a punishment. "that his majesty. consistent with my duty to my own prince. if I had then known the nature of princes and ministers. for which it is probable I may incur some censure. while I had liberty the whole strength of that empire could hardly subdue me. and not unjustly. that his majesty's present seventies acquitted me of all past obligations. put my clothes (together with my coverlet. by remembering the oath I had made to the emperor. I held them in my hands.

and three thousand seamen. and push the boat forward. I stripped myself. I pulled off my shoes and stockings. returns safe to his native country. wailing two or three hundred yards. but I found all my labour to little purpose. with one of my hands. which I supposed might by some tempest have been driven from a ship. I found the object to approach nearer by force of the tide. which I fastened to a hole in the fore-part of the boat. and now. after some difficulties. where I first discovered the boat. it soon appeared I was deceived. for. and then gave the boat another shove. and the tide favouring me. I advanced so far that I could just hold up my chin and feel the ground. after which I was forced to swim till I got up to it. [The author. I shall not trouble the reader with the particular account of my reception at this court. which I had beforehand twisted to a sufficient strength. while I was out of his power. and desired his imperial majesty to lend me twenty of the tallest vessels he had left. after the loss of his fleet. The seamen were all provided with cordage.] Three days after my arrival. Whereupon. and so on. wrapped up in my coverlet. I took out my other cables.reasonably conceive that the emperor would discover the secret. somewhat that looked like a boat overturned. and. This fleet sailed round. which were stowed in one of the . I was not able to work. being forced to lie on the ground. In this necessity I was forced to swim behind. and then plainly saw it to be a real boat. wherein. about half a league off in the sea. by a lucky accident. and the other end to a man of war. the most laborious part being over. When the ships came up. I returned immediately towards the city. and waded till I came within a hundred yards off the boat. which was suitable to the generosity of so great a prince. while I went back the shortest way to the coast. nor of the difficulties I was in for want of a house and bed. I found the tide had driven it still nearer. however. under the command of his vice-admiral. being out of my depth. till the sea was no higher than my arm-pits. CHAPTER VIII. The seamen threw me the end of the cord. and. I observed. finds means to leave Blefuscu. I rested two or three minutes. as often as I could. walking out of curiosity to the northeast coast of the island.

" which. and found it was but little damaged. believed I was only gone to Blefuscu in performance of my promise. I made a shift to turn it on its bottom. and after consulting with the treasurer and the rest of that cabal. the wind being favourable. to carry me to some place whence I might return into my native country.ships. I did very much wonder. and if I did not return in two hours. and begged his majesty's orders for getting materials to fit it up. that his imperial majesty. and I shoved. I got dry to the boat. in all this time. together with his license to depart. his brother knew it was impossible. to be punished as a traitor. waiting till the tide was out. full of wonder at the sight of so prodigious a vessel. that I had fled from justice. and by the assistance of two thousand men. which was well known at our court. yet he owed great obligations to me for many good offices I had done him in making the peace. This envoy had instructions to represent to the monarch of Blefuscu. although I had deprived him of his fleet. when the ceremony was ended. and declared a traitor. who was content to punish me no farther than with the loss of mine eyes. "that as for sending me bound. bound hand and foot. with ropes and engines." The emperor of Blefuscu. "the great lenity of his master. But he was at last in pain at my long absence. until we arrived within forty yards of the shore. however. I shall not trouble the reader with the difficulties I was under. and fastened them first to the boat. I should be deprived of my title of nardac." The envoy further added. But I was afterward given privately to understand. a person of quality was dispatched with the copy of the articles against me. not to have heard of any express relating to me from our emperor to the court of Blefuscu. That. which cost me ten days making. according to the license he had given me. that. he was pleased to grant. and. after some kind expostulations. where a mighty concourse of people appeared upon my arrival. for I had found a prodigious vessel on the . having taken three days to consult. He said. never imagining I had the least notice of his designs. by the help of certain paddles. "that in order to maintain the peace and amity between both empires. and then to nine of the vessels which attended me. returned an answer consisting of many civilities and excuses. to get my boat to the royal port of Blefuscu. his master expected that his brother of Blefuscu would give orders to have me sent back to Lilliput. the seamen towed. I told the emperor "that my good fortune had thrown this boat in my way. and would return in a few days. both their majesties would soon be made easy.

I was at incredible pains in cutting down some of the largest timber-trees. after a long search. wherein I was. "that since fortune. Five hundred workmen were employed to make two sails to my boat. for greasing my boat. although I believed him sincere. The emperor and royal family came out of the palace. I humbly begged to be excused. that he was very glad of my resolution." With this answer the envoy returned to Lilliput. for oars and masts. where I could possibly avoid it. who helped me in smoothing them. and I discovered. twenty. and three . according to my directions. much assisted by his majesty's shipcarpenters. with all due acknowledgments for his favourable intentions. which he had given orders to fit up. both empires would be freed from so insupportable an encumbrance.shore. together with his picture at full length. with my own assistance and direction. The ceremonies at my departure were too many to trouble the reader with at this time. wherein. I was resolved to venture myself on the ocean. by quilting thirteen folds of their strongest linen together. I stored the boat with the carcases of a hundred oxen. to keep it from being hurt. impatient to have me gone. His majesty presented me with fifty purses of two hundred sprugs a-piece. and therefore. and other uses. by twisting ten. when all was prepared. or thirty of the thickest and strongest of theirs. yet I resolved never more to put any confidence in princes or ministers. by a certain accident. which he very graciously gave me: so did the empress and young princes of the blood. if I would continue in his service. and he hoped. In about a month. had thrown a vessel in my way. offering me at the same time (but under the strictest confidence) his gracious protection. very readily contributed. I lay down on my face to kiss his hand. I was at the pains of making ropes and cables." Neither did I find the emperor at all displeased. served me for an anchor. in a few weeks. A great stone that I happened to find. rather than be an occasion of difference between two such mighty monarchs. after I had done the rough work. These considerations moved me to hasten my departure somewhat sooner than I intended. and so were most of his ministers. to which the court. and to take my leave. I had the tallow of three hundred cows. and the monarch of Blefuscu related to me all that had passed. which I put immediately into one of my gloves. by the sea-shore. whether good or evil. able to carry me on the sea. however. I told him. I sent to receive his majesty's commands.

and an excellent sailor. and a bag of corn. at six in the morning. yet I found I gained upon her. and as I conjectured at least six hours. but my heart leaped within me to see her English colours. and in half an hour she spied me. but upon the next. The vessel was an English merchantman. if possible. This gentleman treated me with kindness. and heaving anchor. and desired I would let him . his majesty engaged my honour "not to carry away any of his subjects. about half a league to the north-west. when I had by my computation made twenty-four leagues from Blefuscu. I put my cows and sheep into my coatpockets. It was a clear night. My intention was to reach. then hung out her ancient. at six in the evening I descried a small island. I then took some refreshment. The ship slackened her sails. with bread and drink proportionable.hundred sheep. with as many ewes and rams. my course was due east. We were now in the latitude of 30 degrees south. and propagate the breed. a very civil man. I ate my breakfast before the sun was up. the wind being at south-east. and went to my rest. and cast anchor on the lee-side of the island. which seemed to be uninhabited. and. And to feed them on board. I set sail on the twenty-fourth day of September 1701." Having thus prepared all things as well as I was able. and discharged a gun. about three in the afternoon. and when I had gone about four-leagues to the northward. intending to carry them into my own country. of Deptford. I would gladly have taken a dozen of the natives. It is not easy to express the joy I was in. I had a good bundle of hay. and the dear pledges I left in it. although with their own consent and desire. but could get no answer. who gave me a good character to the captain. Mr. and here I met an old comrade of mine. wherein I was directed by my pocket compass. I advanced forward. one Peter Williams. one of those islands. I took with me six cows and two bulls alive. and as much meat ready dressed as four hundred cooks could provide. and I came up with her between five and six in the evening. there were about fifty men in the ship. for I found the day broke in two hours after I awaked. I slept well. and got on board with all my little cargo of provisions. the wind being favourable. the captain. I steered the same course that I had done the day before. for the wind slackened. I hailed her. I made all the sail I could. which I had reason to believe lay to the north-east of Van Diemen's Land. but this was a thing the emperor would by no means permit. September 26th. upon the unexpected hope of once more seeing my beloved country. returning from Japan by the North and South seas. John Biddel. besides a diligent search into my pockets. I descried a sail steering to the southeast. I discovered nothing all that day.

The rest of my cattle I got safe ashore. Since my last return I find the breed is considerably increased. and fixed her in a good house at Redriff. which I did in a few words. which I hope will prove much to the advantage of the woollen manufacture. My eldest uncle John had left me an estate in land. which yielded me as much more. I stayed but two months with my wife and family. picked clean from the flesh. when we arrived in England. and whither I was bound. in hopes to improve my fortunes. and went on board the Adventure. and I had a long lease of the Black Bull in Fetter-Lane. and promised. captain John Nicholas. if the captain had not allowed me some of his best biscuit. so that I was not in any danger of leaving my family upon the parish. I then showed him the gold given me by the emperor of Blefuscu. I found her bones in a hole. especially the sheep. I sold them for six hundred pounds. The short time I continued in England. of about thirty pounds a-year. I shall not trouble the reader with a particular account of this voyage. and has children) was then at her needle-work. but he thought I was raving. commander. rubbed to powder. was their constant food. to make him a present of a cow and a sheep big with young. 1702. I had only one misfortune. which. I made a considerable profit by showing my cattle to many persons of quality and others: and before I began my second voyage. after great astonishment. of Liverpool. part in money and part in goods. near Epping. whereupon I took my black cattle and sheep out of my pocket. and some other rarities of that country. which. But my account of this voyage must be referred to the Second Part of my . I left fifteen hundred pounds with my wife. I gave him two purses of two hundreds sprugs each. that the rats on board carried away one of my sheep. My daughter Betty (who is now well married. though I had always feared the contrary: neither could I possibly have preserved them in so long a voyage. where the fineness of the grass made them feed very heartily. My son Johnny. would suffer me to continue no longer. and set them a-grazing in a bowling-green at Greenwich. We arrived in the Downs on the 13th of April. by the fineness of the fleeces. together with his majesty's picture at full length. for my insatiable desire of seeing foreign countries. with tears on both sides. named so after his uncle. I took leave of my wife. My remaining stock I carried with me. and that the dangers I underwent had disturbed my head. bound for Surat. was at the grammar-school. and a towardly child. and boy and girl. which was very prosperous for the most part.know what place I came from last. and mingled with water. clearly convinced him of my veracity. a merchant ship of three hundred tons.

and . and more westerly than usual. bound for Surat. commander. till we arrived at the Cape of Good Hope. I again left my native country. bid us all prepare against a storm. from the beginning of December to the beginning of May. and to about five degrees south latitude. and carried to a farmer's house. His reception. in two months after my return. to active and restless life. on the 20th day of June. at which time the wind ceased. we were driven a little to the east of the Molucca Islands.] Having been condemned. the winds. A VOYAGE TO BROBDINGNAG. with several accidents that happened there. but having got northward of that island.Travels. whereat I was not a little rejoiced. PART II. CHAPTER I. which accordingly happened the day following: for the southern wind. is seized by one of the natives. by nature and fortune. called the southern monsoon. 1702. as our captain found by an observation he took the 2nd of May. in the Adventure. He is left on shore. and had a good voyage till we passed the Straits of Madagascar. we could not leave the Cape till the end of March. the long boat sent to fetch water. we took in our sprit-sail. But he. A description of the inhabitants. and it was a perfect calm. and about three degrees northward of the line. the author goes with it to discover the country. but discovering a leak. which in those seas are observed to blow a constant equal gale between the north and west. We had a very prosperous gale. Captain John Nicholas. on the 19th of April began to blow with much greater violence. a Cornish man. for the captain falling sick of an ague. we unshipped our goods and wintered there. being a man well experienced in the navigation of those seas. Finding it was likely to overblow. and took shipping in the Downs. [A great storm described. began to set in. continuing so for twenty days together: during which time. where we landed for fresh water. We then set sail.

we looked the guns were all fast. our ship was staunch. We thought it best to hold on the same course. and hauled forward by the weatherbowlings. and brought the ship to. but making foul weather. We belayed the fore down-haul. which was followed by a strong wind west-southwest. we set fore-sail and main-sail. we came in full view of a great island. rather than turn more northerly. and our captain sent a dozen of his men well armed in the long-boat. The ship wore bravely. but the sail was split. and kept her full and by as near as she would lie. We got the starboard tacks aboard. and the fore-top-sail. and a creek too shallow to hold a ship of above one hundred tons. a boy on the top-mast discovered land. so we thought it better spooning before the sea. and our crew all in good health. On the 16th day of June. we set in the lee-braces. that I might see the country. Our course was east-north-east. if any could be found. nor any sign of inhabitants. main-top-sail. On the 17th. and hauled over the mizen tack to windward. When we came to land we saw no river or spring. and belayed them. than trying or hulling. and got the sail into the ship. I desired his leave to go with them. Our men therefore wandered on the shore to find out some fresh water near the sea. the helm was hard a-weather. the wind was at south-west.) on the south side whereof was a small neck of land jutting out into the sea. by my computation. and helped the man at the helm. I now . seeing we had sea-room. which might have brought us to the north-west part of Great Tartary. so that the oldest sailor on board could not tell in what part of the world we were. but let all stand. where I observed the country all barren and rocky. and hauled them tight. or continent (for we knew not whether. and handed the mizen. we cast off our weather-braces and lifts. Then we set the mizen. and I walked alone about a mile on the other side. but we lay in the utmost distress for water. We reefed the fore-sail and set him. because she scudded before the sea very well. We cast anchor within a league of this creek. During this storm. 1703. and we knew that the top-mast being aloft. We would not get down our topmast. We hauled off upon the laniard of the whip-staff. It was a very fierce storm. and make what discoveries I could. and made better way through the sea. and we hauled down the yard. we were carried. and into the Frozen Sea. the sea broke strange and dangerous. The ship lay very broad off. and unbound all the things clear of it. with vessels for water. the ship was the wholesomer. Our provisions held out well.stood by to hand the fore-sail. about five hundred leagues to the east. and hauled aft the fore-sheet. When the storm was over.

and. I was struck with the utmost fear and astonishment. This I was afterwards told. whose servants or labourers they seemed to be. because every step was six-feet high. as near as I could guess. and heard him call in a voice many degrees louder than a speakingtrumpet: but the noise was so high in the air. and the upper stone about twenty. was about twenty feet high. These people were not so well clad as the first. and took prodigious strides: but our men had the start of him half a league. Whereupon seven monsters. for. but was forced to move with extreme difficulty. for I durst not stay to see the issue of the adventure. so that . There was a stile to pass from this field into the next. the sea thereabouts being full of sharp-pointed rocks. and rowing for life to the ship. for so I took it to be. I was an hour walking to the end of this field. I found it fully cultivated. which was fenced in with a hedge of at least one hundred and twenty feet high. which. came towards him with reaping-hooks in their hands. and ran to hide myself in the corn. when I discovered one of the inhabitants in the next field. although it had been to little purpose. and seeing nothing to entertain my curiosity. as fast as he could: he waded not much deeper than his knees.began to be weary. for the stalks of the corn were sometimes not above a foot distant. I kept from them at as great a distance as I could. of the same size with him whom I saw in the sea pursuing our boat. and the trees so lofty that I could make no computation of their altitude. in those grounds that seemed to be kept for hay. that at first I certainly thought it was thunder. and the corn rising at least forty feet. advancing towards the stile. the monster was not able to overtake the boat. they went to reap the corn in the field where I lay. but that which first surprised me was the length of the grass. I fell into a high road. and the sea being full in my view. each hook about the largeness of six scythes. which gave me some prospect of the country. It had four steps. like himself. but could see little on either side. and then climbed up a steep hill. and took about ten yards at every stride. but ran as fast as I could the way I first went. I was endeavouring to find some gap in the hedge. though it served to the inhabitants only as a foot-path through a field of barley. Here I walked on for some time. when I observed a huge creature walking after them in the sea. He appeared as tall as an ordinary spire steeple. it being now near harvest. I returned gently down towards the creek. I saw our men already got into the boat. It was impossible for me to climb this stile. and a stone to cross over when you came to the uppermost. whence I saw him at the top of the stile looking back into the next field on the right hand. I was going to holla after them. upon some words he spoke.

I could not forbear going on with these reflections. that they pierced through my clothes into my flesh. although attested by millions. I could not forbear thinking of Lilliput. to appear as inconsiderable in this nation. And who knows but that even this prodigious race of mortals might be equally overmatched in some distant part of the world. to have let the Lilliputians find some nation. till I came to a part of the field where the corn had been laid by the rain and wind. which will be recorded for ever in the chronicles of that empire. I screamed as loud as fear could make me: whereupon the huge creature trod short. However. In this terrible agitation of mind. by the middle. when they tell us that nothing is great or little otherwise than by comparison. for the stalks were so interwoven. in attempting a second voyage. He considered awhile. and perform those other actions. while posterity shall hardly believe them. Scared and confounded as I was. what could I expect but to be a morsel in the mouth of the first among these enormous barbarians that should happen to seize me? Undoubtedly philosophers are in the right. and. It might have pleased fortune. I lay down between two ridges. between his fore-finger and thumb. I bemoaned my desolate widow and fatherless children. with the caution of one who endeavours to lay hold on a small dangerous animal in such a manner that it shall not be able either to scratch or bite him. At the same time I heard the reapers not a hundred yards behind me. made me apprehend that with the next step I should be squashed to death under his foot. as one single Lilliputian would be among us. At length he ventured to take me behind. Here it was impossible for me to advance a step. I lamented my own folly and wilfulness. as human creatures are observed to be more savage and cruel in proportion to their bulk. Being quite dispirited with toil. as they were to me. as I myself have sometimes done with a weasel in England. and the beards of the fallen ears so strong and pointed. And therefore. whose inhabitants looked upon me as the greatest prodigy that ever appeared in the world. that I could not creep through. and heartily wished I might there end my days. where the people were as diminutive with respect to them. I made a shift to go forward. where I was able to draw an imperial fleet in my hand. at last espied me as I lay on the ground. against the advice of all my friends and relations. whereof we have yet no discovery. and wholly overcome by grief and dispair.I could hardly squeeze my body betwixt them. approaching within ten yards of the ridge where I lay. when one of the reapers. when he was again about to move. But this I conceived was to be the least of my misfortunes. and brought me . I reflected what a mortification it must prove to me. or cut in two with his reaping-hook. for. looking round about under him for some time.

But my good star would have it. as well as I could. which it seems he thought to be some kind of covering that nature had given me. as we usually do any little hateful animal. took a piece of a small straw. although he could not understand them. and humbly presented it to him. suitable to the condition I then was in: for I apprehended every moment that he would dash me against the ground. and my good fortune gave me so much presence of mind. I fell on my knees. He blew my hairs aside to take a better view of my face. that I resolved not to struggle in the least as he held me in the air above sixty feet from the ground. Whereupon I made a sign that he should place his hand on the ground. and take up one of my largest pieces. whether they had ever seen in the fields any little creature that resembled me. He received it on the palm of his hand. and spoke several words as loud as I could: I took a purse of gold out of my pocket. I pulled off my hat. He seemed to apprehend my meaning. who was a substantial farmer. and turning my head towards my sides. as I afterwards learned. and afterwards turned it several times with the point of a pin (which he took out of his sleeve. He called his hinds about him. I then took the purse. and then . although he grievously pinched my sides. about the size of a walking-staff. then applied it close to his eye to see what it was. he put me gently into it. and immediately ran along with me to his master. beside twenty or thirty smaller coins. and place my hands together in a supplicating posture. and lifted up my hands and eyes. letting him know. I guessed his meaning. The farmer having (as I suppose by their talk) received such an account of me as his servant could give him. lifting up the lappet of his coat. for fear I should slip through his fingers. poured all the gold into his palm. opening it. and made a low bow towards the farmer. and began to look upon me as a curiosity. for.within three yards of his eyes. that he might behold my shape more perfectly. that he appeared pleased with my voice and gestures. and the same person I had first seen in the field.) but could make nothing of it. which we have a mind to destroy. how cruelly I was hurt by the pressure of his thumb and finger. All I ventured was to raise mine eyes towards the sun. and walked slowly backward and forward. and to speak some words in a humble melancholy tone. In the mean time I was not able to forbear groaning and shedding tears. He then placed me softly on the ground upon all fours. They all sat down in a circle about me. the better to observe my motions. but I got immediately up. and. to let those people see I had no intent to run away. There were six Spanish pieces of four pistoles each. and asked them. I saw him wet the tip of his little finger upon his tongue. and therewith lifted up the lappets of my coat. much wondering to hear me pronounce articulate words.

and fell to eat. she was soon reconciled. and in this manner carried me home to his house. I thought it best to do. the farmer and his wife. The wife minced a bit of meat. and placed it before me. three children. he doubled and spread it on his left hand. for fear of falling. The company were. He spoke often to me. I answered as loud as I could in several languages. He then sent his servants to their work. but he seemed to be wholly ignorant what they were. There he called his wife. but . making me a sign to step into it. He made me a sign to put them again into my purse. and was not unpleasant. but the sound of his voice pierced my ears like that of a water-mill. for we were wholly unintelligible to each other. which was thirty feet high from the floor. It was only one substantial dish of meat (fit for the plain condition of a husbandman. expressing the words as loud as I could in English. I thought it my part to obey. and by degrees grew extremely tender of me. and taking his handkerchief out of his pocket. yet his words were articulate enough. The mistress sent her maid for a small dram cup. then crumbled some bread on a trencher. but she screamed and ran back. and filled it with drink. as women in England do at the sight of a toad or a spider. by this time. I was in a terrible fright. When they were sat down. was convinced I must be a rational creature. This liquor tasted like a small cider. being in great surprise all the time. which. which made the company laugh so heartily. I took up the vessel with much difficulty in both hands. and a servant brought in dinner. Then the master made me a sign to come to his trencher side. took out my knife and fork. as I could easily do. for fear of falling. and. and he often laid his ear within two yards of me: but all in vain. I made her a low bow. which he placed flat on the ground with the palm upward. the farmer placed me at some distance from him on the table. However. as the indulgent reader will easily conceive and excuse. laid myself at full length upon the handkerchief. I happened to stumble against a crust. for it was not above a foot in thickness. and the purse again into my pocket. and fell flat on my face. and how well I observed the signs her husband made.another. which held about two gallons. after offering it to him several times. The farmer. and an old grandmother. but as I walked on the table.) in a dish of about four-and-twenty feet diameter. and kept as far as I could from the edge. when she had a while seen my behaviour. that I was almost deafened with the noise. and in a most respectful manner drank to her ladyship's health. with the remainder of which he lapped me up to the head for further security. It was about twelve at noon. which gave them exceeding delight. and showed me to her.

and held me so high in the air. as would have felled an European troop of horse to the earth. above fifty feet off. and at the same time gave him such a box on the left ear. made three huzzas. The father complied. who seemed to be three times larger than an ox. who sat next to him. so I resolved. took me up by the legs. I got up immediately. whereof three or four came into the room.) and waving it over my head. which my master took. who immediately spied me. rabbits. and turning my head. as if she were more afraid of me: I had less apprehension concerning the dogs. that I desired his son might be pardoned. somewhat taller than the mastiff. the nurse came in with a child of a year old in her arms. but not so large. and kissed his hand. made my master to understand. for fear she might give a spring. I took my hat (which I held under my arm out of good manners. and puppy dogs. When dinner was almost done. and came within half a yard of her. equal in bulk to four elephants. as well as I could. I walked with intrepidity five or six times before the very head of the cat. whereupon she drew herself back. that I trembled every limb: but his father snatched me from him. for the cat took not the least notice of me when my master placed me within three yards of her. But being afraid the boy might owe me a spite. while her mistress was feeding and stroking her. one of which was a mastiff. and although my mistress held her fast. And as I have been always told. is a certain way to make it pursue or attack you.) his youngest son. after the . to show no manner of concern. to show I had got no mischief by my fall. and another a greyhound. whereupon I went to him. and found true by experience in my travels. and seize me in her talons. and began a squall that you might have heard from London-Bridge to Chelsea. and the lad took his seat again. that flying or discovering fear before a fierce animal. though I stood at the farther end of the table. an arch boy of about ten years old. and well remembering how mischievous all children among us naturally are to sparrows. and observing the good people to be in much concern. In the midst of dinner. young kittens. But it happened there was no danger. ordering him to be taken from the table. as I computed by the view of her head. and made him stroke me gently with it. I found it proceeded from the purring of that animal. I fell on my knees. and one of her paws. as it is usual in farmers' houses.received no hurt. The fierceness of this creature's countenance altogether discomposed me. and pointing to the boy. But advancing forward towards my master (as I shall henceforth call him. in this dangerous juncture. I heard a noise behind me like that of a dozen stockingweavers at work. my mistress's favourite cat leaped into her lap.

"he could discover great holes in my skin. which I cannot tell what to compare with. the complexion of those diminutive people appeared to me the fairest in the world. a third too large a nose. to quiet her babe. and colour. who appear so beautiful to us. the more conveniently to give suck.usual oratory of infants. so as to give the curious reader an idea of its bulk. appeared very well proportioned. he used to tell me." nothing of which I was able to distinguish. when I beheld him from the height of sixty feet. and their defects not to be seen but through a magnifying glass. This made me reflect upon the fair skins of our English ladies. I confess this reflection was obvious enough. and the hue both of that and the dug. "one had freckles. I could not forbear. that nothing could appear more nauseous: for I had a near sight of her. another too wide a mouth. when I took him up in my hand. I remember when I was at Lilliput. pimples. which. to get me for a plaything. The mother. and ill-coloured. he said that my face appeared much fairer and smoother when he looked on me from the ground. than it did upon a nearer view. and got my head into his mouth. so varied with spots. out of pure indulgence. lest the reader might think those vast creatures were actually deformed: for I must do them the justice to say. and I standing on the table. and put me towards the child. The nurse. and talking upon this subject with a person of learning there. who presently seized me by the middle. and particularly the features of my master's countenance. however. . and let me drop. only because they are of our own size. so that she was forced to apply the last remedy by giving it suck. shape. discoursing of the ladies in that emperor's court. took me up. if the mother had not held her apron under me. and fastened by a cable to the child's waist: but all in vain. which he confessed was at first a very shocking sight. It stood prominent six feet. On the other side. and coarse. where we find by experiment that the smoothest and whitest skins look rough. and my complexion made up of several colours altogether disagreeable:" although I must beg leave to say for myself. and I should infallibly have broke my neck. and brought him close. although he was but a farmer. and freckles. that I am as fair as most of my sex and country. that the stumps of my beard were ten times stronger than the bristles of a boar. made use of a rattle which was a kind of hollow vessel filled with great stones. and very little sunburnt by all my travels. and could not be less than sixteen in circumference. The nipple was about half the bigness of my head. He said. I must confess no object ever disgusted me so much as the sight of her monstrous breast. where I roared so loud that the urchin was frighted. they are a comely race of people. who was an intimate friend of mine. she sitting down.

between two and three hundred feet wide. Then she set me on a table. and drew out my hanger to defend myself. I observed it had yet some life. she put me on her own bed. who seeing me all bloody. and making other signs to show I was not hurt. but infinitely more nimble and fierce. two rats crept up the curtains. and had locked me in. and if I had. and throw it out of the window. These creatures were of the size of a large mastiff. My mistress was gone about her household affairs. These horrible animals had the boldness to attack me on both sides. and. and above two hundred high. calling the maid to take up the dead rat with a pair of tongs. I walked gently to and fro on the bed. The bed was eight yards from the floor. smiling. Some natural necessities required me to get down. to recover my breath and loss of spirits. He fell down at my feet. I pointed to the dead rat. I measured the tail of the dead rat. as I could discover by his voice and gesture. and one of them held his fore-feet at my collar. and found it to be two yards long. One of them came up almost to my face. and made the blood run trickling from him. seeing the fate of his comrade. but with a strong slash across the neck. and found myself alone in a vast room. but larger and coarser than the mainsail of a man-of-war. but not without one good wound on the back. Soon after my mistress came into the room. where it lay still bleeding. I thoroughly despatched it. but it went against my stomach to drag the carcass off the bed. I was pressed to do more than one thing which another could not do for . it would have been in vain. and disposed to sleep. wanting an inch. my master went out to his labourers.When dinner was done. I durst not presume to call. which my mistress perceiving. which I gave him as he fled. and covered me with a clean white handkerchief. whereat she was extremely rejoiced. and ran smelling backwards and forwards on the bed. ran and took me up in her hand. While I was under these circumstances. but I had the good fortune to rip up his belly before he could do me any mischief. and dreamt I was at home with my wife and children. at so great a distance from the room where I lay to the kitchen where the family kept. lying in a bed twenty yards wide. returned it to the scabbard. After this exploit. which aggravated my sorrows when I awaked. with such a voice as mine. I slept about two hours. and the other. I was very much tired. I must have infallibly been torn to pieces and devoured. so that if I had taken off my belt before I went to sleep. whereupon I rose in a fright. made his escape. and wiping it on the lappet of my coat. gave his wife strict charge to take care of me. where I showed her my hanger all bloody.

and therefore endeavoured to make my mistress understand. The good woman. with much difficulty. though made more convenient by degrees. CHAPTER II. though I . and there discharged the necessities of nature. and taking me up again in her hand. I went on one side about two hundred yards. yet will certainly help a philosopher to enlarge his thoughts and imagination. that I desired to be set down on the floor. where she set me down. and then to the metropolis. and apply them to the benefit of public as well as private life. my bashfulness would not suffer me to express myself farther. walked into the garden. upon a strict review. This was my bed all the time I staid with those people. for fear of being censured as tedious and trifling. a child of towardly parts for her age. whereof travellers are often. The particulars of his journey. wherein I have been chiefly studious of truth. that after I had once or twice pulled off my clothes before her. than by pointing to the door. Her mother and she contrived to fit up the baby's cradle for me against night: the cradle was put into a small drawer of a cabinet. This young girl was so handy. however insignificant they may appear to groveling vulgar minds. without affecting any ornaments of learning or of style. which after she had done. Of less moment which were in my first copy. and skilful in dressing her baby. as I began to learn their language and make my wants known. I hid myself between two leaves of sorrel. I hope the gentle reader will excuse me for dwelling on these and the like particulars. accused. very dexterous at her needle. [A description of the farmer's daughter. The author carried to a market-town. I blotted out several passages. which was my sole design in presenting this and other accounts of my travels to the world. that. at last perceived what I would be at. which. But the whole scene of this voyage made so strong an impression on my mind. and is so deeply fixed in my memory. she was able to dress and undress me. in committing it to paper I did not omit one material circumstance: however. and bowing several times. and beckoning to her not to look or to follow me. and the drawer placed upon a hanging shelf for fear of the rats. perhaps not without justice.] My mistress had a daughter of nine years

would come when it was called. and was a particular friend of my master. and the English mannikin. and a complexion fairer than a nobleman's daughter of three years old. and not above forty feet high. which was half an hour's riding. instead of being the innocent. This man. I called her my Glumdalclitch. but unhappy instrument of her disgrace. and told him HE WAS WELCOME. I guessed there was some mischief when I observed my master and his friend whispering together. to my misfortune. who was old and dim-sighted. of as fine cloth as could be got. was tame and gentle.never gave her that trouble when she would let me do either myself. at which the old fellow was fool enough to be angry and out of countenance. for his eyes appeared like the full moon shining into a chamber at two windows. She gave me the name of Grildrig. It now began to be known and talked of in the neighbourhood. and. To her I chiefly owe my preservation in that country: we never parted while I was there. if I omitted this honourable mention of her care and affection towards me. which the family took up. at which I could not forbear laughing very heartily. I was immediately produced. He had the character of a great miser. which indeed was coarser than sackcloth. but exactly shaped in every part like a human creature. or little nurse. and these she constantly washed for me with her own hands. to show me as a sight upon a market-day in the next town. sometimes pointing at me. about the bigness of a splacnuck. and afterwards the whole kingdom. went erect upon two legs. made my reverence to my master's guest. put it up again. seemed to speak in a little language of its own. She made me seven shirts. drew my hanger. bore me company in laughing. Our people. came on a visit on purpose to inquire into the truth of this story. that my master had found a strange animal in the field. and should be guilty of great ingratitude. Another farmer. asked him in his own language how he did. and some other linen. so that in a few days I was able to call for whatever I had a mind to. and my fears made me . put on his spectacles to behold me better. who lived hard by. who discovered the cause of my mirth. she told me the name of it in her own tongue. to teach me the language: when I pointed to any thing. which I heartily wish it lay in my power to requite as she deserves. The word imports what the Latins call nanunculus. had the finest limbs in the world. do whatever it was bid. the Italians homunceletino. where I walked as I was commanded. by the cursed advice he gave my master. She was very good-natured. had already learned several words of theirs. She was likewise my school-mistress. being little for her age. just as my little nurse had instructed me. about two-and-twenty miles from our house. he well deserved it. which it likewise imitated in all its actions. as I have too much reason to fear. and placed upon a table.

my nurse. that I should one day recover my liberty: and as to the ignominy of being carried about for a monster. and fell a weeping with shame and grief. pursuant to the advice of his friend. but now she found they meant to serve her as they did last year. her papa and mamma had promised that Grildrig should be hers. to be exposed for money as a public spectacle. For my own part. She had also observed how modest I was in my nature. or crier. and direct what . as soon as it was fat. how nicely I regarded my honour. in my condition. My master. I was placed upon a table in the largest room of the inn. to take care of me. which never left me. not so big as a splacnuck (an animal in that country very finely shaped.) and in every part of the body resembling a human creature. for me to lie down on. and yet. and took along with him his little daughter. and making some necessary preparations. to give notice through the town of a strange creature to be seen at the sign of the Green Eagle. must have undergone the same distress. which might be near three hundred feet square. about six feet long. The box was close on every side. However. The girl had been so careful as to put the quilt of her baby's bed into it. that I was less concerned than my nurse. to the meanest of the people. who might squeeze me to death. Alban's. he hired the grultrud. that the agitation was equal to the rising and falling of a ship in a great storm. But the next morning Glumdalclitch. I considered myself to be a perfect stranger in the country. if ever I should return to England. I may truly affirm. and what an indignity I should conceive it. my little nurse. I was terribly shaken and discomposed in this journey. or break one of my limbs by taking me in their hands. since the king of Great Britain himself. and after consulting awhile with the inn-keeper. though it was but of half an hour: for the horse went about forty feet at every step and trotted so high. Our journey was somewhat farther than from London to St. She said. I had a strong hope. carried me in a box the next market-day to the neighbouring town. could speak several words. My master alighted at an inn which he used to frequent. and a few gimlet holes to let in air.fancy that I overheard and understood some of their words. She apprehended some mischief would happen to me from rude vulgar folks. and that such a misfortune could never be charged upon me as a reproach. which she had cunningly picked out from her mother. but much more frequent. with a little door for me to go in and out. My little nurse stood on a low stool close to the table. when they pretended to give her a lamb. upon a pillion behind him. The poor girl laid me on her bosom. sold it to a butcher. told me the whole matter. and perform a hundred diverting tricks.

1703. However. for I was so tired with my first journey. and turned out of the room. otherwise it came with so much violence. all the neighbouring gentlemen from a hundred miles round. My master. for his own interest. which very narrowly missed me. but I had the satisfaction to see the young rogue well beaten.I should do. and with entertaining company for eight hours together.) and my master demanded the rate of a full room whenever he showed me at home. so that for some time I had but little ease every day of the week (except Wednesday. he took leave of his wife. said THEY WERE WELCOME. My master. My master. that it would have infallibly knocked out my brains. to avoid a crowd. which is their Sabbath. came to see me at my master's own house. hearing of my fame. Having therefore provided himself with all things necessary for a long journey. would not suffer any one to touch me except my nurse. benches were set round the table at such a distance as to put me out of every body's reach. and in the meantime he prepared a convenient vehicle for me. I drew out my hanger. I walked about on the table as the girl commanded. which I exercised as a pike. that I could hardly stand upon my legs. as far as she knew my understanding of the language reached. an unlucky school-boy aimed a hazel nut directly at my head. I took up a thimble filled with liquor. and that I might have no rest at home. or speak a word. about two months after my . There could not be fewer than thirty persons with their wives and children (for the country is very populous. resolved to carry me to the most considerable cities of the kingdom. and flourished with it after the manner of fencers in England. although it were only to a single family. till I was half dead with weariness and vexation. and as often forced to act over again the same fopperies.) although I were not carried to the town. and upon the 17th of August. would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me. which he had reason enough to do. for it was almost as large as a small pumpkin. and used some other speeches I had been taught. It was at least three days before I recovered my strength. for those who had seen me made such wonderful reports. and settled his affairs at home. and drank their health. paid my humble respects. that the people were ready to break down the doors to come in. My master gave public notice that he would show me again the next market-day. which Glumdalclitch had given me for a cup. she asked me questions. having learnt the art in my youth. and I answered them as loud as I could. and to prevent danger. I was that day shown to twelve sets of company. finding how profitable I was likely to be. My nurse gave me a part of a straw. I turned about several times to the company.

He provided a table sixty feet in diameter. to the wonder and satisfaction of all people. provided me with linen and other necessaries. not far from the royal palace. . and show me the country. at my own desire. She carried me on her lap. complained she was tired with the trotting of the horse. situate near the middle of that empire. and I was shown in eighteen large towns. We passed over five or six rivers. in a box tied about her waist. We made easy journeys. My master's design was to show me in all the towns by the way. and pallisadoed it round three feet from the edge.arrival. we set out for the metropolis. well quilted underneath. it was a common treatise for the use of young girls. where he might expect custom. and at leisure hours during our journey. giving a short account of their religion: out of this she taught me my letters. We had no other company but a boy of the house. and about three thousand miles distance from our house. I was shown ten times a-day. on purpose to spare me. and could make a shift to explain a sentence here and there. He hired a large room between three and four hundred feet wide. that was spoken to me. for Glumdalclitch. I had learnt their alphabet. or person of quality's house. who rode after us with the luggage. and interpreted the words. My master made his daughter Glumdalclitch ride behind him. of not above seven or eight score miles a-day. She carried a little book in her pocket. I could now speak the language tolerably well. My master took a lodging in the principal street of the city. to prevent my falling over. to any village. containing an exact description of my person and parts. On the 26th day of October we arrived at the metropolis. and perfectly understood every word. and to step out of the road for fifty or a hundred miles. furnished it with her baby's bed. and private families. besides many villages. many degrees broader and deeper than the Nile or the Ganges: and there was hardly a rivulet so small as the Thames at London-bridge. and made everything as convenient as she could. upon which I was to act my part. or Pride of the Universe. We were ten weeks in our journey. called in their language Lorbrulgrud. She often took me out of my box. Besides. for Glumdalclitch had been my instructor while we were at home. The girl had lined it on all sides with the softest cloth she could get. and as many high. and put out bills in the usual form. but always held me fast by a leading-string. not much larger than a Sanson's Atlas. to give me air.

who apprehended I could not live a month. each piece being about the bigness of eight hundred moidores. and concluding I must soon die.CHAPTER III. was ready enough to part with me. He is in high favour with the queen. I fell on my knees. a very considerable change in my health: the more my master got by me. came from court. The farmer observed it. might be admitted into her service. "whether I could be content to live at court?" I bowed down to the board of the table. I then said to the queen. She asked. Her majesty. and reported strange things of my beauty. a sardral. and continue to be my nurse and instructor. resolved to make as good a hand of me as he could." She then asked my master. "whether he was willing to sell me at a good price?" He. The queen buys him of his master the farmer." . which were ordered him on the spot. and begged the honour of kissing her imperial foot. and in as few words as I could. commanding my master to carry me immediately thither for the diversion of the queen and her ladies. Some of the latter had already been to see me. but allowing for the proportion of all things between that country and Europe. made. She made me some general questions about my country and my travels. and was almost reduced to a skeleton. and the high price of gold among them. but this gracious princess held out her little finger towards me. and those who attended her. behaviour. were beyond measure delighted with my demeanour. "since I was now her majesty's most humble creature and vassal. I must beg the favour. [The author sent for to court. which I embraced in both my arms. and good sense. after I was set on the table.] The frequent labours I underwent every day. and demanded a thousand pieces of gold. and understood to do it so well. in a few week s. was hardly so great a sum as a thousand guineas would be in England. He disputes with his majesty's great scholars. which I answered as distinctly. His quarrels with the queen's dwarf. that Glumdalclitch. and presents him to the king. While he was thus reasoning and resolving with himself. An apartment at court provided for the author. He stands up for the honour of his own country. if I were at my own disposal. or gentleman-usher. who had always tended me with so much care and kindness. the more insatiable he grew. and put the tip of it with the utmost respect to my lip. I should be proud to devote my life to her majesty's service. I had quite lost my stomach. and humbly answered "that I was my master's slave: but.

But this princess. delivered with great improprieties and hesitation." This was the sum of my speech. while she was carrying me to court. for I already found my spirits revive. by the gain he had made in showing me through half the kingdom. asked the queen after a cold manner "how long it was since she grew fond of a splacnuck?" for such it seems he took me to be. to which I replied not a word. But as I was out of all fear of being ill-treated under the protection of so great and good an empress. and commanded me to give his majesty an account of myself. and that. and the poor girl herself was not able to hide her joy. not well observing my shape at first view. The latter part was altogether framed in the style peculiar to that people. being admitted. if my master had not thought my life in danger. That the life I had since led was laborious enough to kill an animal of ten times my strength. and carried me to the king. her majesty would not have got so cheap a bargain. I made bold to tell her majesty. and easily got the farmer's consent. confirmed all that had passed from my arrival at her father's . His majesty. by the influence of her most august presence. a prince of much gravity and austere countenance. whereof I learned some phrases from Glumdalclitch. and. found by chance in his fields: which obligation was amply recompensed. who was then retired to his cabinet. set me gently on my feet upon the scrutoire. She took me in her own hand. That my health was much impaired. giving great allowance for my defectiveness in speaking. which I did in a very few words: and Glumdalclitch who attended at the cabinet door. The queen observed my coldness. than his not dashing out the brains of a poor harmless creature. so I hoped my late master's apprehensions would appear to be groundless. and saying he had left me in a good service. who was glad enough to have his daughter preferred at court. only making him a slight bow. My late master withdrew. surprised at so much wit and good sense in so diminutive an animal.Her majesty agreed to my petition. the darling of the world. was. and the price he had now sold me for. bidding me farewell. the delight of her subjects. The queen. asked me the reason. "that I owed no other obligation to my late master. and could not endure I should be out of her sight. however. the ornament of nature. as I lay upon my breast in her majesty's right hand. when the farmer was gone out of the apartment. who has an infinite deal of wit and humour. the phoenix of the creation. by the continual drudgery of entertaining the rabble every hour of the day.

and did not suit the polite style of a court. because I was not framed with a capacity of preserving my life. disdaining the old evasion of occult causes. They all agreed that I could not be produced according to the regular laws of nature. the smallest ever known in that kingdom. which they viewed with great exactness. that I was a carnivorous animal. They would not allow me to be a dwarf. or digging holes in the earth. with some rustic phrases which I had learned at the farmer's house. although he be as learned a person as any in his dominions. for the queen's favourite dwarf. as it was manifest from my beard. These gentlemen. and saw me walk erect. One of these virtuosi seemed to think that I might be an embryo. and particularly mathematics. unless I fed upon snails and other insects. a determination exactly agreeable to the modern philosophy of Europe. and an imperfect knowledge in the language. too nimble. The king. yet when he observed my shape exactly. whose professors. they concluded unanimously. was near thirty feet high. He was by no means satisfied with the relation I gave him of the manner I came into his kingdom. with some others. But when he heard my voice. or abortive birth. and still received rational answers: no otherwise defective than by a foreign accent. they could not imagine how I should be able to support myself. and found what I delivered to be regular and rational. They observed by my teeth. and field by many learned arguments. who observed my limbs to be perfect and finished. he could not conceal his astonishment. either by swiftness. the stumps whereof they plainly discovered through a magnifying glass. or climbing of trees. After much debate. before I began to speak. after they had a while examined my shape with much nicety. who were then in their weekly waiting. Upon this imagination. he put several other questions to me. according to the custom in that country. But this opinion was rejected by the other two. had been educated in the study of philosophy. whereby the followers of Aristotle endeavoured in . who had taught me a set of words to make me sell at a better price. and that I had lived several years. were of different opinions concerning me. because my littleness was beyond all degrees of comparison. but thought it a story concerted between Glumdalclitch and her father. conceived I might be a piece of clock-work (which is in that country arrived to a very great perfection) contrived by some ingenious artist. yet most quadrupeds being an overmatch for me. which is interpreted literally lusus naturae. His majesty sent for three great scholars. which they offered. that I was only relplum scalcath. to evince that I could not possibly do.

I applied myself to the king. He desired the queen to order that a particular care should be taken of me. A nice workman. as any of his majesty's subjects could do here. and was of opinion that Glumdalclitch should still continue in her office of tending me. after the model that Glumdalclitch and I should agree upon. sent for the farmer. and two closets. who was famous for little curiosities. undertook to make me two chairs. as well as the floor and the ceiling. This man was a most ingenious artist. like a London bed-chamber." To this they only replied with a smile of contempt. where the animals. and to break the force of a jolt. because he observed we had a great affection for each other. his majesty began to think that what we told him might possibly be true. to put in a bed ready furnished by her majesty's upholsterer. "that the farmer had instructed me very well in my lesson. by consequence. made the smallest that ever was seen among them. to the unspeakable advancement of human knowledge. "that I came from a country which abounded with several millions of both sexes. that made the ceiling. a door. After this decisive conclusion. who by good fortune was not yet gone out of town. and two tables. were all in proportion. have invented this wonderful solution of all difficulties. and then confronted him with me and the young girl. Having therefore first examined him privately. and twelve high. to prevent rats and mice from coming in. The smith. saying. of a substance not unlike ivory. that might serve me for a bedchamber. trees. The room was quilted on all sides. and houses. which Glumdalclitch took out every day to air. after several attempts. to prevent any accident from the carelessness of those who carried me. and assured his majesty. I made a shift to keep the . when I went in a coach. made it with her own hands. with backs and frames. and according to my direction. I desired a lock for my door. and letting it down at night. and to find sustenance. locked up the roof over me. dismissing his learned men. with a cabinet to put my things in. I entreated to be heard a word or two. and where. A convenient apartment was provided for her at court: she had a sort of governess appointed to take care of her education. a maid to dress her. and of my own stature.vain to disguise their ignorance. The queen commanded her own cabinet-maker to contrive a box. I might be as able to defend myself. The board. in three weeks finished for me a wooden chamber of sixteen feet square. and two other servants for menial offices. but the care of me was wholly appropriated to herself. for I have known a larger at the gate of a gentleman's house in England. was to be lifted up and down by two hinges. with sash-windows." The king. who had a much better understanding. which I took for a full answer to those gentlemen's arguments.

as I have observed. where ten or a dozen of those enormous knives and forks were lifted up together. The queen likewise ordered the thinnest silks that could be gotten. between her teeth. Her knives were twice as long as a scythe. with the royal issue of both sexes. and a chair to sit on. which to me was for some time a very nauseous sight. dine together in the apartment of his majesty. before one of the saltcellars. my little chair and table were placed at his left hand. and learning of Europe. She drank out of a golden cup. Glumdalclitch stood on a stool on the floor near my table. set straight upon the handle. and her diversion was to see me eat in miniature: for the queen (who had indeed but a weak stomach) took up. out of curiosity. just at her left elbow. to make me clothes. His apprehension was so clear. and gave me at meals as I wanted them. The queen became so fond of my company. laws. in proportion to those of the queen. No person dined with the queen but the two princesses royal. and his judgment so exact. very cumbersome till I was accustomed to them. and at these times. and other necessaries. forks. This prince took a pleasure in conversing with me. I had a table placed upon the same at which her majesty ate. and put a bit of bread into her mouth as big as two twelvepenny loaves. It is the custom.key in a pocket of my own. above a hogshead at a draught. She would craunch the wing of a lark. as much as a dozen English farmers could eat at a meal. were all in the same proportion. I thought I had never till then beheld so terrible a sight. that she could not dine without me. is their Sabbath) the king and queen. to see some of the tables at court. out of which I carved for myself. wherein I gave him the best account I was able. which. I remember when Glumdalclitch carried me. the eldest sixteen years old. government. at one mouthful. and other instruments. to whom I was now become a great favourite. bones and all. and the younger at that time thirteen and a month. partly resembling the Persian. were not much bigger than what I have seen in a London toy-shop for the furniture of a baby-house: these my little nurse kept in her pocket in a silver box. I had an entire set of silver dishes and plates. They were after the fashion of the kingdom. religion. although it were nine times as large as that of a full-grown turkey. always cleaning them herself. But I . fearing Glumdalclitch might lose it. not much thicker than an English blanket. and are a very grave and decent habit. Her majesty used to put a bit of meat upon one of my dishes. that he made very wise reflections and observations upon all I said. to assist and take care of me. The spoons. and partly the Chinese. inquiring into the manners. that every Wednesday (which.

I should have been strongly tempted to laugh as much at them as the king and his grandees did at me. and bowing. that they call houses and cities. they make a figure in dress and equipage." says he. the arbitress of Europe.confess. and truth. they cheat. the horror I had at first conceived from their bulk and aspect was so far worn off. and observed every object upon which I cast mine eyes to be of proportionable magnitude. they dispute. the prejudices of his education prevailed so far. the mistress of arts and arms. that he would always affect to swagger and look big as he passed by me in the queen's antechamber. the scourge of France. to say the truth. so contemptuously treated. "I dare engage these creatures have their titles and distinctions of honour. to hear our noble country. "whether I was a whig or tory?" Then turning to his first minister. challenging him to wrestle. with indignation. the seat of virtue. after having been accustomed several months to the sight and converse of this people. piety. asked me. when the queen used to place me upon her hand towards a looking-glass. Nothing angered and mortified me so much as the queen's dwarf. they love. they betray!" And thus he continued on. Neither. after I had been a little too copious in talking of my own beloved country. so that I really began to imagine myself dwindled many degrees below my usual size. that he could not forbear taking me up in his right hand. near as tall as the mainmast of the Royal Sovereign. so upon mature thoughts I began to doubt whether I was injured or no. they fight. that. that if I had then beheld a company of English lords and ladies in their finery and birth-day clothes. and there could be nothing more ridiculous than the comparison. became so insolent at seeing a creature so much beneath him. by which both our persons appeared before me in full view together. while I was standing on some table talking with the lords or ladies of the court. he observed "how contemptible a thing was human grandeur. and such . they contrive little nests and burrows. while my colour came and went several times. But as I was not in a condition to resent injuries. of our trade and wars by sea and land. who waited behind him with a white staff. and he seldom failed of a smart word or two upon my littleness. against which I could only revenge myself by calling him brother. indeed. honour. and parties in the state. the pride and envy of the world. and prating. could I forbear smiling at myself. after a hearty fit of laughing. who being of the lowest stature that was ever in that country (for I verily think he was not full thirty feet high). and stroking me gently with the other. acting their several parts in the most courtly manner of strutting. of our schisms in religion. which could be mimicked by such diminutive insects as I: and yet. For.

But. with their continual humming and buzzing about mine ears. my legs were not scalded. and would have immediately cashiered him. mounted the stool that she stood on to take care of me at meals. at my entreaty. for soon after the queen bestowed him on a lady of high quality. forced to drink up the bowl of cream into which he had thrown me: neither was he ever restored to favour. and the queen was in such a fright. and these odious insects. took me up in both hands. he took me up by the middle. and squeezing my legs together. . But my little nurse ran to my relief. and she used to ask me whether the people of my country were as great cowards as myself? The occasion was this: the kingdom is much pestered with flies in summer. and as a farther punishment. and leave their loathsome excrement. so that I saw him no more. as I was sitting down. for I thought it below me to cry out. or spawn behind. that. Her majesty had taken a marrow-bone upon her plate. for I could not tell to what extremities such a malicious urchin might have carried his resentment. if I had not been so generous as to intercede. which set the queen alaughing. and. that she wanted presence of mind to assist me. One day. raising himself upon the frame of her majesty's chair. the dwarf. and. I was put to bed: however. this malicious little cub was so nettled with something I had said to him. I believe it was near a minute before any one knew what was become of me. if I had not been a good swimmer. They would sometimes alight upon my victuals. as it stood before. only my stockings and breeches in a sad condition. The dwarf was soundly whipt. to my very great satisfaction. He had before served me a scurvy trick. while Glumdalclitch was gone to the side-board. I received no other damage than the loss of a suit of clothes. it might have gone very hard with me. placed the bone again in the dish erect. had no other punishment than a sound whipping.repartees as are usually in the mouths of court pages. as princes seldom get their meat hot. and took me out. where I stuck for some time. hardly gave me any rest while I sat at dinner. which was utterly spoiled. I fell over head and ears. wedged them into the marrow bone above my waist. I was frequently rallied by the queen upon account of my fearfulness. and let me drop into a large silver bowl of cream. and then ran away as fast as he could. after knocking out the marrow. although at the same time she was heartily vexed. at dinner. not thinking any harm. watching his opportunity. after I had swallowed above a quart of cream. and made a very ridiculous figure. each of them as big as a Dunstable lark. for Glumdalclitch in that instant happened to be at the other end of the room. The dwarf.

These insects were as large as partridges: I took out their stings. The author's way of travelling. I carefully preserved them all. and some account of the metropolis. our naturalists tell us. and let them out suddenly under my nose. I had much ado to defend myself against these detestable animals. which. wherein my dexterity was much admired. and putting me in the utmost terror of their stings. to catch a number of these insects in his hand. and I presently shut my window. A proposal for correcting modern maps. I had the courage to rise and draw my hanger. and carried it piecemeal away. and having since shown them. as they flew in the air. allured by the smell. My remedy was to cut them in pieces with my knife. on purpose to frighten me.which to me was very visible. and attack them in the air. Some of them seized my cake. but the rest got away. when Glumdalclitch had set me in a box upon a window. one morning. CHAPTER IV. came flying into the room. as she usually did in fair days to give me air (for I durst not venture to let the box be hung on a nail out of the window. However. or forehead. humming louder than the drones of as many bagpipes. in several parts of Europe. as we do with cages in England). which was not above two . I dispatched four of them. whose large optics were not so acute as mine. others flew about my head and face. confounding me with the noise. and sat down at my table to eat a piece of sweet cake for my breakfast.] I now intend to give the reader a short description of this country. in viewing smaller objects. and I could easily trace that viscous matter. smelling very offensively. The king's palace. and kept the fourth for myself. and as sharp as needles. as schoolboys do among us. upon my return to England I gave three of them to Gresham College. where they stung me to the quick. enables those creatures to walk with their feet upwards upon a ceiling. above twenty wasps. as far as I travelled in it. [The country described. I remember. found them an inch and a half long. though not to the natives of that country. Sometimes they would fix upon my nose. and could not forbear starting when they came on my face. It was the common practice of the dwarf. after I had lifted up one of my sashes. The chief temple described. with some other curiosities. and divert the queen.

the metropolis. indeed. it is bounded by the ocean. the bigness disgusted him. for I think. The whole extent of this prince's dominions reaches about six thousand miles in length. for curiosity. whereby it is manifest. It contains above eighty thousand houses. that there is no venturing with the smallest of their boats. but I did not observe he was fond of it. of which I leave the reasons to be determined by philosophers. which are altogether impassable. by reason of the volcanoes upon the tops: neither do the most learned know what sort of mortals inhabit beyond those mountains. it may be sufficient to describe Lorbrulgrud. so that these people are wholly excluded from any commerce with the rest of the world. that nature. and about six hundred thousand inhabitants. and a great number of villages. whom I always attended. in the production of plants and animals of so extraordinary a bulk. It is . wherein I shall be ready to lend them my assistance. for it was ever my opinion. are so full of pointed rocks. that a man could hardly carry one upon his shoulders. or whether they be inhabited at all. For the queen. because the sea fish are of the same size with those in Europe. On the three other sides. near a hundred walled towns. and consequently not worth catching. terminated to the north-east by a ridge of mountains thirty miles high. and sometimes. The kingdom is a peninsula. and from three to five in breadth: whence I cannot but conclude. and abound with excellent fish. although I have seen one somewhat larger in Greenland. To satisfy my curious reader. never went farther when she accompanied the king in his progresses. There is not one seaport in the whole kingdom: and those parts of the coasts into which the rivers issue.thousand miles round Lorbrulgrud. that there must be a balance of earth to counterpoise the great continent of Tartary. they are brought in hampers to Lorbrulgrud. now and then they take a whale that happens to be dashed against the rocks. by supposing nothing but sea between Japan and California. is wholly confined to this continent. I saw one of them in a dish at the king's table. for it contains fifty-one cities. that our geographers of Europe are in a great error. on each side the river that passes through. This city stands upon almost two equal parts. The country is well inhabited. and therefore they ought to correct their maps and charts. which the common people feed on heartily. These whales I have known so large. However. by joining this vast tract of land to the northwest parts of America. for they seldom get any from the sea. and the sea generally so rough. But the large rivers are full of vessels. and there staid till his majesty returned from viewing his frontiers. which passed for a rarity.

as we passed along the streets. wherein her governess frequently took her out to see the town. and I was always of the party. Besides the large box in which I was usually carried. but a heap of buildings. A coach was allowed to Glumdalclitch and me. with a window in the middle of three of the squares. and gave me the most horrible spectacle that ever a European eye beheld. and broad and long in proportion. which had no window. to prevent accidents in long journeys. that it perfectly turned my stomach. watching their opportunity. much better than those of a European louse through a microscope. of about twelve feet square. that I might more conveniently view the houses and the people. and hold me in her hand. and covered my whole body. put a .) and two and a half in breadth. and another. which was laid on the ground on purpose for me. because the other was somewhat too large for Glumdalclitch's lap. swelled to a monstrous size. and each window was latticed with iron wire on the outside. measured it pretty exactly. would often take me out. This travelling-closet was an exact square. I could see distinctly the limbs of these vermin with my naked eye. indeed. the queen ordered a smaller one to be made for me. the sight was so nauseous. when I had a mind to be on horseback. I cannot be very exact. full of holes. it was made by the same artist. On the fourth side. larger than five wool-packs. as I measured it myself in the royal map made by the king's order. and their snouts with which they rooted like swine. and cumbersome in the coach. although the girl. They were the first I had ever beheld. carried in my box. where the beggars. But the most hateful sight of length three glomglungs (which make about fifty-four English miles. if I had had proper instruments. for the convenience of travelling. whom I directed in the whole contrivance. or go among the shops. There was a woman with a cancer in her breast. with a couple of wooden legs. each about twenty feet high. crowded to the sides of the coach. through which the person that carried me. and I should have been curious enough to dissect one of them. The king's palace is no regular edifice. although. two strong staples were fixed. One day the governess ordered our coachman to stop at several shops. I reckoned our coach to be about a square of Westminster-hall. There was a fellow with a wen in his neck. about seven miles round: the chief rooms are generally two hundred and forty feet high. was the lice crawling on their clothes. but not altogether so high: however. and. in two or three of which I could have easily crept. computing by the scale. at my own desire. which I unluckily left behind me in the ship. and extended a hundred feet: I paced the diameter and circumference several times barefoot. and ten high.

of which the girl was very fond. and carried it home in her pocket. to which. I suppose more upon account of their majesties' favour. that whatever this famous tower wants in height. This was always the office of some grave trusty servant. and attended by two others in the queen's livery. which Glumdalclitch held in her lap in a kind of open sedan. and lay unperceived among some rubbish. who had often heard of me. Accordingly one day my nurse carried me thither. when I was weary of the coach. placed in their several niches. whether I attended the king and queen in their progresses. and place it upon a cushion before him. allowing for the difference between the size of those people and us in Europe. and the girl was complaisant enough to make the bearers stop. that I might be more conveniently seen. I had. cut in marble. a field-bed and a hammock. but I may truly say I came back disappointed. and buckled it about his waist. larger than the life. and to take me in her hand. than any merit of my own. were very curious to crowd about the sedan. not to detract from a nation. reckoning from the ground to the highest pinnacle top. during my life. in whom I could confide. a servant on horseback would buckle on my box. The people. to keep among other trinkets. . In journeys. it must be allowed. as children at her age usually are. built of hewn stone. did not much discompose me. in this closet. is amply made up in beauty and strength: for the walls are near a hundred feet thick. and found it exactly four feet and an inch in length. neatly screwed to the floor. to prevent being tossed about by the agitation of the horse or the coach. when Glumdalclitch happened to be out of order. after the fashion of the country. And having been long used to sea-voyages. it was always in my travelling-closet. those motions. for I soon began to be known and esteemed among the greatest officers. from my three windows. or were disposed to see the gardens. is no great matter for admiration. Whenever I had a mind to see the town. whereof each is about forty feet square. which. I was very desirous to see the chief temple. and particularly the tower belonging to it. and there I had a full prospect of the country on three sides. But. I measured a little finger which had fallen down from one of these statues. two chairs and a table. for the height is not above three thousand feet. borne by four men. and adorned on all sides with statues of gods and emperors. which is reckoned the highest in the kingdom. nor at all equal in proportion (if I rightly remember) to Salisbury steeple.leathern belt. hung from the ceiling. although sometimes very violent. Glumdalclitch wrapped it up in her handkerchief. I shall acknowledge myself extremely obliged. or pay a visit to some great lady or minister of state in the court.

by ten paces. by a military guard of five hundred horse. when I was walking under one of them. if my littleness had not exposed me to several ridiculous and troublesome accidents. as travellers are often suspected to do. and would sometimes take me out of it.) and transmitted thither. CHAPTER V. The author shows his skill in navigation. and my nurse having set me down. before the dwarf left the queen. by which a dozen apples. and about six hundred feet high. To avoid which censure I fear I have run too much into the other extreme. he and I being close together. and hold me in her hand. which. till I saw part of his army in battalia. Paul's: for I measured the latter on purpose. and that if this treatise should happen to be translated into the language of Brobdingnag (which is the general name of that kingdom. I thought was the most splendid sight that could be ever beheld. for state. each of them near as large as a Bristol . he is attended. by a silly allusion between him and the trees. which happens to hold in their language as it does in ours. he followed us one day into those gardens. when he goes abroad on solemn days. the malicious rogue. some of which I shall venture to relate.The king's kitchen is indeed a noble building. indeed. whereof I shall find another occasion to speak. as the cupola at St. The great oven is not so wide. at least a severe critic would be apt to think I enlarged a little. the king and his people would have reason to complain that I had done them an injury. The execution of a criminal.] I should have lived happy enough in that country. by a false and diminutive representation. the joints of meat turning on the spits. But if I should describe the kitchen grate. [Several adventurers that happened to the author. with many other particulars. shook it directly over my head. Whereupon. Glumdalclitch often carried me into the gardens of the court in my smaller box. I must needs show my wit. watching his opportunity. But. or set me down to walk. His majesty seldom keeps above six hundred horses in his stables: they are generally from fifty-four to sixty feet high. near some dwarf apple trees. I remember. the prodigious pots and kettles. after my return. perhaps I should be hardly believed. vaulted at top.

that I was immediately by the force of it. that I could not speak a word. This accident absolutely determined Glumdalclitch never to trust me . following the scent. In a few minutes I came to myself. struck to the ground: and when I was down. who knew me well. But the thing was hushed up. the hailstones gave me such cruel bangs all over the body. a hailstone is near eighteen hundred times as large as one in Europe. but so bruised from head to foot.) and having left my box at home. that I might enjoy my own thoughts. as to myself. and had a great kindness for me. because nature. happened to range near the place where I lay: the dog. came directly up. a small white spaniel that belonged to one of the chief gardeners. and taking me in his mouth. by this time. as if I had been pelted with tennis-balls. I thought it would not be for my reputation. I made a shift to creep on all fours. to avoid the trouble of carrying it. having been so curious as to weigh and measure them. when my little nurse. and was in cruel agonies when I did not appear. but I received no other hurt. and truly. while she walked at some distance with her governess. ran straight to his master wagging his tail. that I could not go abroad in ten days. and knocked me down flat on my face. and out of hearing. that I was carried between his teeth without the least hurt. But the poor gardener.barrel. and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire. who. But a more dangerous accident happened to me in the same garden. and set me gently on the ground. She severely reprimanded the gardener on account of his dog. Glumdalclitch left me on a smooth grass-plot to divert myself. and he carried me safe to my little nurse. or even tearing my clothes. Neither is this at all to be wondered at. was in a terrible fright: he gently took me up in both his hands. one of them hit me on the back as I chanced to stoop. because I had given the provocation. which I can assert upon experience. While she was absent. went to another part of the garden with her governess and some ladies of her acquaintance. By good fortune he had been so well taught. that such a story should go about. however. on the lee-side of a border of lemon-thyme. nor answer when she called. had returned to the place where she left me. and shelter myself. came tumbling about my ears. believing she had put me in a secure place (which I often entreated her to do. by lying flat on my face. Another day. In the meantime. for the girl was afraid of the queen's anger. having got by accident into the garden. and asked me how I did? but I was so amazed and out of breath. in that country. observing the same proportion through all her operations. and never known at court. there suddenly fell such a violent shower of hail.

through which that animal had cast up the earth. and then they would hop back unconcerned. and if I had not resolutely drawn my hanger. walking to the top of a fresh mole-hill. but would hop about within a yard's distance. which I happened to stumble over. that the smaller birds did not appear to be at all afraid of me. looking for worms and other food. and that those illustrious persons were no more disagreeable to their lovers. to say the truth. I likewise broke my right shin against the shell of a snail. and seizing him by the neck with both my hands. with as much indifference and security as if no creature at all were near them. as they did before. who wrung off the bird's neck. to the disadvantage of those excellent ladies. though I held him at arm's-length. I cannot tell whether I were more pleased or mortified to observe. which I do not mention. and I had him next day for dinner. on both sides of my head and body. they would boldly turn against me. and desired she would bring me along with her. by the queen's command. and was out of the reach of his claws. to hunt for worms or snails. as near as I can remember. and coined some lie. not worth remembering. When I attempted to catch any of these birds. wherewith I was much disgusted because. I had been long afraid of this resolution. as I was walking alone and thinking on poor England. a very offensive smell came from their skins. and threw it with all my strength so luckily. made a stoop at me. a of cake that Glumdalclitch had just given me for my breakfast. who had only been stunned. the bird. seemed to be somewhat larger than an English swan. I took a thick cudgel. at a linnet. or intend. that I knocked him down. However. endeavouring to peck my fingers. This linnet. which I durst not venture within their reach. But one day. that I was twenty times thinking to let him go. and lay me at full length in their bosoms. with his bill. and run under a thick espalier. and therefore concealed from her some little unlucky adventures. I fell to my neck in the hole. on purpose to have the pleasure of seeing and touching me. to excuse myself for spoiling my clothes.abroad for the future out of her sight. for whom I have all manner of respect. ran with him in triumph to my nurse. a thrush had the confidence to snatch out of my hand. that happened in those times when I was left by myself. But I was soon relieved by one of our servants. recovering himself gave me so many boxes with his wings. The maids of honour often invited Glumdalclitch to their apartments. hovering over the garden. Once a kite. They would often strip me naked from top to toe. or . in those solitary walks. he would have certainly carried me away in his talons. but I conceive that my sense was more acute in proportion to my littleness. I remember. Another time.

a pleasant. yet my curiosity tempted me to see something that I thought must be extraordinary. a young gentleman. Glumdalclitch was prevailed on to be of the company. It was of a man. I cannot forbear doing justice to the queen my each other. after all. as mine was to that of this people. that I entreated Glumdalclitch to contrive some excuse for not seeing that young lady any more. to see them use me without any manner of ceremony. And. and hairs hanging from it thicker than packthreads. very much against her inclination. as for myself. The malefactor was fixed in a chair upon a scaffold erected for that purpose. frolicsome girl of sixteen. wherein the reader will excuse me for not being over particular. who was nephew to my nurse's governess. One day. which I am sure to me was very far from being a tempting sight. took the freedom in a warm day. that the great jet d'eau at Versailles was not equal to it for the time . would sometimes set me astride upon one of her nipples. whose persons were as sweet as those of any lady in England. Upon this point. for she was naturally tender-hearted: and. I found their natural smell was much more supportable. came and pressed them both to see an execution. That which gave me most uneasiness among these maids of honour (when my nurse carried me to visit then) was. although I abhorred such kind of spectacles. directly before their naked bodies. or from giving me any other emotions than those of horror and disgust: their skins appeared so coarse and uneven. and put on their smocks in my presence. when I had used a good deal of exercise. while I was placed on their toilet. than people of the same quality are with us in England. Neither did they at all scruple. with a sword of about forty feet long. to complain of a strong smell about me. who had murdered one of that gentleman's intimate acquaintance. as most of my sex: but I suppose his faculty of smelling was as nice with regard to me. to the quantity of at least two hogsheads. like a creature who had no sort of consequence: for they would strip themselves to the skin. under which I immediately swooned away. The handsomest among these maids of honour. and his head cut off at one blow. that an intimate friend of mine in Lilliput. The veins and arteries spouted up such a prodigious quantity of blood. so variously coloured. in a vessel that held above three tuns. and Glumdalclitch my nurse. with a mole here and there as broad as a trencher. when I saw them near. to say nothing farther concerning the rest of their persons. and so high in the air. I cannot forget. than when they used perfumes. with many other tricks. to discharge what they had drank. although I am as little faulty that way. while I was by. But I was so much displeased.

it lasted: and the head. and then my business was only to steer. the governess who attended Glumdalclitch very officiously lifted me up. I was forced to work like a common mariner. although I was at least half an English mile distant. her own joiner should make it. and should infallibly have fallen down forty feet upon the floor. able conveniently to hold eight Europeans. being well pitched. But I could not see how this could be done in their country. which had like to have cost me my life. by the luckiest chance in the world. for. or little oars. The fellow was an ingenious workman. where I could not manage my two sculls. that she ran with it in her lap to the king. But the queen had before contrived another project. if I would contrive a boat. When it was finished. the queen was so delighted. fifty broad. Sometimes I would put up my sail. when they were weary. in an outer room of the palace. for want of room. and. and took all occasions to divert me when I was melancholy. She ordered the joiner to make a wooden trough of three hundred feet long. while I showed my art by steering starboard or larboard as I pleased. where the smallest wherry was equal to a first-rate man of war among us. who often used to hear me talk of my sea-voyages. gave such a bounce as made me start. and whether a little exercise of rowing might not be convenient for my health? I answered. yet often. finished a pleasure-boat with all its tackling. was placed on the floor. The queen. It had a cock near the bottom to let out the water. by way of trial. and eight deep. if. who ordered it to be put into a cistern full of water. to prevent leaking. and hung it on a nail to dry. Her majesty said. in ten days. In this exercise I once met an accident. which. some of their pages would blow my sail forward with their breath. that I understood both very well: for although my proper employment had been to be surgeon or doctor to the ship. while the ladies gave me a gale with their fans. and she would provide a place for me to sail in. When I had done. and two servants could easily fill it in half an hour. when it fell on the scaffold floor. asked me whether I understood how to handle a sail or an oar. upon a pinch. as well as that of the queen and her ladies. one of the pages having put my boat into the trough. and such a boat as I could manage would never live in any of their rivers. Here I often used to row for my own diversion. with me in it. along the wall. when it began to grow stale. who thought themselves well entertained with my skill and agility. Glumdalclitch always carried back my boat into her closet. and by my instructions. I had not been stopped by a corking-pin that stuck in the good . to place me in the boat: but I happened to slip through her fingers.

but the monkey looking in at every side. In . and then over my head. The frog lay concealed till I was put into my boat. till Glumdalclitch ran to my relief. was from a monkey. that he took me for a young one of his own species. who belonged to one of the clerks of the kitchen. and reaching one of his paws in at the door. to prevent overturning. one of the servants. or box. the head of the pin passing between my shirt and the waistband of my breeches. When the frog was got in. he at last espied me. I banged it a good while with one of my sculls. backward and forward. or a visit. till at last he came to my box. because of its largeness and conveniency. and at last forced it to leap out of the boat. climbed up. Glumdalclitch had locked me up in her closet. as well as the windows and the door of my bigger box. I desired Glumdalclitch to let me deal with it alone. as a cat does when she plays with a mouse. by his often stroking my face very gently with his other paw.gentlewoman's stomacher. although I often shifted place to avoid him. I heard something bounce in at the closet-window. and chattering. that I wanted presence of mind to conceal myself under the bed. peeping in at the door and every window. was so careless as to let a huge frog (not perceiving it) slip out of his pail. just as I have seen the same sort of creature do with a kitten in Europe. although I was much alarmed. and made it lean so much on one side. which he seemed to view with great pleasure and curiosity. in which I usually lived. He took me up in his right fore-foot and held me as a nurse does a child she is going to suckle. put me in such a fright. whose office it was to fill my trough every third day with fresh water. As I sat quietly meditating at my table. that I thought it more prudent to submit. Another time. as I might easily have done. it hopped at once half the length of the boat. and thus I was held by the middle in the air. and then I saw this frolicsome animal frisking and leaping up and down. he at length seized the lappet of my coat (which being made of that country silk. grinning. and when I offered to struggle he squeezed me so hard. I have good reason to believe. However. and dragged me out. but not stirring from my seat. After some time spent in peeping. was very thick and strong). that I was forced to balance it with all my weight on the other. But the greatest danger I ever underwent in that kingdom. seeing a restingplace. while she went somewhere upon business. the closet-window was left open. The weather being very warm. I retreated to the farther corner of my room. but then. daubing my face and clothes with its odious slime. and skip about from one side to the other: whereat. The largeness of its features made it appear the most deformed animal that can be conceived. yet I ventured to look out.

and finding himself almost encompassed. let me drop on a ridge tile. which the monkey observing. as if somebody were opening it: whereupon he suddenly leaped up to the window at which he had come in. not being able to make speed enough with his three legs. five hundred yards from the ground. and her majesty made me several visits during my sickness. very probably. and then I fell a-vomiting. and patting me when I would not eat. and mounted by several men. Some of the people threw up stones. holding me like a baby in one of his forepaws. whereat many of the rabble below could not forbear laughing. When I attended the king after my recovery." He desired to know. and whether the fresh air on the roof had sharpened my stomach. or to fall by my own giddiness. for. expecting every moment to be blown down by the wind. I heard Glumdalclitch give a shriek at the moment he was carrying me out. and an order made. he was pleased to rally me a good deal upon this adventure. how I liked the victuals he gave me. The poor girl was almost distracted: that quarter of the palace was all in an uproar. sitting upon the ridge of a building. walking upon three legs. my brains had been dashed out. The ladders were now applied. but this was strictly forbidden. "what my thoughts and speculations were. The monkey was killed. neither do I think they justly ought to be blamed. queen. till he clambered up to a roof that was next to ours. sent every day to inquire after my health. which gave me great relief. and come tumbling over and over from the ridge to the eaves. He asked me. and made his escape. and all the court." I told his majesty. while I lay in the monkey's paw. the servants ran for ladders. to return him thanks for his favours. "what I would have done upon such an occasion in my own country. the sight was ridiculous enough to every body but myself. . the monkey was seen by hundreds in the court. or else. The king. and thence upon the leads and gutters. his manner of feeding. that no such animal should be kept about the palace. one of my nurse's footmen. climbed up. that I was forced to keep my bed a fortnight. I was almost choked with the filthy stuff the monkey had crammed down my throat: but my dear little nurse picked it out of my mouth with a small needle. and feeding me with the other. Yet I was so weak and bruised in the sides with the squeezes given me by this odious animal. by cramming into my mouth some victuals he had squeezed out of the bag on one side of his chaps. and putting me into his breeches pocket. but an honest lad. Here I sat for some time. hoping to drive the monkey down.these diversions he was interrupted by a noise at the closet door. without question. and holding me in the fourth. brought me down safe.

and the footmen spread it about the court: so that all the mirth for some days was at my expense. and so small. as I spoke) "when he poked his paw into my chamber. and Glumdalclitch setting down my travelling box. and I must need try my activity by attempting to leap over it. perhaps I should have given him such a wound. However. The girl. for I was filthily bemired. The king inquires into the state of . till we returned home. and put himself upon a foot with the greatest persons of the kingdom." This I delivered in a firm tone. yet was arch enough to inform the queen. my speech produced nothing else beside a laud laughter. how vain an attempt it is for a man to endeavour to do himself honour among those who are out of all degree of equality or comparison with him. where a little contemptible varlet. and clapping my hand on the hilt. although she loved me to excess. who had been out of order. shall presume to look with importance. and my nurse confined me to my box. person. if they presumed to attack me. I waded through with some difficulty. There was a cow-dung in the path. but unfortunately jumped short. as would have made him glad to withdraw it with more haste than he put it in. whenever I committed any folly that she thought would be diverting to her majesty. [Several contrivances of the author to please the king and queen. or thirty miles from town. if my fears had suffered me to think so far as to make use of my hanger. He shows his skill in music. which all the respect due to his majesty from those about him could not make them contain."that in Europe we had no monkeys. was carried by her governess to take the air about an hour's distance. or common sense. I went out of it to walk. without the least title to birth. that I could deal with a dozen of them together. except such as were brought for curiosity from other places. like a person who was jealous lest his courage should be called in question. I was every day furnishing the court with some ridiculous story: and Glumdalclitch." (looking fiercely. They alighted out of the coach near a small foot-path in a field. And yet I have seen the moral of my own behaviour very frequent in England since my return. And as for that monstrous animal with whom I was so lately engaged (it was indeed as large as an elephant). I took a run. wit. CHAPTER VI. This made me reflect. where the queen was soon informed of what had passed. and one of the footmen wiped me as clean as he could with his handkerchief. and found myself just in the middle up to my knees.

to which I was sometimes carried. that it was almost useless: neither did I know any artist in that country so nice and exact. and set in my box on a table to hear them: but the noise was so great that I could hardly . To say the truth. by the queen's consent. that once adorned her majesty's head. which the author relates to him. out of which I picked forty or fifty of the strongest stumps of hair. was only shaved twice a-week. and to bore little holes with a fine awl. according to the custom of the country. it was more for show than use. who kept them in her cabinet.England. I once prevailed on the barber to give me some of the suds or lather. I fixed in the stumps so artificially. protesting I would rather die than place a dishonourable part of my body on those precious hairs. whereof in time I got a good quantity. my own being so much broken in the teeth. who had received general orders to do little jobs for me. and consulting with my friend the cabinet-maker. and had often seen him under the barber's hand. for the razor was almost twice as long as an ordinary scythe. had frequent concerts at court. The king's observations thereon. about five feet long. And this puts me in mind of an amusement. and cut it like the back of a comb. His majesty. which indeed was at first very terrible to behold. through these holes I wove the strongest hairs I could pick out. I desired the queen's woman to save for me the combings of her majesty's hair. just after the manner of cane chairs in England. The king. but I absolutely refused to obey her. which was a seasonable supply. being not of strength to bear the weight of the larger coins.] I used to attend the king's levee once or twice a week. as indeed they were the wonder of every one that beheld them. with her majesty's name deciphered in gold letters. The queen would have me sit upon one of these chairs. scraping and sloping them with my knife toward the points. Of these hairs (as I had always a mechanical genius) I likewise made a neat little purse. I made a present of them to her majesty. making several holes in it at equal distances with as small a needle as I could get from Glumdalclitch. I directed him to make two chair-frames. and used to show them for curiosities. as would undertake to make me another. When they were finished. no larger than those I had in my box. I then took a piece of fine wood. that I made a very tolerable comb. who delighted in music. wherein I spent many of my leisure hours. and therefore she kept nothing in it but some little toys that girls are fond of. round those parts where I designed the backs and seats. which I gave to Glumdalclitch.

distinguish the tunes. I am confident that all the drums and trumpets of a royal army. as I before observed. that among other animals. as inconsiderable as he took me to be. to the great satisfaction of both their majesties. that by rapping on them I might neither damage the tops of the keys nor interrupt the sound. and yet I could not strike above sixteen keys. and to no purpose. A fancy came into my head. which brought me almost to a level with his face. and that. and I was put upon the bench. But this appeared extremely difficult: for the spinet was near sixty feet long. and made a shift to play a jig. who. we observed in our country. and sit down within three yards distance upon the top of the cabinet. that reason did not extend itself with the bulk of the body. on the contrary. as far as I could. and to press them down required a good smart stroke with my fist. after which I found their music not disagreeable. and set upon the table in his closet: he would then command me to bring one of my chairs out of the box. did not seem answerable to those excellent qualities of mind that he was master of. because it somewhat resembled that instrument. but it was the most violent exercise I ever underwent. Before the spinet a bench was placed. and the rest of the world. "that the contempt he discovered towards Europe. than many of the larger kinds. beating and sounding together just at your ears. The method I contrived was this: I prepared two round sticks. that the tallest persons were usually the least provided with it. that I would entertain the king and queen with an English tune upon this instrument. as other artists do. which was a great disadvantage to my performance. I . then to shut the doors and windows of it. and a master attended twice a-week to teach her: I called it a spinet. that way and this. they were thicker at one end than the other. In this manner I had several conversations with him. I one day took the freedom to tell his majesty. art. which would be too great a labour. each key being almost a foot wide. and I covered the thicker ends with pieces of a mouse's skin. and was played upon in the same manner. nor consequently play the bass and treble together. and draw the window curtains. would frequently order that I should be brought in my box. I had learned in my youth to play a little upon the spinet. could not equal it. bees and ants had the reputation of more industry. Glumdalclitch kept one in her chamber. as fast as I could. about the bigness of common cudgels. about four feet below the keys. I ran sideling upon it. so that with my arms extended I could not reach to above five keys. banging the proper keys with my two sticks. was a prince of excellent understanding. The king. and sagacity. My practice was to have my box removed from the place where the performers sat.

That these were the ornament and bulwark of the kingdom. by their valour. among such of the priesthood as were most deservedly distinguished by the sanctity of their lives. whence there can be no appeal. I then spoke at large upon the constitution of an English parliament. courteous reader. whose honour had been the reward of their virtue. from which their posterity were never once known to degenerate. by my former discourses). under the title of bishops. for their great abilities and love of their country. and the depth of their erudition.hoped I might live to do his majesty some signal service. which composed three mighty kingdoms. to represent the wisdom of the whole nation. to whom. how often I then wished for the tongue of Demosthenes or Cicero. and fidelity. freely picked and culled out by the people themselves. To these were joined several holy persons." The king heard me with attention. I dwelt long upon the fertility of our soil. in conjunction with the prince. I began my discourse by informing his majesty. That the other part of the parliament consisted of an assembly called the House of Commons. I described that extraordinary care always taken of their education in arts and arms. that might have enabled me to celebrate the praise of my own dear native country in a style equal to its merits and felicity. and of the most ancient and ample patrimonies. who were indeed the spiritual fathers of the clergy and the people. by the prince and his wisest counsellors. to have a share in the legislature. under one sovereign. and the temperature of our climate. and began to conceive a much better opinion of me than he had ever before. to be members of the highest court of judicature. to qualify them for being counsellors both to the king and kingdom. And that these two bodies made up the most august assembly in Europe. who were all principal gentlemen. persons of the noblest blood. as part of that assembly. because. worthy followers of their most renowned ancestors." Imagine with thyself. These were searched and sought out through the whole nation. He desired "I would give him as exact an account of the government of England as I possibly could. that our dominions consisted of two islands. beside our plantations in America. he should be glad to hear of any thing that might deserve imitation. partly made up of an illustrious body called the House of Peers. as fond as princes commonly are of their own customs (for so he conjectured of other monarchs. whose peculiar business is to take care of religion. . conduct. and of those who instruct the people therein. and to be champions always ready for the defence of their prince and country.

by reckoning how many millions there might be of each religious sect. after they were admitted into that assembly?" He then desired to know. or some other sinister view. and the king heard the whole with great attention. When I had put an end to these long discources. or want. his majesty.the whole legislature is committed. so as to enable them to decide the properties of their fellow-subjects in the last resort? Whether they were always so free from avarice. those venerable sages and interpreters of the law. had never been compliers with the times. whose opinions they continued servilely to follow. or a design of strengthening a party opposite to the public interest. in a sixth audience. over which the judges. and in what kind of business they commonly spent the first and teachable parts of their lives? What course was taken to supply that assembly. This conversation was not ended under five audiences. each of several hours. when any noble family became extinct? What qualifications were necessary in those who are to be created new lords: whether the humour of the prince. queries. upon every article. and how they came by it. consulting his notes. that a bribe. presided. I did not omit even our sports and pastimes. partialities. as well as for the punishment of vice and protection of innocence. while they were common priests. He asked. And I finished all with a brief historical account of affairs and events in England for about a hundred years past. could have no place among them? Whether those holy lords I spoke of were always promoted to that rank upon account of their knowledge in religious matters. I computed the number of our people. a sum of money to a court lady. or political party among us. and objections. and the sanctity of their lives. or slavish prostitute chaplains to some nobleman. I mentioned the prudent management of our treasury. as well as memorandums of what questions he intended to ask me. I then descended to the courts of justice. proposed many doubts. by sea and land. ever happened to be the motive in those advancements? What share of knowledge these lords had in the laws of their country. or any other particular which I thought might redound to the honour of my country. with a strong . "What arts were practised in electing those whom I called commoners: whether a stranger. frequently taking notes of what I spoke. for determining the disputed rights and properties of men. "What methods were used to cultivate the minds and bodies of our young nobility. the valour and achievements of our forces.

and other local customs? Whether they or their judges had any part in penning those laws. might not influence the vulgar voters to choose him before their own landlord. he found they sometimes amounted to more than double. "he thought my memory had failed me. and cited precedents to prove contrary opinions? Whether they were a rich or a poor corporation? Whether they received any pecuniary reward for pleading. proposing numberless inquiries and objections. he was still at a loss how a kingdom could run out of its estate. and sifted me thoroughly upon every part of this head. or only in provincial. which I think it not prudent or convenient to repeat. as he told me. "What time was usually spent in determining between right and wrong. Upon what I said in relation to our courts of justice. "Whether such zealous gentlemen could have any views of refunding themselves for the charges and trouble they were at by sacrificing the public good to the designs of a weak and vicious prince. that his majesty seemed to doubt it might possibly not be always sincere. having been formerly almost ruined by a long suit in chancery. without any salary or pension? because this appeared such an exalted strain of virtue and public spirit. and where we found money to pay . national. which they assumed the liberty of interpreting. that people were so violently bent upon getting into this assembly. "who were our creditors. pleaded for and against the same cause. because he hoped." He asked me. and said. vexatious." And he desired to know. But. in religion or politics. or delivering their opinions? And particularly. and what degree of expense? Whether advocates and orators had liberty to plead in causes manifestly known to be unjust. in conjunction with a corrupted ministry?" He multiplied his questions. because I computed our taxes at about five or six millions a-year.purse. whether they were ever admitted as members in the lower senate?" He fell next upon the management of our treasury. like a private person. and he could not be deceived in his calculations. or oppressive? Whether party. were observed to be of any weight in the scale of justice? Whether those pleading orators were persons educated in the general knowledge of equity. which I allowed to be a great trouble and expense. often to the ruin of their families. his majesty desired to be satisfied in several points: and this I was the better able to do. at different times. or the most considerable gentleman in the neighbourhood? How it came to pass. which was decreed for me with costs. and when I came to mention the issues. that the knowledge of our conduct might be useful to him. He asked. and glossing upon at their pleasure? Whether they had ever. if what I told him were true. for the notes he had taken were very particular in this point.

picked up at a venture in the streets for small wages. by the losses they received. who entertain opinions prejudicial to the public. as well as habituate them to vile companions. whether a private man's house might not be better defended by himself. by a computation drawn from the several sects among us." He said." He asked. malice. in the persons of our representatives. vicious people. madness. so it was weakness not to enforce the second: for a man may be allowed to keep poisons in his closet." He observed. by their dexterity in that art. in the midst of peace. And as it was tyranny in any government to require the first." . and force them. banishments. hatred. could produce. "in reckoning the numbers of our people. he could not imagine of whom we were afraid." as he was pleased to call it. how much of their time it employed. unless upon the score of trade. or to defend the coasts with our fleet?" Above all. and when it was laid down. I had mentioned gaming: he desired to know at what age this entertainment was usually taken up. whether mean. and ambition. his children. hypocrisy. whether it ever went so high as to affect their fortunes. and sometimes keep our very nobles in dependence. might not arrive at great riches. to learn and practise that infamous dexterity upon others?" He was perfectly astonished with the historical account gave him of our affairs during the last century. than by half-a-dozen rascals. envy.them?" He wondered to hear me talk of such chargeable and expensive wars. or treaty. and family. "if we were governed by our own consent. what business we had out of our own islands. and among a free people. in religion and politics. massacres. who might get a hundred times more by cutting their throats?" He laughed at my "odd kind of arithmetic. or should not be obliged to conceal them. and that our generals must needs be richer than our kings. "he knew no reason why those. murders. rage. should be obliged to change. rebellions. or against whom we were to fight. lust. and would hear my opinion. protesting "it was only a heap of conspiracies. he was amazed to hear me talk of a mercenary standing army. the very worst effects that avarice. cruelty. perfidiousness. revolutions. "that among the diversions of our nobility and gentry. wholly take them from the improvement of their minds. or live among very bad neighbours. but not to vend them about for cordials. "that certainly we must be a quarrelsome people. He said. faction.

It does not appear. or counsellors for their wisdom. and the rest wholly blurred and blotted by corruptions. He makes a proposal of much advantage to the king. and parties in the state. "who have spent the greatest part of your life in travelling. which is rejected. from all you have said. you have clearly proved. which I shall never forget. The laws. [The author's love of his country. As for yourself. The learning of that country very imperfect and confined. and I was forced to rest with patience. compared the questions he made with the answers I had given. for their integrity. while my noble and beloved country was so injuriously treated. I am as heartily sorry as any of my readers can possibly be. senators. was at the pains to recapitulate the sum of all I had spoken. which. idleness. how any one perfection is required toward the procurement of any one station among you. interpreted. are the proper ingredients for qualifying a legislator. The king's great ignorance in politics. and vice." continued the king. It was in vain to discover my resentments. that men are ennobled on account of their virtue. I cannot but conclude the bulk of your natives to be the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth. but these half erased. that ignorance. might have been tolerable. which were always turned into ridicule. and stroking me gently. then taking me into his hands. I observe among you some lines of an institution.His majesty. judges. and military affairs. in its original. delivered himself in these words. nor the manner he spoke them in: "My little friend Grildrig. But by what I have gathered from your own relation. that priests are advanced for their piety or learning. you have made a most admirable panegyric upon your country. I am well disposed to hope you may hitherto have escaped many vices of your country. and applied. by those whose interest and abilities lie in perverting. in another audience. soldiers.] Nothing but an extreme love of truth could have hindered me from concealing this part of my story. that such an occasion was given: but this prince happened to be so curious and inquisitive upon every . confounding." CHAPTER VII. and eluding them. much less. for the love of their country. for their conduct or valour. and the answers I have with much pains wrung and extorted from you. that laws are best explained.

That a proper quantity of this powder rammed into a hollow tube of brass or iron. For I have always borne that laudable partiality to my own country. although it were as big as a mountain. and further to show the miserable effects of a confined education. if so remote a prince's notions of virtue and vice were to be offered as a standard for all mankind. with a thousand men in each. I shall here insert a passage. who lives wholly secluded from the rest of the world. and discharged them by an engine into some city we were besieging. and could direct his workmen how to . that I artfully eluded many of his questions. which will hardly obtain belief. recommends to an historian: I would hide the frailties and deformities of my political mother. than the strictness of truth would allow. This was my sincere endeavour in those many discourses I had with that monarch. but batter the strongest walls to the ground. discovered between three and four hundred years ago. and the politer countries of Europe. are wholly exempted. would drive a ball of iron or lead. as nothing was able to sustain its force. to the bottom of the sea. with a noise and agitation greater than thunder. to refuse giving him what satisfaction I was able. with such violence and speed.particular. which would rip up the pavements. from which we. by many degrees. and gave to every point a more favourable turn. divide hundreds of bodies in the middle. I told him of "an invention. would cut through masts and rigging. would kindle the whole in a moment. although it unfortunately failed of success. dashing out the brains of all who came near. to make a certain powder. and place her virtues and beauties in the most advantageous light. In hopes to ingratiate myself further into his majesty's favour. But great allowances should be given to a king. which Dionysius Halicarnassensis. the smallest spark of fire falling. that it could not consist either with gratitude or good manners. And it would be hard indeed. sink down ships. would not only destroy whole ranks of an army at once. That we often put this powder into large hollow balls of iron. which were cheap and common. and make it all fly up in the air together. To confirm what I have now said. and when linked together by a chain. burst and throw splinters on every side. I understood the manner of compounding them. That I knew the ingredients very well. and must therefore be altogether unacquainted with the manners and customs that most prevail in other nations: the want of which knowledge will ever produce many prejudices. according to its bigness. Yet thus much I may be allowed to say in my own vindication. with so much justice. tear the houses to pieces. and lay all waste before them. into a heap of which. That the largest balls thus discharged. and a certain narrowness of thinking.

As for himself. where an enemy. to common sense and reason. let slip an opportunity put into his hands that would have made him absolute master of the lives." he said. to justice and lenity. and esteem. were not in the case. either in a prince or a minister. unnecessary scruple. would batter down the walls of the strongest town in his dominions in a few hours. must have been the first contriver. if ever it should pretend to dispute his absolute commands." A strange effect of narrow principles and views! that a prince possessed of every quality which procures veneration. He professed both to abominate and despise all mystery. and intrigue." it gave him (directly contrary to my intention) a very mean opinion of our understandings. of a size proportionable to all other things in his majesty's kingdom. from a nice. on this account. and the proposal I had made. as to appear wholly unmoved at all the scenes of blood and desolation which I had painted as the common effects of those destructive machines." This I humbly offered to his majesty. of his royal favour and protection. which he commanded me. will. than be privy to such a secret. he protested. "He was amazed. He confined the knowledge of governing within very narrow bounds. when I happened to say. whose character. love. I remember very well. "some evil genius. whereof. For. twenty or thirty of which tubes. of strong parts. should. "there were several thousand books among us written upon the art of government. the liberties. with the least intention to detract from the many virtues of that excellent king. charged with the proper quantity of powder and balls. refinement. endowed with admirable talents. and the fortunes of his people! Neither do I say this. great wisdom. yet he would rather lose half his kingdom. or some rival nation. He could not tell what I meant by secrets of state. by not having hitherto reduced politics into a science.make those tubes. and profound learning. enemy to mankind. never to mention any more. as a small tribute of acknowledgment. I am sensible. and the largest need not be above a hundred feet long. be very much lessened in the opinion of an English reader: but I take this defect among them to have risen from their ignorance. in turn for so many marks that I had received. as the more acute wits of Europe have done. that although few things delighted him so much as new discoveries in art or in nature. and in so familiar a manner. or destroy the whole metropolis. to the speedy . as I valued any life. The king was struck with horror at the description I had given of those terrible engines. whereof in Europe we can have no conception. how so impotent and grovelling an insect as I" (these were his expressions) "could entertain such inhuman ideas. in a discourse one day with the king. and almost adored by his subjects.

their precedents are so few. for it was as thick and stiff as a pasteboard. But indeed few of them extend even to that length. time out of mind: but their libraries are not very large. . placed in a gallery of twelve hundred feet long. that they have little reason to boast of any extraordinary skill in either. to the improvement of agriculture. formed like a standing ladder. or proceedings against criminals. which is reckoned the largest. was put up leaning against the wall: I first mounted to the upper step of the ladder. the steps were each fifty feet long. and turning my face towards the book.determination of civil and criminal causes. The book I had a mind to read. which are not worth considering. so that among us. It was indeed a moveable pair of stairs. and transcendentals. abstractions. As to the decision of civil causes. And as to ideas. wherein those people are not mercurial enough to discover above one interpretation: and to write a comment upon any law. which I could easily do with both my hands. entities." The learning of this people is very defective. began at the top of the page. and then descending gradually till I came to the bottom: after which I mounted again. which consists only of two and twenty. and in the largest folios not above eighteen or twenty feet long. I could never drive the least conception into their heads. for that of the king. But the last of these is wholly applied to what may be useful in life. as well as the Chinese. And he gave it for his opinion. No law in that country must exceed in words the number of letters in their alphabet. does not amount to above a thousand volumes. history. a kind of wooden machine five-and-twenty feet high. and mathematics. till I had gotten a little below the level of mine eyes. it would be little esteemed. according to the length of the lines. is a capital crime. and all mechanical arts. would deserve better of mankind. "that whoever could make two ears of corn. whence I had liberty to borrow what books I pleased. poetry. than the whole race of politicians put together. They have had the art of printing. consisting only in morality. They are expressed in the most plain and simple terms. and began the other page in the same manner. the lowest end placed at ten feet distance from the wall of the chamber. or two blades of grass. and do more essential service to his country. and so turned over the leaf. to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before. wherein they must be allowed to excel. and so walking to the right and left about eight or ten paces. with some other obvious topics. The queen's joiner had contrived in one of Glumdalclitch's rooms.

in comparison of those in ancient times. and under very good discipline. from the quarrels we raise with nature. Among the rest. whose commanders are only the nobility and gentry. of drawing lectures in morality. And I believe. far exceeding the common dwindled race of men in our days. and belonged to her governess. or being drowned in a little brook. "that nature was degenerated in these latter declining ages of the world. useful in the conduct of life. This writer went through all the usual topics of European moralists. who dealt in writings of morality and devotion. and smooth. or using various expressions. and is in little esteem. which always lay in Glumdalclitch's bed chamber. not so liable to destruction from every little accident. where every farmer is under the command of his own landlord. they boast that the king's army consists of a hundred and seventy-six thousand foot. and could now produce only small abortive births. which." From this way of reasoning. so it has been confirmed by huge bones and skulls. and every citizen under that of the principal men in his . or the fury of wild beasts: how much he was excelled by one creature in strength. "that the very laws of nature absolutely required we should have been made." He argued. I was much diverted with a little old treatise. not only that the species of men were originally much larger. for they avoid nothing more than multiplying unnecessary words. but also that there must have been giants in former ages. as it is asserted by history and tradition. For my own part. a grave elderly gentlewoman. and farmers in the country. or a stone cast from the hand of a boy. or indeed rather matter of discontent and repining." He said "it was very reasonable to think. which is made up of tradesmen in the several cities. by a fourth in industry. those quarrels might be shown as ill-grounded among us as they are among that people. showing "how diminutive. As to their military affairs. They are indeed perfect enough in their exercises. especially those in history and morality. in the beginning of a size more large and robust. upon a strict inquiry. masculine. how unable to defend himself from inclemencies of the air. but needless here to repeat.Their style is clear. The book treats of the weakness of human kind. wherein I saw no great merit. the author drew several moral applications. and thirty-two thousand horse: if that may be called an army. I have perused many of their books. I was curious to see what an author of that country could say upon such a subject. for how should it be otherwise. by a third in foresight. except among the women and the vulgar. I could not avoid reflecting how universally this talent was spread. of a tile falling from a house." He added. contemptible. by another in speed. However. without pay or reward. and helpless an animal was man in his own nature. but not florid. casually dug up in several parts of the kingdom.

though it was impossible to conjecture by what means. mounted on a large steed. The author attends them. so surprising. both by conversation and reading their histories. Imagination can figure nothing so grand. the people for liberty. and the king had given strict orders. might be about ninety feet high.own city. All which. then settled with common consent. I was curious to know how this prince. A cavalier. and the king for absolute dominion. by ballot? I have often seen the militia of Lorbrulgrud drawn out to exercise. and so astonishing! it looked as if ten thousand flashes of lightning were darting at the same time from every quarter of the sky. He returns to England. came to think of armies. has been ever since kept in the strictest duty. in a general composition. the last whereof was happily put an end to by this prince's grand-father. the nobility often contending for power. The ship in which I sailed. or to form any project with the least hope of succeeding. however happily tempered by the laws of that kingdom. have been sometimes violated by each of the three parties. was the first ever known to be driven within sight of that coast. considering the space of ground they took up. and with all its crew and passengers brought in a tumbril to Lorbrulgrud. They were in all not above twenty-five thousand foot. in the course of many ages. it should be taken ashore. chosen after the manner of Venice. The manner in which he leaves the country very particularly related. CHAPTER VIII. and the militia. in a great field near the city of twenty miles square.] I had always a strong impulse that I should some time recover my liberty. [The king and queen make a progress to the frontiers. that if at any time another appeared. and six thousand horse. I have seen this whole body of horse. but it was impossible for me to compute their number. for. He was . or to teach his people the practice of military discipline. to whose dominions there is no access from any other country. they have been troubled with the same disease to which the whole race of mankind is subject. and have more than once occasioned civil wars. But I was soon informed. draw their swords at once. and brandish them in the air. upon a word of command.

to persons of quality. Glumdalclitch and I were much fatigued: I had gotten a small cold. to give me air in hot weather. I was indeed treated with much kindness: I was the favourite of a great king and queen. When we came to our journey's end. about half an hours walk from the palace. I found myself not very well. and desired leave to take the fresh air of the sea. which hole I shut at pleasure with a board that drew backward and forward through a groove. The boy took me out in my box. if ever it should happen. and in a manner not very common. by whom I might propagate the breed: but I think I should rather have died than undergone the disgrace of leaving a posterity to be kept in cages.strongly bent to get me a woman of my own size. as usual. which as I have already described. was a very convenient closet. a city within eighteen English miles of the seaside. whom I was very fond of. I had now been two years in this country. On the roof of my closet. with whom I could converse upon even terms. and lifting up one of my sashes. like tame canary-birds. the king thought proper to pass a few days at a palace he has near Flanflasnic. I shall never forget with what unwillingness Glumdalclitch consented. I wanted to be among people. I pretended to be worse than I really was. for curiosities. I ordered the joiner to cut out a hole of a foot square. but it was upon such a foot as ill became the dignity of humankind. not directly over the middle of the hammock. nor the strict charge she gave the page to be careful of me. Glumdalclitch and I attended the king and queen. and about the beginning of the third. bursting at the same time into a flood of tears. and would often sleep in my hammock. and walk about the streets and fields without being afraid of being trod to death like a frog or a young puppy. with a page. I longed to see the ocean. I ordered him to set me down. which must be the only scene of my escape. by silken ropes from the four corners at the top. in a progress to the south coast of the kingdom. while we were upon the road. as I slept. I was carried. as if she had some forboding of what was to happen. the whole story and circumstances of which I shall faithfully relate. in my travelling-box. to break the jolts. when a servant carried me before him on horseback. towards the rocks on the sea-shore. of twelve feet wide. and the delight of the whole court. sold about the kingdom. and told the page that I had a mind to . cast many a wistful melancholy look towards the sea. in time. But my deliverance came sooner than I expected. but the poor girl was so ill as to be confined to her chamber. I could never forget those domestic pledges I had left behind me. and perhaps. as I sometimes desired. And I had ordered a hammock to be fixed. and who had sometimes been trusted with me.

I heard several bangs or buffets. and all I can conjecture is. by the weight of my body. which I hoped would do me good. thinking no danger could happen. though better concealed than I could be within a two-inch board. like a sign in a windy day. I got with much difficulty out of my hammock. floated about five feet deep in water. who hoped to share in the prey. The plates of iron fastened at the bottom of the box (for those were the strongest) preserved the balance while it fell. which kept my closet so tight that very little water came in. while I slept. Every joint of it was well grooved. and then. The first jolt had like to have shaken me out of my hammock. and then began to perceive the woful condition I was in. and my box was tossed up and down. having before observed him from my window searching about. I did then. that the eagle which flew away with my box was pursued by two or three others. I now perceived I was fallen into the sea. and could see nothing but the clouds and sky. and forced to let me drop. and the boy shut the window close down. I soon fell asleep. I observed the noise and flutter of wings to increase very fast. but afterward the motion was easy enough. while he defended himself against the rest. . In a little time. that some eagle had got the ring of my box in his beak. I was quite in the dark for another minute. and devour it: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enables him to discover his quarry at a great distance. I heard a noise just over my head. and the broad plates of iron fixed for strength at the four corners of the top and bottom. Be that as it will. but up and down like a sash. which was fastened at the top of my box for the conveniency of carriage. the goods that were in. the page. after which. but with such incredible swiftness. My fall was stopped by a terrible squash. My box. and then borne forward with prodigious speed. went among the rocks to look for birds' eggs.take a nap in my hammock. I felt my box raised very high in the air. and then pick out my body. I got in. and hindered it from being broken on the surface of the water. I called out several times. and then my box began to rise so high. and the door did not move on hinges. like the clapping of wings. but all to no purpose. to keep out the cold. all on a sudden. I looked towards my windows. for above a minute. like a tortoise in a shell. that I almost lost my breath. with an intent to let it fall on a rock. that sounded louder to my ears than the cataract of Niagara. and do now suppose. I found myself suddenly awaked with a violent pull upon the ring. that I could see light from the tops of the windows. and picking up one or two in the clefts. as loud as I could raise my voice. as I thought given to the eagle (for such I am certain it must have been that held the ring of my box in his beak). felt myself falling perpendicularly down.

that in the midst of my own misfortunes I could not forbear lamenting my poor nurse. and thrusting it up the hole. and buckle it about his waist. which otherwise I certainly should have done. A breach in one single pane of glass would have been immediate death: nor could any thing have preserved the windows. the grief she would suffer for my loss. and having made a hard shift to screw it down again. what could I expect but a miserable death of cold and hunger? I was four hours under these circumstances. expecting. who used to carry me on horseback. waved it several times in the air. and in all the languages I understood. would put a leathern belt. and soon after I began to fancy that the box was pulled or towed along the sea. leaving me almost in the dark. or at least overset by the first violent blast. directly under the slipping-board that I had lately opened. and sat on the top of it. . than by being shut up (as I may call it) in the hold. from whom one single hour had so far divided me! And I may say with truth. although I was not able to imagine how it could be brought about. for want of which I found myself almost stifled. I have already told the reader that there were two strong staples fixed upon that side of my box which had no window. where I might at least preserve myself some hours longer. I called for help in a loud voice. I ventured to unscrew one of my chairs. and the ruin of her fortune. I heard. some kind of grating noise on that side of my box where the staples were fixed. I saw the water ooze in at several crannies. and putting my mouth as near as I could to the hole. that if any boat or ship were near. Or if I escaped these dangers for a day or two. and into which the servant. although the leaks were not considerable. against accidents in travelling. and indeed wishing. or at least thought I heard. contrived on purpose to let in air. every moment to be my last. which made the waves rise near the tops of my windows. expecting every moment to see my box dashed to pieces. the displeasure of the queen. I was not able to lift up the roof of my closet. I mounted on the chair. and I endeavoured to stop them as well as I could. the seamen might conjecture some unhappy mortal to be shut up in the box. This gave me some faint hopes of relief. which were always fastened to the floor. but the strong lattice wires placed on the outside. Being in this disconsolate state.having first ventured to draw back the slip-board on the roof already mentioned. for I now and then felt a sort of tugging. I then fastened my handkerchief to a stick I usually carried. How often did I then wish myself with my dear Glumdalclitch. Perhaps many travellers have not been under greater difficulties and distress than I was at this juncture. or rising wave.

two chairs. and in a few minutes sawed a passage about four feet square. and asked me a thousand questions. I would open it there . I apprehended it to be a rock. of which I had great need. I then found myself hoisted up. with silk and cotton. and would take up too much time. that my closet was hung on all sides. and the carpenter should immediately come and saw a hole in the cover. The sailors were all in amazement." I answered. or rather quilted. by degrees. and thence was taken into the ship in a very weak condition. and so into the captain's cabin. In return to which. a table. too good to be lost: a fine hammock. large enough to pull me out. and take the box out of the sea into the ship. observing I was ready to faint. and had no windows. "If there be any body below. and the grating of it as it passed through the ring. for indeed it never came into my head. in the English tongue. drawn by ill fortune into the greatest calamity that ever any creature underwent. but let one of the crew put his finger into the ring. then let down a small ladder. like that of a cable." I answered. and made me turn in upon his own bed. I heard a great shout repeated three times. that if he would let one of the crew bring my closet into his cabin. The carpenter came. I gave him to understand that I had some valuable furniture in my box. for such I took them to be. calling for help till I was almost hoarse. "I was safe. a handsome field-bed. "that was needless. at least three feet higher than I was before." The voice replied. I was equally confounded at the sight of so many pigmies. upon which I mounted. to be delivered out of the dungeon I was in. I plainly heard a noise upon the cover of my closet. after having so long accustomed mine eyes to the monstrous objects I had left. that I was now got among people of my own stature and strength. took me into his cabin. and in the space of an hour. that side of the box where the staples were. Before I went to sleep.I found no effect from all I could do." Some of them. let them speak. struck against something that was hard. and somebody calling through the hole with a loud voice. and found myself tossed more than ever. I now heard a trampling over my head. and a cabinet. gave me a cordial to comfort me. but plainly perceived my closet to be moved along. for my box was fastened to their ship. Whereupon I again thrust up my stick and handkerchief. thought I was mad: others laughed. But the captain. Thomas Wilcocks. by all that was moving. "I was an Englishman. which I had no inclination to answer. advising me to take a little rest. giving me such transports of joy as are not to be conceived but by those who feel them. or better. Mr. upon hearing me talk so wildly. for there was no more to be done. an honest worthy Shropshire man. and begged.

cabinet. as they called it. and show him my goods. That he laughed at their folly. which he had a mind to make. and went himself in the boat. which by reason of many breaches made in the bottom and sides. That he discovered two staples upon one side. He entertained me with great kindness. It was now about eight o'clock at night. upon waking." I asked. I slept some hours. hearing me utter these absurdities. as he was looking through his glass. thinking I had already fasted too long. observed my windows and wire lattices that defended them. He then commanded his men to row up to that side. That the weather being calm. and the dangers I had escaped. and finding his error. by bringing former passages into my mind. whence (as I afterwards found) they drew up all my goods. in that monstrous wooden chest. desired I would give him a relation of my travels. When it was there. and stripped off the quilting. I was glad not to have been a spectator of the havoc they made. or talk inconsistently: and. "they saw my stick and handkerchief thrust out of the hole. and by what accident I came to be set adrift. he spied it at a distance. "whether he or the crew had seen any prodigious birds in the air. I found myself much recovered.before him. that his men came back in a fright. he gave directions to fasten another cable to the ring fixed in the cover. however (I suppose to pacify me) he promised to give order as I desired. which I would rather have forgot. were much damaged by the ignorance of the seamen. about the time he first discovered . let the hull drop into the sea. swearing they had seen a swimming house. which all the sailors were not able to do above two or three feet. toward the ship. and when they had got all they had a mind for. That upon coming nearer." He said. which was all of boards. but perpetually disturbed with dreams of the place I had left. because I am confident it would have sensibly touched me. ordered them to tow my chest. and bedstead. and fastening a cable to one of the staples. he rowed round me several times. his own beginning to fall short. The captain. sent some of his men down into my closet. and going upon deck. and to raise up my chest with pulleys. observing me not to look wildly. he sent out his long-boat to discover what it was. concluded I was raving. indeed. when we were left alone. However. and concluded that some unhappy man must be shut up in the cavity. And. in hopes of buying some biscuit. being screwed to the floor. sunk to rights. and thought it was a sail. but the chairs. He said "that about twelve o'clock at noon. being not much out of his course. who tore them up by force. ordering his men to take a strong cable along with them. and the captain ordered supper immediately. without any passage for light. Then they knocked off some of the boards for the use of the ship.

which served for the back. in a most obliging manner. There was a collection of needles and pins. I then asked the captain." I assured him. at the command of some prince. as truth always forces its way into rational minds. that discoursing this matter with the sailors while I was asleep. from a foot to half a yard long. without provisions: for although he should be sorry to have taken so ill a man into his ship. I entreated him to give order that my cabinet should be brought. we were at least a hundred leagues. but remarked nothing of their being larger than the usual size:" which I suppose must be imputed to the great height they were at. of which he gave me a hint. and throwing it over my head like a collar. by exposing me in that chest. There was the comb I had contrived out of the stumps of the king's beard. and showed him the small collection of rarities I made in the country from which I had been so strangely delivered. from the last time I left England. I assured him. one of them said. and he could not guess the reason of my question. of which I had the key in my pocket. I desired the captain .me. taking it from her little finger. which I faithfully did. as great criminals. he had observed three eagles flying towards the north. But further to confirm all I had said. as well as by my odd looks and behaviour while I was at supper. so this honest worthy gentleman. four wasp stings. "that he must be mistaken by almost half. was immediately convinced of my candour and veracity." I begged his patience to hear me tell my story. "that his suspicions were much increased by some very absurd speeches I had delivered at first to his sailors. which one day she made me a present of. who had some tincture of learning. and another of the same materials. I opened it in his own presence." Whereupon he began again to think that my brain was disturbed. like joiner's tacks. and as much in my senses as ever I was in my life. and afterwards to himself. in other countries." He added. for he had already informed me how the seamen disposed of my closet. "whether I were not troubled in my mind by the consciousness of some enormous crime. a gold ring. but fixed into a paring of her majesty's thumb-nail. "I was well refreshed with his good entertainment and company. And. and desired to ask me freely. "how far he reckoned we might be from land?" He said. "by the best computation he could make." He then grew serious. in the first port where we arrived." To which he answered. and advised me to go to bed in a cabin he had provided. and very good sense. yet he would engage his word to set me safe ashore. some combings of the queen's hair. for I had not left the country whence I came above two hours before I dropped into the sea. for which I was punished. in relation to my closet or chest. have been forced to sea in a leaky vessel. to the moment he first discovered me.

more than such a trifle could deserve." asking me "whether the king or queen of that country were thick of hearing?" I told him. I thanked him for his good opinion. or held in any person's hand. birds." He said "he wondered at one thing very much. which he absolutely refused. "that while we were at supper. unless when I was placed on a table. "he hoped. to hear me speak so loud. The captain said. and four inches in diameter." My answer was. which I observed him to examine with great curiosity. but it was as sound as any in his head. when I first got into the ship. or interest. that my story could contain little beside common events." For indeed. I could never endure to look in a glass. which was. wherein I doubted some authors less consulted truth. and promised to take the matter into my thoughts. when we returned to England. after mine eyes had been accustomed to such prodigious objects. I could force nothing on him but a footman's tooth. It was drawn by an unskilful surgeon. because the comparison gave me so despicable a conceit of myself. and that I admired as much at the voices of him and his men. and other animals. without those ornamental descriptions of strange plants. and the sailors stood all about me. I got it cleaned. The captain was very well satisfied with this plain relation I had given him. when I spoke in that country. He received it with abundance of thanks. "that we were overstocked with books of travels: that nothing could now pass which was not extraordinary. and making it public. I got it hollowed into a cup. it was about the bigness of Kentish pippin. it was like a man talking in the streets. or the diversion of ignorant readers. But. and grown so hard." I told him. he . I thought they were the most little contemptible creatures I had ever beheld. that when I returned England. than their own vanity. and said. and put it into my cabinet. trees. to another looking out from the top of a steeple. in a mistake. It was about a foot long. who seemed to me only to whisper. or of the barbarous customs and idolatry of savage people. that. from a maid of honour's toe. Lastly. and found he had a fancy for it. from one of Glumdalclitch's men. who was afflicted with the tooth-ache. I desired him to see the breeches I had then on. with which most writers abound. I showed him a corn that I had cut off with my own hand. "I had likewise observed another thing. and set in silver. I would oblige the world by putting it on paper. which were made of a mouse's skin. while I was in that prince's country. However. "it was what I had been used to for above two years past. and yet I could hear them well enough.would please to accept this ring in return for his civilities.

although I had fasted all day. . after the same manner. and I made him promise he would come to see me at my house in Redriff. but I shall not trouble the reader with a journal of it. a cup not so big as a nut-shell. and often called aloud to have them stand out of the way. and the people. and afterwards in its fall from so great a height into the sea. I was afraid of trampling on every traveller I met. I began to think myself in Lilliput. worthy to have the description of it transmitted to future ages:" and the comparison of Phaeton was so obvious. but I never went out of the ship till we came into the Downs. in his return to England. we sailed southward a long time. I hired a horse and guide for five shillings. continuing in his mirth. although he queen had ordered a little equipage of all things necessary for me. As I was on the road. till we doubled the Cape of Good Hope. a leg of pork hardly a mouthful." and. which would certainly have been a most astonishing object. although I did not much admire the conceit. "that he doubted mine eyes were bigger than my belly. but imputed it to some disorder in my brain. and coasting New Holland. kept our course west-south-west. Our voyage was very prosperous. which he knew not well how to take." I answered. and then south-south-west. when I saw his dishes of the size of a silver three-pence. which was on the third day of June. "it was very true. was. for he did not observe my stomach so good. and I winked at my own littleness. while I was in her service. For. I offered to leave my goods in security for payment of my freight: but the captain protested he would not receive one farthing. We took a kind leave of each other. 1706. the cattle. protested "he would have gladly given a hundred pounds. The captain having been at Tonquin. about nine months after my escape. which I borrowed of the captain. observing the littleness of the houses. The captain called in at one or two ports. yet my ideas were wholly taken up with what I saw on every side of me. as people do at their own faults. to have seen my closet in the eagle's bill. the trees. driven north-eastward to the latitude of 44 degrees. so that I had like to have gotten one or two broken heads for my impertinence. and that I often seemed hardly able to contain my laughter. The captain understood my raillery very well. describing the rest of his household-stuff and provisions. But meeting a trade-wind two days after I came on board him. and I wondered how I could forbear.observed me to look at every thing with a sort of wonder. that he could not forbear applying it." and so I went on. and sent in his long-boat for provisions and fresh water. and longitude of 143. and merrily replied with the old English proverb.

His arrival at an island. having been so long used to stand with my head and eyes erect to above sixty feet. one of the servants opening the door. He is received into Laputa. and a fourth part owner. that they were all of the captain's opinion when he first saw me.] I had not been at home above ten days. as if they had been pigmies and I a giant. In the mean time. This I mention as an instance of the great power of habit and prejudice. A VOYAGE TO LAPUTA. Is taken by pirates. My wife run out to embrace me." In short. a Cornish man. "she had been too thrifty. in a voyage to the Levant. I here conclude the second part of my unfortunate voyages. and then I went to take her up with one hand by the waist. but I could not see her till she arose. PART III. commander of the Hopewell. I told my wife. and concluded I had lost my wits. but I stooped lower than her knees. I and my family and friends came to a right understanding: but my wife protested "I should never go to sea any more. I had formerly been surgeon of another ship where he was master. that she had not power to hinder me. The malice of a Dutchman. a stout ship of three hundred tons. BALNIBARBI. and one or two friends who were in the house. for which I was forced to inquire. AND JAPAN. as the reader may know hereafter. for I found she had starved herself and her daughter to nothing. came to my house. [The author sets out on his third voyage. (like a goose under a gate. thinking she could otherwise never be able to reach my mouth. My daughter kneeled to ask my blessing. In a little time. CHAPTER I. I bent down to go in. GLUBBDUBDRIB. I looked down upon the servants. LUGGNAGG.When I came to my own house. when Captain William Robinson." although my evil destiny so ordered. I behaved myself so unaccountably. He had always treated me more like a .) for fear of striking my head.

and that having experienced my knowledge in sea-affairs to be at least equal to his. We had not sailed above three days. than an inferior officer. asking. by the prospect of advantage she proposed to her children. and then to the east: after which we had fair weather. hearing of my arrival. though with some apologies. that I could not reject this proposal. who entered furiously at the head of their men. From thence we went to Tonquin. Therefore. the thirst I had of seeing the world." He said so many other obliging things. in hopes to defray some of the charges he must be at. he appointed me master of the sloop. that she sailed very slow. he would enter into any engagement to follow my advice. notwithstanding my past misfortunes. while he transacted his affairs at Tonquin. and setting guard upon us. made me a visit. George the 11th of April. The only difficulty that remained. whereof three were of the country. We were boarded about the same time by both the pirates. We set out the 5th day of August. and gave me power to traffic. when a great storm arising. We staid there three weeks to refresh our crew. "that he intended a voyage to the East Indies in two months. many of whom were sick. to be surgeon of the ship. for my sloop was so deep laden. loaded it with several sorts of goods. and putting fourteen men on board. he bought a sloop. they pinioned us with strong ropes. Upon the tenth day we were chased by two pirates. where the captain resolved to continue some time. continuing as violent as ever. for nothing passed more than what is usual after long absences. 1706. and arrived at Fort St. beside our two mates. expressing his joy to find I me in good health. that my salary should be double to the usual pay. who soon overtook us. 1707. . "that I should have another surgeon under me. whose consent however I at last obtained. went to search the sloop. was to persuade my wife. "whether I were now settled for life?" adding. but still with a pretty strong gale from the west. and I knew him to be so honest a man. we were driven five days to the north-north-east. wherewith the Tonquinese usually trade to the neighbouring islands. But repeating his visits often. and. neither were we in a condition to defend as much as if I had shared in the command. because many of the goods he intended to buy were not ready. but finding us all prostrate upon our faces (for so I gave order). nor could he expect to be dispatched in several months." at last he plainly invited me. as I apprehended only out of friendship.

turning to the Dutchman. He came up to me. I told him who we were. I kindled some heath and dry sea-weed. spoke with great vehemence in the Japanese language. of neighbouring countries in strict alliance. by my pocket-glass. prevailed so far. As to myself.I observed among them a Dutchman. and would permit no man to search me. and then. The largest of the two pirate ships was commanded by a Japanese captain. as to have a punishment inflicted on me. with a design to reach the nearest of those islands. and begged him. said. as I suppose. while the Dutchman. with paddles and a sail. strewing some heath under me. and jabbering to us in his own language. I ate no other supper. I got down into the canoe. he repeated his threatenings. and found we were in the latitude of 46 N. and turning to his companions. that he would move the captains to take some pity on us. which I made a shift to do. than in a brother christian. My men were sent by an equal division into both the pirate ships. I discovered. having often endeavoured in vain to persuade both the captains that I might be thrown into the sea (which they would not yield to. in consideration of our being Christians and Protestants. and my sloop new manned. and longitude of 183. but very imperfectly. . It was all rocky: however I got many birds' eggs. This inflamed his rage. swore we should be tied back to back and thrown into the sea. and after several questions. About an hour before we saw the pirates I had taken an observation. When I was at some distance from the pirates. I spoken Dutch tolerably well. which last. the Japanese captain was so kind to double out of his own stores. in all human appearance. who spoke a little Dutch. after the promise made me that I should not die). than death itself. he said." But I had soon reason to repent those foolish words: for that malicious reprobate. it was determined that I should be set adrift in a small canoe. I passed the night under the shelter of a rock. though he was not commander of either ship. often using the word Christianos. loaded me with all the curses and injurious terms his language could afford. in about three hours. worse. striking fire. and four days' provisions. and slept pretty well. He knew us by our countenances to be Englishmen. however. "we should not die. "I was sorry to find more mercy in a heathen. the wind being fair. which I answered in great humility. and." I made the captain a very low bow. who seemed to be of some authority. standing upon the deck. by which I roasted my eggs. I set up my sail. being resolved to spare my provisions as much as I could. several islands to the south-east.

which was a small creek. and got a quantity of dry sea-weed. I lay all night in the cave where I had lodged my provisions. from the reflection of the sea below. I encompassed it almost round. let it suffice. that I had not the heart to rise. but what those people where doing I was not able to distinguish. some way . which appeared to be sloping. I slept very little. As it approached nearer over the place where I was. I stood upon a height about two hundred yards from the shore. and I did not reach it in less than five hours. and the sun so hot. sometimes using my sail. and sweet-smelling herbs. I walked awhile among the rocks: the sky was perfectly clear. I considered how impossible it was to preserve my life in so desolate a place. which lay south-south-east to the former. and perceived a vast opaque body between me and the sun moving forwards towards the island: it seemed to be about two miles high. the bottom flat. I took out my pocket perspective. and how miserable my end must be: yet found myself so listless and desponding. and shining very bright. The natural love of life gave me some inward motion of joy. and before I could get spirits enough to creep out of my cave. but I did not observe the air to be much colder. and I was ready to entertain a hope that this adventure might. I found the island to be all rocky. about three times the wideness of my canoe. This island was at a greater distance than I expected. match. steel. smooth. I gathered plenty of eggs upon the rocks. it appeared to be a firm substance.The next day I sailed to another island. and parched grass. and hid the sun six or seven minutes. or the sky more darkened. which I designed to kindle the next day. and roast my eggs as well as I could. and kept me awake. that on the fifth day I arrived at the last island in my sight. I secured the remainder in a cave. and thence to a third and fourth. and burning-glass. and could plainly discover numbers of people moving up and down the sides of it. before I could find a convenient place to land in. in a manner very different from what happens by the interposition of a cloud. for I had about me my flint. the day was far advanced. and sometimes my paddles. as I thought. whereof there were great numbers. not to trouble the reader with a particular account of my distresses. for the disquiets of my mind prevailed over my weariness. that I was forced to turn my face from it: when all on a sudden it became obscure. at less than an English mile distance. than if I had stood under the shade of a mountain. My bed was the same dry grass and sea-weed which I intended for fuel. and saw this vast body descending almost to a parallel with me. only a little intermingled with tufts of grass. I turned back. I took out my small provisions and after having refreshed myself. But.

which I accordingly did. They made signs for me to come down from the rock. and was drawn up by pulleys. But I could see four or five men running in great haste. although they made no return to my shouting. The number of people increased. hoping at least that the cadence might be more agreeable to his ears. to which I fixed myself. as they pleased. and others looking on. not unlike in sound to the Italian: and therefore I returned an answer in that language. with a seat fastened to the bottom. it advanced nearer. polite. to descend from one to the other. at certain intervals. that they plainly discovered me. But not being at that time in a disposition to philosophise upon this phenomenon. and go towards the shore. They conferred earnestly with each other. a chain was let down from the lowest gallery. I rather chose to observe what course the island would take. inhabited by men. yet my meaning was easily known. or put it into progressive motion. to the top of the island. who then disappeared. as I supposed by their habit. and. but received no answer. I beheld some people fishing with long angling rods. and spoke in the humblest accent. that these were sent for orders to some person in authority upon this occasion. and stairs. and then looking circumspectly. that the lowest gallery appeared in a parallel of less then a hundred yards distance from the height where I stood. Although neither of us understood the other. But at the same time the reader can hardly conceive my astonishment. I then put myself in the most supplicating posture. Yet soon after. for the people saw the distress I was in. Those who stood nearest over against me. seemed to be persons of distinction. At length one of them called out in a clear. and I could see the sides of it encompassed with several gradations of galleries. I waved my cap (for my hat was long since worn out) and my handkerchief toward the island. in less than half all hour. help to deliver me from the desolate place and condition I was in. . the verge directly over me. looking often upon me. who were able (as it should seem) to raise or sink. and upon its nearer approach. I beheld a crowd gather to that side which was most in my view.or other. In the lowest gallery. the island was moved and raised in such a manner. smooth dialect. I found by their pointing towards me and to each other. I called and shouted with the utmost strength of my voice. I happened rightly to conjecture. because it seemed for awhile to stand still. up the stairs. and the flying island being raised to a convenient height. to behold an island in the air.

The inhabitants subject to fear and disquietudes. and upon occasion to give him a soft flap on his eyes. but those who stood nearest seemed to be of better quality. An account of the women. and the right ear of him or them to whom the speaker addresses himself. and in the streets. or being justled himself into the kennel. they now and then flapped the mouths and ears of those who stood near them. The author's reception there. and the other directly up to the zenith. of which practice I could not then conceive the meaning. It was necessary to give the reader this information. It seems the minds of these people are so taken up with intense speculations. without him. because he is always so wrapped up in cogitation. or little pebbles.] At my alighting. harpsichords. guitars. fastened like a flail to the end of a stick. nor attend to the discourses of others. interwoven with those of fiddles. many in the habit of servants. or the left. unknown to us in Europe. either to the right. moons. with a blown bladder. or more persons are in company. And the business of this officer is. and many other instruments of music. [The humours and dispositions of the Laputians described. neither indeed was I much in their debt. Their heads were all reclined. as I was afterwards informed. They beheld me with all the marks and circumstances of wonder. With these bladders. Their outward garments were adorned with the figures of suns.CHAPTER II. that they neither can speak. I was surrounded with a crowd of people. habits. three. In each bladder was a small quantity of dried peas. which they carried in their hands. This flapper is likewise employed diligently to attend his master in his walks. harps. when two. one of their eyes turned inward. without which he would be at the same loss with me to understand the proceedings of these people. trumpets. or make visits. flutes. nor ever walk abroad. I observed. for which reason. and bouncing his head against every post. as they conducted me up the stairs to the top of . having never till then seen a race of mortals so singular in their shapes. gently to strike with his bladder the mouth of him who is to speak. as one of their domestics. An account of their learning. without being roused by some external taction upon the organs of speech and hearing. here and there. and countenances. of justling others. those persons who are able to afford it always keep a flapper (the original is climenole) in their family. and stars. Of the king and his court. that he is in manifest danger of falling down every precipice.

and proceeded into the chamber of presence. gave his majesty. In the first course. and flapped me gently on the right ear. I made bold to ask the names of several things in their language. and a breast of veal in the shape of a harp. delighted to give me answers. although our entrance was not without sufficient noise. that I had no occasion for such an instrument. as far as I could conjecture. and the whole court. and from thence to the royal palace. at which he startled like one awaked on the sudden. cylinders. and looking towards me and the company I was in. where two servants were appointed to attend me. My dinner was brought. a young page with flaps in their hands. and several other mathematical figures. on each side. We had two courses. and the other his right ear. as well as I could. and a pudding into a cycloid. before he could solve it. a very mean opinion of my understanding. attended on each side by persons of prime quality. parallelograms. was a large table filled with globes and spheres. whereupon immediately a young man with a flap came up to my side. hoping . The servants cut our bread into cones.the island. one of them gently struck his mouth. as I afterwards found. and left me to myself. But he was then deep in a problem. whereof he had been informed before. a piece of beef into a rhomboides. While we were at dinner. for they appeared altogether unmoved by the sight of my foreign habit and countenance. till their memories were again roused by their flappers. and four persons of quality. they forgot several times what they were about. whom I remembered to have seen very near the king's person. did me the honour to dine with me. of three dishes each. and I addressed myself to him in all the languages I had. and when they saw he was at leisure. asked me several questions. but I made signs. sausages and puddings resembling flutes and hautboys. His majesty took not the least notice of us. recollected the occasion of our coming. Before the throne. and we attended at least an hour. He spoke some words. At last we entered the palace. When it was found I could neither understand nor be understood. and by the shouts of the vulgar. The king. where I saw the king seated on his throne. there was a shoulder of mutton cut into an equilateral triangle. There stood by him. While we were ascending. The second course was two ducks trussed up in the form of fiddles. and those noble persons. whose thoughts and minds were more disengaged. by the assistance of their flappers. by the concourse of all persons belonging to the court. I was conducted by his order to an apartment in his palace (this prince being distinguished above all his predecessors for his hospitality to strangers). and mathematical instruments of all kinds. which.

moon. the zodiac. ink. that Laputa was quasi lap outed. But my comfort was. I shall not obtrude. or whatever else I raise my admiration of their great abilities if I could be brought to converse with them. or walk. all which he entered upon paper. I ventured to offer to the learned among them a conjecture of my own. and paper. in a few days. I got some insight into their language. to make a bow. After he had left me. After dinner my company withdrew. The word. During my confinement for want of clothes. together with the denominations of many plains and solids. and take measure for a suit of clothes. signifies high. a wing. for my tutor would order one of my servants to fetch something. I was soon able to call for bread and drink. by corruption. in the old obsolete language. by the help of a very faithful memory. Lap. that he was sent to teach me the language. was derived Laputa. He brought with him pen. and when I went next to court. But I do not approve of this derivation. and little regarded. signifying properly. the dancing of the sunbeams in the sea. and in six days brought my clothes very ill made. Those to whom the king had entrusted me. in one of his books. in alphabetical order. He first took my altitude by a quadrant. which seems to be a little strained. to sit. I much enlarged my dictionary. the figures of the sun. or to stand. but submit to the judicious reader. which I interpret the flying or floating island. and outed. We sat together four hours. and a person was sent to me by the king's order. and polar circles. a governor. And thus. and the general terms of art in playing on each of them. and untuh. and the like. however. and quite out of shape. I placed all my words. that I observed such accidents very frequent. by happening to mistake a figure in the calculation. He gave me the names and descriptions of all the musical instruments. and then. to turn about. lap. and stars. in which time I wrote down a great number of words in columns. observing how ill I was clad. with the translations over against them. was able to understand many things the . is in the original Laputa. ordered a tailor to come next morning. He showed me also. with their interpretations. and three or four books. whereof I could never learn the true etymology. described the dimensions and outlines of my whole body. with a rule and compasses. This operator did his office after a different manner from those of his trade in Europe. I likewise made a shift to learn several short sentences. from which they say. and by an indisposition that held me some days longer. Then I took down the sentence in writing. attended by a flapper. which. the tropics. giving me to understand by signs. from Lapuntuh.

those instructions they give being too refined for the intellects of their workmen. they describe it by rhombs. and to return him some kind of answers. which mounted up directly. and the divider. which depended much upon that science. praise the beauty of a woman. parallelograms. or any other animal. Their ideas are perpetually conversant in lines and figures. It was about ninety leagues distant. having prepared all their musical instruments. the king himself in person. His majesty had given orders. ellipses. in whatever instrument they most excelled. The knowledge I had in mathematics. and other geometrical terms. If they would. Their houses are very ill built.king spoke. the people of their island had their ears adapted to hear "the music of the spheres. which they despise as vulgar and mechanic. to the vertical point over Lagado. in the management of the rule. the pencil. He said that. and music. about eleven o'clock. On the second morning. neither could I possibly guess the meaning. courtiers. gave me great assistance in acquiring their phraseology. several packthreads were let down. the capital city. and the court was now prepared to bear their part. till my tutor informed me. and this defect arises from the contempt they bear to practical geometry. with small weights at the bottom. Sometimes we received wine and victuals from below. that the island should move north-east and by east. And to this purpose. without one right angle in any apartment. I was not in the least sensible of the progressive motion made in the air by the island. or by words of art drawn from music. for example. so that I was quite stunned with the noise. needless here to repeat." In our journey towards Lagado. the walls bevil. I have not seen a more . from whence he might receive the petitions of his subjects. his majesty ordered that the island should stop over certain towns and villages. circles. which were drawn up by pulleys. attended by his nobility. which always played at certain periods. the metropolis of the whole kingdom below. yet in the common actions and behaviour of life. upon the firm earth. after the figures of which they cut up the joints that were served to his majesty's table. played on them for three hours without intermission. which occasions perpetual mistakes. I observed in the king's kitchen all sorts of mathematical and musical instruments. and officers. On these packthreads the people strung their petitions. And although they are dexterous enough upon a piece of paper. like the scraps of paper fastened by school boys at the end of the string that holds their kite. and our voyage lasted four days and a half. and in the latter I was not unskilled.

they are wholly strangers to. and unhandy people. perpetually inquiring into public affairs. Imagination. and for which we are least adapted by study or nature. have great faith in judicial astrology. and in its absence from the sun.clumsy. although they are ashamed to own it publicly. therefore the regulation and management of the world require no more abilities than the handling and turning of a globe. unless those people suppose. which they have calculated for one-and-thirty years hence. awkward. Most of them. in course of time. the whole compass of their thoughts and mind being shut up within the two forementioned sciences. and especially those who deal in the astronomical part. by the continual approaches of the sun towards it. and thought altogether unaccountable. and invention. I have indeed observed the same disposition among most of the mathematicians I have known in Europe. fancy. They are very bad reasoners. and their disturbances proceed from causes which very little affect the rest of mortals. Their apprehensions arise from several changes they dread in the celestial bodies: for instance. will. But what I chiefly admired. but I rather take this quality to spring from a very common infirmity of human nature. which is seldom their case. and vehemently given to opposition. nor so slow and perplexed in their conceptions upon all other subjects. unless when they happen to be of the right opinion. that the earth. be absorbed. except those of mathematics and music. and passionately disputing every inch of a party opinion. by degrees. which would have infallibly re duced it to ashes. and give no more light to the world. that the earth very narrowly escaped a brush from the tail of the last comet. nor have any words in their language. For if. or swallowed up. by which those ideas can be expressed. although I could never discover the least analogy between the two sciences. never enjoying a minutes peace of mind. giving their judgments in matters of state. in its perihelion. will probably destroy us. be encrusted with its own effluvia. that the face of the sun. carry a blazing tail ten hundred thousand and . These people are under continual disquietudes. and that the next. must. was the strong disposition I observed in them towards news and politics. that because the smallest circle has as many degrees as the largest. it should approach within a certain degree of the sun (as by their calculations they have reason to dread) it will receive a degree of heat ten thousand times more intense than that of red hot glowing iron. inclining us to be most curious and conceited in matters where we have least concern.

and this is not easy to be obtained. it must in its passage be set on fire. The wives and daughters lament their confinement to the island. and the like impending dangers. They are so perpetually alarmed with the apprehensions of these. a very graceful person. The women of the island have abundance of vivacity: they. till the king sent a warrant to search for her. extremely fond of her. which they are not allowed to do without a particular license from the king. and she was found in an obscure eating-house all in . that they act with too much ease and security. or their own particular occasions. for the husband is always so rapt in speculation. and of all the planets that receive their light from it. through which. attending at court. if he be but provided with paper and implements. will at last be wholly consumed and annihilated. and dare not go to bed for fear. because the people of quality have found.--is married to the prime minister. but are much despised.--went down to Lagado on the pretence of health. When they meet an acquaintance in the morning. which must be attended with the destruction of this earth. because they want the same endowments. nor have any relish for the common pleasures and amusements of life. I was told that a great court lady. or main body of the comet. how hard it is to persuade their women to return from below. how he looked at his setting and rising. they long to see the world. and what hopes they have to avoid the stroke of the approaching comet. and without his flapper at his side. Among these the ladies choose their gallants: but the vexation is. contemn their husbands. whereof there is always a considerable number from the continent below. that they can neither sleep quietly in their beds. daily spending its rays without any nutriment to supply them. the richest subject in the kingdom. which they greedily listen to.fourteen miles long. and although they live here in the greatest plenty and magnificence. and lives in the finest palace of the island. and reduced to ashes: that the sun. who had several children. either upon affairs of the several towns and corporations. there hid herself for several months. and are allowed to do whatever they please. and are exceedingly fond of strangers. and take the diversions of the metropolis. that the mistress and lover may proceed to the greatest familiarities before his face. although I think it the most delicious spot of ground in the world. by frequent experience. if the earth should pass at the distance of one hundred thousand miles from the nucleus. This conversation they are apt to run into with the same temper that boys discover in delighting to hear terrible stories of spirits and hobgoblins. the first question is about the sun's health.

its diameter 7837 yards. The flying or floating island is exactly circular. [A phenomenon solved by modern philosophy and astronomy. It is three hundred yards thick. in art or in nature. to what cause. and in whose company she was taken. much against her will. or about four miles and a half. And although her husband received her with all possible kindness. and ordered my tutor to attend me. or under surface. government. The declivity of the upper surface. and was able to answer most of the king's questions. The king's method of suppressing insurrections. which he was graciously pleased to grant. she soon after contrived to steal down again. than for one of a country so remote. CHAPTER III. I had made a tolerable proficiency in their language. that the caprices of womankind are not limited by any climate or nation. This may perhaps pass with the reader rather for an European or English story.rags. than can be easily imagined. and consequently contains ten thousand acres. But he may please to consider. or manners of the countries where I had been. The Laputians' great improvements in the latter. who beat her every day. and without the least reproach. from the . His majesty discovered not the least curiosity to inquire into the laws. is one even regular plate of adamant. and that they are much more uniform. whereof I will now give a philosophical account to the reader. though often roused by his flapper on each side. shooting up to the height of about two hundred yards. I chiefly wanted to know. and over all is a coat of rich mould.] I desired leave of this prince to see the curiosities of the island. history. to the same gallant. religion. but confined his questions to the state of mathematics. The bottom. it owed its several motions. when I had the honour to attend him. and received the account I gave him with great contempt and indifference. which appears to those who view it below. with all her jewels. In about a month's time. and has not been heard of since. ten or twelve feet deep. having pawned her clothes to maintain an old deformed footman. Above it lie the several minerals in their usual order.

circumference to the centre, is the natural cause why all the dews and rains, which fall upon the island, are conveyed in small rivulets toward the middle, where they are emptied into four large basins, each of about half a mile in circuit, and two hundred yards distant from the centre. From these basins the water is continually exhaled by the sun in the daytime, which effectually prevents their overflowing. Besides, as it is in the power of the monarch to raise the island above the region of clouds and vapours, he can prevent the falling of dews and rain whenever he pleases. For the highest clouds cannot rise above two miles, as naturalists agree, at least they were never known to do so in that country. At the centre of the island there is a chasm about fifty yards in diameter, whence the astronomers descend into a large dome, which is therefore called flandona gagnole, or the astronomer's cave, situated at the depth of a hundred yards beneath the upper surface of the adamant. In this cave are twenty lamps continually burning, which, from the reflection of the adamant, cast a strong light into every part. The place is stored with great variety of sextants, quadrants, telescopes, astrolabes, and other astronomical instruments. But the greatest curiosity, upon which the fate of the island depends, is a loadstone of a prodigious size, in shape resembling a weaver's shuttle. It is in length six yards, and in the thickest part at least three yards over. This magnet is sustained by a very strong axle of adamant passing through its middle, upon which it plays, and is poised so exactly that the weakest hand can turn it. It is hooped round with a hollow cylinder of adamant, four feet yards in diameter, placed horizontally, and supported by eight adamantine feet, each six yards high. In the middle of the concave side, there is a groove twelve inches deep, in which the extremities of the axle are lodged, and turned round as there is occasion. The stone cannot be removed from its place by any force, because the hoop and its feet are one continued piece with that body of adamant which constitutes the bottom of the island. By means of this loadstone, the island is made to rise and fall, and move from one place to another. For, with respect to that part of the earth over which the monarch presides, the stone is endued at one of its sides with an attractive power, and at the other with a repulsive. Upon placing the magnet erect, with its attracting end towards the earth, the island descends; but when the repelling extremity points downwards, the island mounts directly upwards. When the position of the stone is oblique, the motion of the island is so too: for in this magnet, the forces always act in lines

parallel to its direction. By this oblique motion, the island is conveyed to different parts of the monarch's dominions. To explain the manner of its progress, let A B represent a line drawn across the dominions of Balnibarbi, let the line c d represent the loadstone, of which let d be the repelling end, and c the attracting end, the island being over C: let the stone be placed in position c d, with its repelling end downwards; then the island will be driven upwards obliquely towards D. When it is arrived at D, let the stone be turned upon its axle, till its attracting end points towards E, and then the island will be carried obliquely towards E; where, if the stone be again turned upon its axle till it stands in the position E F, with its repelling point downwards, the island will rise obliquely towards F, where, by directing the attracting end towards G, the island may be carried to G, and from G to H, by turning the stone, so as to make its repelling extremity to point directly downward. And thus, by changing the situation of the stone, as often as there is occasion, the island is made to rise and fall by turns in an oblique direction, and by those alternate risings and fallings (the obliquity being not considerable) is conveyed from one part of the dominions to the other. But it must be observed, that this island cannot move beyond the extent of the dominions below, nor can it rise above the height of four miles. For which the astronomers (who have written large systems concerning the stone) assign the following reason: that the magnetic virtue does not extend beyond the distance of four miles, and that the mineral, which acts upon the stone in the bowels of the earth, and in the sea about six leagues distant from the shore, is not diffused through the whole globe, but terminated with the limits of the king's dominions; and it was easy, from the great advantage of such a superior situation, for a prince to bring under his obedience whatever country lay within the attraction of that magnet. When the stone is put parallel to the plane of the horizon, the island stands still; for in that case the extremities of it, being at equal distance from the earth, act with equal force, the one in drawing downwards, the other in pushing upwards, and consequently no motion can ensue. This loadstone is under the care of certain astronomers, who, from time to time, give it such positions as the monarch directs. They spend the greatest part of their lives in observing the celestial bodies, which they do by the assistance of glasses, far excelling

ours in goodness. For, although their largest telescopes do not exceed three feet, they magnify much more than those of a hundred with us, and show the stars with greater clearness. This advantage has enabled them to extend their discoveries much further than our astronomers in Europe; for they have made a catalogue of ten thousand fixed stars, whereas the largest of ours do not contain above one third part of that number. They have likewise discovered two lesser stars, or satellites, which revolve about Mars; whereof the innermost is distant from the centre of the primary planet exactly three of his diameters, and the outermost, five; the former revolves in the space of ten hours, and the latter in twenty-one and a half; so that the squares of their periodical times are very near in the same proportion with the cubes of their distance from the centre of Mars; which evidently shows them to be governed by the same law of gravitation that influences the other heavenly bodies. They have observed ninety-three different comets, and settled their periods with great exactness. If this be true (and they affirm it with great confidence) it is much to be wished, that their observations were made public, whereby the theory of comets, which at present is very lame and defective, might be brought to the same perfection with other arts of astronomy. The king would be the most absolute prince in the universe, if he could but prevail on a ministry to join with him; but these having their estates below on the continent, and considering that the office of a favourite has a very uncertain tenure, would never consent to the enslaving of their country. If any town should engage in rebellion or mutiny, fall into violent factions, or refuse to pay the usual tribute, the king has two methods of reducing them to obedience. The first and the mildest course is, by keeping the island hovering over such a town, and the lands about it, whereby he can deprive them of the benefit of the sun and the rain, and consequently afflict the inhabitants with dearth and diseases: and if the crime deserve it, they are at the same time pelted from above with great stones, against which they have no defence but by creeping into cellars or caves, while the roofs of their houses are beaten to pieces. But if they still continue obstinate, or offer to raise insurrections, he proceeds to the last remedy, by letting the island drop directly upon their heads, which makes a universal destruction both of houses and men. However, this is an extremity to which the prince is seldom driven, neither indeed is he willing to put it in execution; nor dare his ministers advise him to an action, which, as it would render them

odious to the people, so it would be a great damage to their own estates, which all lie below; for the island is the king's demesne. But there is still indeed a more weighty reason, why the kings of this country have been always averse from executing so terrible an action, unless upon the utmost necessity. For, if the town intended to be destroyed should have in it any tall rocks, as it generally falls out in the larger cities, a situation probably chosen at first with a view to prevent such a catastrophe; or if it abound in high spires, or pillars of stone, a sudden fall might endanger the bottom or under surface of the island, which, although it consist, as I have said, of one entire adamant, two hundred yards thick, might happen to crack by too great a shock, or burst by approaching too near the fires from the houses below, as the backs, both of iron and stone, will often do in our chimneys. Of all this the people are well apprised, and understand how far to carry their obstinacy, where their liberty or property is concerned. And the king, when he is highest provoked, and most determined to press a city to rubbish, orders the island to descend with great gentleness, out of a pretence of tenderness to his people, but, indeed, for fear of breaking the adamantine bottom; in which case, it is the opinion of all their philosophers, that the loadstone could no longer hold it up, and the whole mass would fall to the ground. By a fundamental law of this realm, neither the king, nor either of his two eldest sons, are permitted to leave the island; nor the queen, till she is past child-bearing.


[The author leaves Laputa; is conveyed to Balnibarbi; arrives at the metropolis. A description of the metropolis, and the country adjoining. The author hospitably received by a great lord. His conversation with that lord.] Although I cannot say that I was ill treated in this island, yet I must confess I thought myself too much neglected, not without some degree of contempt; for neither prince nor people appeared to be curious in any part of knowledge, except mathematics and music, wherein I was far their inferior, and upon that account very little regarded.

He had performed many eminent services for the crown. I refused. as much more. by which. his kinsman. He listened to me with great attention. and made very wise observations on all I spoke. I rendered myself extremely contemptible. at the same time. yet these were the only people from whom I could ever receive a reasonable answer. however. There was a great lord at court. "he had been often known to beat time in the wrong place. after having seen all the curiosities of the island. being heartily weary of those people. He had two flappers attending him for state. tradesmen. the laws and customs. the manners and learning of the several countries where I had travelled. On the 16th of February I took leave of his majesty and the court. and court-pages. without extreme difficulty. but. together with a letter of recommendation to a friend of his in Lagado. at last. The king made me a present to the value of about two hundred pounds English. I entreated this illustrious person. the metropolis. The island being then hovering over a mountain about . except at court and in visits of ceremony. I was very desirous to leave it. and resolved to leave it with the first opportunity. and wherein I am not unversed. flappers. but never made use of them. desired to be informed in the affairs of Europe. He was pleased to show me many marks of favour.On the other side. a good degree of knowledge in their language: I was weary of being confined to an island where I received so little countenance. He was universally reckoned the most ignorant and stupid person among them." neither could his tutors. so abstracted and involved in speculation. with expressions of the highest acknowledgment. as he was pleased to tell me. adorned with integrity and honour. They were indeed excellent in two sciences for which I have great esteem. that his detractors reported. and my protector. which. I had obtained. often did me the honour of a visit. nearly related to the king. to intercede in my behalf with his majesty. but so ill an ear for music. and would always command them to withdraw. I conversed only with women. had great natural and acquired parts. and for that reason alone used with respect. during two months of my abode there. teach him to demonstrate the most easy proposition in the mathematics. for leave to depart. which he accordingly did. by hard study. with regret: for indeed he had made me several offers very advantageous. when we were alone together. that I never met with such disagreeable companions.

two miles from it, I was let down from the lowest gallery, in the same manner as I had been taken up. The continent, as far as it is subject to the monarch of the flying island, passes under the general name of Balnibarbi; and the metropolis, as I said before, is called Lagado. I felt some little satisfaction in finding myself on firm ground. I walked to the city without any concern, being clad like one of the natives, and sufficiently instructed to converse with them. I soon found out the person's house to whom I was recommended, presented my letter from his friend the grandee in the island, and was received with much kindness. This great lord, whose name was Munodi, ordered me an apartment in his own house, where I continued during my stay, and was entertained in a most hospitable manner. The next morning after my arrival, he took me in his chariot to see the town, which is about half the bigness of London; but the houses very strangely built, and most of them out of repair. The people in the streets walked fast, looked wild, their eyes fixed, and were generally in rags. We passed through one of the town gates, and went about three miles into the country, where I saw many labourers working with several sorts of tools in the ground, but was not able to conjecture what they were about: neither did observe any expectation either of corn or grass, although the soil appeared to be excellent. I could not forbear admiring at these odd appearances, both in town and country; and I made bold to desire my conductor, that he would be pleased to explain to me, what could be meant by so many busy heads, hands, and faces, both in the streets and the fields, because I did not discover any good effects they produced; but, on the contrary, I never knew a soil so unhappily cultivated, houses so ill contrived and so ruinous, or a people whose countenances and habit expressed so much misery and want. This lord Munodi was a person of the first rank, and had been some years governor of Lagado; but, by a cabal of ministers, was discharged for insufficiency. However, the king treated him with tenderness, as a well-meaning man, but of a low contemptible understanding. When I gave that free censure of the country and its inhabitants, he made no further answer than by telling me, "that I had not been long enough among them to form a judgment; and that the different nations of the world had different customs;" with other common topics to the same purpose. But, when we returned to his palace, he asked me "how I liked the building, what absurdities I observed, and what quarrel I had with the dress or looks of his domestics?"

This he might safely do; because every thing about him was magnificent, regular, and polite. I answered, "that his excellency's prudence, quality, and fortune, had exempted him from those defects, which folly and beggary had produced in others." He said, "if I would go with him to his country-house, about twenty miles distant, where his estate lay, there would be more leisure for this kind of conversation." I told his excellency "that I was entirely at his disposal;" and accordingly we set out next morning. During our journey he made me observe the several methods used by farmers in managing their lands, which to me were wholly unaccountable; for, except in some very few places, I could not discover one ear of corn or blade of grass. But, in three hours travelling, the scene was wholly altered; we came into a most beautiful country; farmers' houses, at small distances, neatly built; the fields enclosed, containing vineyards, corn-grounds, and meadows. Neither do I remember to have seen a more delightful prospect. His excellency observed my countenance to clear up; he told me, with a sigh, "that there his estate began, and would continue the same, till we should come to his house: that his countrymen ridiculed and despised him, for managing his affairs no better, and for setting so ill an example to the kingdom; which, however, was followed by very few, such as were old, and wilful, and weak like himself." We came at length to the house, which was indeed a noble structure, built according to the best rules of ancient architecture. The fountains, gardens, walks, avenues, and groves, were all disposed with exact judgment and taste. I gave due praises to every thing I saw, whereof his excellency took not the least notice till after supper; when, there being no third companion, he told me with a very melancholy air "that he doubted he must throw down his houses in town and country, to rebuild them after the present mode; destroy all his plantations, and cast others into such a form as modern usage required, and give the same directions to all his tenants, unless he would submit to incur the censure of pride, singularity, affectation, ignorance, caprice, and perhaps increase his majesty's displeasure; that the admiration I appeared to be under would cease or diminish, when he had informed me of some particulars which, probably, I never heard of at court, the people there being too much taken up in their own speculations, to have regard to what passed here below." The sum of his discourse was to this effect: "That about forty years ago, certain persons went up to Laputa, either upon business or diversion, and, after five months continuance, came back with a

very little smattering in mathematics, but full of volatile spirits acquired in that airy region: that these persons, upon their return, began to dislike the management of every thing below, and fell into schemes of putting all arts, sciences, languages, and mechanics, upon a new foot. To this end, they procured a royal patent for erecting an academy of projectors in Lagado; and the humour prevailed so strongly among the people, that there is not a town of any consequence in the kingdom without such an academy. In these colleges the professors contrive new rules and methods of agriculture and building, and new instruments, and tools for all trades and manufactures; whereby, as they undertake, one man shall do the work of ten; a palace may be built in a week, of materials so durable as to last for ever without repairing. All the fruits of the earth shall come to maturity at whatever season we think fit to choose, and increase a hundred fold more than they do at present; with innumerable other happy proposals. The only inconvenience is, that none of these projects are yet brought to perfection; and in the mean time, the whole country lies miserably waste, the houses in ruins, and the people without food or clothes. By all which, instead of being discouraged, they are fifty times more violently bent upon prosecuting their schemes, driven equally on by hope and despair: that as for himself, being not of an enterprising spirit, he was content to go on in the old forms, to live in the houses his ancestors had built, and act as they did, in every part of life, without innovation: that some few other persons of quality and gentry had done the same, but were looked on with an eye of contempt and ill-will, as enemies to art, ignorant, and ill common-wealth's men, preferring their own ease and sloth before the general improvement of their country." His lordship added, "That he would not, by any further particulars, prevent the pleasure I should certainly take in viewing the grand academy, whither he was resolved I should go." He only desired me to observe a ruined building, upon the side of a mountain about three miles distant, of which he gave me this account: "That he had a very convenient mill within half a mile of his house, turned by a current from a large river, and sufficient for his own family, as well as a great number of his tenants; that about seven years ago, a club of those projectors came to him with proposals to destroy this mill, and build another on the side of that mountain, on the long ridge whereof a long canal must be cut, for a repository of water, to be conveyed up by pipes and engines to supply the mill, because the wind and air upon a height agitated the water, and thereby made it fitter for motion, and because the water, descending down a declivity, would turn the mill with half the current of a river whose course is more upon a level." He

said, "that being then not very well with the court, and pressed by many of his friends, he complied with the proposal; and after employing a hundred men for two years, the work miscarried, the projectors went off, laying the blame entirely upon him, railing at him ever since, and putting others upon the same experiment, with equal assurance of success, as well as equal disappointment." In a few days we came back to town; and his excellency, considering the bad character he had in the academy, would not go with me himself, but recommended me to a friend of his, to bear me company thither. My lord was pleased to represent me as a great admirer of projects, and a person of much curiosity and easy belief; which, indeed, was not without truth; for I had myself been a sort of projector in my younger days.


[The author permitted to see the grand academy of Lagado. The academy largely described. The arts wherein the professors employ themselves.] This academy is not an entire single building, but a continuation of several houses on both sides of a street, which growing waste, was purchased and applied to that use. I was received very kindly by the warden, and went for many days to the academy. Every room has in it one or more projectors; and I believe I could not be in fewer than five hundred rooms. The first man I saw was of a meagre aspect, with sooty hands and face, his hair and beard long, ragged, and singed in several places. His clothes, shirt, and skin, were all of the same colour. He has been eight years upon a project for extracting sunbeams out of cucumbers, which were to be put in phials hermetically sealed, and let out to warm the air in raw inclement summers. He told me, he did not doubt, that, in eight years more, he should be able to supply the governor's gardens with sunshine, at a reasonable rate: but he complained that his stock was low, and entreated me "to give him something as an encouragement to ingenuity, especially since this had been a very dear season for cucumbers." I made him a small present, for my lord had furnished me with money on purpose, because he knew their practice of begging from all who go to see

The projector of this cell was the most ancient student of the academy. My conductor pressed me forward. and labour. at the same time manuring it with their dung: it is true. who had contrived a new method for building houses. and make it fit for sowing. and scumming off the saliva. In another apartment I was highly pleased with a projector who had found a device of ploughing the ground with hogs. his hands and clothes daubed over with filth. This artist is much encouraged and esteemed by the whole fraternity. and the professor himself happened to be generally mistaken. dates. of a vessel filled with human ordure. I saw another at work to calcine ice into gunpowder.them. His employment. who likewise showed me a treatise he had written concerning the malleability of fire. and they had little or no crop. who had several apprentices in his own condition: their employment was to mix colours for painters. they found the charge and trouble very great. and working downward to the foundation. I went into another chamber. about the bigness of a Bristol barrel. cattle. He had a weekly allowance. was an operation to reduce human excrement to its original food. they will root up the whole ground in search of their food. to save the charges of ploughs. which he justified to me." and therefore I durst not so much as stop my nose. When I was presented to him. whereof these animals are fondest. There was a man born blind. from the society. the bee and the spider. a quantity of acorns. upon experiment. and other mast or vegetables. removing the tincture which it receives from the gall. that this . where. which would be highly resented. he gave me a close embrace. from his first coming into the academy. by beginning at the roof. It was indeed my misfortune to find them at that time not very perfect in their lessons. making the odour exhale. The method is this: in an acre of ground you bury. which he intended to publish. However it is not doubted. which their master taught them to distinguish by feeling and smelling. but was ready to hasten back. chestnuts. his face and beard were of a pale yellow. being almost overcome with a horrible stink. by the like practice of those two prudent insects. a compliment I could well have excused. by separating the several parts. in a few days. conjuring me in a whisper "to give no offence. There was a most ingenious architect. then you drive six hundred or more of them into the field. at six inches distance and eight deep.

He had a large pair of bellows. by contrary operations from the same instrument. clapping his thumb strongly against the orifice of then fundament. and made so violent a discharge as was very offensive to me and my companion. which he discharged into the body of the patient. assuring us "that the webs would take a tincture from them. I went into another room. except a narrow passage for the artist to go in and out. as well as spin. and the patient recovered." He lamented "the fatal mistake the world had been so long in. oils. At my entrance. he let in the muzzle while the bellows were full of wind. the adventitious wind would rush out. After the latter the animal was ready to burst. I visited many other apartments. to give a strength and consistence to the threads. by adjusting the annual and diurnal motions of the earth and sun. the charge of dyeing silks should be wholly saved. and as he had them of all hues. he called aloud to me. as soon as he could find proper food for the flies. and drawing in the wind. and other glutinous matter. wherewith he fed his spiders. (like water put into a pump). because they understood how to weave. of certain gums. "that by employing spiders." And he proposed further. But when the disease was more stubborn and violent. and this being repeated three or four times. while we had such plenty of domestic insects who infinitely excelled the former. he hoped to fit everybody's fancy. bringing the noxious along with it. being studious of brevity. but shall not trouble my reader with all the curiosities I observed. then withdrew the instrument to replenish it. I saw him try both experiments upon a dog. upon which my conductor led me into a room where a great physician resided. of using silkworms. and we left the doctor endeavouring to recover him. The dog died on the spot." There was an astronomer. when he showed me a vast number of flies most beautifully coloured. where the walls and ceiling were all hung round with cobwebs. so as to answer and coincide with all accidental turnings of the wind. I was complaining of a small fit of the colic." whereof I was fully convinced.invention may be capable of great improvement. he affirmed he could make the guts as lank as a dried bladder. "not to disturb his webs. with a long slender muzzle of ivory: this he conveyed eight inches up the anus. by the same operation. but could not discern any effect from the former. who was famous for curing that disease. . who had undertaken to place a sun-dial upon the great weathercock on the town-house.

poetry. placed in the middle of the room." He had two large rooms full of wonderful curiosities. as he demonstrated by several experiments. Some were condensing air into a dry tangible substance. about the bigness of a die. whereof all his pupils stood in ranks. and fifty men at work. who is called among them "the universal artist." He told us "he had been thirty years employing his thoughts for the improvement of human life. and declensions. whereas. minerals. The artist himself was at that time busy upon two great designs. all over the kingdom. outwardly applied. and letting the aqueous or fluid particles percolate. After salutation. to preserve them from foundering. at a reasonable charge.I had hitherto seen only one side of the academy. where. The first professor I saw. exalted thought never sprang in any other man's head. and on these papers were written all the words of their language. But the world would soon be sensible of its usefulness. that a more noble. without the least assistance from genius or study. which I was not skilful enough to comprehend. but some larger than others. and vegetables. was in a very large room. to sow land with chaff. when I have mentioned one illustrious person more. for pillows and pin-cushions. tenses. We crossed a walk to the other part of the academy. wherein he affirmed the true seminal virtue to be contained. by a certain composition of gums. with paper pasted on them. he said." He then led me to the frame. the most ignorant person. laws. The other was. but without any order. These bits of wood were covered. to prevent the growth of wool upon two young lambs. the first. on every square. others softening marble. of whom I shall say something. might write books in philosophy. in their several moods. by extracting the nitre. and he hoped. with forty pupils about him. the projectors in speculative learning resided. as I have already said. Every one knew how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences. and theology. It was twenty feet square. about the sides. and he flattered himself. "Perhaps I might wonder to see him employed in a project for improving speculative knowledge. the other being appropriated to the advancers of speculative learning. in a reasonable time to propagate the breed of naked sheep. The professor then desired me "to observe. politics. which took up the greatest part of both the length and breadth of the room. They were all linked together by slender wires. by practical and mechanical operations. by his contrivance. and with a little bodily labour. mathematics. for he was going to set his . others petrifying the hoofs of a living horse. observing me to look earnestly upon a frame. The superfices was composed of several bits of wood.

and promised." the form and contrivance of which I desired leave to delineate on paper. He assured me "that this invention had employed all his thoughts from his youth. who had thereby at least this advantage. He then commanded six-and-thirty of the lads." I made my humblest acknowledgment to this illustrious person. without a rival. that he should have the honour entire. whereof there were forty fixed round the edges of the frame. and verbs. "although it were the custom of our learned in Europe to steal inventions from each other. This work was repeated three or four times. as the sole inventor of this wonderful machine. nouns." We next went to the school of languages. and made the strictest computation of the general proportion there is in books between the numbers of particles. which. as they appeared upon the frame. to give the world a complete body of all arts and sciences. The first project was. where three professors sat in consultation upon improving that of their own country. and where they found three or four words together that might make part of a sentence. I told him. to read the several lines softly. already collected. "if ever I had the good fortune to return to my native country. at his command. and other parts of speech. the whole disposition of the words was entirely changed. and the professor showed me several volumes in large folio. as in the figure here annexed. that he had emptied the whole vocabulary into his frame. by cutting polysyllables into one. and at every turn. however. because. of broken sentences. who were scribes. and out of those rich materials. the engine was so contrived. took each of them hold of an iron handle. that it became a controversy which was the right owner. which he intended to piece together. to shorten discourse. Six hours a day the young students were employed in this labour. that the words shifted into new places. and giving them a sudden turn. might be still improved. yet I would take such caution. and leaving out verbs and participles. all things imaginable are but norms. and oblige the managers to contribute in common their several collections." The pupils. they dictated to the four remaining boys. in reality. .engine at work. as the square bits of wood moved upside down. for his great communicativeness. that I would do him justice. if the public would raise a fund for making and employing five hundred such frames in Lagado. and much expedited.

The other project was. and under his arms. to whose tongues they were utter strangers. such constant irreconcilable enemies to science are the common people. An expedient was therefore offered. For it is plain. that it would serve as a universal language. with ink composed of a cephalic tincture. eat nothing but bread and water. or nearly resembling. when they met in the street. But for short conversations. in conjunction with the vulgar and illiterate. contributes to the shortening of our lives. who. and for three days following. the student was to swallow upon a fasting stomach. I have often beheld two of those sages almost sinking under the weight of their packs. unless he can afford one or two strong servants to attend him. This. in some degree. whose goods and utensils are generally of the same kind. Another great advantage proposed by this invention was. as well as brevity. ready at hand. However. consequently. and hold conversation for an hour together. I was at the mathematical school. where the master taught his pupils after a method scarce imaginable to us in Europe. to be understood in all civilised nations. many of the most learned and wise adhere to the new scheme of expressing themselves by things. in proportion. he cannot be at a loss. and demonstration. and take their leave. and in his house. a diminution of our lunge by corrosion. open their sacks. is full of all things. were fairly written on a thin wafer. and of various kinds. As the wafer digested." And this invention would certainly have taken place. that every word we speak is. help each other to resume their burdens. he must be obliged. had not threatened to raise a rebellion unless they might be allowed the liberty to speak with their tongues. to carry a greater bundle of things upon his back. after the manner of their forefathers. enough to supply him. then put up their implements. to the great ease as well as health of the subject. would lay down their loads. And thus ambassadors would be qualified to treat with foreign princes. . a man may carry implements in his pockets. and this was urged as a great advantage in point of health. The proposition. like pedlars among us. if the women. so that their uses might easily be comprehended. which has only this inconvenience attending it. or ministers of state. it would be more convenient for all men to carry about them such things as were necessary to express a particular business they are to discourse on. "that since words are only names for things. a scheme for entirely abolishing all words whatsoever. and. requisite to furnish matter for this kind of artificial converse. that if a man's business be very great. Therefore the room where company meet who practise this art.

as the prescription requires. by placing it on the same foundation with that of their people. and confirmed in me the old observation. "that there is nothing so extravagant and irrational. partly by some error in the quantum or composition. For instance: whereas all writers and reasoners have agreed. who seemed to be perfectly versed in the whole nature and system of government. eminent services. bearing the proposition along with it. can there be any thing more evident. that there is a strict universal resemblance between the natural and the political body.] In the school of political projectors. and virtue. as well as by the licentiousness of those who are to obey. This illustrious person had very usefully employed his studies. These unhappy people were proposing schemes for persuading monarchs to choose favourites upon the score of their wisdom. wholly out of their senses. There was a most ingenious doctor. of choosing for employments persons qualified to exercise them.the tincture mounted to his brain. neither have they been yet persuaded to use so long an abstinence. with many other wild. that senates and great councils are . in finding out effectual remedies for all diseases and corruptions to which the several kinds of public administration are subject. which is a scene that never fails to make me melancholy. which are honourably received. by the vices or infirmities of those who govern. as to acknowledge that all of them were not so visionary. in my judgment. which s