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GREENPOWER

Connecting renewable energy to green mobility using Hydrogen as energy carrier under the Belenos Clean Power Initiative
Fabiane Oliveira1, Judith Waller1, Robert Tween1, Paul Velut1, Yves Leterrier1, Jan-Anders Månson1, Lorenz Gubler2, Lukas Bonorand2, Philip Dietrich2, Gunther Scherer2, Olha Sereda3, Antonia Neels3, Alex Dommann3, Emmanuel Onillon3, Bahaa Roustom4, Roger Marquis4, Antoine Toth4, Rexhep Gashi4, Alexandre Closset4

EPFL-PSI-CSEM-BELENOS
(1) Laboratoire de Technologie des Composites et Polymères, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (2) Paul Scherrer Institut, Research Department General Energy (ENE), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (3) CSEM, Jacquet Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchâtel (4) Belenos Clean Power Holding Ltd, Seevorstadt 6, CH-2501 Biel/Bienne

Nano-Tera Annual Meeting, Bern, May 30, 2013

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Objectives of the project
➔ Novel proton-conducting polymer membranes ➔ Novel piezoelectric H2 barrier materials ➔ Novel control station to optimize domestic energy flux ➔ Health monitoring system for hydrogen-related technologies (storage, fuel cell) ➔ Scale-up to demonstrator level (3.5 kW fuel cell + 100 bar storage vessel)

The Belenos concept

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Partners and Interactions
CSEM data & simulation data processing Process-structure fundamentals External conditions (weather, grid, …) State of health monitoring via CVM PSI membranes degradation Process-structure fundamentals

Specifications of the control station

Fuel cell electronic control BELENOS Material properties

safety monitoring Via piezo liner Concepts & design EPFL gas storage piezo liner composite tank

viscoelastic behavior

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

3 HIGHLIGHT STORIES • Proton exchange membranes for fuel cells • Self-sensing high pressure H2 storage vessel • Greenpower energy flux optimization

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

3 HIGHLIGHT STORIES • Proton exchange membranes for fuel cells • Self-sensing high pressure H2 storage vessel • Greenpower energy flux optimization

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Proton exchange membranes for fuel cells
➔ Commercial fuel cell membranes are expensive ➔ PSI radiation grafted membranes provide a unique combination of mechanical and ionic properties and are of projected low-cost (factor 5-10) ➔ PSI-EPFL collaboration enabled to uncover unique time-dependent behavior of proton exchange membranes relevant for durability

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Proton exchange membranes for fuel cells
Membrane chemistry
ETFE
25 mm
SO3H C N

Membrane Performance and Durability membrane Grafted membrane Nafion 212 Nafion XL-100 H2 crossover (mA/cm2)

0.82 4.1 2.4

durability-critical: lower = better T = 80° C, H2 / O2, p = 2.5 bara

Durability under simulated automotive conditions
Grafted membrane Nafion 212 Nafion XL-100
0 1000 2000 Lifetime / h 3000

2 out of 3 membranes still intact @ 2‘400 h

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Proton exchange membranes for fuel cells
EPFL-PSI collaboration on viscoelastic phase diagram of proton conducting membranes PSI fuel cell demonstrator

6-cell stack with 60 cm2 active area

1b: uncrosslinked membrane 2b: crosslinked membrane

Leterrier Y., Thivolle J., Oliveira F., Månson J.-A.E., Gubler L., Ben youcef H., Bonorand L., Scherer G., 'Viscoelastic Phase Diagram of Fluorinated and Grafted Polymer Films and Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications', in press in J. Polym. Sci. B: Polym. Phys.
GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Proton exchange membranes for fuel cells
Cost Estimate Nafion type membranes GM study: no upfront costs

critical factors: • throughput • materials utilization

estimate based on current technology (base case) ultimate potential (lowest case)

PFSA data: M.F. Mathias et al., Electrochem. Soc. Interface 14 (2005) 24
GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

3 HIGHLIGHT STORIES • Proton exchange membranes for fuel cells • Self-sensing high pressure H2 storage vessel • Greenpower energy flux optimization

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Self-sensing high pressure H2 storage vessel
➔ Commercial H2 storage vessels (thick polymer liner + metal + carbon fiber composites) are expensive and present a risk of H2 embrittlement ➔ Development of a novel gas-barrier and piezoelectric polymer nanocomposite membrane (EPFL-CSEM collaboration on process-structure-property relations) ➔ The Greenpower project combines for the first time a self-sensing liner with a cost-effective composite production process

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Self-sensing high pressure H2 storage vessel
4 kg H2 needed to drive a fuel cell car 400 km (45 m3 at ambient -> 0.11 m3 at 400 bar)
Schlapbach, L. Züttel, A. Hydrogen-storage materials for mobile applications, Nature, 414 (2001)

piezosensor and hydrogen barrier membrane (PVDF)

carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite shell polyamide liner

aluminium connec on

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Self-sensing high pressure H2 storage vessel
Collaboration EPFL-CSEM on process-structure-property relations in piezoelectric polymer materials ➔Proportion of piezoelectric β-phase in modified PVDF-TrFE: 95% ➔30% increase in piezoelectric coefficient ➔10 x reduction of gas permeation
Oxygen permeability of modified PVDF-TrFE
600
80 60

In-situ XRD analysis of PVDF-TrFE

A

B

500
40

cm cm cm s Pa ]

-1

20

-1

400

0

-2

0

20

40

60

300

3

P [10

16

200

100

0h 2h 4h 16h 24h 48h

10° C 30° C 40° C 50° C

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 8 16 24 32 40 48

Temperature [° C]

Annealing time [h]

S. Dalle Vacche, et al., The effect of processing conditions on the morphology, thermomechanical, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of P(VDFTrFE)/BaTiO3 composites, J. Mater. Sci., 47, 4763-4774 (2012).
GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Self-sensing high pressure H2 storage vessel
Composite shell
Silver electrode

PA12 Liner

piezo sensor

1 liter, 100 bars demonstrator

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

3 HIGHLIGHT STORIES • Proton exchange membranes for fuel cells • Self-sensing high pressure H2 storage vessel • Greenpower energy flux optimization

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Greenpower energy flux optimisation
➔ Commercial photovoltaic (PV) management systems are limited to monitoring of PV installations ➔ The Greenpower project considers the house and associated hydrogen car as a system and develops adaptive prediction of energy production, consumption and storage capability ➔ Health monitoring of the car fuel cell and hydrogen storage included in the management system, leading to financial savings up to 26% depending on the electricity sale/resale scheme

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Greenpower energy flux optimisation

Energy flux optimization at domestic level, relying on energy consumption and production prediction, with development of: ➔the necessary prediction adaptive algorithms ➔the necessary optimization algorithms ➔installation health monitoring ➔validation platform
GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Greenpower energy flux optimisation
Novel energy flow management at domestic level taking into account: prediction of renewable energy production consumption needs

To be presented at the 4th International Conference on Clean Electrical Power, ICCEP 2013, 11-13 June, Alghero, Sardinia, Italy

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Greenpower energy flux optimisation

Development of a validation platform for the prediction and optimization algorithms (car energy needs were simulated) Savings up to 26% depending on the electricity sale/resale scheme To be presented at the 4th International Conference on Clean Electrical Power, ICCEP 2013, 11-13 June, Alghero, Sardinia, Italy

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Greenpower real scale fuel cell system
Fuel Cell system design & construction

PAC 30 [kW] 60 [kW] HVB 30 [kW]

Brake 20 [kW]

EV system architecture

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

CONFIDENTIAL

Greenpower dedicated power electronics

Cell Voltage Monitoring Energy Control Unit 40kW DC/DC Vehicle integration Software Interface CAN-to-Sensor Interface
CONFIDENTIAL

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

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Greenpower real scale system integration

Fuel Cell system integration

H2 gas filling interface
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Greenpower real life testing

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Greenpower real scale solar filling station

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

DEMONSTRATORS Nano-Tera Annual Meeting, Bern, May 30, 2013

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013

Acknowledgements
Swiss National Science Foundation Pr. Damjanovic, Ceramics Laboratory, EPFL

GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 30, 2013