SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Rational: Assembly challenge of N/MEMS!
Today! •  Many different kinds of micro/ nano devices, MEMS, S&A, CMOS, OLED, etc! The challenge of tomorrow! •  Finding a way to assemble the bricks into functional micro/nanosystems!

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

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Fluid-mediated self-assembly!
Competences needed:!

MEMS   Modeling   Surfaces  

10  mm  
Control  

Microfluidics  

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

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Massimo Mastrangeli
(EPFL)

Maurizio Gullo
(EPFL)

Jonas Goldowsky
(CSEM)

Loic Jacot-Descombes
(EPFL)

Grégory Mermoud
(EPFL)

Felix Schill
(EPFL)

Olgac Ergenemann
(ETHZ)

Christian Peters
(ETHZ)

Venky Nagaiyanallur
(ETHZ)

Gilles Cherix
(ICARE)

Cathrein Hückstädt
(ETHZ)

Nicolas Spencer
(ETHZ)

Christopher Hierold
(ETHZ)

Laurent Sciboz
(ICARE)

Bradley Nelson
(ETHZ)

Helmut Knapp
(CSEM)

Alcherio Martinoli
(EPFL)

Juergen Brugger
(EPFL)

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Assembling techniques & case studies!

Fluidic-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems ! !

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Outline!
•  SELFSYS objectives! •  Methodology and team! •  MEMS fabrication!
–  Inkjet printing, magnetic microcapsules, surface functionalization!

•  •  •  • 

Fluid-mediated parallel assembly, yield! Control system, modeling & automation! Liquid encapsulation & release! Target applications!

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Microcapsules made by SU-8 photolithography!
•  Bi-color cylinders! •  Half-capsules!
•  •  •  •  •  •  •  Si wafer, surface activation! Blue SU-8! Transparent SU-8! Exposure and bake! SU-8 development! Surface functionalization! Release!
Hollow part!

! ! ! ! ! !

Hydrophilic Hydrophobic

Hydrophobic

Hydrophilic

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

PhD  thesis  2013  Jacot-­‐Descombes  

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SU-8 hemispheres by inkjet printing!
Inkjet printing process! Ø 900  hemispheres   Ø Angle:  90°  ±  2°   Ø Yield  above  98%  

Shape prediction and experimental results!

SEM images

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Jacot-­‐Descombes  et  al.  JMM  2012  

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Hollow hemispheres!
Silicon confinement platforms and central pillars! Inkjet printed half-capsules!

100  µm   SEM image

300  µm   SEM image

50  µm  

1  mm   Optical image

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Jacot-­‐Descombes,  IEEE  NEMS  2013  

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SU-8 capsules with integrated silicon dies!

Inkjet printing of SU-8 on silicon chip and subsequent surface releasing! Enables integration of e.g. RFID dies into functional polymer MEMS!

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

MicroNanoLeLers  (submiLed)  

Fabrication of magnetic half capsules!

Support  

Support   H  

Support   160°C   Thermal Curing  

Ink-Jet Printing of MPC   H  

Particle Alignment  

100µm  

100µm  

100µm  

•  • 

Super-paramagnetic nanoparticles embedded in uncured polymer matrix! Inkjet printing of the magnetic composite!

•  • 

Alignment of nanoparticles by applying magnetic fields! Thermal curing for fabrication of features beyond exposable resist thickness!

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Ergenemann  et  al  (in  prep)  

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Fabrication of magnetic half capsules!
FIB cuts   No magnetic field applied No change with direction Good dispersion 30 mT applied Parallel to the alignment 30 degrees to the alignment

D=200µm  

2µm  

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Ergenemann  et  al  (in  prep)  

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Covalent grafting of a polymer onto SU-8!

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

SU-8 surface functionalized with DNA!
Using  DNA  hybridizaYon  as  a   means  to  self-­‐assembly    
PAA-­‐g-­‐ssSNA     Poly  acrylic  acid  (PAA)  coupled  to     ssDNA  through  EDC  chemistry.   PAA  MW:  1080000  g/mol  

100  µm   Fluorescence  microscopic  image  of  a   paLern  of  labeled  DNA  on  SU8  
SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Nagaiyanalluret  al  (in  prep)  

Outline!
•  SELFSYS objectives! •  Methodology and team! •  MEMS fabrication!
–  Inkjet printing, magnetic microcapsules, surface functionalization!

•  •  •  • 

Fluid-mediated parallel assembly, yield! Control system, modeling & automation! Liquid encapsulation & release! Target applications!

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Self-assembled pairs of SU-8 micro-cylinders!

Diameter   100  micrometers  
SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

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Fluid-mediated self-assembly!
Study with hundreds of bicolor cylinders (100 μm):!

Micro-capsules with liquid encapsulation:!

Optical images
SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Release in IPA
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J-­‐Descombes,  MarYn  et  al  (in  prep)    

Microcapsules with improved sealing!
Immiscible liquid energy minimization (ILEM) polymer deposition  

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

J-­‐Descombes  et  al.  MNE  2012    

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Studying the assembly dynamics ...!
...  by  mul$ple  opYcal  traps  
FuncYonalised     SU8  test  MEMS  

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Gullo  et  al,  IEEE  MEMS  2013    

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Hydrophobic Attraction!

20pN  aLracYve  force  for  10μm  disk  surface  

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Gullo  et  al,  IEEE  MEMS  2013    

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Outline!
•  SELFSYS objectives! •  Methodology and team! •  MEMS fabrication!
–  Inkjet printing, magnetic microcapsules, surface functionalization!

•  •  •  • 

Fluid-mediated parallel assembly, yield! Control system, modeling & automation! Liquid encapsulation & release! Target applications!

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Assembly μ-plant!

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Feeding of microcapsules!
•  Transfer of MEMS to functional fluid (blue)! •  Control concentration of MEMS in liquid!

Carrier liquid! outlet!

Carrier liquid &! MEMS inlet!

g   Functional fluid &! MEMS outlet!

Functional fluid inlet!
SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Goldowsky  et  al,  (submiLed  to  JMM)  

Assembly and sorting!

Focusing electrode!

Sorting ! electrode!
SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Goldowsky  et  al.  (in  prep)  

Outline!
•  SELFSYS objectives! •  Methodology and team! •  MEMS fabrication!
–  Inkjet printing, magnetic microcapsules, surface functionalization!

•  •  •  • 

Fluid-mediated parallel assembly, yield! Control system, modeling & automation! Liquid encapsulation & release! Target applications!

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Automated modeling of self-assembling systems!
The  M3  framework   Fundamental assumption All behavioral changes can be interpreted as the result of an interaction
Input: spatial trajectories

x1 x2

x3

Con;nuous  state     (e.g.,  pose  in  space)  

Discrete  state     (state  machine)  

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Mermoud,  Mastrangeli  et  al,  (in  prep)  

Model and control of the SELFSYS microchamber!
FEM  Eigenfrequencies  
10 mm

Control  space  

1st:  42.4  KHz  
SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Goldowsky  et  al,  (submiLed  to  JMM)   27  

Model and control of the SELFSYS microchamber!
CFD  simula;ons   •  Laminar  flow  (Re  ~  100)   •  2-­‐phase  flow  (water/air)   •  AcousYc  actuaYon  (45  KHz)   •  ParYcle  tracking  
5 mm

Air     sockets  

water  

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

28   Goldowsky  et  al,  (submiLed  to  JMM)  

Model and control of the SELFSYS microchamber!
Fluid  dynamics   •  Laminar  flow  (Re  ~  100)   •  2-­‐phase  flow  (water/air)   •  AcousYc  actuaYon  (45  KHz)   •  ParYcle  tracking   secondary   streaming  

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

29   Goldowsky  et  al,  (submiLed  to  JMM)  

HOW CAN WE WATCH THE MICRO PARTS MOVING AND CONTROL THE SYSTEM WITH A FEEDBACK LOOP?!

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

The Lily platform: centimetric fluidic self-assembly!

•  FloaYng,  passive,  self-­‐aligning     •  4  remotely-­‐controlled  inlets     •  MagneYc  latching   •  2  main  agitaYon  modes   •  ParasiYc  fluidic  propulsion   for  bang/bang  control  

Blocks  

Arena  

•  Overhead  camera   •  Data  aquisiYon  by  SwisTrack   •  M3  computaYonal  framework  

Real-­‐;me  tracking  

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Mermoud  et  al.  ICRA  2012  

SELFSYS platform: micrometric fluidic self-assembly!

2 cm
SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

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Monitoring the micrometric fluidic self-assembly! High speed video of selfassembling microcapsules Tracking of self-assembling microcapsules

200 µm

200 µm

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Mastrangeli  et  al,  (in  prep)  

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Magnetically Guided Self-Assembly!
•  Half capsules with magnetic nanoparticles! •  Programming easy axis by aligning nanoparticles! •  Parts align with an applied magnetic field! •  They attract each other due to magnetic forces ! •  Selective binding for self assembly!

H  

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Ergenemann,  Peters  et  al.  MEMS  2013  

Parallel manipulation of magnetic capsules!
•  Forming chains of magnetic parts when in-plane magnetic fields are applied (left) •  Separating parts by applying out-of-plane magnetic fields (right)

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Ergenemann  et  al.  (in  prep)  

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Envisioned applications!

2  industrial  partners  interested  

•  Drug delivery!
–  Triggered, local, timed release!

•  PAT (process analytical technologies)!
–  Use capsules as distributed sensors! –  Remote readout!

•  Bioreactor process monitor! •  Food quality control!
! Fluidic-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems SELFSYS -! Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems ! !
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Liquid released upon external (self)trigger!

Release in IPA Other options: -  Heat -  Valve -  Other chemical reaction -  Biodegradation
SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

PhD  thesis  L.  Jacot-­‐Descombes  

Summary!

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!

Liquid  filled  micro-­‐capsules.   Ready  to  measure.     Ready  to  release.  

SELFSYS - Fluid-mediated self-assembly for hybrid functional micro/nanosystems!