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Service Basic Training

Hydraulics
5.905-842 02/03

Foreword

Foreword Good servicing work calls for comprehensive and practically-oriented training as well as clear and manageable documentation. For this reason, we offer regular training courses and further education events covering the whole product range to all service technicians. We additionally compile servicing manuals for the most important devices which serve initially as instructions and can later be used for reference purposes. We also provide regular service information bulletins reporting on product further development. The text and pictures may not be copied, duplicated or made available to third parties without the express consent of:

ALFRED KRCHER GmbH & Co. KUNDENDIENSTSCHULUNG Postfach 160 D-71349 Winnenden www.karcher.de

Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Contents

Contents General ...................................................................................................... 5


Benefits/drawbacks of hydraulics/fluid technology ............................................... 5
Benefits ................................................................................................................................ 5 Drawbacks .......................................................................................................................... 5

Basic hydromechanics ............................................................................................. 6


Pressure due to fluid height ................................................................................................. 6 Pressure due to outside forces ............................................................................................ 6

Basic hydromechanics ............................................................................................. 7


Power transmission ............................................................................................................. 7 Circulatory law .....................................................................................................................7

Basic hydromechanics ............................................................................................. 8


Pressure loss ...................................................................................................................... 8

Structure of a hydraulic system ............................................................................... 9


Energy - conversion ........................................................................................................... 9 Energy - control ................................................................................................................... 9 Energy - transport ................................................................................................................9 Others .................................................................................................................................. 9

Hydraulic circuit symbols ......................................................................................... 9

Hydraulic circuit symbols ..................................................................... 10


Line types .......................................................................................................................... 10 Flow paths of lines ............................................................................................................. 10 Function symbols ............................................................................................................... 10 Drive motors ...................................................................................................................... 11 Hydraulic pumps ................................................................................................................ 11 Hydraulic cylinders ............................................................................................................ 11 Possible combinations ....................................................................................................... 12 Flow possibilities ................................................................................................................ 12 Switching possibilities ........................................................................................................ 12 Directional valves example ............................................................................................. 13 Flow rate valves................................................................................................................. 13 Non-return valves .............................................................................................................. 14 Twin non-return valves ....................................................................................................... 14 Pressure control valve ....................................................................................................... 14 Pressure control valve non-return valve / flow control valve non-return valve ............ 15 Blower fan / impeller fan ..................................................................................................... 15 Oil tanks ............................................................................................................................. 15 Oil filter / oil cooler .............................................................................................................. 16 Oil tank and components ................................................................................................... 16 Function of an oil tank ........................................................................................................ 16 Tasks of an oil tank ............................................................................................................ 16

Routing of hydraulic hoses .................................................................. 18

Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Contents

Structure of a hydraulic plan ................................................................ 20


Basic hydraulic plan ........................................................................................................... 20 Electric motor ..................................................................................................................... 20 Pressure control valve ....................................................................................................... 21 4/3 directional valve ........................................................................................................... 21 Flow rate valve................................................................................................................... 22 Oil filter ............................................................................................................................... 22 Safety valve for oil filter ...................................................................................................... 23 4/3 directional valve in neutral position .............................................................................. 23 Pipe break valve ................................................................................................................ 24

Functional sequence hydraulic plan ................................................... 25


Example KMR 1250 ................................................................................................. 25
Hydraulic plan pressureless condition ............................................................................... 25 Raising the debris container .............................................................................................. 26 Electric circuit diagram ...................................................................................................... 26 Hydraulic plan .................................................................................................................... 26 Tilting out the debris container ........................................................................................... 27 Electric circuit diagram ...................................................................................................... 27 Hydraulic plan .................................................................................................................... 27 Tilting back the debris container ........................................................................................ 28 Electric circuit diagram ...................................................................................................... 28 Hydraulic plan .................................................................................................................... 28 Lowering the debris container ............................................................................................ 29 Electric circuit diagram ...................................................................................................... 29 Hydraulic plan .................................................................................................................... 29

Servicing work on hydraulic systems ................................................. 30


Safety and maintenance instructions .................................................................... 30

Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Basics

General
The terms hydraulics or fluid technology are used to describe all drive, control and regulating components of a device in which power is generated and transmitted by pressure in a fluid. With the aid of electrical devices, hydraulics/ fluid technology can be used to achieve a high degree of positioning and velocity accuracy. In order to engender greater understanding of hydraulics/fluid technology, this basic training program will initially provide an explanation of fundamental hydromechanical principles. Primarily, this basic training program will be explaining the hydraulic circuit symbols which represent the components currently used in our devices. In addition, two examples will be used to explain the technical structure of the individual components and the sequence of a hydraulic plan. This basic training program encompasses also certain laws of physics, for example of - Mass, force - Work, energy, output - Velocity, acceleration

Benefits/drawbacks of hydraulics/fluid technology


Benefits - Space and weight-saving components capable of transmitting high forces - Fast, precise and steplessly adjustable cylinder and motor speeds - Simple overload prevention by pressure limitation - Function at full load is possible from standstill - Suitable for fast and also extremely slow, controllable movement sequences Drawbacks - Temperature dependence of the hydraulic oil - Loss due to leakage oil - Friction loss which converts into heat and raises the temperature of the system - Vibration and noise creation tendency

Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Basics

Basic hydromechanics
Hydromechanics is the science of the physical characteristics and behaviour of fluids in a static (hydrostatics) and dynamic (hydrokinetics) status.

p1

p2

p3

Pressure due to fluid height If the pressure (p1 = p2 = p3) acts on surfaces of equal size (A1 = A2 = A3), the resulting forces are equally high (F1 = F2 = F3). Here, the shape of the vessel is of no significance, only the height of the fluid (h) determines the extent of the pressure.

A1

F1

A2

F2

A3

F3

Pressure due to fluid height

F A

Pressure due to outside forces The effect of a force (F) on a static fluid spreads evenly in all directions within the fluid. The level of the pressure (p) in the fluid is equal to the force due to weight (F) relative to the surface upon which it acts (A). The pressure (p) always acts vertically on the adjoining surfaces of the tank.

Pressure due to outside forces

Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Basics

Basic hydromechanics
Power transmission As the pressure spreads evenly to all sides, the shape of the tank is of no significance. If force (F1) acts on surface (A1), pressure (p) is created. p = F1 / A1 Pressure (p) acts on every point of the system, i.e. also on surface (A2). The achievable force (F2) (synonymous with a load to be lifted) is F2 = p x A2 If it is possible using force (F1) and surface (A1) to achieve the pressure needed to overcome the load (F2) (above surface (A2)), then the load (F2) can be lifted. (Leaving friction loss out of account). The paths (S1) and (S2) of the two pistons perform the reverse action to the surfaces (A1) and (A2). S1 / S2 = A1 / A2 Therefore S1 x A1 = S2 x A2

F1 S1 p A1

S2

F2

A2

Power transmission

A1 A2 Q1 v2 v1 Q2

Circulatory law

Circulatory law The same volume of fluid flows in the same period of time through a pipe with differing cross-sections. This means that the flow rate of the fluid in the smaller cross-section must increase. The volumetric flow (Q) corresponds to the product of the cross-sectional surface of pipe (A) times the velocity of the fluid (v) Q=Axv The volumetric flow (Q) is the same at all points of the pipe. Q1 = Q2 The two cross-sections (A1) and (A2) of the pipe behave in opposition to the velocities of the fluids (v1) and (v2). A1 x v1 = A2 x v2

Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Basics

Basic hydromechanics
Pressure loss In order to explain these physical laws, we assumed that no friction or pressure loss occurs. Hydraulic energy cannot be transmitted through pipes without loss. Due to friction on the pipe walls or due to a restriction of the cross-section (flow control valve), hydraulic energy is transformed into heat. For hydraulically operated systems, the loss of hydraulic energy created in this way means a loss of pressure and a reduction of the flow rate. Pressure loss is represented by the symbol Dp. Its extent depends primarily upon: - The line length - The cross-section of the pipe - Surface roughness of the pipe wall - Number of bends in the pipe - Flow rate - Fluid velocity

p2

p3

p4

p5

p6

p1 p = p1 - p7

p7

Pressure loss

Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Basics

Structure of a hydraulic system


In hydraulic systems, mechanical energy is converted into hydraulic energy, transported in this form and controlled or regulated, then converted back into mechanical energy again. Energy - conversion To convert energy, on the primary side pumps are used, and on the secondary side cylinders and motors. Energy - control The extent of the hydraulic energy and the direction in which it acts, and thus also the transmitted output are influenced in the form of pressure and volumetric flow by variable displacement pumps and by control and regulating valves. Energy - transport The pressure fluid which is guided through pipes, hoses and holes in control blocks or control plates, assumes the function of energy transport or also only of pressure conduction. Others A series of supplementary devices such as tanks, filters, coolers, heating elements, measuring and test units are required for storage and maintenance of the pressure fluid.

Hydraulic circuit symbols


To illustrate hydraulic correlations in accordance with DIN ISO 1219, nowadays in the majority of cases hydraulic circuit diagrams with standardized circuit symbols are used. The circuit symbols are neither to scale, nor do they claim to correspond to the actual position of the component in question. They are intended only to indicate a function. The components of a hydraulic plan are arranged from bottom to top in the direction of the energy flow: - Energy source: bottom left - Control elements in progressive sequence: upwards, from left to right - Drive systems: at the top from left to right A hydraulic circuit diagram is interpreted in a similar way to an electrical circuit diagram, the difference here being that actually visible fluid currents and pressures act as well as mechanical components. Hydraulic components are shown in the starting position of the system with pressure applied. Elements or assemblies of the same type should be indicated at the same height within a hydraulic plan. The following breakdown of circuit symbols makes no claim to completeness, and contains only the most commonly used symbols. It is intended as a tool to understanding a hydraulic circuit plan.

Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Hydraulic circuit symbols

Hydraulic circuit symbols


Line types 1 1 2 2 3 Working line (continuous line = delivery or pressure line) Control line (dash line = to actuate valves or other components) Dot and dash lines = used to draw a frame around an assembly

3
Line types

Flow paths of lines 1 2 3 Line connections Line crossing points Flexible lines

Flow paths of lines

Function symbols

1 2 3 4

Direction of volumetric flow Current direction of flow Sense of rotation Adjustment facility

Function symbols

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Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Hydraulic circuit symbols

Hydraulic circuit symbols


Drive motors

M
2

Electric motor, drive shaft turns in two directions Combustion engine, two cylinders (no. of squares on the motor) drive shaft turns in two directions Hydraulic motor, two volumetric flow directions, drive shaft turns in two directions

Drive motors

Hydraulic pumps

1 2 3

One volumetric flow direction, drive shaft turns in one direction Two volumetric flow directions, drive shaft turns in one direction Two adjustable volumetric flow directions, drive shaft turns in one direction

Hydraulic pumps

Hydraulic cylinders 1 1 Single-acting cylinder with piston rod on one side (retraction stroke powered by integrated spring) Double-acting cylinder with piston rod on one side

Hydraulic cylinders

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Hydraulic circuit symbols

Hydraulic circuit symbols


Possible combinations 1
1

Directional valve with two switching positions Directional valve with three switching position

Possible combinations

Flow possibilities 1

1
2 3

Flow possibilities for one switching position with two connections Flow possibilities for one switching position with three connections Flow possibilities for one switching position with four connections

Flow possibilities

Switching possibilities 1 2 3 4 Actuation by electric solenoid valve Actuation by spring Actuated hydraulically Actuation by lever

Switching possibilities

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Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Hydraulic circuit symbols

Hydraulic circuit symbols


Directional valves example 4/3 directional valve 4 = number of connections 3 = number of switching positions A Connections for consumers B Connections for consumers P Pressure connection (pump) T Return line connection a Switch position (left) o Switch position (idle position) b Switch position (right) 1 Compression springs for switching position (o) 2 Solenoid valve for switch position (a) 3 Solenoid valve for switch position (b) If solenoid valve (2) is energized, switch position (a) applies. If solenoid valve (3) is energized, switch position (b) applies. In the idle position, the valve is moved to the central switch position (o) by the two compression springs (1). Flow rate valves 1 1 2 3 2 4 Flow rate valve not adjustable (reduces the pressure and the flow rate) Flow rate valve adjustable (reduces the pressure and the flow rate) Flow control valve with regulation output current (reduces pressure and flow rate) Flow control valve with regulation output flow and relief opening (reduces pressure and flow rate)

o A B

P T

Directional valves - example

Flow rate valves

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Hydraulic circuit symbols

Hydraulic circuit symbols


Non-return valves

2 3

4 5

4
6

Stop valve (manual interruption of the delivery line. Stop valve is either completely open or closed). Non-return valve, unloaded (Flow only possible in one direction) Non-return valve, spring-loaded (Flow only possible in one direction) Shuttle valve (volumetric flow can flow downwards from the left or right) Pipe break valve (in case of high pressure drop, the ball presses against the spring and prevents return flow) Pipe break valve (in the operating mode, the integrated control line does not press the non-return ball into its seat, allowing oil to flow. An integrated flow rate valve prevents the non-return ball from being pressed into its seat during return flow. In case of a high pressure drop, the ball presses into the seat and prevents return flow.

Non-return valves

A2

B2

Twin non-return valves A twin non-return valve is used to move a hydraulic cylinder or to block it in an unpressurized condition. Non-return valve (A) opens when the volumetric flow runs from (A1) to (A2). A control piston opens the non-return valve (B) slightly via a control line, to permit return flow from (B2) to (B1). The same applies when the volumetric flow runs from (B1) to (B2). Then the control piston opens non-return valve (A).

A1
Twin non-return valve

B1

Pressure control valve 1 Pressure control valve with internal control line (is intended to limit the pressure in the system) Pressure control valve with external control line (is intended to limit the pressure in the system)

2
1 2

Pressure control valve

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Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Hydraulic circuit symbols

Hydraulic circuit symbols


Pressure control valve non-return valve / flow control valve non-return valve 1
1

Pressure control valve non-return valve (the pressure is limited in one direction, flow is free in the other direction. Spring adjustable). Flow control valve non-return valve (the pressure and flow rate are reduced in one direction, flow is free in the other direction. Throttle adjustable)

Pressure control / flow control non-retrn valves

Blower fan / impeller fan 1 2 Blower fan, e.g. for ventilation, extraction, compression Impeller fan, e.g. for cooling

Blower fan / impeller fan

Oil tanks

1 2

Oil tank Oil tank (for the sake of clarity small oil tanks are additionally drawn at the ends of lines in the hydraulic plan, but what is meant is the actual oil tank.

2
Oil tanks

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Hydraulic circuit symbols

Hydraulic circuit symbols


Oil filter / oil cooler 1 Oil filter (frequently arranged in the return line) Causes of contamination in a hydraulic system - production, assembly - creation of abraded particles during operation - environment, maintenance, servicing Oil cooler

2
2

Oil filter / oil cooler

Oil tank and components 1 2 3 4 5 Pump Filter Air cushion Level fluctuation Drainage screw

2 3 4

Function of an oil tank The pump draws the oil out of the tank. Once it has passed through the consumers, the oil flows back to the oil tank via a filter. Tasks of an oil tank - To accommodate the entire oil volume in the system - To separate air by providing the greatest possible oil surface and a long dwell period of the oil in the tank - It allows contamination particles not caught in the filter to settle on the tank floor. This is why the tank has a sloping floor - Separation of condensation which forms due to temperature fluctuations in the oil tank. It collects at the deepest point of the tank, another reason why the oil tank has a sloping floor.

Components of an oil tank

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Hydraulic circuit symbols

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Routing of hydraulic hoses

Routing of hydraulic hoses


1 4

Never install hydraulic hoses pulled tight

Avoid kinks

Never install hydraulic hoses pulled tight

Avoid kinks

Avoid kinks

Avoid kinks

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Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Routing of hydraulic hoses

Routing of hydraulic hoses


Hydraulic hoses are used as flexible connecting lines between hydraulic devices which move in opposition to each other, or where spatial circumstances are unfavourable for laying lines. They are also used as a way of reducing noise and vibrations. When laying hydraulic hoses, they must never be twisted or installed with an excessively long loop. Figs. (1) and (2) illustrate that hoses should never be installed pulled tight, so as to avoid elongation and to ensure that pressure shocks are absorbed. Figs. (3), (4), (5) and (6) illustrate that kinks must be avoided. As a measure to avoid abrasion of the hose, clamping clips should never be used. Hoses which can rub against other components must be provided with a protective sheathing.

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Structure of a hydraulic plan

Structure of a hydraulic plan


5

Basic hydraulic plan The basic hydraulic plan consists of 1 2 3 4 5 Oil tank Working line Pump 4 / 3 directional valve Cylinder

3 2 1
Basic hydraulic circuit diagram

Electric motor In order to drive the pump, an electric motor is connected upstream. The pump now draws the oil from the oil tank and transports it to the 4 / 3 directional valve.

Electric motor

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Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Structure of a hydraulic plan

Structure of a hydraulic plan


Pressure control valve In order to prevent damage to the hydraulic components through excess pressure, a pressure control valve is used. If the pressure exceeds the limit, the oil is now able to flow back into the oil tank through the pressure control valve.

Pressure control valve

4/3 directional valve The right-hand solenoid valve is energized and switches the 4/3 directional valve to the righthand switch position. The oil is now able to flow through the 4/3 directional valves, allowing the cylinder to extend. The oil then flows back into the oil tank from the unpressurized side. With the hydraulic plan structure shown here, the cylinder has been extended in rapid traverse, as the pressure is acting completely on the cylinder.

4 / 3 - directional valve

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Structure of a hydraulic plan

Structure of a hydraulic plan


Flow rate valve If a flow rate valve is integrated, the cylinder extends more slowly. The speed at which the cylinder extends cannot be regulated by this flow control valve, as this has been permanently set by the manufacturer.

Flow control valve

Oil filter In order to prevent damage to the hydraulic system due to contamination, an oil filter is integrated into the return line.

Oil filter

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Structure of a hydraulic plan

Structure of a hydraulic plan


Safety valve for oil filter If the pressure increases in the return line due to a contaminated oil filter, a bypass with safety valve is used (spring loaded non-return valve). The hydraulic oil flows unfiltered through this bypass valve into the oil tank.

x
4/3 directional valve in neutral position If the right-hand solenoid valve of the 4/3 directional valve is de-energized, the left-hand spring sets the 4/3 directional valve to the neutral position. The oil flows back through the pressure control valve. The cylinder remains extended.

Safety valve for oil filter

4 / 3 - directional valve in neutral position

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Structure of a hydraulic plan

Structure of a hydraulic plan


Pipe break valve The pipe break valve prevents the cylinder from retracting in an uncontrolled manner under load (risk of accidents) in the event of a defective or burst pressure pipe.

Pipe breakage valve

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Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Functional sequence hydraulic plan

Example KMR 1250


9 10 Hydraulic plan pressureless condition This hydraulic plan illustrates the raising / lowering and tilting action of a debris container. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Oil tank Oil filter Electric motor, hydraulic unit Hydraulic pump Non-return valve 4/2 directional valve, tilt debris container 2/2 directional valve, raise / lower debris container Pipe break valve Hydraulic cylinder, raise debris container Hydraulic cylinder with gas pressure spring, tilt debris container Hydraulic unit Flow rate valve Flow control valve Pressure control valve

8 11 7 6 5 14 M 3 4 2 13 12

Hydraulic circuit diagram, pressureless condition

The functions are explained step by step over the next pages in conjunction with the electrical circuit diagram.

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Functional sequence hydraulic plan

Example KMR 1250


Raising the debris container + S5 Electric circuit diagram If the two switches (S5) and (S8) are pressed together, the motor (M2) is switched on (build-up of hydraulic pressure). The solenoid valves (Y2) and (Y1) are not activated.

S6

S7

S8

M Y2 Switching on electric motor (M2)

Y1 M2

10

8 11 7 6 5 14 M 3 4 2 13 12

Hydraulic plan As soon as the electric motor (3) is running, the pump (4) draws oil from the oil tank (1) and through the filter (2). The pump (4) transports the oil through the non-return valve (5), the 4/2 directional valve (6), the 2/2 directional valve (7) and the pipe break valve (8) to the hydraulic cylinder (9). This extends and raises the debris container. The two switches (S5) and (S8) must remain depressed until the hydraulic cylinder (9) has completely extended (two-hand safety operation).

Raising the debris container

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Functional sequence hydraulic plan

Example KMR 1250


Tilting out the debris container + S5 Electric circuit diagram If the two switches (S5) and (S7) are pressed together, the motor (M2) is switched on (build-up of hydraulic pressure) and the solenoid valve (Y1) is activated at the same time.

S6

S7

S8

M Y2 Activating solenoid valve (Y1)

Y1 M2

10

8 11 7 6 5 14 M 3 4 2 13 12

Hydraulic plan As soon as the solenoid valve (Y1) of the 4/2 way valve (6) is activated, it switches to the left-hand switch position. The pump (4) transports the oil to the hydraulic cylinder (10), which extends and tilts the debris container. The two switches (S5) and (S7) must remain depressed until the hydraulic cylinder (10) has completely extended (two-hand safety operation).

Titing out the debris container

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Functional sequence hydraulic plan

Example KMR 1250


Tilting back the debris container + S5 Electric circuit diagram If the two switches (S5) and (S7) are released, the motor (M2) is switched off (no hydraulic pressure) and the solenoid valve (Y1) is deenergized.

S6

S7

S8

M Y2 Keys in neutral position

Y1 M2

10

8 11 7 6 5 14 M 3 4 2 13 12

Hydraulic plan The 4/2 directional valve (6) is pressed back into the right-hand switch position again by its spring. As soon as the 4/2 directional valve (6) is in the right-hand switch position, the gas pressure spring is able to press the piston back of the hydraulic cylinder (10). The oil flows through the flow rate valve (12), the 4/2 directional valve (6) and the flow control valve (13) back into the oil tank (1).

Tilting back the debris container

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Service Basic Training Hydraulics 02/03

Functional sequence hydraulic plan

Example KMR 1250


Lowering the debris container + S5 Electric circuit diagram If the two switches (S5) and (S6) are pressed together, the solenoid valves (Y2) and (Y1) are activated. The motor (M2) remains deactivated (no hydraulic pressure).

S6

S7

S8

M Y2 Activating solenoid valve (Y1) and (Y2)

Y1 M2

10

8 11 7 6 5 14 M 3 4 2 13 12

Hydraulic plan As soon as the solenoid valves (Y1, Y2) of the 4/2 directional valve (6) and of the 2/2 directional valve (7) are activated, the 4/2 directional valve (6) switches to the left switch position and the 2/2 directional valve (7) into the right switch position. The net weight of the debris container presses the oil out of the hydraulic cylinder (9), through the pipe break valve (8), the 2/2 directional valve (7), the 4/2 directional valve (6) and the flow control valve (13) back to the oil tank (1). The pipe break valve (8) is not quite closed by the system pressure, allowing the oil to flow through at a lower velocity. The two keys (S5) and (S6) must remain depressed until the hydraulic cylinder (9) has completely retracted (two-hand safety operation).

Lowering the debris container

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Servicing work on hydraulic systems

Safety and maintenance instructions


For safety reasons, no pipe screw unions, connections and devices may be loosened as long as the system is pressurized. If any work has to be performed under a raised container, this must be carefully supported and the machine safeguarded against rolling away. On principle, ensuring the greatest possible degree of cleanliness during the commissioning, repair and maintenance of hydraulic systems, use of the correct hydraulic oil and the right operating temperature will guarantee a long service life. - Spare parts for the hydraulic system are supplied with closed connections. The covers should remain in place until they are assembled with the connecting pipes. - If delivered unflushed and closed, hoses and nipple connections should be flushed through with cleaning emulsion and dried with compressed air before mounting. - Objects used for filling (measuring cups, funnels) should be used exclusively for new oil of the same type. Prevent any contamination due to old oil, motor oil or dust. - We recommend taking an oil sample of every new device before delivery, in order to discover the degree of new contamination. This ensures that the quality of workmanship is documented in the event of any warranty disputes. - Drained oil is generally contaminated by the collecting container and must be filtered before refilling. - If defective hydraulic components are exchanged, the system must always be flushed through (if at all possible using the same oil type) and filled with new oil. - The water content can be verified by filling a test tube with a sample. The water will separate and sink to the bottom after a certain period. Cloudiness of the oil also points towards a water content. - Contamination by foreign bodies and oxidation cause the oil to turn dark in colour. The coloration can be assessed by comparing with the original oil. It is also possible to verify the existence of contamination and oxidation by placing a drop of oil on white blotting paper. If more precise investigation is required, oil samples can be sent in to the manufacturer (laboratory testing). - The ideal temperature of the oil is around 50C. In practice, temperatures of 60-80C are quite commonplace. Remember that working at higher temperatures accelerates the ageing process of the oil. Should overheating occur, always investigate the root cause.

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