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Punmia

RETAINING WALL

A retaining wall or retaining structure is used for maintaining the ground surfgaces at defrent elevations on either side of it. Whenever embankments are involed in construction ,retaining wall are usually necessary. In the construction of buildins having basements, retaining walls are mandatory. Similsrly in bridge work, the wing walls and abutments etc. are designed as retaining walls , to resist earth pressure along with superimposed loads. The material retained or supported by a retaining wall is called backfill lying above the horizontal plane at the elevation of the top of a wall is called the surcharge , and its inclination to horizontal is called the surcharge angle b In the design of retaining walls or other retaining structures, it is necessary to compute the lateral earth pressure exerted bythe retaining mass of soil. The equation of finding out the lateral earth pressure against retaining wall is one of the oldest in Civil Engineering field. The plastic state of strees, when the failure is imminent, was invetigated by Rankine in1860. A Lot of theoretical experiment work has been done in this field and many theory and hypothesis heve benn proposed.

**18.2 TYPE OF RETAINING WALLS
**

Retaining walls may be classified according to their mode of resisting the earth pressure,and according to their shape. Following are some of commen types of retaining walls (Fig) 1 2 3 4 Gravity walls Cantilever retaining walls Counterfort retainig walls. Buttresssed walls.

a. T- shaped

b. L- shaped

A gravity retaining wall shown in fig 1 is the one in which the earth pressure exrted by the back fill is resisted by dead weight of wall, which is either made of masonry or of mass concrete . The stress devlop in the wall is very low ,These walls are no proportioned that no tension is devloped any where, and the resultant of forces remain withen the middle third of the base.

The cantilever retaining wall resist the horizontal earth pressure as well as other vertical pressure by way of beending of varios com

vertical pressure by way of beending of varios components acting as cantilever s.A coomon form of cantilever retaining waal

**DESIGN OF COUNTOR FORT RETAINING WALL with horizontal back fill
**

Hieght of cantilever wall from ground level Unit weight of Earth Angle of repose Safe Bearing capacity of soil Coffiecent of friction Concrete wt. of concrete 2 Steel fe 415 N/mm m 13.33 Nominal cover Foundation depth Counter forts width Stem thickness Footing width STEM :Main

100% Reinforcement upto 50% Reinforcement upto 25% Reinforcement upto m #REF! m #REF! m Top

= = = = = M= sst scbc = = =

At top Toe width x

7.00 18 30 180 0.5 20 25000 230 7 30 1.00 0.50

m KN/m3 Degree KN/m3 N/m3 N/mm2 2 N/mm mm

m m

DESIGN SUMMARY At footing #REF! mm Heel width 2000 mm 4100 mm Key #REF! Reinforcement Summary

#REF! mm 1700 mm #REF! mm

10 10 10 8 8 10 8 10 8

mm F@ 90 mm c/c mm F@ #REF! mm c/c mm F@ #REF! mm c/c mm F@ #REF! mm c/c mm F@ #REF! mm c/c mm F@ mm F@ 100 0 mm c/c mm c/c

Distribution Tamprecture TOE :Main Distribution HEEL :Main Distribution

mm F@ #REF! mm c/c mm F@ 180 mm c/c

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in

in .co.#### #### mm F #### @ c/c #REF! #### mm F #### mm F #### @ c/c 7000 #### #### mm F #### @ c/c #### mm F #### @ c/c #### #### #### Heel #### mm F @ c/c mm F @ c/c #### @ c/c #### #### #### mm F #### @ c/c #### #### #REF! #### #### #### mm F #### @ c/c Toe 0 #REF! #### #### 2000 1700 4100 400 2000 400 1700 #### mm F #### @ c/c ## F #### #### #### #### mm F #### @ c/c mm F 10 #### @ c/c #REF! 10 mm F #### @ c/c 10 mm F #### @ c/c Out side Earth side pk_nandwana@yahoo.

00 ( 1 - 0. Eq (1) b = 0.913 0. q0 180 1 = 1 = a = 2.2 y H 2.50 m kN/m3 Degree kN/m3 20 = 2 18000 N/m mm effective cover m m 500 mm 40 mm Cocrete M = 20 = #### N/mm2 = 25 kN/mm2 sst = scbc = m k= 2 = 230 N/mm 3 = 7 N/mm = 13.co.5 For soil.55 m (1-a) m ( 1 . This will be made safe by providing a shear Key at base .33 x 7 13. of concrete m*c+sst j=1-k/3 = 1 R=1/2xc x j x k = 0.72 m Provided toe slab = 1.289 = = + 0.50 x = 2.00 = 1. Normal practice is to provide b between 0.00 x 0.5 This width is excessive.33 b = = = 6.DESIGN OF COUNTERFORT RETAINING WALL Hieght of cantilever wall from ground level Unit weight of Earth Angle of repose Safe Bearing capacity of soil Coffiecent of friction Concrete Steel Nominal cover Foundation depth Counter forts width assume 1 Design Constants:-For HYSD Bars = = = = = = = = = = g q0 m fe 7.1.30 .33 wt.in .00 0.33 0.33 x 7 + 0.00 Clear spacing of counter fort = 3.5 4. Width of toe slab = a x b = 0.432 ….00 + 1.0.a)x(1+3 a) 0.00 18 30 180 0.5 to 0.30 m for design purpose Hence width of heel slab = 4.289 / 3 7 x 0.5 Kp= 1 Ka = 3 2 Diamension of various parts :Hence height of wall above base H = 7.2 x 18 x 8.6 H .50 x 8.84 m The base width from the considration of sliding is given by Eq.70 = 2. Taking maximum value of H = 0.7HKa 0.00 m Let the thickness of base slab = 300 mm = 0.5 M 415 30 1.95 H x (1.43 )x 0.43 The width of base is given by Eq.86 m y 18 pk_nandwana@yahoo.904 0.00 = m for design purpose 4.5 = 0.904 x 1-sin F = Ka = 1+sinF 230 0.333 )x( 1 0.00 .00 = 8.5 x = 3.43 x 4. F m*c = x \ = 30 13.29 ) = 3.7 x 8.00 Hence Provided b = m The wall will be unsafe against sliding.0.00 m The ratio of length of slabe (DE) to base width b is given by eq. Ka b = 0.00 Keep a = 0.70 m taking the uniform thickness of stem = 300 mm = 0.95 x 8.43 + 1.00 b = 0.289 1 1 = 0. 0.3 m 1/4 1/4 H 8.

70 x 25 w2 1 x 0.30 x 4.S.10 SM 523.33 m = x = 364.70 total MR 1035 512.(2) Over turning \ F.44 = = 1.80 m. The calculation are arrenged in Table Detail w1 1 x 0.10 x 25 = 31 w3 3.44 512 = = = = force(kN) lever arm 1.10 b b 4.44 .95 6 Sw b 4.00 )2 8 3 = = 512 1.70 x 25 = 58 w2 2.683 x = 365.1 < 180 SW Pressure p1 at toe= 1+ = Hence safe x 1+ = 4.00 x 7.00 x 25 w3 1 x 2.10 kN -m2 6e 365.67 m 2 2 6e 364. against sliding = Over turning moment Mo = F.85 57.44 Total resisting moment = kN-m Earth pressure p Ka x y x H2 2 0.667 6 > 0.43 m = = 0.95 6x 0.70 6x 0.5 Unsafe against sliding 192 To make safe against sliding A shear key will have provid under base .30 < 180 SW Pressure p2 at Heel 1= Hence safe x 1= 4.33 = 0.00 Sw = 365.00 m clear distance.33 x 18 2 192 998.44 kN-m 4.30 x 7. So that total wiodth is = 4. 486.95 113 1 x 0..43 = 0.1.10 b b 4..00 m apart.1 859 1 x 2.00 net moment SM = = kN-m \ Distance x of the point of application of resultant..44 512 = \ Distance x of the point of application of resultant. Also increase width of base will have to increase. upto ground level at 3.00 x = Eccenticity e = .10 The revised computations are arranged in table Detail force(kN) lever arm Moment about toe (KN-m) w1 1.00 523.2 total MR 364.70 6 6 Sw b 4. increase the length of toe slab DE to 1.30 x 7.75 2 30 3 277.70 x 18 = 277 1035.60 998.keep them at 3.50 x 364.95 > 192 kN-m 2 kN .95 Moment about toe (KN-m) 106. Let us provide counterfort over toe slab.95 < 1.05 63 1 x 0.00 = 0.8375 60 831.683 2 2 6e 365.1.667 180 Hence un safe Hence un safe Pressure distribution net moment SM = 998.00 x 7.in .10 kN -m2 pk_nandwana@yahoo.70 6x 0.(1) = = x( 8.30 x 4.67 SW Pressure p1 at toe= 1+ = x 1+ = 4.95 = 0. from toe is b SM 486.S.62 m < 0.70 x 18 Sw 998. from toe is b 4.62 170. 3 Stability of wall:Full dimension wall is shown in fig 1a Let w1 = weight of rectangular portion of stem w2 = weight of base slab w3 = weight of soil on heel slab.00 = = 1.00 b b 4.00 183 > kN -m2 In order to make it safe.62 8.co. against over turning mSw PH = x = Hence safe 0.10 x = Hence safe Eccenticity e = .

35 230 x > 0.00 Shear force V = = 207 kN 2 For balance section .5 1 x 1.30 kN/m2 witch is minimum at C.at counter fort is 137.0. @ Let us check this reinforcement for development length at point of contraflexure is situated at distance of 0.63 = 2 Assuming that all the bars will avilable at point of contraflexure. Down ward load due to weight of Earth.30 Maximum negative bending moment in heel slab.00 m The pressure distribution on the heel slab is shown in fig 1b . = 7. having P tc = = 0.913 x 1000 Rxb 137.10 The Pressure intencity p2 under B is p2 p1 = 170.consider a strip 1 meter wide.33 Shear reinforcement required Area of steel at supports is given by Ast = 12 x 12 = 113 3.72 % 0.e. The upward pressure intencity = 8.30 x 7. V 207 x 1000 this is Hence depth required from shear point of veiw d = = = 626 mm excessive tc x b 0.8.00 119886 N .35 x BM 10 6 Effective depth required = = = 336 mm 0. using 12 mm bars A = Shear force at this point is given = 10'6 x = 0.80 = 99.in .The Pressure intencity p1 under E is p1 170.904 x 440 = 3. Maximum Passive B.6 kN-m2 Down ward weight of slab per unit area = 0.14xdia2 4 4 100 Spacing A x1000 / Ast 113 x mm \ = 1000 / 1130 = Hence Provided mm c/c 100 12 mm F bar.Near the outer edge C.co. the slab is continuous.20 kN-m2 Clear spacing between counter fort 60 N/mm2 mm d = 500 - 60 = 440 mm tv = 1000 440 = 0.x 3.70 x 1 x 1.904 x 440 = Lo = 12 F or d.8 x These bars will be provide at the top face of heel slab.35 kN-m 12 12 103.M. = \ Area of Bottom steel Ast2 PL2 16 847 = 3 4 mm2 M1 = 3 4 x Ast1 = 3 4 x 1130 = pk_nandwana@yahoo.L In over case. curtail half bars.8 x 3.8 kN-m2 8.33 x 1000 However keep = 500 207 1000 mm providing effective cover = x x x 1.00 2'= Pl2 M1 = = 103. mm length of each bar available = > Ld = 540 mm Hence safe 630 + 440 = 1070 137.30 4. At the point of curtailment.63 m from the face of conunterforts.14 x 1130 mm2 mm2 pL l 2 2 .47 103.10 4 Design of Heel slab:= 3.00 = 0.00 x 25 = kN-m2 Hence net pressure intensities will be P = 138. but we will assume the same position of contraflexure i.60 + 7. and continue the remaining half throughout the length. witch ever is more = 440 mm Ld = 45x F = 45 x 12 = 540 mm 103350000 M Lo + = + 440 = 1302 > 540 Hence safe \ 119886 V Cotinue these bars by a distance lo = d = 440 mm beyond the point of contraflexure.x + L 2 = p l 2 .07 kN-m2 - 170.8 x 3.50 = 137.00 x 18 = 138.10 = 87. After that.10 x 2.33 N/mm2 .10 .211 x 3.10 p = 170. 103350000 N-mm M = sst x Ast x j x d = 230 x 1130 x 0.30 4.211.10 . at 0.8.

4 1.50 207 Hence shear stirrups are required upto distance = 0.e.40 However at Y1 from C.2 As found earlier.80 m on either side of each counterforts.87.in .464 of load intencity at C Hence spacing of steel bars = 100 / 0.6 2.14xdia2 4 4 133 Spacing A x1000 / Ast 113 x mm \ = 1000 / 847 = Hence Provided mm c/c 130 12 mm F bar. w= = 61.21 Hence shear reinforcement required Vc = tc b x d= 0. using 12 mm bars A = Reinforcement near B :. it is better to continue these bars upto center of counterfors.47 > 0.upward soil reaction 25 ) . kN/m2 Lt net down ward pressure at B1=w1 x 3/2=1.80 kN/m2.4 kN 92.70 = 0.440 = 190 mm from the center of sports.464 = 200 mm c/c at the top face.6 kN/m2 1. witch ever is more = 440 mm Ld = 45x F = 45 x 12 = 540 mm as before 79531705 M +Lo>Ld = + 440 = 1103 > 540 Hence safe \ 119886 V Thus continue all bottom bars to a point distance Lo = 440 mm from the point of contraflexure.The c/c spacing of reinforcement near B may be increased. at mid span= 133 / 0. i. The position is given by= m The requirement is there form a strip of unit width paassing through C.9 \ Net downward load p' = 138. kN/m2 Net downward load p' = weight of earth + weight of counterforts . where shear force is = 92.60 +( 0.4 kN N Consider a section distance x1 from face of counterfort.80 = 1.2 = 63.26 % 1000 x 440 Permissible shear stress for 0. Area 1000 \ Spacing = Shear reinforcement. because P decrease due to increase in upward soil reaction.47 180 mm c/c 100 x 1130 = 0.8 = 0.4 kN 92.14 x 12 x 12 = 113 mm2 3.904 x 440 = Lo = 12 F or d. N-mm 79531705 M = sst x Ast x j x d = 230 x 870 x 0. upto a distance = 630 . such that shear force at the counterforts isd = 92.63 m Assuming that all bars are available at point of contraflexure.= 3. Consider a strip 1 m wide near B Upward soil reaction at B is = 87.50 . Since this distance is quite small.95 Y1 = 61. At this point half bars can be discontinued. @ 1000 x 113 Actual Ast = = 870 mm2 130 Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur.8 .14 x ( 4 600 12 )'2 mm2 = 113 mm2 mm F bars.21 N/mm2 (See Table 3.4 kN Net down ward pressure at B = 63.80 64 w1= 137.36.x1 or x1 = 1. % of steel provided = x = 188 mm say = 600 shear stress at C = tv = 0.co.21 x 1000 x 440 = #### or 92. near supports Spacing of steel bars at the bottom face.12 100 x 1000 x = 500 P D2 4 113 = = 3. 119886 N M Where V = Shear at point of contraflexure= +Lo>Ld Inherent in criterion : Distance from face of supports V = 0.0.90 / 137.464 = 300 mm c/c Distribution steel = Using 12 0.26 % steel provided t c = 0.5w1 This is equal to = 92.80 y1 = 137.50 137.1) Safe if t v < t c Here 0.50 .00 pk_nandwana@yahoo.50 x kN/m2 This is about = 63.90 Net down ward pressure at C = 137.

50 kN//m2 0.904 x 440 = 3.e.14xdia2 using 12 mm bars A = = 113 mm2 4 4 87. by a distance of 630 + 440.20 x 10'6 Area of steel at supports.2 x 10'6 kN/m2 12 12 118.60 = 440 mm 118.913 1000 Rxb x 157.10 .6 x 2 2 129239020 Nmm M= = 230 x 1413 x 0.0 N = 157.However we will keep the same depth as that of heel and provide shear strirrups to take up excessive shearing stress.10 = 1.904 x 440 Lo = 12 F or d.63 = 137112.50 = 157.4 kN 2 Taking a permissible stress tc = 0.60 kN//m2 Similarly Net upward pressure intencity at E = 99.1 The depth of slab required from shear point of view is given by d= V / (b x tc) 236 x 1000 d = = 788 mm 1000 x 0.12.80 x Hence shear reinforcement is required in triangular portion on the other side of counterforts shown hatched in fig .40 )x 1000 mm F lgd strirrups @ Hence provided these 8 170 mm c/c either side of each counterforts. we will provide shear strirrups in reangular portion x1 x y1= 2. mm providing effective cover = However keep = 500 60 mm d = 500 .Vc 207 .10 m 0.20 x 10 6 BM Effective depth required = = = 359.00 m clear distance face to face. M Where the point of contraflexure occure at +Lo>Ld Inherent in criterion : = 0. @ 80 mm c/c 1000 x 113 Actual Ast = = 1413 mm2 80 Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur.60 x 3.5 Spacing A x1000 / Ast 113 x mm \ = 1000 / 1292 = Hence Provided 12 mm F bar.in .0 mm i. at the bottom of toe slab. witch ever is more = 440 mm Ld = 45x F = 45 x 12 = 540 mm 129239020. beyond the point of contraflexure by a distance of Lo= 440. upto ground level at 3.co.ssv.\ y1 = 2. The toe slab will thus bend like a contious slab.21 M +Lo>Ld = + 440 = 1383 > 540 Hence safe \ 137112 V Hence satisfied .68 m on either side of counterforts.12.5 m = 500 mm or Total weight of toe slab = 1 1 x 25 = 12.6 x 3.63 m distance x rom supports V Hence shear force at the point of contraflexure is V = 3.30 N/mm2 assuming % steel 0.00 Shear force V = = 236. Assume total depth of toe slab 0.57 kN//m2 Cosidering strip of unit width at D.M.x . 4 5 Design of toe slab :Since the toe slab is also large. However. Let us provide 4 legged stirrups of 8 mm F wire '2 2 3.8 mm 0.00 w L V= . continue these bars.50 = 86. provide counterforts over it.0.07 . at bottom is Ast = = 1292 mm 230 x 0.50 x x Net upward pressure intencity at D = 170.300 This is excessive .14 x 12 x 12 3.0 = 1070 mm pk_nandwana@yahoo. negative B. 157.5 % table 3.92. Area = = = 201 mm2 4 4 Asv. = = 118.d 201 x 230 x 440 Sv= = = 178 mm V .14 x ( 8 ) PD Using 8 mm F bars.00 2 wl2 Max.

N-mm 93992015 M = sst x Ast x j x d = 230 x 1028 x 0.14 x ( 12 ) P D2 Using 12 mm F bars.from the face of counterforts Again.80 = 138.30 x 0. such that shear force at the counterforts is 105.32 % \ tc = 0.60 = 0.6 1.10 Net upward pressure = 138. @ 1000 x 113 Actual Ast = = 1028 mm2 110 Let us check this reinforcement for development length crierion at point of contraflexur.x beam wt.24 N/mm2 3.24 Shear reinforcement required Vc = tc b x d= 0.80 m The position is given by= = 1.80 m on either side of each counterforts.6 kN.70 = 0.6 kN Consider a section distance x1 from face of counterfort.4 shear force at D kN Shear reinforcement = upward soil pressure = 170.0 / 157.1 1000 x 440 Permissible shear stress tc for 0. The requirement is there form a strip of unit width paassing through D. To find the position of Y 2 consider the net pressure distribution below the toe.M. At a section distance 1 meter from E.14 x 12 x 4 113 x / 1000 969 = mm c/c 110 = 236.904 x 440 = Lo = 12 F or d. At this point half bars can be discontinued.50 . witch ever is more = 440 mm as before Ld = 45x F = 45 x 12 = 540 mm 93992015 M +Lo>Ld = + 440 = 1126 > 540 Hence safe \ 137112 V Thus continue all bottom bars to a point distance Lo = 440 mm from the point of contraflexure.5 \ = 126.14xdia2 4 Spacing = A x1000 / Ast 117 mm \ = Hence Provided 12 mm F bar. Reinforcement at E :12 mm bars A 170.1 8.1 Shear stress t v = shear force Beam Ht.440 = 190 mm from the center of sports.32 % steel provided t c = 0.24 x 1000 x 440 = 105600 N or 105.x2 or x2 = 1. it is better to continue these bars upto center of counterfors. M +Lo>Ld Where V = Shear at point of contraflexure= 137112 N Inherent in criterion : V Assuming that all bars provided at top face.50 236.co.e.0 kN/m2 12.50 .are available at point of contraflexure. where shear force is = 105.80 of w at D This is about \ Spacing of bottom steel = 87. Let us consider a strip through E1.54 > 0. distance y2 from D.in .7 x 10 6 969 N-m mm2 Area of Bottom steel Ast2 12 = 113 mm2 3. i.50 = 126. pk_nandwana@yahoo. Since this distance is quite small.6 kN 105.1) Safe if t v < t c Here 0. \ using 3 4 x M1 = = = 3 4 3 4 x 118.0.20 x x Ast1 = 10'6 = 88.24 N/mm2 (See Table 3. upto a distance = 630 .40 x 1000 = 1000 x 440 0.54 N/mm2 table 100 x 1413 = 0.80 = 109 mm say = 100 mm = 117 Spacing of top steel / 0.5 / 0.50 kN/m2 4. Area = = = 113 mm2 4 4 1000 x 113 mm c/c = 188 mm say = 180 \ Spacing = 600 236.80 = 146 mm say = 140 mm 0.40 % of steel provided = Hence shear stirrups are required upto distance = 0. positive B.12 Distribution steel = x 1000 x 500 = 600 mm2 100 '2 3. 3 x 1292 = 4 = 3.

28 \ 2 1000 x 240 mm2 2 this is less than = tc = 0.1.3 N/mm at 0.52 1000 x 240 pk_nandwana@yahoo.12.913 1000 Rxb x Providing effective cover = 60 mm.39.30 m 8 mm F wire '2 3.60 86.5 kN = = 0.50 129.1 12.M.46 1.50 Z The position of Z is given = = or Z = 1.0 kN/m2 Hence revised H1= 8.F. 8 Let us provide 8 6 Design of stem (vertical slab) The stem acts as a continuous slab.co.6 .80 Hence shear force at E is more than = 105. w2= 157.Vc 236.00 x( 3 L ) ph B. Area = = = 402 mm2 4 4 Asv. where S. = x = = 33750000 N-mm 12 12 33750000 BM Effective depth required = = = 192 mm 0.5m w2 kN/M2 105.30 m 0.60 w2= = 70.6 105.6 kN/m2 = 105.00 .4 \ y2 = 2.85 Hence shear stirrups are to be procided for a region DEE 2 D 1 .50 . so total depth = 192 + 60 = 252 mm However provide total depth d = 300 mm and effective thickness = 300 60 = 240 mm this increased thickness will keep the shear stress within limit so that additional shear reinforcement not required.60 y2 = 157. we will provide shear strirrups for whole of rectangular area (shown dotted).ssv.(1) Y2 m m ……(2) kN = 0.5 w2 kN/m2 This is equal to \ Shear force at the counterforts at E 1 = w2 x 3/2 =1.5% reinfocement (see Table 3.50 x 1000 x 240 100 P D2 4 113 = 3. Considred 1 m strip at B .80 Equating the two we get. Area 1000 113 90 = x 1200 = \ Spacing = Actual AS provided= 1000 = mm say = 100As bd = 90 mm c/c % x 1256 mm2 and 100 x 1256 = 0.6 = kN/m2.50 = 45.39.Self weight of toe slab = 12.80 m and length DE = 0.33 x 18 x 7.1 .22 = 1.in . is 105.50 x 1000 tc Shear force V = = 67.60 1. ph = KayH1 The intencity of earth pressure is given by.14 x ( 8 ) P D2 Using 8 mm F bars. where EE2 = = 86.30 m only.50 = 7.50 Hence net pressure intencity below D an dE are below D 170. However.4 kN/m2 1.6 kN/m2 Actual shear forceat E = 1.20 = This is > than DE DE = 1. 45.57 = 129.46 Y2 70. = 0.0.0 x 3 N 67.50 Let the net pressure intencity at E 1 = w2 x 3/2 = 1. and below E 99.14 x ( 4 94 12 mm2 for width DD 1 .50 x 86.6 However at Y2 from D.50 157.8 kN/m2 Considered a section distence Z from the face of dounterforts (Point E).1) 33750000 230 x 0.50 % 0.50 m 2 2 45.4 .= x2 = legged stirrups of Area of steel near conuterforts is Reinforcement corresponding to p = = = = 677 = )'2 1200 = mm2 113 mm2 Using 12 mm F bars.904 x 240 is = pbd/100 0.6 kN ……. 0.105.d 402 x 230 x 440 Sv= = = 311 mm V .60 )x 1000 mm F lgd strirrups @ Hence provided these 8 300 mm c/c either side of each counterforts.60 . = 157.50 = 157.

The pressure p h and hence the bending moment decreaases linearly with height.D.co. Let us assuming thickness of counterforts is = 500 mm.0. These bars are to be provided at the inner face of stem slab.211 L V contraflexure point = 0. upto a point 240 + 630 = 870 mm say = 900 mm from the face of counterforts.211 x 3. the point of + Lo > Ld = contraflexure is at a distance of 0. near points of contraflexure.7 kN N-mm 62661343 M = sst x Ast x jc x d = 230 x 1256 x 0. Area = = = 79 mm2 4 4 1000 x 79 = 218 mm say = 200 mm c/c \ Spacing = 360 7 Design of main counterfort.70 x 1000 The spacing of reinforcement at B .in .00 = 0.e.14 x ( 10 ) P D2 Using 10 mm F bars. The counterfort will thus be spaced @ 300 x 50 = 350 cm c/c. Area = = = 113 mm2 4 4 1000 x 113 = 120 mm say = 120 mm c/c \ Spacing = 942 100As 113 100 x 942 Actual AS provided= 1000 = 942 mm2 and = = 0.904 x 240 = Lo = 12 F or D . found above can be increased with height .5 = 21 h kN/m 3 pk_nandwana@yahoo. so as to satisfy the criterion M For fixed beam or slab carrying U. whichever is more = 240 mm Ld = 45 F = 45 x 12 = 540 mm 62661343 M + Lo + 240 = 1307 mm > 540 Hence safe = V 58. so as to satisfy the criterion M Assuming that all reinforcement is extended upto poin + Lo > Ld = of contraflexure. i. .70 x 1000 It is thus essencial to continue all the bars upto a point distance= 240 mm beyond point of contraflexure.5 x . near points of contraflexure. the eerth pressure acting on each counter forts will be 1 = x 18. They will thus receive earth pressure from a width of 3.63 -x + 2 2 2 2 2 Assuming that all the bars will be available at the point of contrflexure. = = x 33750000 = 25312500 N-mm 4 4 3x Ast 3 Area of steel = = = 1256 = 942 mm2 4 4 '2 3. V N-mm 46996007 M = sst x Ast x jc x d = 230 x 942 x 0.Let us check these bars for devlopment length.x = 67. 3 x M1 3 Maximum positive B.L.1 % x bd 120 1000 x 942 Let us check these bars for devlopment length. \ \ Ast h Hence the spacing of bars can be increase gradually to say 300 mm c/c near top.00 x h x 3.63 m from the face of counterforts .5 m and down ward reaction from heel slab for width of 3. whichever is more = 240 mm Ld = 45 F = 45 x 12 = 540 mm V = 58. shear force at this point given by V= pL/2(l/2-x)+(L/2) pL L l 3 l V = = p x .14 x ( 12 ) P D2 Using 12 mm F bars.5 m At any section at depth h below the top A.7 As before 46996007 M + Lo + 240 = 1041 mm > 540 Hence safe = V 58.904 x 240 = Lo = 12 F or D .M. = 58.12 2 Distribution reinforcement = x 1000 x 300 = 360 \ mm 100 '2 3. 0.

00 = 147 kN/m 1 Shear force at F = x 147 x 7.50 = 487. so total depth = 1622 + 60 = 1682 mm However provide total depth d = 1700 mm and effective thickness = 1700 60 = 1640 mm Angle F of face AC is given by Tan F = 2.966 Depth F 1 C 1 1820 mm = AF 1 sin F = 7 x 0.00 = 18 h kN/m 3 h = 7 force = 18 x 7 = 126 kN/m here \ m mm 900 mm similarly. 8. at point H.87. i.50 x 25 . draw Hl parallel to FG. i. At any depth h below the top.in .00 = 514. However.14xdia2 using 20 mm bars A = = 314 mm2 4 4 2 layers \ No. at bottom is Ast = = 2820 mm 230 x 0.05 kN/m The variations of horizontal and vertical forces on counterfort are shown in fig. However these should be extent by a distance 12 F = beyond l. At B. even as a reactangular beam. net down ward pressure on heel at c is = 7.82 m or + 300 = 2120 \ Depth FG = 1820 Asssuming that the steel reinforcement is provided in 20 mm space 2 layer with between them and providing a nominal cover 30 mm and main bars of mm F dia 20 the effective depth will be = 2120 -( + 20 + 12 + 10 = 2048 mm 30 1200500000 Area of steel at supports. the vertical and horizontal ties provided in counterforts will bear the excess shear stress.co.50 x 18 + 0. enormous depth will be available to resist bending.966 = cos F 1200500000 = 514500 x 0.1321 tv = = 0.14 x 20 x 20 3.259 and \ sin F cos F = 0.50 = 0. since below this.341138 N/mm2 \ 500 x 2120 100xAs 100 x 9 x 314 area of steel = = 0. The location of H corresponding to l1 can be locate by drawing line l1H1 parallel FG.50 x 18 + 0.5 x 7 / = 3 Conterforts act as a T beam. similarly.1321 N \ Effective shear force 2120 361606.e.00 / 7. To locate the position of point of curtailmenton AC. = 514.and that at B At C.e.913 500 Rxb x Providing effective cover = 60 mm. other bars can be pk_nandwana@yahoo.3 x 3.3 % \ tc = 0. It should be noted that l1G should not less than 45 F = curtailed.5 kN-m or 1200500000 N-mm B. 240 Thus half bars can be curtailed at l.2 kN/m2 60.259 = 1.3 kN/m2 = 7.2 x 3.50 x 25 .904 x 2048 = 3.5 kN 2 1200. of bars 2820 / 314 = 9 No.8 the height h where half of the reinforcement can curtailed will be equal to H H = below A. provode these in M d 2048 Effective shear force = = 2120 mm Q tan F where d' = d' 0.3 \ F = 15 = 0.21 N/mm2 500 2120 b xd x thus the shear stress tv is more than permisssible shear stress tc. and hence should be tie to it by horizontalties. The critical section for the counterfort will be F.27 = 361606.50 = 211.8. However. depth required 1200500000 BM Effective depth required = = = 1622 mm 0. extented upto l1.00 = 2. if desired.30 = 139.M.00 m is = 21 x 7. Pressure intencity at h = 7. Design of Horizontal ties:The vertical stem has a tendency to saprate outfrom the counterforts.2 = Hence reaction transferrred to each counterfort are will be = 139.20 kN/m = 60. force causing sepration 1 x 18 h x 3.

80 = 769 kN/m 2.0 303 + x 551.99 m from E 303 + 3 551.50 = 3.6 x to counterforts at D 157.00 The down wars force ar C will be 417. Hence DF will be in compression while D 1 E 1 will be in tension. Area 2767 P D2 4 '2 3.20 x 3.5 kN/m2 0. = 769 x KN-m OR \ 0.50 m.6 = 99.Hence upward force transmitted 86.to point F 1 as shown in fig 4 Thus project the counterforts 400 759000000 Area of steel near conuterforts is = = 2767 mm2 230 x 0.12.05 x 3.\ steel required 10 mm f = 2 = 126 x 1000 230 = = = 548 2x3.9 x 1000 steel required at B = = 787 mm 230 2x3. As 1000 x 157 548 spacing however provide 200 mm c/c at bottom and gradualy increase to Design of vertical ties:Similar to the stem slab. to 99.07 .6 759 B. Down ward weight of 500 mm thick toe slab = 12. heel slab has also tendency to seprate out from counterforts. 500 mm wide is 3. the heel slab is tied to counterforts with the help of main reinforcement of counterforts.co.6 x 1000 = = 1816 mm steel required at C 230 2x3.5 = kN/m2 The center to center spacing of counterforts.6 1.6 + 303.904 x 1320 Total upward force mm F bars.00 The down wars force ar B will be 180.6 kN/m 170.0 )x 1.80 2 acting at x = x = 0. due to net down ward force.14 using 12 mm f 2 legged ties.50 211. 3. 487. As = x( 12 )2= 226 mm2 4 1000 x 226 = = 287 mm say 280 mm \ spacing of ties 787 Thus the spacing of vertical tie can be increase gradually from mm c / c at C to 120 280 mm 8 Design of front counterforts :Refer fig 1 The upward pressure intencity varies from 170. unless tied properly by vertical ties. 417.50 = 303 kN/m 551.913 Providing effective cover = 80 mm.07 kN/m2 at E. As = x( 12 )2= 226 mm2 4 1000 x 226 = = 124 mm say 120 mm \ spacing of ties 1816 180.6 x 3.14 using 12 mm f 2 legged ties.6 kN/m and at E The counterforts bent up as cantilever about face FE.1 .5 = 86.14 x ( 25 ) = 491 mm2 4 provide these in one layer and continue by a No distance of 45 F beyond E ( Using 25 = = \ No of bars pk_nandwana@yahoo. and main reinforcement will be provide at bottom face D 1 E 1 and at E 551.50 Near end C.14 x( 4 286 mm 10 mm 300 mm at top )2= 157 mm2 using legged ties.12.9 kN/m see fig.6 kN/m 3.5 x 25 = 2 hence net w at D = 157.1 kN/m2 at D. so total depth = 1289 + 80 = 1369 mm However provide total depth d = 1400 mm and effective thickness = 1400 80 = 1320 mm mm above groud level.M.in = 6 .99 = 759000000 N-m 759000000 d = = 1289 mm \ 500 x 0.

As = x( 12 )2= 226 mm2 4 Vc = tcxbxd = 0. and hence shear key will have to be provided.5 kN 481500 N x 769 1.14 x ( 10 ) P D2 Using 10 mm F bars.in .32 1.\ No of bars Effective shear force = 491 = - 6 No provide these in one layer and continue by a distance of 45 F beyond E M 0.90 From fig 4 tanF = tan F d' 1.Asv. = = = 231 mm \ sv 300 mm Vs 296700 However providethese @ 230 mm c/c provide 2 x 12 mm f bars on top for holding. toe and heel slab fixing moment are included.24 = x 1000 x 300 = 720 \ Ast mm2 100 '2 3.Vc = 481500 ssv.14 x ( 10 ) P D2 Using 10 mm F bars.8x0.12 = x 1000 x 500 = 600 \ Ast mm2 100 '2 3. in vertical direction.24% of cross section. to be provided at inner face. toe and heel :At the junction of stem. Area = = = 79 mm2 4 4 1000 x 79 = 131 mm say = 130 mm c/c \ Spacing = 600 Length embedment in stem. Design of shear key:The wall is in unsafe in sliding. above toe slab = 45 x 10 = 450 mm (III) In heel slab @ 0.d 226 x 1320 230 x subject to a maxi. as shown in fig 5 Q 10.for a length 45 F 0. but normal reinforcement given below may be provided.co.12 = x 1000 x 500 = 600 \ Ast mm2 100 '2 3. above heel slab = 45 x 10 = 450 mm Each of above reinforcement should anchored properly in adjoining slab.80 759 0. These moment are not determine . 9 Fixing effect in stem. Area = = = 79 mm2 4 4 1000 x 79 = 131 mm say = 130 mm c/c \ Spacing = 600 Length embedment in stem.280 N/mm2 3.14 x ( 10 ) P D2 Using 10 mm F bars.3 =0.14 using 12 mm f 2 legged ties. 6 pk_nandwana@yahoo. as shown in fig. (I) In stem@ 0.90 V = = 481.280 x 500 x 1320 = 184800 V1 184800 = 296700 N = V .12% to be provided in upper face 0. above heel slab = 45 x 10 = 450 mm (II) In toe slab @ 0.730 N/mm2 500 x 1320 100xAs 100 x 6 x 491 table area of steel = = 0.12% to be provided at the lowae face 0.1 500 1320 b xd x since tv tc shear reinforcement is required > 2x3.which are at right angles to their normal direction of bending.80 482 x 1000 and tv = = 0. Area = = = 79 mm2 4 4 1000 x 79 = 109 mm say = 100 mm c/c \ Spacing = 720 Length embedment in stem.45 % \ tc = 0.

00 x( 8.80 a)+ 297.405 Hence keep depth of key = 400 Now size of key = 400 x 400 PH = 3.24 = 58.20 a x 1.5 x ( 3 = 182.5 = = PH 3 x( 8.5 x 211.5 against sliding we have m Sw+Pp 0.00 = PH = 211.in .5 + 74.80 a)+ 297.5 36. = 1.68 kN 297.9 a+ 297.00 3.88 kN = SW = 364.29 x 1000 = \ shear stress = 0.64 a -23.00 + a2 ) 1.24 a2 or a = a2 or a = 0.40 x x 0.5PH .(2) = 3.24 a + = 410 mm m say mm.10 ax 18 = 73.45 23.00 or PH ….24 a a16 a + 40.48 + = + 73.95 + a)2 = 40.58.29 x 200 x 1000 Bending stress = 1/6 x 1000 x( 400 )2 2 0.00 x( 8 + a )2 Weight of the soil between bottom of the base and D1C1 = 4.5 is = 1.95 + 73.20 a 4.5 kN = Actual force to be resisted by the key at F.33 x x( 8 + a )2 2.5 x( ( ( 8 8 8 + + a)2 a)2 0.co.95 + 73.00 x( 8.S.20 = Hence a 0.95 + 73.mSW = 1.Let the depth of key =a intensity of passive pressure P p devloped in front of key depend upon the soil pressure P in front of the key Pp = KpP = 3. and width of key 400 mm mm + a )2 + 0. 1.20 a 18 Sliding force at level D1C1 = 0.00 x 99.55 .29 120. permitting F.80 a 364.20 kN/m2 \ total passive pressure Pp = Pp x a = 297.07 = 297.45 .80 = 364.5 x ( 364.7 0.30 N/mm2 400 x 1000 120.20 a = 118.90 = Hence safe N/mm The details reinforcement shown in fig 7 kN pk_nandwana@yahoo.55 2 64 + 16 a + a = 74.80 a Refer force calculation table \ SW = Hence equilibrium of wall.5 = 120.40 )2 364.5 x 394.95 + 73.80 297.40 394.S.20 a 1.

07 87.50 7.00 2. 2 137.1 99.DESIGN OF COUNTOR FORT RETAINING WALL with horizontal back fill 0.20 8.60 86.00 D1 x2 D x2 y2 E1 E B B1 C1 C1 C1 x1 y2 x1 170.00 C 0.3 1.00 3.00 0.80 4.80 .3 ` 0.3 1.50 1.00 7.70 D 1.10 4. 1 FIG.80 2.90 w1 w2 FIG.00 E B 2.30 y2 157.57 63.

00 E 0.00 7.07 6 . 3 10 mm F 100 mm c/c 0.5 2.40 0.00 kN/m 551.80 D E 300 2. 99.05 487.00 C FIG.10 FIG.00 211. 5 170.5 D1 147.DESIGN OF COUNTOR FORT RETAINING WALL with horizontal back fill 0. 168.6 kN/m F E1 F F1 1.Level 21 h kn/m 7.00 1.40 D 0.50 1.00 kN/m 4 1.30 A F1 h G.50 4.10 a Pp 450 D1 C1 450 10 mm F 130 mm c/c FIG.2 kN/m B C F2 FIG.00 8.50 G G1 F E 0.

12 mm F 240 mm c/c 0 1 10 mm F 265 mm c/c 20 mm F 4 Nos. 10 mm F 230 mm c/c 12 mm F 2 lgd vertical ties 120 to 0 mm c/c 12 mm F 180 mm c/c 8000 12 mm F 120 mm c/c 12 mm F 110 mm c/c 3 2 500 3 12 mm F 130 mm c/c 400 1800 400 1 0 mm F 0 mm c/c Cross -section mid way between counterfoorts 2000 12 mm F 130 mm c/c 900 2 12 12 mm F 180 mm c/c 10 mm F 200 mm c/c 10 mm F 0 mm F 0 mm c/c 2x12 mm F Holding bars mm F2 lgd 200 mm c/c 12 mm F 100 mm c/c 230 mm c/c 12 mm F 80 mm c/c 25 mm F 6 No.Bars 400 0 mm F 400 12 mm F 180 mm c/c 0 mm c/c Cross -section mid way between counterfoorts .DESIGN OF COUNTOR FORT RETAINING WALL with horizontal back fill 300 300 12 mm F 300 mm c/c 10 mm F 300 mm c/c 20 mm F 5 Nos.

mm mm 0 Front counterforts (e) Sectional elevation oftoe slaband front counterforts at section 3 .3 0 mm .

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89 1.0 M-20 2.734 1.391 M-30 9.329 0.904 1.5 16.0 12.4 0.857 0.4 0.025 0.289 0.289 0.289 0.904 0.866 0.329 0.18 13 93.0 11.0 1.916 1.0 Kg/m2 300 500 700 850 1000 1150 1300 1450 1600 (N/mm2) 2.16.5 93.4 Tensile stress N/mm2 Table 1.914 0.33 10 93.0 6.867 1.289 0.867 1.3 1.23 M-20 13.698 0.4 in kg/m -60 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 2 Table 1.4 0.904 0.606 0.33 0.67) M-20 13 (13.8 0.4 0.11 11.11) M-40 7 (7.0 M-40 4.997 0.98 8.9 1.159 0.329 0.33 0.67 5 93.916 1.916 0.433 0.506 0.1 1.33 7 93.628 0.11 0.329 0.903 1.0 14. MODULAR RATIO Grade of concrete Modular ratio m M-10 31 (31.914 1.253 0.Table 1. Permissible stress in concrete (IS : 456-2000) Grade of concrete M M M M M M M M M 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Permission stress in compression (N/mm2) Permissible stress in bond (Average) for 2 Bending acbc plain bars in tention (N/mm ) Direct (acc) (N/mm2) 3.214 1 0.599 scbc N/mm2 m scbc kc jc Rc Pc (%) kc (b) sst = jc 190 Rc N/mm2 Pc (%) (c ) sst = kc jc 230 N/mm2 Rc (Fe 415) Pc (%) kc (d) sst = jc 275 N/mm2 Rc (Fe 500) Pc (%) (a) sst = 140 N/mm2 (Fe 250) .53 M-40 7.322 M-25 10.653 0.867 1.916 0.89 1.254 1.5 10.253 0.18.33 0.5 93.904 1.0 8.985 0.0 11.98) M-30 9 (9.214 0.867 1.2 M-15 2.329 0.0 5.2 1.15.244 0.4 0.332 0.474 1.904 1.33 0.18) Table 2.429 0.5 4.5 13.33) M-25 11 (10.916 0.867 0.4 0.46 M-35 8.253 0.722 0.314 0.736 0.867 2.329 0.811 0.6 M-35 4..0 9.502 0.2 M-30 3.867 0.253 0.643 0.127 0.289 0.306 0.534 0.89 0.714 0.0 7.253 0.289 0.904 1.579 0.33) M-35 8 (8.33 0. VALUES OF DESIGN CONSTANTS Grade of concrete Modular Ratio M-15 18.684 0.0 10. PERMISSIBLE DIRECT TENSILE STRESS Grade of concrete M-10 1.33 0.0 Kg/m2 250 400 500 600 800 900 1000 1100 1200 (N/mm2) -0.6 0.89 1.0 8.44 0.994 1.11) M-15 19 (18.253 0.1.464 0.816 0.89 1.89 1.8 M-25 3.732 0.0 5.

49 0.23 0.S.05 250 1.44 0.6 36 1.40 0.51 0.max in concrete (IS : 456-2000) Grade of concrete tc.08 28 2.58 0.15 200 1.6 M-20 0.8 44 0.6 0.8 M-25 1.10 225 1.max M-15 1.25 0.1.75 3.53 0.23 0. Permissible Bond stress Table tbd in concrete (IS : 456-2000) Grade of concrete M-10 -tbd (N / mm2) M-15 0.20 0.76 33 1.46 0.50 0.42 0.18 0.22 0. Permissible shear stress Table tc in concrete (IS : 456-2000) 100As bd < 0.35 0.51 0.3 M-50 1.6 58 0.2 M-45 1.5 Table 3.19 0.57 0.44 0.23 0.49 0.60 0.30 Table 3.20 0.42 0.40 0. Development Length in tension Grade of concrete M 15 M 20 M 25 M 30 M 35 M 40 M 45 M 50 Plain M.45 0.9 39 1 35 1.31 0.4 25 H.00 2.44 0.49 0.48 0.29 0.36 0.44 0.3 M-40 2.00 1.D. Facor k Over all depth of slab 300 or more k 1.20 175 150 or less 1.41 0.45 0.51 0.60 0.5.46 0.57 0.52 0.52 0.2.75 2.00 275 1.44 40 1.55 0.96 60 1.50 0.30 0.25 2.23 0.56 0.25 1.3 27 1.47 0.18 0.50 2.00 and above Permissible shear stress in concrete tc N/mm M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40 0. Maximum shear stress tc.49 0.37 0.57 0.53 0.44 0.37 0.Y.24 26 .25 1.58 0.55 0.4 Table 3.44 0.62 0.2 29 1.20 0.4.31 0.32 0. Bars kd = Ld F tbd (N / mm2) 0.6 M-20 1.51 0.9 M-30 2.38 0.Table 3.37 0.34 0.S. Bars kd = Ld F tbd (N / mm2) 0.42 0.31 0.1 32 1.9 M-30 1 M-35 1.22 0.8 M-25 0.1 M-40 1.50 1.62 0.63 2 Table 3.44 0.55 0.51 0.28 45 1.15 0.2 M-35 2.42 0.39 0.75 1.54 0.45 0.56 0.3.92 30 2.

96 0.58 0.97 0.43 1.19 0.64 0.96 0.82 0.23 0.92 0.27 0.28 0.64 0.98 0.37 0.31 0.97 0.34 0.82 0.45 0.34 0.73 2.33 0.98 0.00 1.36 0.36 0.17 0.43 1.92 0.36 0.77 0.14 tan 0.33 0.97 0.94 0.91 cos 0.71 0.70 0.42 0.93 0.42 0.25 0.45 0.42 tan 0.40 0.39 0.37 0.34 0.42 .32 0.21 0.39 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.23 0.97 0.93 0.77 0.70 0.87 0.29 0.40 0.29 0.42 0.95 0.38 0.19 1.87 0.71 0.28 0.64 0.23 0.32 0.14 Value of angle Degree 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 sin 0.19 1.47 0.77 0.95 0.19 0.73 2.91 0.57 0.92 0.82 0.87 0.18 0.27 0.93 0.97 0.87 0.95 0.96 0.23 0.31 0.29 0.25 0.91 cos 0.38 0.57 0.Value of angle Degree 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 sin 0.50 0.92 0.26 0.58 0.24 0.31 0.96 0.98 0.77 0.91 0.82 0.26 0.71 0.71 0.57 0.41 0.24 0.84 1.95 0.97 0.21 0.93 0.17 0.34 0.57 0.98 0.21 0.84 1.41 0.19 0.98 0.21 0.00 1.29 0.42 0.47 0.98 0.64 0.18 0.36 0.31 0.19 0.94 0.

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