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Defining Relative Clauses They describe the preceding noun and give essential information about the noun. They are introduced by a relative pronoun which can be replaced by THAT or even omitted (except when the relative pronoun is subject of the clause or is in the possessive case). They are not separated by commas. People as: The man WHO / THAT reported the crime has subject WHO / THAT been given a reward The man (WHO / THAT) I saw at the party is object (of a verb) WHO / THAT / -Janet's father The man (WHO / THAT) I was talking TO is object (of a preposition) WHO / THAT / -working for Peter Notice that the preposition moves to the end of the clause. The film is about a man WHOSE children are possessive WHOSE kidnapped Things as: The cup WHICH / THAT is on the table is full of subject WHICH / THAT sugar The cup (WHICH / THAT) I bought in Venice is on object (of a verb) WHICH / THAT / -the table The novel (WHICH / THAT) you talked ABOUT is object (of a preposition) WHICH / THAT / -very good Notice that the preposition moves to the end of the clause. Living in a house WHOSE walls were made of possessive WHOSE glass would be horrible Notice also that: - when usually replaces in/on which (time) - where usually replaces in/at which (place) - why usually replaces for which (reason) When, where and why used in this way are called relative adverbs, and can be omitted in the same way as relative pronouns. Non-defining Relative Clauses They are placed after nouns which are definite already; therefore, the information they add to the noun is not essential. They are always introduced by a relative pronoun which cannot be replaced by THAT and they are separated by commas.

WHO she worked FOR.Where and when can also introduce non-defining relative clauses: Three years ago I travelled to Austria. WHO is going to marry Jill soon. WHO everyone suspected. is possessive WHOSE trying to get a job subject WHO Things as: I went to Port Aventura. this will remain at the end: Peter. is an engineer Peter. is fitter than me Alice. has been demolished Notice that the preposition moves to the end of the clause. WHO I play tennis WITH on Sundays. is near Tarragona John's house. is a wish many people have subject WHICH . WHICH I have visited on object (of a verb) WHICH several occasions. turned out object (of a verb) WHO (WHOM) to be innocent She asked Paul. WHICH we were talking object (of a preposition) WHICH ABOUT just yesterday. WHERE I met my future husband I read lots of books last month. to object (of a preposition) WHO (WHOM) give her a holiday Notice that the preposition moves to the end of the clause. WHICH is a famous park Port Aventura. WHOSE climate is possessive WHOSE temperate. WHOSE parents live next to us.People as: John. If the clause contains an expression of time or place. WHEN I had a broken leg Living in Barcelona.

WHOSE car broke down before we got there (BUT his car broke down before we got there) He drank a lot of whisky. They do not describe a noun but continue the story.Connective Relative Clauses They have the same form as non-defining relative clauses. WHICH made him ill (AND it made him ill) WHICH can also stand for a whole sentence: They asked me to go away. WHICH was very rude They said it was his fault. which and whose. They are usually placed after the object of the main verb or after the preposition + noun structure: I told Jane. WHICH wasn't true . WHO said it wasn't her business (BUT she said it wasn't her business) We went with John. which can be replaced by and or but. They are introduced by who.