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**Inverse differential kinematics Statics
**

Prof. Alessandro De Luca

Robotics 1

1

**Inversion of differential kinematics
**

find the joint velocity vector that realizes a desired endeffector “generalized” velocity (linear and angular)

J square and non-singular

generalized velocity

v = J(q) q

.

q = J-1(q) v

.

problems

. near a singularity of the Jacobian matrix (high q) for redundant robots (no standard “inverse” of a rectangular matrix)

in these cases, “more robust” inversion methods are needed

Robotics 1

2

**Behavior near a singularity
**

. q = J-1(q) v

problems arise only when commanding joint motion by inversion of a given Cartesian motion task figure shows a linear Cartesian trajectory for a planar 2R robot there is a sudden increase of the displacement/velocity of the first joint near θ2=- π (endeffector close to the origin), despite the required Cartesian displacement is small

3

Robotics 1

6 m/s for T=6 s Robotics 1 4 . executed at constant speed v=0.planar 2R robot in straight line Cartesian motion Simulation results . at α=170° angle with x-axis. q = J-1(q) v regular case end start a line from right to left.

planar 2R robot in straight line Cartesian motion Simulation results q1 path at α=170° q2 regular case only integration error!! (10-10) Robotics 1 5 .

planar 2R robot in straight line Cartesian motion Simulation results . at α=178° angle with x-axis. q = J-1(q) v close to singular case end start a line from right to left.6 m/s for T=6 s Robotics 1 6 . executed at constant speed v=0.

of q1 close to singular case increased integration error (2·10-9) Robotics 1 7 .planar 2R robot in straight line Cartesian motion Simulation results q1 path at α=178° q2 large peak .

q = J-1(q) v close to singular case with joint velocity saturation at Vi=300°/s end start a line from right to left.planar 2R robot in straight line Cartesian motion Simulation results .6 m/s for T=6 s Robotics 1 8 . executed at constant speed v=0. at α=178° angle with x-axis.

planar 2R robot in straight line Cartesian motion Simulation results q1 path at α=178° q2 saturated value . of q1 close to singular case actual position error!! (6 cm) Robotics 1 9 .

Damped Least Squares method JDLS equivalent expressions. there is a (vector) errorε(=v – Jq) in executing the − 1 desired end-effector velocity v (check that ε = λ (λ Im + J J T ) v !). but the joint velocities are always limited (“damped”) JDLS can be used both for m = n and for m < n € 10 Robotics 1 . but this one is more convenient in redundant robots! inversion of differential kinematics as an optimization problem function H = weighted sum of two objectives (minimum error on achieved end-effector velocity and minimum joint velocity) λ = 0 when “far enough” from a singularity . with λ > 0.

q = J-1(q) v ..6 m/s for T=6 s Robotics 1 11 .5° angle with x-axis.planar 2R robot in straight line Cartesian motion a comparison of inverse and damped inverse Jacobian methods even closer to singular case Simulation results . executed at constant speed v=0. q = JDLS(q) v end start end start some position error .. a line from right to left. at α=179.

q = J-1(q) v .. q = JDLS(q) v here. Robotics 1 a completely different inverse solution. while crossing the region close to the folded singularity 12 . a very fast reconfiguration of first joint .5° .planar 2R robot in straight line Cartesian motion Simulation results path at α=179..

planar 2R robot in straight line Cartesian motion Simulation results . q = J-1(q) v q1 q2 . q = JDLS(q) v extremely large peak velocity of first joint!! very smooth joint motion with limited joint velocities! Robotics 1 13 .

q = JDLS(q) v some actual error (25 mm) at singularity crossing. later recovered by feedback action (v ⇒ v+Ke) increased integration error (3·10-8) minimum singular value of T JJ and λI+JJT they only differ when damping factor is non-zero Robotics 1 damping factor λ is chosen non-zero only close to singularity! 14 .planar 2R robot in straight line Cartesian motion Simulation results . q = J-1(q) v .

Use of the pseudo-inverse a constrained optimization (minimum norm) problem such that solution if else pseudo-inverse of J . the constraint is satisfied ( where is feasible) minimizes the error on 15 orthogonal projection of Robotics 1 .

with the MATLAB function pinv) Robotics 1 16 .Properties of the pseudo-inverse it is the unique matrix that satisfies the four relationships if rank ρ = m = n: if ρ = m < n: it always exists and is computed in general numerically using the SVD = Singular Value Decomposition of J (e.g..

Numerical example Jacobian of 2R arm with l1 = l2 = 1 and q2 = 0 (rank ρ = 1) y is the minimum norm joint velocity vector that realizes l1 l2 q1 x Robotics 1 17 .

General solution for m<n all solutions (an infinite number) of the inverse differential kinematics problem can be written as any joint velocity. “projection” matrix in the kernel of J this is also the unique solution to a slightly modified LQ constrained optimization problem (biased toward ξ) such that Robotics 1 18 ...

“how far” is the robot from a singular condition we consider all end-effector velocities that can be obtained by choosing joint velocity vectors of unit norm task velocity manipulability ellipsoid Robotics 1 T -1 (J J ) if ρ = m 19 Rem: the “core” matrix of the ellipsoid equation vT A-1 v=1 is the matrix A! . we wish to evaluate how “effective” is the mechanical transformation between joint velocities and end-effector velocities “how easily” can the end-effector be moved in the various directions of the task space equivalently.Velocity manipulability in a given configuration.

the ellipsoid loses a dimension (for m=2.Manipulability ellipsoid in velocity planar 2R arm with unitary links length of principal (semi-)axes: singular values of J (in its SVD) in a singularity. it becomes a segment) direction of principal axes: (orthogonal) eigenvectors associated to λi w = det JJ = ∏ σ i ≥ 0 i =1 T m proportional to the volume of the ellipsoid (for m=2. to its area) Robotics 1 20 € .

since it always σ1≠σ2 Robotics 1 21 .Manipulability measure planar 2R arm with unitary links: Jacobian J is square det ( JJ T ) = det J ⋅ det J T = det J = ∏ σ i i =1 2 € σ1(J) σ2(J) max at θ2=π/2 max at r=√2 θ2 r r best posture for manipulation (similar to a human arm!) full isotropy is never obtained in this case.

Transformation of forces τ2 τ1 τ3 τi τn environment • F τ = vector of forces/torques at the joints F = vector of forces/torques exerted from the robot end-effector to the environment (equal and opposite to the reaction forces/torques from the environment to the robot end-effector) which is the relation between τ and F in a static equilibrium (i.e. with the robot remaining at rest)? Robotics 1 22 .Statics ..

Equivalent formulations τ2 τ1 τ3 τi in a given configuration which τ should be provided by the motors at the joints so that the robot end-effector applies F to the environment? which τ at the joints balances a -F exerted from the environment? which is the force/torque τ “felt” at the joints in the presence of a -F exerted at the robot end-effector? Robotics 1 23 τn • F .Statics .

e. i. satisfying all possible constraints imposed on the system) displacements at an equilibrium without kinetic energy variation (zero acceleration) without dissipative effects (zero velocity) the “virtual work” is the work done by all forces/torques acting on the system for a given virtual displacement Robotics 1 24 ..Virtual displacements and work dqn dq2 dq1 dq3 dp ω dt = J dq dqi infinitesimal (or “virtual”.

FT ω dt = .Principle of virtual work τndqn τ2dq2 τ1dq1 -F dp .FT J dq principle of virtual work τ3dq3 τidqi the sum of the “virtual works” done by all forces/torques acting on the system = 0 Robotics 1 25 .

Duality between velocity and force J(q) velocity (or displacement ) in the joint space forces/torques at the joints generalized velocity (or E-E displacement in the Cartesian space generalized forces at the Cartesian E-E ) JT(q) the singular configurations for the velocity map are the same as those for the force map Robotics 1 ρ(J) = ρ(JT) 26 .

Dual subspaces of velocity and force definitions Robotics 1 27 .

Dual subspaces of velocity and force pictorial view J(q) • • JT(q) all are linear subspaces: origins always belong to the defined sets! Robotics 1 28 .

det J ≠ 0 2.Velocity and force singularities list of possible cases n m 1. ρ < n 2. ρ = n Robotics 1 29 . det J = 0 1.n) ρ 1. ρ = m 2. ρ < m ρ = rank(J) = rank(JT) ≤ min(m.

) β 1 2 ℜ(J ) = β l2 1 Robotics 1 l2 1 (for l = l .Example of singularity analysis planar 2R arm with generic link lengths l1 and l2 - l1s1-l2s12 -l2s12 J(q) = l1c1+l2c12 l2c12 det J(q) = l1l2s2 ℵ(JT) singularity at q2= 0 (arm straight) ℜ(J) = α ℜ(JT) -s1 c1 ℵ(JT) = α c1 s1 - (l1+l2)s1 -l2s1 J= (l1+l2)c1 l2c1 ℜ(J) l1+l2 = β l2 l2 ℵ(J) = β -(l1+l2) (l2-l1)s1 l2s1 J= -(l2-l1)c1 -l2c1 singularity at q2= π (arm folded) ℜ(J) and ℵ(JT) as above l2-l1 0 T (for l = l . ) β ℵ(J) = β 1 2 -(l2-l1) 0 30 .

evaluate how “effective” is the mechanical transformation between joint torques and endeffector forces “how easily” can the end-effector apply generalized forces (or balance applied ones) in the various directions of the task space in particular. in a singular configuration.Force manipulability in a given configuration. but with semi-axes of inverse lengths Robotics 1 task force manipulability ellipsoid 31 . there are directions in the task space where an external force/torque is balanced by the robot without the need of any joint torque we consider all end-effector forces that can be applied (or balanced) by choosing joint torque vectors of unit norm same directions of the principal axes of the velocity ellipsoid.

Velocity and force manipulability a dual comparison note: velocity and force ellipsoids have here a different scale for a better view planar 2R arm with unitary links area ∝ det ( JJ T ) = σ1 ( J )⋅ σ2 ( J ) area ∝ det ( JJ T ) −1 = 1 1 ⋅ σ1 ( J ) σ2 ( J ) € € Cartesian actuation task (high joint-to-task transformation ratio): preferred velocity (or force) directions are those where the ellipsoid stretches Cartesian control task (low transformation ratio = high resolution): preferred velocity (or force) directions are those where the ellipsoid shrinks Robotics 1 32 .

Velocity and force transformations the same reasoning made for relating end-effector to joint forces/ torques (static equilibrium + principle of virtual work) holds true also for relating forces and torques applied at different places of a rigid body and/or expressed in different reference frames relation among generalized velocities relation among generalized forces Robotics 1 33 .

Example 1: 6D force/torque sensor frame of measure for the forces/torques (attached to the wrist sensor) RFA JBA f JBAT m RFB frame of interest for evaluating forces/torques in a task with environmental contact Robotics 1 34 .

θm um . θm = N θ u = N um 35 Robotics 1 . θ u link another simple application of the principle of virtual work! . .Example 2: Gear reduction at joints transmission element with motion reduction ratio N:1 motor .

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