THE CHRONOLOGY OF

A NOIENT NATIONS
AN BNOH8H VERSION 0F THE

ARABIC TKH.

OF THE ~f~~t ON

OF ~M~~v,

~< ~ESTIGES
CO~MMD.ANB BEDOCBD IN A.H.

OF THE PAST,"
TO W~rriNG A.D. 1000. fAt:~)!tlff~ ~.3. BY THB AUTHOB 390–1,

-A'~ TRANSlATED AND EDITED, WITH NOTES AND INDEX, BY

Da.

C.

EDWARD

SACHAU OF BEEUK.

PROFESSOB IN

THE NOTAI. tncn-ERSm-

LONDON: PUBLISHED FOR THE ORIENTAL TRANSLADON FUND OF6REAT BRITAIN &IRELAND By WILLIAM H. ALLEN AND CO. 18WATERLOO PLACE, PALLMALL.
FtmLmmim Te TaB ranis emoa.

1879.

tONDON: PBtNTEn BT W. H. ALT.MjtKn CO.

DEDICATED
TOTHEMBMBEBS
Of THE

COMMITTEE OF THE ORIENTAL TRANSLATION FUKD (1878).

OSMOND DE BEAUVOIR PRIAULX. EDWARD THOMAS, F.R.S. JAMES FERGUSSON, F.R.S. REINHOLD ROST, LL.D., SECBETABY. ANDTOTHE MEMOBT 0F THEODOB
LATE FROFBSSOR 0F SANSKRIT !N Tmf ntftVNNSITT

GOLDSTUCEEB,

D.C.L.
OP LONDON.

<~

PREFACE.
IT was Sir Hemy Bawlinson who nrst direoted attention to this work of AlMrûni, in his celebrated public article on Central Asia in Review thé "Quarterly for 1866, in which he gave some valuable information derived from his own manuscript copy, now the of the property British Muséum. In oSering the book, both in text and translation, to the learned worid, I feel bound to premise that it is scarcely of a nature to attract ~e interest of thé gênerai reader. It appeals to minds trained in the schools of various sciences. Even compétent scholars will find it no easy matter to follow our author through aU the mazes of his elaborate soientino calcutations. as it does, all the technioal and historical Containing, details of the various Systems for the of computation time, invented and used by the Persians, Sogdians, Chorasmians, Jews, Syrians, Harrânians, and Arabs, tngether with Greek traditions, it oners an equal interest to all those who study the antiquityand historyof the Zoroastrian and Jewish, Christian and Muhammadan religions.' The work of AlMrunî has the character of a primary source. Oriental philologists are accustomed to see one book soon superseded by another, Barhebraeus by Ibn-al'athîr, Ibn-al'atMr by AI.Tabarï. Although it is likely enough l understandthé MeIIdteMd Nestorian ByChmtia.na, Ch~ohM whilst thé author dce. not to have hnownmuch m.re of the Jaoobitesthamthename.

Vt

PREFAOE.

that on many subjeots in this book we shall one day find botter authenticated and more anoient information, 1 venture to say, that, as a whole, it will soaroely ever be It is a standard work in Oriental literature, superseded and has been recognised as suoh by the Eaat itself, representing in ita peouliar line the highest development of Onental soholarahip. Perhaps we shall one day find the literary sources themselves from whioh Albirûnî derived bis information, and shall be enabled to dispense with hie extraots frc-.i them. But there are other chapters, e.g. those on the oalendars of the ancient inhabitants of Central Asia, regarding wMoh we shall, in all likelihood, nevor find any more anoient information, beoause the author had learned the subject from hearsay among a population which was then on the eve of dying out. As the &rst editor and translator of a book of this kind, 1 venture to olaim the indulgence of the reader. Generations of scholars hâve toiled to oarry the understanding of Herodotus to that point where it is now, and how muoh is wanting still 1 The work of generations will be required to do full justice to Albîrûnî. A classioal philologist can edit a Greek toxt in a correct form, even though he may have no complete understanding of the subject-matter in all possible relations. Not so an Arabie philologist. The ambiguity of thé Arabie writing–pfo~ dolor 1-is the reason why a manuscript expresses only three-quarters of the author's meaning, whilst the editor is compelled to supply the fourth quarter from his own knowledge and discernment. No number in any chronological table can be considered correct, as long as it is not proved by computation to be so, and even in the simplest historical narrative the editor and translator may most lamentably go astray in his interpretation, if there is something wrong with the method of his research.

PREFACE,

vii

1 have boldly attacked the sometimes rather enigmatio style of the author, and if 1 have missed the mark, if the bewildering variety and multiplioity of the subjeot-matter have prevented me reaohing the very bottom of every question, 1 must do what more or less overy Oriental author does at the end of his work,-humbly ask the gentle reader to pardon my error and to correct it. I. The A~of. The full name of the author is -â~Ba~m JMM~~MK~ b. 'J~MMK~ J.~M~m~. He quotes himself as ~.M-.B<MMm (vide p. 134,1. 29), and so ho is generally called in Eastem literature, more rarely ~Mt~ The latter name means, Hterally, ~tra~eoMS, being a derivative from the Persian which meana the outside as a noun, and o-utside as a préposition. In our time the word is pronounced ~M~ (or ~oo~), eg. in Teheran, but the vowel of the firat syllable ia a y<K-MMt/M~, which meana that in more ancient times it was pronounced -S~nt~ (or Bayroon). This statement resta on thé authority of the Persian lexicographers. That the name was pronounced in this way iu Central Asia about the author'a time, we learn from an indisputable statement regarding our author from the pen of Alsam'&m, a philologist and biographer of high repute, who wrote only one hundred years after the author's death (vide Introduction to my edition of the text, p. xviii.). He was a native of Khwârizm, or Chorasmia, the modern Khiva; to speak more aoourately, a native either of a suburb (B~m) of the capital of the country, both cf which bore the same name .S~p~fMW, or of the country-district (also caUcd jP~K) bolonging to the capital. Albirûnî was born A.H. 362, 3. Dhû-alhijja (A.D. 973,

PREFAOE.

4th September), and died A.H. 440, 2. Rajab (A.D. 1048, lith Deoember), aged seventy-five years. The mst part of his life he seems to have spent in Khw&nzm, where he enjoyed the protection of the House of m'~M, the rulers of the country. Originally vaasa!a of the kings of Central Asia of the House of /?< they beoame independent when the star of their masters began to sink, ~.c.between A.H.384-390. They were, however, not to play a great part in the history of the East, for so early as A.n. 407 their power was oruahed by the gréât Mahmud of Ghazna, and their dominions annexed to his empire. Like Albirûnî, other soholars also of high standing received protection and faveurs at the court of the Ma'mûnî princes. The author is known to have lived some years aiso in Jurj&n, or Hyrcania, on the southern shores of the Caspian sea, under the protection, and perhaps at the court, of K&bus ben Washmgîr Shams-ahna'&I!, who ruled over Hyrcania and the adjoining countries at two diferent perioda, A.n. 366-371 and 388-403. To this prince ha bas dedicated the present book, appsrently about A.n. 390-391 (A.D.1000). During the years A.H. 400-407 he stayed again in his native country at the court of Ma'mûn b. Ma'mûn, as his friend and counseUor. He was a witness of the rebellion that broke out A.H.407, of the murder of Ma'mûn, and of the conquest of the country MahmM of by Ghazna, who, on returning, carried off himand other scholars to A~han~ istan in the spring of A.H.408. Among his numerous works, we find mentioned a "Chronicle of Khwârizm," in which he probably had reoordsd aUthe traditions relatingto the antiquityofhisnative country, and more especially the history of those events of

PMFAOB.

j~

;?

whioh he had himself been a witness. This work seems to be lost. However, an extraot of it bas come down to us as the last part of the great chroniole of thé royal house of Mahmûd, oomposed by Albaihakî, the editior of which we owe to the industry and learning of the late W. H. Morley (" Bibliotheca Indica," Calcutta, 1862, pp. 834, &o.). With A.H.408 begins a new period in the author's life, when he enlarged the cirole of his researches on mathematics, astronomy, ~eography, chronology, and natural sciences by his study of ladia, its geography and history, of the language and literature, manners and customs, of the HInd&s. It was thé period when he gathered all those materiaIs which he deposited towards the end of his life in his famous Memoir on India." After Albîrûnî had settled in Ghazna, he paid at least one more visit to his native country. He died, probably, at Ghazna. Whether ho travelled much in other countries besides India, 1 have no means of proving. From the present book we can only infer that, besides his native country and Hyrcania, he also knew parts of Media, e.g. Bai(Bhagse). n. His Work. AIbîr&nî caUs his work ~M<Mr Albâkiya ~M-E~ ~&MK~, i.e. monuments or vestiges of generations of the past that have been preserved up to the author's time, meaning by ~OMMmeM~s or vestiges the religious institutes of various nations and sects, founded in more ancient times, and, more or less, still praotised and adhered to by the Oriental world about A.D.1000. With admirable industry the author gathers whatever traditions he can find on every single fact, he confronts them with eaoh other, and inquires with critical aoumen

to Ehurasân. and the establishment of the history orthodox faith about 500 sealed the fate of independent research for ever. the understanding of the life and literature of the preoeding centuries becomes rare and distorted.PBBFAOB. and the farther west of Islam. but the material hitherto available for researches on thé literary history of the east is still so scanty that 1 had to desist from my plan. whilst thé later centuries are characterised by the very opposite. Syria. and wherever the nature of a tradition admits of suoh a gauge. Egypt. sometimes also unmistakable traces of a marked individuality. To speak in gênerai. Originally I intended to give a complete repose of the sources whence AIMrûnî bas drawn bis manifold information. there is much of the modern spirit and method of critical researoh in our author. We are oomparatively weU informed regarding the literature of Mesopotamia. and very seldom do we meet with a trace of soientifin method or of the individuality of the author. Authors of the nrst centuries of the Hijra sometimes betray a great deal of common sense and good method. Then the author entirely disappears behind his book all literary work sinks down to the level of imbeoile compilation from good and bad sources. he ia sure to verify it by the help of oarefui mathematioal calculation. wM]st we have very little information regarding the soien- . Mathematioat acouracy is his last gauge. into the spécial ments or demerits of each single tradition. But for Alash'art and AIghazzâIÎ the Arabs might have been a nation of Galileos. and in this respect he is a phenomenon in the history of Eastern learning and literature. and Newtons. Common sense bas gone never to return. Keplers. The fourth century is the tmiing-point in the of thé spirit of Mâm. This in applies particular to the east of the Khalifate.

so that Albirûnî did not laok the opportunity for studying the manners and institutes of the thon existing followerra of Zoroaster. on Persian and Zoroastrian history and traditions. Albirûnî had an excellent predecessor in Alisfah&nî. converts from the Zoroastrian creed. As for the <Mt«emmaterial which the author had at his disposai.e. when once in thé grasp of European influence. and of Sogdiana (or Bukhara). not only by Zoroastrians but aiso by Muslims. composed in early times. Unfortunately. of his native country. It is to bo hoped that Central Asia and Afghanistan. As regards Persian history. under the protection of the impérial governors and the later independent princes. the Zoroastrian creed had lost its clérical and political unity and constitution. will yield us rich collections of valuable literary monuments. From oral information Albirûnî seems to have learned all he knows of the chronology and calendar of the Zoroastrian populations of Persia. The people praotised their oustoms as they had seen .g. which to them had the intolerable smell of BIthy idolatry. are altogether unknown in Europe and it seems very probable that the bigoted people of later times hâve spared very little of this kind of literature.FBEFAOB. Hitherto manuscripts coming from those countries are seldom met with in the great libraries of Europe. the House of Sâman. whom he follows frequently. and in most towns there must still have been Zoroastrian communities. e. All the books. . and whom he was not able to surpass in many points. In his time the majority of the country-people still adhered to Ahuramazda. xi tific and literary life east of Bagdad as it developod itself during the first three centuries of Abbaside rule. he quotes many a book of which 1 elsewhere can scarcely find a trace.

.Xii PBBFAOB. He is much anterior to Moses Maimonides. may have been communioated to him by Nestorian priestsfrom Syriao scuroes. Jewish soholars will be able to say whether his informants were Ananites (Karaites) or Rabbanites. and whatever he relates on the authority of Greek authors–Ptolemy. but still we must betharMul to Albîrûn! for his having preserved to posterity the testai oalendars as used by Zoroastrians of his time when their religion was on tbe eve of dying out. also to Abraham bar Chiyya. Certainly a Mobedan-Mobed of the time of ArdasMr Babek&n would have been able to give a more accurate and complète aocount of Zoroastrian life and religion. but they had no longer a correct under. who seem to play a prominent part in the history of Jewish chronology. His report of thé Melkite feasts. boing a contemporary of R. 19).-must have been oommunicated to him by the ordinary ohannel of Syriao-Arabio translation. standing of their origin and meaning. i their parents do. Sherîrâ and Hâî &&ôn. There is a possibility of his having had a smattering of Hebrew and Syriao (vide pp. but of Greek he seems to have been ignorant. is the nrst of ail the soholai'8 we know who has composed a scientino system of the Jewish chronology. Galen. Albîr&nî wrote both in Arabie and Persian. &o. From oooasional notes in the book a. description of the . as he speaks of the Nestorian communities of his native oountry. To ot'a! information 1 asoribe aiso the author's admirable knowledge of the Jewish oalendar. a JMMsKw. 18. as he haa edited his "Kitâb-altafMm in both languages. &o. Eusehius. With Nestorian Christians he muât have been acquainted. His atudy of Sanskrit falls into the latter ha)f of his life. My critics do not seem to have noticed that Atbirùnï.

As a Muslim he incHned towards the SM'a.the melodyof the lute. Dakîkî. be he Muslim or not. Only a few were able to understand it. arising probably from Muslim bigotry. Theblood-coloured wine. the ohapter on Zoroaster. who would study other religions and publicly declexe in favour of them. are missing. a favourite of the Muslim house of Sâmân. Muslim orthodoxy had not yet become so powerfui as to imperil the life of a man. e-y. and 1 may add. but he was net a bigoted Muslim. Hp was not without a humoristio vein. and hia ocoasional ironical remarks offer a curions contrast to the pervading earnestness of the tenor of his speech. at thé court of the great Mabmûd of Ghazna. He betrays a strong aversion to the Arabs. Habent sM~~œ libelli. has not been a fortunate one. attacking all kinds of shams v ith bitter sarcasme. In the form in whioh 1 offer the book to the reader it is nc complète. However. should think it does not require an apology from nit) Lohave edited the book in this mutilated form in . these verses would probably have proved fatal to their author. He seems to have been a truth-loving man. few had an interest in having it oopied.and (&e <)/'Zo!'oM<M' )'e!~M)t Not long afterwards. and a marked prédilection for ailthatisof Persian or Eranian nationality. was allowed to singOfall that ia goodamd bad in the world. Manymost essential parts. the fate of this book. four thingsto himself DatS~ has chosen A womtm's lips asred as rubies.PREFAOE. xiii < anthor's oharacter may be gleaned. from the time of its composition till the time when 1 began to study it. a poet not long anterior to Albirûnî. a most deplorable loss. the destroyers of Sasanian glory. both large and small.

whioh 1 have found it in the manusoripts. all full of fanita. In tact. 1 desire to thank my friond. but atso read the proof-sheets of the entire book. they contain contributions to the explications of certain difficult passages. 24&3~y.Mary's. and-what ia worse !–agroeing with eaoh other almost in every partioular. and. The basis of my édition consista of two manusoripts of the aeventeenth and one of the nineteenth century. lastly. the Bev. Soho. Besides. Fortunately a ohronologioat work offers this advantage. 1 sha be happy if oiroumstanoea will allow me at once to edit the hitherto missing parts in text and translation. Robert Gwynne. 1879.g. My notes are in the Srst place intended to give the oaloulations on which the tables rest. in the numerous tables. For all other introduotory questions 1 refer the reader to the German preface to my edition of the text. who not only corrected the whole manuscript. all three copies represent one and the same original. In offering my translation to the English reader. London.. .xiv PREFACE. BerK~. e. that in many oases mathematioal examination enables the editor to correct the blunders of the tradition. short information on points of literary history. EDWARD SACHAU. Should the favour of time bring to light one day a oomplete copy. Yioar of St. a few remarks on the text and corrections.

–On the Ema of the Pseudo-prophets and their Communities who were deluded by them.–On the Dérivation of the Eraa from e~h other.CONTENTS.–On the Nature of that whieh is composed of Daya. 199 220 223 .–On the FeativaJs in the Months of the EhwarizMitUM 84) 141 igf. the curse of thé Lord be upon them CHAMENIX.-On the Nature of Day and Night. relating to the Commencements and thé DnM. on thoir various Qualitiea.–On the Festivala in the Montha of the Persiams CHAFTEBX. according to the various Tr&dltiona CHAPTERVIL–On the Cyclee and Year-points. on the Moleds of the TeaM and Months.–On the Na.–On the Nature of the Eras and the digèrent Opinions of the Nations reg&rding them CHAPTERIV. viz.tionB of the Reigns of the JEngs.MonthsamdTeara CHAFTEBni. TBANSLATOtt'S PREFACE PREFACE CHAPTEBI.–On the Festivals in the Months of the Sughdians CHAPTERXI. and on the Leap-months both in Jewish and other Tears CHAPTU VHI.ture of the Months which are used in the preceding Bms CaApTEB Tt.&t-~ajnMniorBicomutua re43 52 Pago V 1 5 11 16 OzApTEB V. of their TotaJity andottheirBeginninga CHAPTERn.–Thé diSetent Opinions of vatione Nations gM'dingtheEngcaJledDhû. and on the Chronological Datee.

and on theF~andFeaatDaysoftheSabiitns g~ CHAPTM XIX. those Feasts and Festive Days which depend npon Lent and revolve pM~nel with it throagh thé Tear.-On the Days of the GreekCMendM..xvi CONTANTS.–On the Christian and on Lent.–OntheFeativ~bofthoMMiima CHANM XXL-On the LunM.celebmtedbytheMethiteOhfMiJMM 282 CHAPTEBXVI.-On the Festivals of the A~ba in the time of Heathendom 3~ o~ CHATTBBXX. theu'MemorhtmdFMtDa. and on their Imagas .231 CHAPTBBXIV. Ehw&~m.-Of the Festivals and in the Months of Fast-days theje~ ~g CHAn-EB XV. ANNOTATIONS INDES 335 CHAPTEB Xn.-On the Festivals of the Nestorian Christians.–On the Feativala and Memorable Days of the SynmCMendM-. regarding whioh tdl Christian aectsagreeamongetMhother 299 CaAPTM XVn.SlMh'. Stations.33'.as known bothamongtheCtree~aandotherNatioM . Eeformof theXhw&MmtMiFestatCaJendN229 CBAPTEBXni.-On 367 449 449 . their rising and setting.ya f s<)6 CHAMM XVnL–On the Feasts of thé ancient Magians.

E!tRATA. p.383,tM~P~f'trn/t,tMft<t'7/t).<('t' Sftc~ Mmtien) "ith thé 2<tj8ttpo~ of Byzantine fmthoïs, Perhaps Stbft'tftdet'iveditsuntno. p. 451, col. 2, last liue, fM.~c Chium, 266, 10. 266, 10. p. 452, col. 1. )im 1, oftn Chinese ;<"f p. 460, after p.460,aft('t'Muet2'"«'f– Poison-monntain (raroRet) atmnaphet-e), 263, 17. p. 462, col. 2, after line 18 )«v<– Tibetans, 263, 17. DIRECTION TaMeofKebi'ôth h TO THE BINDER. to face p. 154.

from whom

PREFACE.
IN THE NAbiS OF ~OD, THE COMPA88IONATZ, THE MBRCIFUL. PBAiM be to God who is high above all things (lit. those which are unlike, and those which are like to each other), and blessing be on Muhammad, the elected, the best of all created beings, and on hia family, the guides of righteousness and trath. One of the exquisite plans in God'a management of the affaira of hia creation, one of the glorious benefits which he has bestowed upon the entirety of bis creatures, is that categorieal decree of his, mot to leave in 10 his world any period without a just guide, whom he eonatitutes as a protector for his creatures, with whom to take refuge in unfortunate and sorrowful cases and accidents, and upon whom to devolve their aNairs, when they seem indissolubly perplexed, so that the order of the world should rest upon-and its existence be supported by-his genius. And this decree (that theaBain of mankind should be governed by aprophet) bas been settled upon them as a religions duty, and has been linked together with the obedience towards God, and the obedience towards his Prophet, through which alone a reward in future life may be obtainedin accordance with the word of him, who is the truth and justice–and 0 ye believers, obey God, and obey 20 hia word is judgment and decree, the prophets, and those among yourselves who are invested with thé eommand." (Sûra iv. 62.) Therefore, thanks be to God for thoae blessings, which he has bestowed npon his servants, by exalting our master, the commander, the prince, the glorious and victorioua, the benefactor, Sh&ma-alma'&M,may Ctod

1

ALBÎRÛNÎ.
give him a long J: andgive dumtion tohispowerand majesty, préserve through thé course of time his excellence and Ma splendeur, protect his whole house (M. thé areas inside and outaide his house), proatrate aU those who envy him, and aU his enemies, (by exalting him) M a guide, who justly ruiea over Ma creatures, who furthers religion and truth, who fights for the altar and the hearth of the MusJims, and who protects their country against the mischief of evU-doera. And God ha,a supported him by giving him a charMter similar to that with wMch he has Meaaed hie Prophet, the bearer of his revelation for he, whose name be pN.iaed, bas anid To thee ha.a been given a high character." (Sûra Ixviii. 4.) 10 How wonderfully bas he, whoae name is to be exaiteJ and extolled, combined with the glory of his noble extraction the gra~ea of his generous character, with Ma valiant soul aU laudable qualitiea, aach as piety and righteousness, carefulneas in defending and observing the rites of religion, justice and equity, humility and beneficence, firmnesa and determination, liberality and gentleness, the talent for ruling and governing, for managing and deciding, and other qualities, whieh no fancy could comprehend, and no human being enumerate! And how should a. man wonder a.t this, it being undeniable that God bas the power to combine the whole world in one individual (i.e. to croate a nucrocoamoa) There- 20 fore, mav God permit the MuaHma HtiH for a long period to enjoy the Mndneaa of Ma intentions, the ingenuity of Ma plama, and Ma evidently mercifui and pitiful mind, with wMch he cases for them May they from day to day derive more benefits from the perpétuai shade of bis majesty, to whieh they are accustomed And may God assist by his Knd~eaa and mercy, high and low, to fulfil tha works of obedience towards God, wMch are imposed upon them 1 4. p. Dedica.tiom.–The Author'S Nethod.–A leamed man once asked me regarding the eras used by digèrent nations, amd regarding the difference of their roots, t.e. the epochs where they begin, and of their branches, t.e. 30 the months and yeara, on which they are based; further regarding the cauaea wMch led to auch diSerenoe, and the famous festivals and commemoration-daya for certain times and éventa, and regarding whatever else one nation practises diSerentIy from another. He urged me to give an explanation, the clearest possible, of aU this, ao as to be easily intelligible to the mind of the reader, and to free him from the ne~easity of wading through widely scattered books, and of consulting their authors. Now 1 was qnite aware that this was a taak difficult to handle, an object not eaaily to be attained or managed by anyone, who wante to treat it as a matter of logical sequence, regarding wMch the mind of thé student is not agitated by doubt. However, from the majesty of our master, the 40 prince, the glorious and victorions, the bcjM&tetor, Shama-alma'an–may God make hia power to endure! derived strength in exerting my capa,bilities, and trying to do my ntmom in order to explain the -vhole subject on the basis of that information wMch 1 have gathered either as

PREFACE.

3

10

20

80

40

an ear- or eye-witness, or by cogitation and study. Besides, 1 was encouraged by that robe of blessed service, in which 1 have dressed myself, to compose such an explanation for him, who occupies a high throne, that he may see herein a new sign of my service, and that thereby 1 may obtain the garments of such a glory, the memory and splendeur of which will last as my heirloom in posterity through the flood of ages and generations.J If, therefore, he-whose noble mind may Qod preserve will faveur hia servant by overlooking bis audacity, and accepting his excuses, he foUowa the right idea, if it pleMea God. And now 1 commence and say The béat and nearest way leading to that, regardmg which 1 have been asked for information, is the knowledge of the history and tradition of former nations and generations, because the greatest part of it consists of matters, which have come down from them, and of remains of their customs and institutes. And thia object cannot be obtained by way of ratiocination with philosophical notions, or of inductions based upon the observations of our senses, but solely by adopting the information of those who have a written tradition, and of the members of the different religions, of the adherents of the different doctrines and religious sects, by whom the institutes in question are used, and by making their opinions a basis, on which afterwards to build up a system besides, we must compare their traditions and opinions among themselves, when we try to establish our system. But ere that we must clear our mind from all those accidental circumstamees which deprave n.ost men, from all causes whieh are liable to make people blind against the truth, e.o. inveterate custom, party-spirit, rivalry, being addicted to one's passions, the desire to gain influence, etc. For that which 1 have mentioned, is the nearest way you could take, that teads to the true end, and the most emcient help towards removing aU the clouds of uncertainty and doubt, which beset the subject. It is impossible in any other wayto reach the same purpose, notwithstanding the greatest care and exertion. On the other hand, we confess that it is by no means easy to act upon that principle and that p. 5. method, which we have laid down, that on the contrary from ita reconclite nature, and its difficulty, it might seem to be almost unattainable-on account of the numerous lies which are mixed up with all historical records and traditions. And those lies do not ail on the face of itappear to be impossibilities, so that they might be easily distinguished and eliminated. However, that which is within the limita of possibility, has been treated as t'-ne, as long as other evidence did not prove it to be false. For we witness sometimes, and others have witnessed before us, physieal appearances, which we should simply declare to be impossible, if something similar were related from a far remote time. Now the life of man is not aunnaent to learn thoroughly the traditions of one of the many nations. How, therefore, could he learn the ttaditiona of all of them? That is impossible. 1

ALBÎBONÎ.
The matter standing thus, it is our duty to proceed from what is near to the more distant, from what M known to that which is tess known, to gather the tmditioM from those who have reported them, to corKct them as much M possible, and to leave the rest as it is, in order to make our work help him, who seeks truth and loves wisdom, in making researches on other subjects, and guide him to find out thatindependent whioh was denied to us, whilst we were working at this subject, by the will of God, and with hie help. In conformity with our plan, we must proceed to explain thé nature of day and night, of their totality, ie. the Mtronomicat day, and Msumed 10 beginning. For day and night are to the months, years, and eras, what one ia for the numerals, of which they are composed, and into whieh they are resolved. By an accurate lnowledge of day and night the progress towards learning that whieh ia composed of them and built upon them. becomes easy.

5

CHAPTER I.
ON THB NATURE OF DAYAND NMHT, OF THEM TOTALITY AND Op THBIB BMINNIN08. 1 M.Y Day and night (i.e. t~m') are one revolution of the sun in the rotation of the universe, starting from and returning to a drde, whieh hae been assinned as the beginning of this same Nychthemeron, whichsoever circle it may be, it being determined by général consent. Thia CM-e!e M a great cirde, for each great circle is an horizon. By "d'~MH)nc<tHy" (ï~Swa/tK), I mean that dynamioaJIy it (this circle) 10 may be the horizon of any place on the earth. By the fo~Mt of the <t!t~ee," 1 mean the motion of the oeiestM aphere, and of all tna.t is in it, which we observe going round on ita two poles from east to west. The Setting of the Sun as the of the the beginning Ara.bs Msuaed as the beginning of their Nychthemeron Day.–Now, the point where the setting sun intersecta the circle of thé horizon. Therefore their Nychthemeron extenda from the moment when thé sun disappears from the horizon till his disappearance on the following day. They were induced to adopt this system by the fact that their months are based upon the course of the moon, derived from her various motions, and 20 that the beginnings of the months were fixed, not by calculation, but by the appearance of the new moons. Now, full moon, the appearance of whioh is, with them, the beginning of the month, becomes visible towarda aunaet. Therefore their night preceded their day and, therefore, it is their custom to let the nights precede the when they p. 6. mention them in connection with the namea of the days, seven days of the week. Those who herein agree with them plead for this system, saying that darkness in the order (of the creation) precedes light, and that light suddedy came forth when darkness cxisted already that, therefore, 30 that which was anterior ;n existence is the most suitable to be adopM

6

ALBÎBÛNÎ.

M the beginniug. And, therefore, they considerod absence of motion as superior to motion, compa.ring reat and tranquillity with darkness, amd because of the fact that motion is always pïoduced by some want and necessity that weariness follows upon the necessity that, therefore, weariness is the consequence of motion. La?tly, becausc rest (the absence of motion), when remaining in the elements for a time, does not produce decay whilst motion, when remaining in the eleraents and taking hold of them, produces corruption. As instances of this they adduce earthquakes, storms, waves, &c. The Rising of the Sun as the beginning of the Day.–As to the 10 other nations, the Greeks and Romans, and thoae who follow with them the like theory, they bave agreed among themselves that the Nychthemeron shouid be reckoned from the moment when the sun rises above the eastern horizon till the same moment o~ the following day, M their months are derived by calculation, and do not depend upon the phases of the moon or any other star, and as the months begin with the beginning of the day. Therefore, with them, the day precedes the night; and, in favour of this view, they argue that light is an .BM, whilat darkness is a J~Mt-etM. Those who think that light was anterior in existence to darimess consider motion as superior to rest (the absence 20 of motion), because motion is an .B<M, not a JVo~t-eM–is life, not death. They meet the arguments of their opponents with similar ones, saying, e.y. that heaven is something more excellent than the earth that a working man and a young man are the healthiest; that running water does not, like standing water, become putrid. Noon or Nidnight as the beginning of the Day.-The greater part and tho most eminent of the leamed mon among astronomers reckon the Nyohthomeron from the moment when thé sun arrives on the plane of the meridian tiU the same moment of the following day. This is an intermediate view. Therefore their Nychthemera begin from the 30 visible half of the plane of the meridian. Upon this system they have built their calculation in the astronomical tables (the Canons), and have thereby derived the places of the stars, along with their equaJ motions and thoir corrected places, in the almanacks (lit. year-books). Other astronomers prefer the invisible half of the plane of the méridien, and begin, therefore, their day at midnight, as eg. the author of the Canon (Zîj) of Shahriyarân Shah. This does not alter the case, as both methods are based upon the same principle. People were induced to prefer the meridian to the horizon by many oircumstanoes. One was, that they had discovered that the Nych. 40 themeM. vary, amd are not always of the same length; a variation whioh, during the éclipses, is clearly apparent even to the senses. The reason of this variation is the fact that the course of the sun in the ecliptic varies, it being accelerated one time and retarded another and that the single sections of the ecliptic cross the cireles (the horizons)

ON THE NATURE 0F DAY AND NIGHT.

7

at a different rate of velocity. Therefore, in order to remove that variation which attaches to the Nychthemera, they wanted some kind of equation and the équation of tho Nychthemera by means of the rising of the ecliptic above the mcridia.n is constant and règular everywhere on the earth, because this circle is one of thé horizons of the p. 7 globe which form a right angle (with the meridian) and because its conditions and qualities remain the same in every part of thé earta. This quality they did not find in the horizontal circles, for they vaty for each place and every latitude haa a particular horizon of its own, 10 different from that of any other place, and because the single sections of the ecliptic croM the horizons at a different rate of velocity. To use the horizons (for the equation of the Nychthemera) is a proceeding both imperfeet and intricfbte. Another reason ivhy they preferred the meridian to the horizon is this, that the distances between the meridia.ns of different places correspond to thé distmces of their meridmns on the equator and the parallel circles; whilat the distances between the horizontal circles are the same with the addition of their northern and southern declination. An accurate description of everything eonnected with stars and their 20 places is not possible, except by means of tliat direction whieh dépends upon the meridian. This direction is called "longitude," which bas nothing in common with the other direction, which dépends upon the horizon, and is called "latitude." Therefore they have chosen that circle which might serve as a reguJar tmd constant basis of- their caloulations, and have not used others although, if they had wished to use the horizons, it would have been possible, and would have led them to the same results M the meridian, but oniy after a long and roundabout process. And it is the greatest mistake possible purposely to deviate from the direct route in order to 80 go by a long roundabout. is the Day, Night, and the Dnration of the Day of Fast.-This général definition of the day which we give, the night being included. Now, if we proceed to divide and to distinguish, we have to state that the words Yam)t" (da-y) in its restricted signification, and "JNcM)'" (day), mean the same, viz., the time from the rising of the body of the eun till its setting. On the other htmd, Mt~M means the time from the setting of the body of thé sun till its rising. Thus these two terms arc used among all nations by général consent, nobody disputing their meanings, oxcept one Muslim lawyer, who bas defined the beginning of 40 the day to be the rise of dawn, and its end to be the setting of the sun, because he presumed that the day and the duration of fusting were identical. For this view of his ho argues from the followiug word of God (Sûra, ii. 183) Bat and drink tiU you can distinguish a white thread from a black throad at thé light of daim. Thereupon fast the entire day till the night." Now, he bas maintained that these two termx

8

ALBiB~NÎ.

Nid tMy7t<) are the two Umits of the day (6eytnm!'nyand end). (<&t!em Between this view, however, and this verse of the Coran there ia not the slightest connection whatsoever. For if thé beginning of tartine was identical with the beginning of the day, bis (God's) definition of something that M quite evident and well known to everybody, in such tenns, would be like a paine-taking attempt to explain something void of sense. Likewise he bas not defined the end of day and the beginning of night in similar terms, because thia ia generally known among all mankind. God ordeM that fasting should commence at the riee of dawn; but the end of faating he does not describe in a fimilar way, but simply says 10 that it should end a.t "night," because everybody knows that this mesms thé time when the globe of the sun diaa.ppea.rs. Hence it is evident that Ctod, by the words of the first sentence (t.e. eat and drink tiU you can distinguish a white thread from a black thread at the light of dawn), does not mean the beginning of day. A further proof of ~he correctness of our interpreta.tion is the word of God (Sûra ii. 183) "It bas been declared as lawful to you during the p. 8. night of fasting to have intercourae (lit. to apeak obscène things) with your wivef," &c., to the passage, "Thereupon fast the entire day till the night." Thereby he extends the right of having intercourse with one's 20 wife, and of eating and drinking, over a certain limited time, not over the entire night. Likewise it had been forbidden to Muslims, before this verse had been revealed, to ea.t and drink after night-pra.yer (the time when thé dajkr.eas of night commences). And btill people did not reckon their fasting by days and parts of the night, but simply by deys (althongh the time of fasting waa much longer than the day). Now, if people say that God, in this verse (Sûra. ii. 188), wanted to teach mankind the beginning of the day, it would necessarily follow that before that moment they were ignorant of the beginning of day and night, which ia simply absurd. 30 Now, if people say the legal day is différent from thé natural day, this is nothing but a difference in words, and the calling something by a name, which, according to the usage of the language, means something eise. And, besides, it must be considered that there is not thé slightest mention in the verse of the d')y and of its beginning. We keep, however, aloof from pt.rtina<:ious disputation on this subject, and we are willing to agree with our opponents as to the expressions if they will agree with us regarding the subject-matter. And how could we believe a thing the contrary of which is evident to our sensés ? For evening-twilight in the west corresponds to morning. 40 dawn in the east, both arise from the same cause, and are of thé same nature. If, therefore, the rise of moming-dawn were the beginning of the day, the disappearauce of evening-twilight would be its end. And Mtually some Shiites have been compelled to adopt such a doctrine. Let us take it for granted that those who do not agree with us

and whioh shows that their wages are the highest.yer of the day is silent.c[~< 20 (~oot !<n~/tqjtf<tt). Further.phors and metonymics. or pretend not to know it. and he wraps day (Sûra xxxv. however. if they do not know this. the word of God (Sûra xvi." Another argument in favour of our view is the following saying. the advancing. night bas comeP" Such expressions merely indicate the a. e. amd that noon is not then when the sun reaches the midst between his rising and p. and likewise the latter half. and l'écornes yellow-" evening has come. Now." And the fact that .pproa~hing. and he makes day enter into night" He wraps night around day.t all events they cannot help admitting that the first half of the day is six hours long. That. setting points. a. They are allowed in thé usage of the language. Thia is to be understood of the ~fo!-<B tempofo~ oH~MŒ (&p<u «atptffot). which is attributed to the Prophet. which are also called <B~tttHOc<. cf. near to the point of the winter-solstice either arriving there or leaving it) that this takes place only in some parts of tho earth to the exclusion of others that the winter night is not equal to the summer day. because of the well known and weU authenticated tradition which relates to the prerogatives of those who ha~ten to the moaque on a Friday. These phrases are to be explained as meta. if we should comply with their wish. and the receding of the precise timc in whieh people just 40 happen to be. and 10 around night" (Sûra xxxix. mt~M&<M gone.not of the Bb)-<B rec~. although their time of work in the six hours from thé beginning of the day till thé time of the decline of the sun is the shortest. 9. If somebody will stick to what people say at dawn-rise.ceptedeven by those who have only a slight insight into the matter. that we have the longest day when the sun stands nearest to the north pole the shortest day when the sun is at the greatest distance from the north pole that the shortest summer night is equal to the shortest winter day. 9 regarding that which we have previously explained. 7). day hM gone. to whom and to whose family may God be merciful The pra. 1) Théorder of God haa come thprefore do not ~!Mfyit. and that the same meaning M expressed by the two verses of the Coran God makes night enter into day." what is he to think of what they say when the sun is near setting.<. Whiist just the contrary of these necessary inferences 30 from their theory is the conclusion generally a. and acknowledge their assertions a~ truth. 14).e. similar absurdities must follow out of their reasoning he only will thoroughly comprehend who is to some degree acquainted with the motions of the (celestiaJ) globes.o. that he thinks. we should have to believe that an equinox takes place when the sun moves on either side of the winter solstice (t. Against this they cannot pretend to be blind. Now.ON THE NATURE OF DAY AND NIGHT. agree with us as to the fact that twice a year night and day are °qua.I–once in spring and once in autumn. like us. mo~u~ &<M come.

because it ie in the midst. between the ûrst of the two daily prayera and the Stst of the prayera of the night. My only object in all I have discuMed in this place M to refute the opinion of those who think that those things which are necessary for eertMN philosophical or physieal cawMa piove the contrary of that which is indicated by the Coran.pmyer the "&-at pmyer.10 AMÎBÛNÎ. beoause it M thé Brat ot thé two daily pmyem whilst they caU theaftemoon-pMyerthe"middle" prayer. and who try to support their opinion by the doctrine of one of the hwyera and oommemtatoN of the Corm God hejps to the right insight! 1 10 . people caM the noom.

on account of which the sages have strongly recommended us to continue making observations. whether they be equal or different. 10 According to Ptolemy these revolutions are equaJ.l observations do not agr"e. according to consideraNy. and is then summed up into a whole. According others less. The difference of the observations regarding thé length of one annual revolution of the sun does not anse from this cause. ON THE NATMtZOf THATWHICH ÏS COMPOSEB OF DAYS. In this way the sun ineludea in his course the four seasons. whilst they are unequal according to the authors of Sindhind and the modern astronomers. and to guard against errors vhich possibly might have entered into them. winter. but differ to some observations it is larger. 1 SAT Tear means one revolution of the sun in thé ecliptic. autumn. and to gain thereby an accurate knowledge of thé real state of the thing but this that it is 30 cause. because he did not find that the apogee of the sun moves. impossible to nx the parts of the greatest circle by . in a short apace of time this diSerem-e scarcely 20 becomes perceptible but in the long run of time.VIZ. when thii difference M being redoubled and multiplied many times.. MONTHS AND YEARS.11 CHAPTER II. and returning to the same point which bas been assumcd as the starting-point of hia motion.ys to the point whence he commenced. a very great error becomes clearly manifest. whichsoever point this may be. that people do not know how properly to institute such observations. As to the length of such a revolution in days and fractions of a day. these revolutions include the four seasons and their natures. summer. and their four different natures and retumsatwa. however. In each case. the résulta of the astronomica. spring. moving in a direction opposite to that of the universal motion. However. because their observations led them to think that the apogee of the sun moves.

and neglected the following fractions until the day-quarters S aummed up in the course of 120 ye~. b~t~ same rule as long as their empire lasted.c techme~y. di~reg~ded. further.did. be~e their motions are comparatively and eau hidden. when it has summedup thereto.. followed but with this difference. ~~T~~ interc~~d therein. whieh is ne~ly 11 d~. the lunar year. The ancient Egyp. and because they resemble each other.460 years. follow the fourth parts of a day (“. On this subject 1 have enlarged i~~mmy in my boot. but only by ~tronomi~t observations and expenment. and agreed with the people oî Alexandria and Constantinople as to the beginning of the year. ~hich 1 h~d the honour to present to His Righness.y<~theycall~intercibry year. to the number of days of one complete month. that they neglected thé quarters of a day till they had summed up to the number of days of one complete year.l only . Thi. and th. They reckon their year as add days. than 12: revolutions. For they reckoned tbeir ye~ as 865 days. 40 p. relates. They have n. and uf Alexandria. plants and animals. in which the f~etion (beyond the 12 revolutions). i. the Egyptians of our time. and has 12 lunations. thé Syrians and Chdd~n.. the am~Uneaa of the instruments of observations in comparison with the vaatnesa of the bodies whMh are to be observed. M far as time and the 20 state of the air. consists of nearly 365! days. means of thé parts of the . according to their opinion. Afterwards "~speopie people derived from these two kinds of years other years.e. and until the fifth parts of an hour. be<~e depend entirely they are the greatest of ~U.t used other yeara-the Solar year stars for the purpose of deriving years from them. This Bp~e of time.malleat circle..c&Ued&MM~MiHK~ thia During time. the 12 revolutions of the moon in the Mhpt. are concert. as 1 have explained in my book on the investigation of raya and thé same lights. and the other Greeks. The Lue fact. which. but theytrea. the people of Constantinople.. in his Canon. the moon completes a little le. May Qod merease his majesty In consequence.biU&h. 1 refer t. i. is the reason why the ecliptie wM divided into 12 equal 10 parts. 11.e. use the solar year. then they intercalated one year. So'Theon Ale~ndrinu. found out by eyesight. hardly ever b. during one revolution of the sun in thé ecliptio. !.un and moon for this purpose). because the changes of theparticles of the elements and their mutual metamorphoses.ted it differently. and because they excel the other stars their light and by appearance. which took place in 1.12 ALBÎBÛN!. The Solar TeM-According to the statement of Theon. and the quarters of a day in every fourth year as one complète day. of Almu~. they give the . upon the motions of these two celestial bodies. Further (they use. people distinguish two kinds of and the Lunar year. etc.~ hâve adopted the ye~.

the Sâbians.ON THE NATURE 0F MONTES AND YEAB8. the cardinal point in all th's being the Passover of the Jews but they differed from them in the use of the months. Jews. 'Abu Thumâma. to speak roughly. They. the day and what follows it. and of the ayatejM of the Persians in Islam. a plural form of ~<t!<tmt)Mf!. and each 10 month as 30 days. which they called "intercatary month. Junada ben 'Auf ben < 'Umayya ben Kala'ben t . wherein they followed the system of the Greeks amd Syrians. and its months from thé revolution of the moon-with this view.–Thé Hebrews. '. This was done for a reason which 1 shall explain hereafter. This business was administered by the Nasa'a (the intercalators) of the tnbe of Kinâna. observing the difference between their year and the solar year. as soon as it completed the number of days of a month. and their neglecting them altogether. reckoned the year as 360 days. whioh is 10 days s 21~ hours. 12.stheir aversion to the fractions. and were considered as their kinsmen. and Harrânians. 1 have heard that the Pêshdâdian kings of the Persians. those who ruled over the entire world. Therefore they intercalated 7 months in 19 lunar years. and 20 the people of Khwârizm and Sogdiana. The exMmpIeof the Persians wM followed by the ancient inhabitants of Khwârizm and Sogdiana. had summed up to one day. that their feast and fast days might be regulated by lunar computation. the other on account of the quarter of a day that they held this year in high honour. i. 13 solar year the length of 865t daya and hour)." and that in it they occupied themselves with the affairs of divine worship and mattera of public interest." and two months in every 120th year. who were subject to them. the one on account of the five days (the Epagomenta). used an intermediate system. and by all who had the same religion as the Persians. 40 known as thé ~TttMmtO.e. anj caUed it the blesaed year. that they intercalated one month in every sixth year. which signines a /M!owtn~ ee<t. These were 'AM Thumâma and his ancestors I. as 1 shall explain hereafter in the derivation of their cycles and the different kinds of their years. and at the same time keep their places within the year. They derived their year from the revolution of the sun. then they added the complete month to the year in each 116th year. The character of thé ayatem of the &noient Egyptians. during the tima when their empire flourished. without any addition and subtraction. The Christians agreed with them in the mode of the computation of 30 their faating and of some of their festivals. and aU the Israélites. reckoned this difference as 10 days and 20 hours. however. and adding it to the year as one month p. In a similar way the heathen Arabs proceeded. according to what the Ahnageat relates regarding the eara on which ita own system of computation was based. The Lmu-SoIar Year.

Thé Met who celebrates them. and said: Il Timeha. describes him in the following term~"ThereisFu~aim! He was called Alkalammas." Another poet says: ~J~ new-moon ~ie adds together and snme it up. HudhM&ben 'Abdben Futaim ben The first of the~ who held this X-'Adiyyben 'Amir ben 10 Tha'bb& ben MMikben XIV." astray (people)." He taken this system of inte~Mon from the ~n~ bef. This etate of things remained till the Prophet made hi. Till it makea out a complete month.tors. was 'Aba-Thum&ma. 20 A celebrated man.rel. 'AbbM ben EaJa* ben Vn. he recited to them the (juat mentioned) verse of the Coran on the prohibition of the j~ intention. His word being obeyed.lam. thé Jew. B. who held it. of the months are no longer in conformity with their original meaning. of exalted rank. ~~t~°'orm~ 30 through the y~r without retrograding and without advancing. however. 01licewasVII.) The Prophet delivered an add~a ta thé people.14 ALBÎBÛNÎ." and." And another poet says: (a-e WM. e~ day of G. (Sûrs. V. and the following verse was revealed to him "Inter~tion i~în m~e of infidelity. Bvcr ~"eglected intercalation. Farewell pilgrimage. In this wa. 37. he being recognised a chieft~in.equence their months were fixed. and the n~ne. In c. intercalated ~T 24 lunar years. . by which the inËdeb lead admitting it one year and prohibiting it in another. And he was one of the foundem of their religion. ix.y he spent his time.. pudhaif~. continuing.Bc~tingthe heavens and the earth. that their month. famous among the forerunners of Xinâna.Kinanfh The last of them.d. They were all of them interca1a. have 40 receded from their original places.n.

One revolution of the sun. that the Indiana ~<A~-<t. . use four different kinds of spacea of time 20 I. that they intercfda. because it is longer than the lunar year and shorter than the solar year. They are likely to hâve no other systems besides those we have men~ tioned. 360 risings of the sun. because.e. and that of their era they nx the to the moment when a conjunction takes place in beginning thé nrst minute of any zodiacat sign. It is very possible that this is the case. therefore 1 turn away from wha. 12 lunations. from the star ~7M~f~ starting (i. IV. her really mansions and their subdivisions. The leap-year they caU ~<&M. they use. which consists of 327 days and nearly 7~ houra. m. And God is my help! 'Abû-Muhammad Am&'ib Alâmul! relates in his on the authority of Ta~ub bon Târi~. and each nation seems to follow the example of the system of their neighhours. in their aatrological and not the zodiacal signs. The chief object of their searehing is that this con10 junction ahould take place in one of the two equinoctial points. This i3 the lunar which year. their opinions on this subject are weB known. of all stars. However. have heard that the Indians use thé appearance of new-moon in their months. they use specially the moon.ON THE NATURE OP MONTHS AND TEABS. the head of Aries) and returning to it. with anybody who had an accurate knowledge of this subject. n. 15 As to the other nations. Thia is thé solar year. Yeara of the Indi&na.te one lunar month in every 976 days. 12 revolutions of the moon. I have not met determinations. This is caUed thé middie-year. starting from a point of the ecliptic and returning to it. This M their lunar year.t 1 cannot know for certain.

or any grand event of ~e celeetial and 10 the famous tellnrian ntiraontouB occurrences. a. and in every institute (t. AND THB NFFBBBNT OPINIONS 0F THB NATIONSBMAttNNa TBNM. the like of whioh is not aJlowaMe for eraa. or by intense dronght. was sent. And thence they derive the dates. Each of the nations scattered over the different parts of the world has a spécial era. Christians. f~om it. with signs and wonders. such an era cannot be dispensed . or of some of those events whieh we have just now mentioned. and because the student M incapable of 30 . ON THE NATUM 0F THB BRAN.vith in ail seoular and religious affaire. CHAPTER III. 14. thé knowledge of which is connected with the beginning of creation and with the history of bygone generations. festivals) whieh is exclusively peonliar to them. which they count from the times of their kings or prophets.e. Magians. or in whieh a change of dynasty or religion took place. But among those who hâve a book of divine revelation. and their various sects. is mixed up with MsiScations and myths.nd with a proof of his divine mission. Now. there exists such a difference of opinion as to the nature of this met. or a. 20 Era Of thé Création. or in which a. in which either a prophet. which they want in social intercourse. because a long interval separates us therefrom.16 ALBÎB~Ni. EttA means a definite spaee of time. because it belongs to a far retnote age. whioh do not happen aave at long intervals and at times far distant from each other.–Thé first and most famous of the beginnings of antiqnity is the fact of the creation of mankind. or dynasties. nation perished by a universal destructive detcge. By such éventa the nxed moments of time (the epocXa) are recognised. reckoned from the beginning of some put year. such as the Jews. and as to the question how to date p. great and powerful king rose. in chronology. Everything. or by a violent earthquake and einking of the earth. or a sweeping pestilence.

and of fixing it (. the Persians and Greeks disagree as to the time after Alexander. God saya_Have they not got the storiea about those who werebeforethemP P None but God knows them. the elemente did not which there was no growth. If we deduct therefrom the duration of the rule of the Saeauian !rings as fur as the beginning of 30 ~th~ it.n. For they count from Alexander till the beginnirg of the 257 daya. and the earth was not cultivated. But if we aum up the years of the reign of eaeh of the Ashkanianidng~ they have ~Hed~~t~h. decay. creation of Gayomarth. if wecompute the from the creation of whom they hold t. nearly 415 years. the prevalent opinion. The animais 2 .000 eorreto the number of the signs of the zodiac and of years sponding the months and that Zo~ter~ the founder of their law.o as t. count îrom the beginning of the world years therefore they tiU Alexander 3. From his appearance till the c. viz.-taking into the length of the reign of each of regard their difference of opinion as to them.00~.e past whieh we have mentioned are to opinion be counted from the 3. Thereupon. when the ccaleetial globe was set a. because.h had accrued t. 17 keeping it in memory. before that. Farther. till the time when they were intercalated and were made t.we find a of opinion regarding it among these nations. or. be the first man.258 yeara 20 However.) Therefore it M becoming not to admit account of a simitar subject. or by a tradition. till the time of his appearance. them on account of the day-quarters. considerable divergence For the Persiansand 10 Mag~s think that the dumtion of the world ia 12.000 years.iT~5~s. 15. for the time till Alexander. 3. the reign of each 1~ r"r~ Iran) remained with bis descendanta without interruption-this number M.000 years f) elapsed-a -K:=ix-. of which is relied upon. and no mis-during P. created beings) did not interehange. intercalated with the day-quarters for he himself had made their e~putati. according t.ON THE NATURE OF THE EBAS. If we MwnMt consider thisem. preserve it from confusion). and part south of the line. whi.-goÍ1lg. Thi. thé . years. and sum up the yeara of <~y6marth.diSereneelshaUhereaftertryto~e~ A section of the Persians is of that tho.-the sum of mot more thanSOO years. furniah groundt) of proof. for whieh the conditions of authenticity.crrectue." (SûnHx il..3M yeara. we S.. so that part of him in longitudinal direction was on the north. if it any M not attesta by a book. and had taken into account that defect.=~~T the Mul&le-al-fawâ'if reigned. So the apeeffication of the single i~' addition doea not agree with the sum total.the first man came into existence on the equator. the sum total of 3.. thought that of thoae there had passed. agree with real time. already 6.

xtix. which means: WM aboliahed until impurity comes to destruction it is 1. which means I. according to the Christian doctrine. the birth of Jeans from a pure virgin at the end of time. 11) o' oa0 Yip~ruTn T~nn ~oin jiya Since the time when the aurifiée O''y<n O~MNI. upon certain modes of interpretation derived from the ~M~-o~'ttBtBM!. According to others. 18). support what they maintain. the Jews M.836) to the time when the rebuilding would be finished. ~flOMIDDH ~K Minn C1~ B!1Q '*JB. God. Both parties depend.290) to the beginning of the rebuilding of Jerusalem and the latter (1.335 years after Alexander. and the world was growth and decay arranged in conformity with fiaed norme. as e. were produccd. sr as not to coincide with that time at whioh. it is 5. which is meant 30 is hère by God'a com<:M!t!~f Mm<e!~ The word being" (~~=~3) In order to synonymous with "a&air" (or "order.g. he . xii. M M to give rise to the earth was cultivated. they quote two pasaagea in the Book of Daniel (xii. The Jews and Chnatiana differ widely on thia subject.385. the time between Adam and Alexander ia 3. and no more prqphets were sent.y." Some people explain the difference of forty-five years in these two passages so as to refer 40 p. in their bringing forward of argumente. 20 Thia expectation was based on the assumption that tne beginning of this era (~!ra Alexandri) coincided with thé time when the sacrimcea were abolished.180 yeara.290. pecting it like aomething whieh they know for certain.18 AMÎBÛNÎ. whilst. the drst number is the date of the birth of Messiah." and the next following passage (Dan. claimed to be bis messengers to them. for. when no more divine revelation was received. and others. whiist the latter is the date of hL public appearamee. aa the prophets after Moses had prophesied.335. 10 according to their view." 1''MCt< *mCn. according to the doctrine of the Jews. command"). ex. the former date (1. In eonsequenee of which many of the pseudo-prophets of their sects." Thia they declared to be the time dnring which no inspiration from heaven waa received and the sacrifices were abolished. which are. conceaHng. The Christians reproach the Jews with having diminished the number of years with the view of making the appearance of Jesus fall into the fourth millennium in the middle of the aeven millenuia. Al-r& *AbA-îs&AI-isfah&nî. So the Jews expect the coming of the Messiah who was promised to them at the end of 1. 12): y~ -t~DOn ''1~ m~O'n 0''<t~7!th f)1MQ <th7<th t)7K 0'7 which means: '"Therefore happy he who hopes to reach to 1. the time of the duration of the world. shall conceal my And they counted the letters of the worda 6Mms' till that day. the word for which gives the anm of 1. waa to take place.448 yeara. 10). Further. Then they referred to the Hebrew word of God in the 5th book of the Thora (Dent. and mankind commenced to reproducc their own apecies and to multiply the atoma of the elements mixed. xxxi. 16.when Jacob bestowed bis blessing upon Judah (Ckn.

insomuch that no more divine revelation nor prophets were sent." Computing the value of the letters of these words. utterly neglected. thé Messiah. Then. And in of his coming Unshhm will undergo its last destruction. wMch time is also mentioned in thé Book of Zekharyâ ben Berekhyâ ben ~ddô' (Zechariah iv.e. It any is a prophecy indicative of the name of the Messiah. 9) Thé hands of Zerubbabel have laid thé foundation of thia bou~his handsabo shall naishit" The tuue from thé beginning of his rebuilding of the house (~. refer to the rebuilding of Jerusalem.a j. is thé master of every Jew in the world the rater whom they obey in ail countries. without indication whether they mean years. So in these words he told him that the rule should remain with his descendants until the of the appearance expected Messiah. or days. they think that it was these words which Daniel meant to indicate by those numbers. on the 24th of the firat 20 month. witi be rebuilt 70 and will remain in the possession of thy people. which mean Jésus. consequence and it will remain a ruin till the end of time. nor having a p. or 7 Septennia. If the student would try to establish something eise bythesame means. the grea. "thé head of thé exiles" who had been banished from their homes in Jerusalem. not the above-mentioned yeam because in the text ofhis words they are nothing but numbers. when hehad prayed to God. Jerusalem) till its end is 49 years. after 62 Septennia. but he will be killed. by similar argumente. they get the sum of 1. whose order is carried out under most ciroumatances. Jerusalem. 2) 1 have 30 beheld a candlestick with seven lamps thereon. or something else. viz. sa-r 40 place where to practise them.Q~ t0t. Jesus thé son of Mary came and in the last Septennium thé sacrifices and offerings were abolished. some yeare after the accession of Cyma to the throne. And now the Jews add that this is really the case that the rule bas not been taken from them." And before this he says (iv. ~0. e&ch of thé two parties makes assertions which they cannot support by anything but interpretations derived from the ~Ma6-m< and fallacious subtilties. and with seven pipes to each lamp. and Jerusalem underwent its above-mentioned destruction. they relate that Daniel once dreamt in Babylonia. 19 informed him that the rule should always remain with Ms sons till the time of the coming of him to whom the nile belongs. as the Israélites were scattered ail over the world. of the wholetime (indicated in this passager ~ven Septennia. not practising their sacrifices. Then God revealed to him the following (Dan. ix. In respect of aU we have mentioned. they think. The Christians use certain 10 Syriae words." The word (Hebrew ~~) means a Now.335.. Then the Messiah will come. For the Mn~ <t~ t. not of the time of Ma coming. Further. 2 . and when the Israelites were the prisonera of the Persians. Now. 17. and Mfu~whatthey (each of the two parties) maintain.test redeemer. 24-26) = 'ÛrishMm.ON THE NATURE OF THE EBAS.

r. For the time from their exodus from Egypt till thé accession of Alexander is 1. 18. For if it is to be understood that the begin.:h 1.nd future). Bec&use no clase of men. are without a sort of rule and k~ership with relation to others who are still inferior to them.335 ") admits. first.20 AM~Kt. As to that which they derive from the two passages of Daniel. however. to thé nrst destruction of Jérusalem. and neither the other Israélites nor any other nation would be exempt therefrom. that the beginning of the number precedes the time when the passage WM pronounced. if a chronological statement ma.y be referred to all three spheres of time (past. it would not be difficult for him to search for them. that it may be after this moment by an indefinite time. only 386 yeare after the accession of Alexander. to speak of the di&rence between the two numbers (1. which thirdly.290 and 1. to p. So the sum of the years of this complete period is 1. it is 1. The nrst passage ("Sinee the time when the sacrinco wa~ abolished.use the second passage ("Happy 30 ha who hopes to rea. If we referred the numerical value of the word "coticeaMtM" in the 10 Thora.385) the matt~r cam in no way be correct. and to explain them in a different way and more than that-that neither of their modes of interpretation is correct. secondly. until impurity comes to destruction. secondiy. that thé beginning of that number may be the very identical time when the passage was pronounced or. if it waa correct to extend the word "<~t!e" to a similar leadership by way of analogy.290 and 1. you cannot rea~onably explain why ~he !. Aj. except we suppose that the beginning of that number Ft-ece(!ee the time when they were pronounced (by Daniel). .290 ") admits !ikewise of being referred. and God raised him to himself Anno Alexandri 336. to that period from the earliest date whichthe Israelites assign to their exodus from Egypt till Jesua the son of Mary.biams. which happened. till it wa~ carried to perfection by Jesus the son of Mary.000 years according to their own view. the Magians. or more or less. may be smaller or greater. we must remark that.335) is one and thé same time. or future. ning of both numbers (1. beca. we can 20 only say that it would be possible to refer them to something different.d. ita second destruction. bo tt past. and.8M as thé time during which the law of Moses ben 'Imran existed. and Jesus the son of Mary waa born Anno Alexandri 304. after the supposed time. and othera would partake of this. Brst. present. thia interpretation would rest on a better foundation. present. not.clear text or an indisputable argument. and which they transfer to the leadership of the exiles. As to what the Jews think of the continuance of the rule in the family of Juda. it cannot be referred to any one of them except on the basis of a. the Sa.wo passages should have been pronounced at different times. so th~t it (the number) may reach its end one yea. a. Now. not even the lowest.

For the Jews there follow no such consequences from their chronological system and if lies regarding the length ~==-of the period between the 30 Jerusalem and the rebuilding of ~A~ them with eimilar accusations.n~ Mary took place 344 yeara after the vision of Daniel and the rebuilding ~S he began preaching in public are 4.~ ~.000 complete years. whieh we shall partiea and considcr the hereafter explain. 21 Therefore the Jew.ON THE NATURE OF THE ERAS. the epoch of thé These are doubts and difficulties which beset thé Alexandri). Therefore..h is later than the date which they (the have assumed. the birth of Jesus the s. have not the slightost reason to eomm. if we use their own chronology. granted to them that tho coming of Messiah was take place 70 after that the . If wu ~X~ meneed in the third year of the (of Jerusalem) com. we get nearly 75 Septennia for the interval -E~SS~ birth of Messia. For even if the Jew. and as a =~ millennium (from the exodus till Era Alexandri) 40 Further. reign of Cyrus.T~ ~umed (sa the time of the birth of the Messiah).Ppe~ceof Jesus the son of Mary did n. Christians) If the Christians compute the SyriM w~. If we leave aside the argtunente of the two table of the Chaldwan kings.. these worde were meant . which attach to the schemes of the Christians conspicuou.Iy suppose S~ Mary place Anno Alexandri 304.835. and that it remained in a ~d~y~ exodus from Egypt) as the date ~?h: for the vision of Daniel. and if we reduce the remainder to Septennia. the interval between the exodus of the from Egypt and the Alexandri at 1. sages in the books of the Prophets they have inferred that the interval between the exodus of the Ismelites from Egypt and the building of ~?~ between the building and the destruction by Nobucadnezar 410 years. and from the latter date till the birth of Jesus 804 years so that the sum total is 526 years.nce (in ~t~ the coming of the Messiah) with that date with wluch they have commenced (viz. however.t take place at that time.Septennia more.. and more than that. (~o~ L~~c ~=~ with the number (1. assertions of the Jews. mentioned by Daniel). Henee it ia evident ~TS. we find the interval between the of the reign of beginning Cyrus and that of the reiA'IIof Alexander to be 222 yeara. The reason is this:-The 10 Jews have agreed to &. Jews and Chriatians u~nhnou. Those.

19. . (by Daniel) and not a certain number of yeafs. even though jn a desperate condition.385). a man asserts that these numbers are meant to indicate a prophecy on account of the identity of the numerical values of these phrases with that of the Syriac words (~Q. being rather hinta (than clearly out-spoken words).336. <i~ man )T<K~ on a came! because in consequence of his appearance Babylon bas fallen.~s ~es~ !<?<«</te~ aU tluct J s/MtK cotMMMmt! Mm. you would get the same sum. but easily admitting of a clear interpretation. 18. of which the following is the meaning. 6-9) Godordered him to set a <Mt<c~M<M on the '!Mt<cMotce)'.yt* (" ?<! yyop~ec~ q/' Jtfo~es ben '7<tn-~ ~<t!-f!t~ Mup. its idols have been broken.19) "JMtH raise them <(p ? a prophet from <MM~ their 6)-e<&MM !t&eunto <&ee. and its empire hasperished. There are many passages in the book of the prophet Isaiah. the man riding on an etM. even if he should produce as a testimony for jMuhammad and the truth of the prophecy regarding him a passage of the prophet Isaiah. But what connection have Moses and his people with Babel? And did that happen to Moses and to his people after him. Thia testimony (Isaiah xxi 6-9) is connrmed by tho word of God to Moaos in the fifth book of the Thora. not Muhammad. And wlwooeverwtH not &etM-tett MM<o <&6 word of MM<f~ ~pea~ in my name. whioh happened to Muhammad and his companions in Babel P By no meana 1 If they (the Jews) had one after the other escaped from the Babylonians. ie. For if you computed the numerical value of the following words: J~<. Œttceof ?< creation from Mt/MeMy by ~f~ttHm~f!"). 1. ~00~ ~M~~O ~Qm~). ita castles have been shattered. if you counted these worda: t~ ~. they would have considured it a sumcient prizeto carry off to return (to their country). thé one case dosely resembling the other.~)'<! ct~M~ and <pt<ti!!MM B<t6s!o~M a fallen. and <MM ward into /tt< oMMt&. now. l <M~ take Mfe~ on At~ Now 1 should like to know whether there are other bvethren of the MM .< ~U ("T~ ~Mm o/' J'HfMme&tmea <M&~e tKt<em<e10 ~M JK!~<n)H)Mtd! "). Or if you computed the words (~*e (~ .835." This is a prophecy regarding the Messiah. or like it (Isaiah xxi. predicting Muhammad. you would get the sum of 1. and iM graven ttM~M M6 broken.: that &<!man riding on ~e Mme! M Moses. Mett mttf~ <ee a man tiding on an <MO.~im<~ the one o~~ettt c<tt)M/brM. viz. thé value of his argument would be exactly thé same as that of the Chnstiam regarding those passages (in Daniel).22 ALBÎBO~Î. If. we can only say that we oannot aocept such an opinion except it be conNrm-~ by an argument as indubitable as ocular inspection. Likewise. And with all this. called ~~Mt&m<!(Deuteronomy 40 xviii."and regarding Muhammad. that Xe might declare what he ahould 20 <ee. their obstinacy in clinging to their error 30 induces them to devise and to maintain things which are not acknowledged by mon in gênerai. you would again get the same sum (1.e~jt«< jJL&H ("~ t~M'ef. '~< pi~*t ~mm<t< <te~op&ecy of the ~feasM~ regarding '~MNK!"). and a man riding on a e<M)te!.

Hia coming from Mount SinM meana his secret conversation with Moses there. he being high above such things. nor to his quaUties.his passage are hints for the establishing of the proof. We pray to God. there are more auitaNe places to opw. showing that the words in the holy books have been altered from their proper meanings. that the 10 (anthropomorphic) descriptions.ns the appearance of Messiab. we ask only HM there then risen among them a man like Moses–in the times after Moses-of the aMM description and resembling him Does not also the following passage of the same book. and so we retum to our subject as we have already become lengthy in our exposition. TheLord came from Mount Sinai. we cannot allow them to do the same with the Svriao words whioh they quote. 2). and lead us by thé right path. If they sa. AUthey have brought forward. is a décisive proof. that he may hein amd strengthen 'ts. and his shining forth from Parau. He who refuses to aecept this interpretation. &t< Mto<ecotKpamto~M Satan. As to the doctrine of abrogation (of one holy book by another).y. is required to provo what kinds of 20 mistakes there are in it. . However. at &Mright &<Mt<! i' Thé terms of accompanied by ten <&MM<tmd of M6tm<e '. that he may guard us against sin. and of using false witnesses.) Now. Nay. 20. cannot be referred to the essence of the Creator. for which p. exoept the s. where Ishmae] grew up and married. ail evidence has borne testimony. they would say ~<MCttM<et!j)eop!e. The fs.ms of Ishmael. if the Christians do not allow us to use the numerica1 values of Arabie words.ON THE NATURE OF THE ERAS. and they ascended Our e~eo are only drunken. &:} of Isaac. we must atate. and as to their fanciful pretension of having passages of the Thora which order 40 him who olaims to be a prophet after Muses to be put to death. If we oould open them a door in heaven. woo to him for such a coMp<Mnom/ (Sûra iv. shows and provea to evidence. that their authors purposely deviate from the path of truth and righteouaness. 15. and &e eMtte~ ~)!-& from Mount Paran. and that the text has undergone modifications contrary to its original condition. Having recourse to this sort of 30 computing. one matter drawing us to another. because the Thora. which are inhérent in them. accompanied by legions of aainta. xxxiii.~ is that they are blind to the truth. and the books of those prophets were revealed in the Hebrow JaJtgnage.) But such is not the case. being marked with certain badges." (Sûra xv. 42. and a clear argument. his rising up from Seir mea.h of thMp fpiRioM than this. and aU we are going to propound. we o:'e thereby. meana the coming of Muhammad from thence as thé last of aU the foundera of religions. of which this is the translation (Deut. who were sent down from heaven to help. that the groundiesaneaa of these opinions is rendered evident by other passages of the Thora. béat testimony for Muhammad and 9-OM <M ttp <f)t<0 from Sotf. that the brcthMn of the aons of Israel are the children of Esau.

The Jews asked him to make them a present of one of those copies. The king said to them 1 want to ask you for something.000 men. there ia something in it which atrengthens them greatly.vonr.t Jerusalem. different account. give quite a. This went on tiU they had finished the translation of thé whole book. men out of their twelvetribes. and provided them with everything of the best. The Christian copy is caUed the TAo)-<t for of the &MH/ the following reason: After Nebukadnezar had conquered and destroyed Jerusalem. And the king complied with their wish. These he corn. however. part of the Israelites emigrated from their country. and of its divine origin.ken piMe. If you grant me the favour. Now the Jews selected seventy-two p. Now this is the copy of the Christians. except those which always occur in the rendering of the same ideaa. The Jews. and found them at last in a. viz. of which they wished to make a.howeTer. Therefore he gave orders to search for this eommunity. Let me have a. promising them gifta and presents in reward. There is nothing in the report of the Christians which. and that they yielded to the king's demand only from fear of violence and maJtreat. and took them into his &. 21. place numbering 10 ahont 30. .40 ment. These men translated the Thora into Greek. He. who had also revived the culture of Syria." This the Jews promised. Then the king gave them what he had promised.tely. Therefore he addressed himself again to them asking for people who knew both Hebrew amd Greek. they fulfilled their promise by sending him Having a. you acquit yourselvea of all obligations towards me. They teft Egypt.30 pared with each other. Now thé king had in bis hands thirty-six translations. He fdîorded them protection. arrived a. who might translate the b~-ok for him.boast before their own people. and people think. and each couple had got a servant to take caje of them. BaJiman's govemor of Babel. and allowed them to retum to Jerusalem. and did not find any différences in them. even if we should take it for granted-removea our doubts (as to the of their authenticity Bible) on the contrary. thé contenta of which agree with the doctrines of either sect.24 ALBÎB~Î. he treated them with kindness. the Thora. Now 1 proceed to stRte that both Jews and Christians hâve a copy of the Thora. McompMiiedby a body of his (Ptolomœus Philadelphus') servants for thcir protection. that in it no altération or transposition haa ta. copy 20 of it. and lived there under his protection till the time when Ptolemeeua Philadelphus ~scended the throne. took refuge with the king of Egypt. and çonfirmed their promise by an oa. which in the meanwhile had been rebuilt by Cyrus. but in Hebrew.th. that they made the translation under compulaion.didDotbiowHebrew. copy of your book. six men of each tribe from among the Rabbis and priests. This king heard of the Thora. after they had been housed separa. and not before having agreed upon inverting and confounding the text of the book. Their names are known among thé Christians. Of the Jewish copy people think that it is comparatively free from confusion.

According to one of the historia. and if there is no possibility of distinguishing-by means of analogybetween truth and fiction. Their doctrines are a syncretism of Judaism and Zoroastrianiam. The reports contained in these four copiée. The Samaritans had helped him (in the war against the Jews). Now. For the Christians have four copies of the Gospel. where is the student to search for exact information)' P Not only does the Thora exist in several and different copies. Jerusalem. differ veiy widely the one from the other. because tain that he committed wrong and injustice. but he made them inhabit Palestine under Ma protection. To them. Nebucadnezar had given the country of Syria. they wash themselves. when he M the Jews into captivity. nor kill them. nor make them prisoners. do not touch other people but if they happen to be touched They by anyone. the third by Luke. the relions of him at the time when be preached andwhen he was crueified. because it betrays evidently an arbitrary and too subtle mode of research. and transferredthey the holy temple from Nâbulus to ~e<M. 85 Besides these two copies of the Thora. we 20 find that according to its account of the lives of the immediate descendants of Adam. as they maintain. caUed where they have their churches. Christian copy the same interval is 2. is 1. being collected into one code. the firstby Matthew. Therefore. This statement of Anianus ia reported by Ibn-AJb~yâr in bis mM6-M< (Book of the Conjunctions) it comes very near that p 22 of the Christians. third one that exista among the Samaritans. the interval between the expulsion of Adam from Paradise till the deluge in the time of Noah. They have never entered the Nâbulus. M the substitutes for the Jews. if such is the diversity of opinions.226 years 23 nightand days 4 hours.ns. as we have described. he did not disturb them. it makes me think that it is based upon 30 the methods of the astrologers. and cleared the country of them. However. The 10 bulk of their community is living in a town of Palestine. To begin with his genealogy. Anianus.656 to the years. They do not acknowledge any of the prophets of the Israelites after Moses. thé interval between the creation of Adam and the of the Friday when the deluge commenced.e. M 2. and according to thé according Samantan copy it is 1.307 years. auch as the descriptions of Messiah. wMch is the genealogy of Joseph. Now as to the copy wMch the Jews hâve. but something sùni~r is the case with the Gospel too. and the fourth by 40 John ea~h of these four disciples having composed the Gospel in confomuty with what he (Christ) had preached in bis country.(M THE NATURE 0F THE EBA9.242 years. the second by Mark. and on which they rely. there is a. the bridegroom of Mary . and had pointed out to him the weak points of the Israelites. also known by the name of ~<-M)):(M&t~tt. !. precincts of Jerusalem since the days of David the mainprophet.

Aminadab. Bzekiae. Jeese. V. if a man died. Joseph was referred to two different &. X. Rhesa. 23-31) thé of pedigree Joseph is this I. Matthan.mmn. Solomon. V. because it bas been made without regard to hie genealogical relation. Joseph." In order to meet thMreprc~h. in conséquence. Melchi. XX-ZoTohabeI. XXXV. Joseph Judas. Simeon. Eliud. Nathan.Amon. reality.tt~thiM. Joanna. Zadok. saying. Levi. ptogeny to the deoeMed brother.thers. Menam. XXXV. XXV. A~. Juda.Jorim. S~tmon Naaason. XXX. Melea. XV. EsM." FinaNy. According to Luke (iii.Abraham jmtttmew m stating this genealogy commences with Abraham. Neri. that when Matthew had atated thé reaJ pedigree of Joseph.Ma. XL. Elieser. Achin. Azor. Er. Maath. Pharea. B~ahm. MajtMsea. j. Obed. the Jews blamed Mm for it. that. Salathiel Matthat.Cosam. m. 10 Isa~. Both pedigrees go back to David.tt&thM. Ah~. Joseph. Joatham. XXV. whilst as to ~ea: were~~s~ M they were the children of the living brother. Jonam. Abiud. XV. Joram. Abia. Aram. beeause it had been predicted of the Messiah. Nagge. his children referred to the deceased brother. Joseph. they say.Booz. leaving behind a wife but no male children. of Jesus.tathâ. and to account for it. in order to RJse up a. tmcing it downward (as far Joseph). Further. Ma pedig~e Zorobabel. For Mcordmgto Matthew (i. XL. therefore. 2-16). saying = Hispedigree is not correct. David. 20 Janna Joseph. Amos. Ma. AMÎRÛNÎ. XX. that there was one of the iaws proscribed in the Thora which ordered that. Addi.BoboMn.Earom. that he would be the son of David. XXX.26 a~tep-MMr is thig: I. the fact that only the pedigree of Joseph bas been adduced .OziM. p. Luke stated his pedigree in conformity with the 40 genealogical ordinances of their code.thatHeIiwas his&ther whilst Yakob was his father y~bj~y. 23. This d~erence the Chnstians ttyto excuse. Judas Jacob. 30 thé brother of the deceased was to marry her instead. Elyakim. Joseph. JechoniM. X. and that waa thé object (in stating them).Melcht. EhnodMn. XLn.D&vid. Matthat. that. Eleazar. Salathiel. Josaphat.Semei.

the Indians. Of this Gospel there is a copy. Everyone of the sects of Marcion. and in the beginning of which it ia stated. whieh we shall have to mention. 27 for Mesaiah. the Brat mML In denying the Deluge. concur with them. according to them. and the various nations of thé east. it did not . Alexandri. The PersiMM. Now Joseph and Mary being both of the same tribe. and that it was the cuatom to mention only the pedigrees of the men. who looks into it. is to be explained in thia way. called. and thé following books.yomarth Gilshâh. that you have no chance of deciding as to the correctness of the matter. Therefore. that itNcontents are really that which Messiah thought and taught. regarding the period between the Deluge and the ~m. whilat the Christians derive from their Thora for the same period 2. not those of thé women. nobody was allowed to marry any but a wife of hia own tribe and clan. however. that every other Gospel ie false. Some. that difference.ON THE NATURE OF THE EBA8. and not that of Mary. they believe that the rule (of the world) hM remained with them without any interruption ever since Ga. They say. that aooording to the law of the Israelites. the différence regarding the between 30 the ~ra. The reason is. 40 Chinese. on which you may witl good faith rely. has a 10 Gospel. will see at once that it is a forgery it M not acknowledged by Christians and others. amd the great ma. and ita followers are liara against Messiah. that SaIIam ben 'AbdaUâhben Sallâm wrote it down as he heard it from Salman AlfMs!. and believe that it is the correct Gospel. who was. Aiso the Manicheeans have a Gospel of their own. and do not even feel inclined to investigate thoroughly ita historical truth. M thé era.938 yeara. and of Bardesanes. 24. of the Déluge–Thé next following era. for this latter period 1." which is attributed to one.M of thé Magians. deny thé Deluge altogether. in which everything perished at the time of Noah. and auch a confusion. the contents of which from the first to the last are opposed to thé doctrines of the Christians but the Manicheeans consider them as their religions law. but they deacribe it in a different way from what it is described in the books of the prophets. tioned. in the first instance. And this was the object in their statement and account of the pedigree. their descent must of necessity go back to the same origin. Here. Adami and the Deluge. whieh we hâve mentioned period and aiready secondly. that among the Gospels there are no books of the Prophets to be found. "Thé Gospel of the Seventy. For the Jewa derive from the Thora. but it did not extend over the whole of the then civilized world. we come to the conclusion. p. too. how20 ever. there is auch a difference of opinions.792 years. a partial deluge occun~d in Spria and thc wcst at the time of Tahmurath. of the PershM admit the fact of the Deluge. of the great deluge. whereby they wanted to prevent confubion of the pedigrees.BaMmM. and only few nationa were drowned in it. Era. He. which in some parts differs from the Gospels we havespécial men.

they relate. the city of IspaMn there have been discovered Mils. that Gayômarth was not the nrst man. least exposed to obnoxious influences. and what they mean.28 AMÎBÛKÎ. These discrepaneies in their reports. took possession of the of the world. of 20 which no one was able to say what they are.ys. Now this conjunetion occurred 229 ycars 108 days bcforc the Deluge. Tcwards the end of hie life. and to be buried in a posterity. above which the water did not rise Another report -N. . with which arrows and Bhieids are covered. 30 K~T. inspire doubla in the student.. 42 xxiii. and did not reach the of the east. where he fomded angiven. and which is caUed T&. that Noah built the ark in Kûfa. This date they studied carefuUy. that Joseph had made them a m&gMin. which. viz. we shaU go into them if it comes from the earth. Now they did not ând a place that answered better to this description than Thereupon. and some of his children. saying: "If anybody calls me by another name than this. and empire. the Deluge having originated in their country. nHed with many loads of that tree-bark. constructed buildings of the kind of the two pyramids which have been built in Egypt. but that he was Gomer ben Yaphet ben Noah. the subséquent times. for which thé sages among the inhabitants of Babel. I shall eut off his h~ad. part of that place. bearing inscriptions. Further. that finally his power became very great. 27) that the ark 40 rested upon the mountain of Alj&dî. and the Chaldeeans have construeted astronomical tables. and called himself Adam. In &vour of this report we may state that in our time in Jay. So they found as the interval between the Deluge amd the beginning of the reign of the first Nebukadnezar (No6o<t<MM<-). 10 It is related. that TahmAtath on receiving the warning of the Deluge –331 years before the Delt~e–ordered his people to select a place of good air and soil in hisreahn. where he deposited the bread and victuals for the yeare of drought." People are of that the traces of opinion. whilst mankind was stil' living in (elementary) conditions. which is not very far from those régions. he ordered aJl seientnio books to bo preserved for Ispahan. 26. Then creation. similar to those at the time of the and of the nrst stage of the development of the world. on being excavated. when they were warned by their sages. beginning from the nrat of the conjunctions of Satum and Jupiter. For people say. and make him inclined to believe what is related in some books. we shall ascend above them. he. and tried by that to correct p. that he was a prince to whom a long life waa that he settled on the Mount Dunbâwand. saying: "If the disaster comes from heaven. disclosed houses. and the effects of the waves are still visible on these two pyramids half-way up. that the inhabitants of the empires west. extend beyond the peak of Hulw&n. he became tyrannical. and that it was there that "<&e<oeK~oMt~! ~M~ t<< waters" (Sura xi. The astrologers have tried to correct these years." Othen are of opinion that was Gayornarth Emim (Q''p''M ?) ben LAd ben 'Arâm ben Sem ben Noah. the water of the Deluge.

being 249 yoars and 3 montha less than the estimate of the astronomers. 'Abu.AlbalkM wanted. except they rest on an evident argument. which have been based ~pan thé observations of the Indians.by 180.K[<a&.000 yeara. or with the end of the world.na. eg. and he tried to compute their places for that time.1 of 2. had computed these starcycles only from thé motions of the stars. or that tho conjunction of the stars in that place ia identical with the beginning of the world. Then he found. who is so prend of his ingenuity. there M an interva. or on the report of some one who relates the ~t~ of the world. he supposed that between that time and the epoch of thé Era Alexandri. particularly in the . and M thé interval between Nebvkadnezar and Alexander 436 years. and when he had arrived at the result. upon whieh to base his statements regarding the mean places of the stars in his Canon. Now. Muhammad ben 'Ishak ben 'UstAdh Bundâdh Alsarakhsî.000 years. as in fact many people have donc. when he thought that he had well estaMished the computation of this sum according to the method.ON THE NATURE OF THE ER~8. and the first part of Aries. whose word Is relied npon. 2P 10 20 30 40 2. and the end of the firat dcgree of Aries. that the stars were created standing at that time in thé nrst part of Aries.604 years.wafa Muhammad ben Muhammad AIbûzaj&n!. This man.000 years. such an assertion would be utterly void of proof. which he bas explained. viz. he might do so by the help of thé well known methods of such a calculation. the beginning of which was to precede the time of the Deluge .790 intercalated years 7 months and 26 days. If anybody would eonstruct such <~ o/at! cycles on the basis of the observations of Ptolemy. a result which comes pretty near to that one.al. whieh is derived from the Thora of the Christians. he drew the inconsiderate conclusion. at different times. when they start upon and return from their rotation. But such conclusions can never be admitted.<tMo<MM<H Mi~<tM/'~'<t<-sa(!. and regarding whom in the mind (of the reader or hearer) . or of the modern astronomers.Il In each of these cycles the stars come iSto conjunction with each other in the Srst part of Aries once. that the Deluge had occurred once in every 190. This was the era which 'Abu-Ma'sha). that the dura. Now he supposed that the Deluge had taken place at the conjunction of the stars in the last part of Pisces.cyc~ waa 360. however.tion of those periods. If he ('Abû-Ma'ahar) now would maintain. known as the cyc!M :)/'St)t(~ttn! and likewise they differ from the <~< and <7te <a&t<M. This computation cornes near to that of the Christia. that theyall of them–stood in conjunetion in thé apace between the twpnty-aeventh degree of Pisces. and I myself in numy of my books. Further. and that it would again occur in future at similar intervals. as they had been fixed by the observations of the Persians but they (the cycles) differ from the cycles. thé although matter be within the lirnits of possibility. which astronomers call "~)-.

For it is quite possible that these (celestial) bodies were scattered. e~H. not united at the timo when the Creator deaigned and created them.cycles).hed. to hea. becanse. in order to remove these ideaa £rom bis mind.me attaches to him.so AMÎBÛNÎ.sted same time inereasing in number. tion of this subject is the ta. no bla. again paSIl through the same cycles.r. that ~~s ~t~~ evolution of power ~~) into action (~~). the result (a. would conclude of ~~t~ would again and Aries. supposed a eirele. and excludes the other. the :man who uses the cycles (the star. iftheae beinga really exi" (in the past).s to their that one at which he had arrived conjunetions) could be no other but calculation. as if we. or would still exist (in future) in that saine 20 condition. If. it applies only Y tothe one. Nor does it follow from bis B. further.t he had re~d divine inspiration and help. or beforewhieh they had met each other in that identieal point. however. the periods of the past were eomputed whilst they in reality exi.l what is feeble in bis thoughts.minded 40 ~°~=~ bearing people. they having thcso motions. in different separate places 1~~ of whom some them. It would be the ~e. bis conclusion would be a mere assumption 80 by whieh he quiets his mind.ih.. and which is not supported by any argument. If you then ask length of after whieh they would meet ea. if it is they only Y properly explained. thore are other chapter.Ct. This exposition will be su1licient for a vemeiouo and fair. by which_s calculation shows-they must rneat in such mentioned). now. suppose that we knew their 10 ~~5~ over whieh -each of them travels in one Nychthemeron. and to plant the truth in his soul How~r. more oaplanations will be wanted. therefore. or that they would atild exiat at that (future) time (when are to moet again) but this follows from bis aceount. Basides it in well known among Philosophera and others. But then the verifica.oh otber in a certain point. they are not infcnzte.sk of by a science whieh was not the science of AM-sha.ks of billions of years. and that the the i~ the past was exactly the same. ~H~n i. if he spea. For a proof does not equally apply to the two sides of a contradiction. of thia book where it will ba more . that. ~St~f~~ deeay. being carried on in equal motiona-of ite peculiar sort of motion-in equal times. which exceed the compass of this book. ~S.mntthat those beinga eziBtedat that (past) time (when they met each other).

uniting for that purpose four cycles of nineteen yeara. that on the day of resurrfetion there will be reward and punishment in yonder world. Thé diserepamey of thé cyoles. people aa~d "JÏ~MatMM~ft! 20 This is not the same king who deva. is not thé case." which is said to meaN Mercttry speaking. as the following chronological tables will indicate. Besides he uses the cycles of Ccllippus. who abuse all religiona. Era of NabonasSM'The next following era is the Era of the nrst Nebukadnezar (Nabonassar). and fiaed thereby the mem places of the ataM. The Persian form of this word (BukhM &fM<M!fM. he computed this cycle (of seventy-aix years). Such. It if the same set of people who excite and mathesuspicioM agMnst–and bring discrédit upon-astronomers 10 maticians. Some people think that in these cycles the 40 beginning of the months was nxed by thé appearance of now moon. although they cannot even impose p. by was the cycle of eight years. for between thèse two there is an interval of about 143 years. and the second that of nineteen years. and then refer them to the correspondmg cycles of Catlippus. in Hebrew. Then when the word waa Ara. however. not by calculation. for Hippajohas and Ptolemy fa the times of their observations by Egyptian days and months. who make the oycles of Sindhind. 31 amtable M spcaT: of thia subject than here. and who tell them.ted JernsaJem. that they are of 30 Bgyptiamorigin. and relied upon by fooMsh people. because this era to Ptolemy preferred others. and people say that it meana one who weepa <cnMt?s<tf) and lamenta much". and by representin~ themselves as professors of their art." this being combined with the notion that he oheriahed science and favoured scho~aM. Those who do not know them (thèse cycles). The firet cycle. 27. upon anybody who haa only the slightest degree of scientinc training.sta. as people at that (remote) age did not yet know the calculation of the éclipses. Thereupon. the means by which to revile those who warn them that the hour of judgment is coming. "Nebukadnezar. net the dMcrepanoy of the observations. The era of this king ia based upon the Egyptian years.bized. and one who himself–or whose peopleconsidered the use of this latter cycle as part of their laws. try to prove by what they find mentioned in Almagest.ON THE NATCNE 0F THE EBA8. is a suSdent argument for–MMt a powerful help towards–repudifttmg the foUiea committed by 'Abû-Ma'abar. CaUippus was of thé number of the matheni-tticiaM. by counting themselves among their ranks. employed by those who compute the months the revolution of the moon amd the years by the revolution of the sun. and others. and each oï which consista of seventy-aix solar yeare. the beginning of which is in the year 418 after BuMitanassaj. and these calculations are rendered perfect and that thé nrst who knew the theory of the éclipsas waa Thales of Miletus. and its form waa simplified. by which alone the length of thelunar month is to be determined. For after having frequently . It is employed in thé Almagest for the computation of the places of thé planets.

of their t!My ad.ien. he proceeded t. if he lived at P 28.œepted what he ordered. and their M~rmceBhad ceased to be pra~ed. the epoch being a connecting link common to both of ~em.e of form and mathematiciana. as they relate. it is the same.edMsso.n~ 30 Era OfAlexMder-Then follows the era of Alexander the Greek to whom some people give tne surname On the difference of opinions This era is based upon Greek ohapter.C. the ~t~e~ MM~oni~. Then he happened to come to Egypt. the Founder In both cases the natter is the ~me. but with certain restrictions. The Jews obeyed bis 40 command. therefore. So offerings and era. mu.t belong to the impossible. For back to certain original sources. motion.. their report the dis.~dTmonths and days.~led. does n. It is in use among most ~r~ yeara. it is not to be 20 underatood in this gonerality. and a.. ~~E~EES~ had carried it to such a height as that they could not be ignorant of the theory of the eolipses. or the accession of the latter. which was inhabited by the Jewa then he ordered the Jews to. the king of the ~r~~d marching upon his capital. preoeded by Ptolemy and Hipparchus and these two among the astronomers of that age knew the subject quite ~h~ ~e~~ he stands near to Zoroaster.t of Now. covery of the theory of the eclipaea by Thales) be (regarding true. who belouged to the sect of the ijalTânians. ~tended the lectures of the and having learned from them the s. Era of PhdippiM ArideeM. and the nearer it is toi~ origin. for the Rabbis allowed them =~~d~ Moses. as the and to of epoch this era. For some people refer this generality.vid. others to tha. prepared to fight with D~iu. ~e~'n" p.82 AMÏB~Nt. dis. scholar (Thales) to the time of 28 Bâbak.give up the tiu of Moaes and Da.–The era of Philip. whether yon date from the suceeeded death of the former. and there is only 0. as thus reported. The matter. . (~tronomy). and used it for &dng the <~currence. it till you at last arrive at the very origin itself.~ bis prediction had been fulfilled.lem. where he warned people of an impending eclipse. When. difference in the expression. therefore. people honoured him highly. ~erthe~t. that eclipses were not known before Thales. and to me & adopt that X~ aeventh of his life.n of the eclipses. the father of ~T'tr: dated from the death of Alexander.t not b. T~oBe who employ this era are ~Ued~t~ Ont~~TheonAlex~drlnush. Because by Philip. ~t~~o~t. he went down to Jerusa. And at that time ju~nuUenmum had become complete. 'T~ yeara. understood in this but with certain local 10 restrictions. If..

in which we shall give a corrected sequence of events. The chronological tables.–Next fïrat of thé Roman emperors (CtBsen-~). Era of the FMght–Then follows the era of the Flight of the 3 . the son of Mary. that the same had happened to him.nd ben Hamia. that he had not corne out of the ~K<<!e)t~!tm oMtHe&)'e of a woman. directing that their positions should be advanced one degree every'yea. then. one of the Roman kings. the last of the Bornas kings who worshipped the idols." The explanation is this. 33 as they had already doue in the twenty-sixth year of his life.n.Alexajidri–from the migra. it remained among his descendants.e. necessitate that his birth should have taken place in the seventeenth year of his reign. and to adopt 30 the system of thé Chaldaeana. they took this year as the epoch of this era. who was the first Roman king who became a Christian. the metropolitam of Mosul. Alexandri had passed. however.used the people of Alexandria to give up their system of reckoning by non-intercala. tho firat thousand years of the ~!ra. This. and the conjunctions. whilst she wa~ pregnant with him then her womb was opened by the Cassajeam operation. when ho nrst started from home. 29.year of his reign. the 2~0~ natalicia.ted Egyptian yeam. Ptolemy corrected the places of the fixed stars. It was Augustus who ca. as also 'Ahmad ben Sahl ben Hâshim ben Alwa. ben Eamkâr ben Yazdajird ben 20 Shahryâr used to boast.Iabîb ben Bihrîz.11 The hiatorians relate. Alexandri.Iauthors of Canons have used this era. which in our time is used in Egypt. and have fixed thereby the necessary paradigms of the prognostics. Era of Augnstus. Whem. with tho view of finishing thf millennium (i. But according to the report of a book." and he was drawn forth. Sev<. La. follows the era of the king Augustus. hM tranelated. amd noted them in the Ahnagest.m. they kept thé ~!ra.ON THE NATURE OF THE ERAS. so as not to enter upon a new one).)'. After him reigned Constantine. and continued to use it.–Then follows the era of Diocletia. Era of Antonmus. The word C<Bs<t! meama m Frankish (!. This he did in the sixth year of his reign therefore. Era Of DiooIetianM. that Jesus. The yeajs of this era are Greek. The Greeks also use it. does not agree with the order of the yeara. dating from the beginning of his reign. was based upon Greek years.–Thé era of Antoninus. was born in the forty-third. the Greeks used to date-before they adopted the ~Era. the P. the end of whieh did not coincide with any striking event which people ajo Meustomed to make the epoch of an era. that his mothe-r died in labour-pains. After the sovere~n power 40 had been transferred to him.e.tion 10 of Tunân ben Paris from Babel towards the west. And he (Augnstus) used to revile people calling them ~omof the ~m<~t~m muliebre. whioh I. after a cutting has been made. and got the surname C<Bs<t! He used to boast before the kings.tm) "he haa been drawn forth.

On this occasion he aasembled the Companions. 30. that regarding those two dates there exiated auch a divergenoy of opinion.that the era of his predecessor. and mot the time of the birth of the Prophet. others say that he was born in the forty-sixth year cf the reign of B3srâ AnôsMrwan. of the Peraiana. that Omar bon Atkha~&b. Which Sha'Mm M meant f that one in whieh we are or the next Sha. of Alexander.M' I. or the time when he waa entrusted with bis divine mission.M' I.t. and took their advice. They a. AIsha'M relates.*bAn?" Thereupon he asaembled the Companions of the Prophet. Ei)ta. which troubled his mind. in which the commencements of the months are determined by the whole appearance of New Moon." Omar had ah-eady Alkhatt&b organized the registers. and of hia arrivai at Madîna on Monday the 8th of the month Ea.nswered It ia necessary to mform o'tmelves of the Hurmuz&n. Now thé most authentic date." People and ooined as atabizod this word. Now he adopted this epoeh. and fixed thereby the dates in ail his aSairs. It is based upon Lunar yeam. The circumstances under which this very point was adopted M an epoch. to them how the word l~'t-tH. they used this Mâh-rûz. and was in want of an era.r was a Thuraday. corresponding to the different statements regarding hie birth. the computa. He aMd: "We have which we call JtM&MZ. 17. Prophet Muhammad from Makka to Madma.hlish a mode Then Omar spoke to the Companions of the Prophet of dating for the intercourse of people. or the 8th." Hormuzâm ite infinitive explained p. It ia used by thé Muhammadan world.Mt<*<MT<tM). not by calculation. not liking the old ones. as did not allow it to be made thé bMia of something which must be agreed upon universally. pra. and asked their t~dviceregarding the matter of chronology. and mot the timo when the Prophet was either born or entrusted with hie divine mission or died.34 AMÎB~Nt. This happened A. and what the Greeks used of a sinul&r kind. when people one BMd:– day handed over to him a cheque payable in the month jS&o'Mtt. or thé 13th of Ba. In consequence there is aiso a diSerence of opinions regarding the length of bis ife. and pronomicod (. is this." Then they fete computation and asked him for information. and said Date according to the era.e. had established thé taxes and regulationa. for they date according to the era.H.tionofmonths and days." But then it was ohas eoon as a new king arises among the reralana he abolishett jected. seemed to be the date of thé night of thé Prophet. whiist the beginning of the yea. So they could not come to an agreement." Now some 6tud: "Da.. were the following Maimûn ben Mihr&n testes. Further he (AIsha'M) says: People say that He was born in the night of Monday the 2nd.ctice of the PersiaM in this respect.teaccording to the era of the Greeks. which involves no obscurities nor possible misha. 10 20 80 40 .ps. that 'Abù-MÛ6& Al'ash'ar! wrote to Omar ben Tou send us letters without a date. The reaaon why Omar selected this event as an epoch." Others objected that thia mode of dating was too lengthy.

about the time when intercatation wM prohibited. 31. and that after thé Flight his conquesta followed each otherof m !ra.t." The 2nd year the year of thé order for fighting. 20 which means warlike. so that his followers among themselves make this date a memorial of Mm. some having bft'n intercalated. or the king an enemy. the dynasty was extinguished. people had given to each of the years between thé Flight and his death a spécial name. But this latter case has oniy happened very eeldom. others not. tha. Considering further that after thé Flight. 35 Besidea. of whom each is caUed r<o!et)ty. which had happened to him in that identical year. after the Flight. derived from some event.pid succession. he having been considered as one of those from whom the era of the kings of the Chatdeeans and the western kings was transferred to the era." By these nomes it WMrendered superfluoua to denote the yeMa by the numheM. because when he perished. Er& of TttiddajM. whose death people enjoy. It is precisely the sainp in the case of the era.. considering it as a joyful event. and lamenting for the downfal of their p. A.t thc Prophet was saved from the calamities prepared for him by thé infidels M~kka." The 3rd year the yeM of thé trial.t thé time of thé Prophet." The 4th year "the year of tho congratulation on the occasion of marria~e. we coma to the conclusion that the Flight was to the Prophet.<from the time of his dm). the 2nd.–Next follows the era of the reign of Yazdajird ben Shahry&r ben KiBi'A Parwîz. Eg.th." The 9th yeM the yeM of exemption. !md a mourning feaat. of the Ptolemeea. people do not like to 10 date from the death of a prophet or a king. the affaira of lalam were thoroughly established. Therefore they dated from hie death. religion.d u~u Persian non3 .ON THE NATURE OF THE ERAR. of Tazdajird ben Shahryâr.fK. For the Magians da.. the single years wero of different length. dated from the time of his death. while heathenism decreased. what to the kings is their accession.n kings. and wish to make a festival of or he be one of thoso with whom a dynasty ia extinguished. which ia ha." The 6th year "theyeMofinquirmg. and their taking possession of the whole 80Yeieign power. As regards the weU known date of his death. etc. thé lat. the era of Alexander thé Founder is reckoned from the time of his death. Therefore." The 5th yeM the year of the earthquake. mourning over him. 30 The lot year after the Flight is "the year ofthe permisaion." The 7th year thé yeM of gaining victory The 8th year the year of equality." 40ThelOthyear "theycMof&jeweU. except the prophet be a liar. those to whom tho empire was transferred.

FinaDy. when the women had got hold of it. in fftct. w~ile wandering about over one of his hunting-groands. So ho aajd Ubaid-ullAh ben Ta~yA has asked my permission for levying the taxes. had done a.ttâb fought most of those famous wMs and battles. they explained to him the subjeot. great deaJ of harm to the people. that this. In this their example bas been foilowed by the kings of the Arabs.ped." asked Andhow waa that P Now the Ma. Then he proceeded to relate.ttrûz. that in every fourth year one day wa. BefOnn of the Calendar by thé Khalif AImn't~itL–LMtly. and a. is this tha.t the time when the corn was ripe. of this king among aJl the kings of Persia.pked him to postpone Na.t 1 violate the regulations of the Persiams. ben AIhaaa. and he was put to fiight and was killed in the house of a miller a.ubadh to be brought before him. but reported on the . amd their need of intercalation.te 40 the yeaM! but when M&m had been established.Et<<t&-<t!'<M(f~. and said to him This ha. whiist 1 observe that the corn is atill green. and even to emigrate from their homes that they had many complaints and wrongs to recount.~on waa a. then.s been the subject of much re. The Mlowing is the origin of thia era. when the fruit amd corn are not yet ripe ? To this the Ma. and not yet attained its proper time for being rea.urûz by a month. and it was he with whom Omaj ben AJkha. Then the Khtdif said Haa this arisen lately during my reign.s intercalated.ubadh replied "Although they always levied the taxes et Na.36 ALBÎBÛNÎ. intercaJa. How. he was the last of their kings. so that they were compelled to borrow and to incur debts. The landholders assembled et the time of Hisham ben 'Abdalmalik amd caJIed on Khâlid AH.t did much hatrn to the people.bolishedj amd tha.ysbeen so P" And people amswered "No.t Marw-i-Shâhijân.urùz. as reported by 'Abû-Bakr A~ul! in his . Ahnutawakkil.ubadh explained to him the nature of their years. did they levy the taxes from their subjects– considering the benë&cence amd good will whieh they observed towarda them And why did they allow the taxes to be levied et a time like p. 10 the era.t he Mcended the throne. their différent lengths. the empire succumbed." Then the BMif ordered the Ma.T)AHs&hân! m his book on famous poems. 88. with this difference. From what then are people 20 to pay their taxes Thereupon he was informed. bas become so generally known.arùz and Mihrjân. Besides. intercalated years. this. that the Persiana used to intercata. when the empire had been shattered. relating to Na. and by Hajnza.aar!. this never The EhaJif happened except a. and 1 cannot find tha. The reason why precisely the era. or bas it aJwa.go search on my part. observed corn that had not yet ripened. This is going on according to the regniations established by the Persian kings for the levying of the taxes et the time of Na. and usurpers had seized aJl power. It has been employed in the Canons. KhMid deelined to do ao. of 'Ahmad ben Talha Ahnut&did-bUMh the EhaJif was based upon Greek years and Persian monthB however. because it M easy and simple to use.

and gained sufficient leisure 30 to study the anairs of his subjects. which waa to be sent by order of the Ehalif to aU the provinces of the empire.ys. that in accordajice with what the Ma." However. the lat Ehurd&dh-Mnh of that year. the provinces of the empire from their usurpers. Now. 37 aubject to Hisham. that to this subject may be ~M<e)-cc[h<M?t is only <tm applied the word of (tod McrMse q/'Ae~Ae~Mm (SÛM. delivered out. and thou brimgest them justice and a present.e.uruz has retumed to that time.t was a memorable benefit to the people.n which fell upon a Wcdneaday. he should compute the da. and compose a fixed Canon (Calendar) tha. inaamuch as Almu. because he-or those who did the work for him-held this opinion. and SMd: "He M pM-tM to Zoroastrianism. but then bis enemies began to speak of the subjcct. and put Naurûz at thé end of th.ys The day of Na. where he sa. He attributed the greatest importance to intercalation and to the carrying out of this measure He followed the method of Almutawakkil regarding the postponement of Na. They bring thee praise and thanks.ting. Now thou hast levied the taxes at Naurûz.t year in whieh the Persiam empire perished by the death of Yazdajird. Thereupon he fixed Naurûz in the . whilst Almu'ta~id took the intervalbeginning betwuen hie year and tha. Afterwarde at the time of AIrMhM the landholders assemMed again and called on YahyA ben EMUd ben Barmak. Yahy& had tho intention to do so.ys+a. amd the matter remained as it WM before. Almutawakkil was killed. tawakkil had made the basis of his computation the interval between AM year (i.uruzj however he treated the subject differently. in which he then happened to live). It waa determined to postpone Naurûz till the l?tJi of HMÎrân. fraction.ix. askmg him to postpone Naurûz by about two months.bMs AJ~ulï to be brought 10 before him. andthe of thé reign of «Yazdajird. and tha.rrived in the provinces in Muham-am A.t year.M he was ordered. whilst before thee it was wandering about. oomcidmg with the llth of Haz:rân. circula. on the subject in praise of Ahnuta. well deserving of thamks.ON THE KATURE 0F THE EEAS. hosaid: "I Mn afraid. 37). arising from the day-quarters (exceeding thé 866 days of the Solar year). Albuhturî bas composed a ~tda. and the letters a. on whieh it wa~ fixed by 20 Ardashtr..w~Jdl. v. 243.H.ubadhhad related of Naurûz. Now Almutawakkil ordered'Ibrâhîm ben Al'a. and his plan wa~ not carried until Almu'ta~d ascended the throne of the Khalifate.t he should compose a paper on the postponement of NaurAz. and told him. The poet. Thou hast tradisferred Naurûz to its original condition." Therefore he dropped the subject. These 60 D 83 days he added at Naurûz of his year. that M~ce <&t<time intercalation had been negleetfd This 40 interval he found to be 243 years and 60 da. AIsûM did . tha.

Naurûz bas not thereby returned to that ingenuity which it 20 place occupied at the time when intercalation was still practised in the Persian empire. th. 10 How blessed ia tha. AIwaya coinciding with the Ilth of Ï~MÎrân. although in bringing about thia measure much has been displayed. and the turn had just come to Ab~. Therefore he computed days since the extinction of their empire. But . if we calculate without mathematical accuracy. and shall more fully expiain hereafter. by which the year had moved backward (it too short) The five Epagomene they put as a mark at the end of being this intercalary month. This is the last of those eras that have become celebrated. The second month they intercalated with regard to the future. 30 Now. was his Wazîr 'Abu-al~asim 'Ubaid-aU&h ben SuMman ben Wahb. you get a remainder of not exaotly–70 years.r of religion.88 AMÎB~Î. as we shall explain hereafter.Mah. Because at thé time of Yazdajird ben Shâpùr they had intercalated into their year two montha. Ctreek months for this purpose. renovator of the shattered empire! Who hast again established among us the piUa. 40 Whdst in reality the matter is a different one. whon thon has: eMned thanks beaides the reward (due to thee for it in heaven) By postponing NMr&z thou hast justly made précède." Now. The Mt<< of these 70 years would amount to nearly 17 days. Fortheremianshadali-eadybeguntonegIecttheirinterMJation nearly seventy years before the death of Yazdajird. not liable to mo~M bMkward. what they bad postponed.t Nimrûz. that thé months of Ax year should be intercalated at the same time whon the Ctreetd intercabte their years." On the same subject 'Ait ben TahyA says:Thé day of thy NMrûz is one and the same day. Therefore it would have been neceseary. in order that it might coincide with the 28th of pMirm. that no other intercalation might be needed for a long period. there is much nearly-but uncertainty and confusion in the Persian chronology. but 77 days. was of opinion. after it had been tottering Thou hast surpassed aJl the kings like the foremost horse in a race. as we have aheadyexplained. if you subtract &Mn the sum of the years ben between Yazdajird SMpur and Yazdajird ben Shahryâr 120 years. To this aubjeot thé following verses of the astronomer 'Au ben YahyA refer "0 thou restorer of the untarnished glory. The mm who was entrusted with carrying out his orders. one of them as the necessary compensation for that apace of time. that the Persian method of intercadation wassimilar to the Greek method. The man who worked out this reform. to postMne Naurûz not 60.

The day of the ConfederMy of AlfudM. and from celebrated days of battle. 2. when the Ethiopians were coming on with the intention of destroying the Ka'ba. by order of the Prophet Mu~mmDM~ The tnhes 'Aus and EhM~j uaed thé foUowing da. m which the BanA-YMbA' stote certain garments which some of the kings of Himyar sent to the Xa'ba. and adopted that of his successor. known by the name of 'Amr ben Yahya. and when a general fighting among the people occurred at the time of the holy pilgrimage. or suoh eras as are now obsolete. whieh they fought among themselves. The day of A!mjar in the sacred month. . eg. brought down the consequences of their cunning enterprise upon their own necks. As such epochs the Bann-~umish. ship devolved upon 'A. The duration of the reigns of their kings we have stated in the tables wtnch will follow het-eafter. (4) The year of the reconstruction of the Ea'ba. they dated from the year when the chieftain. 39 10 20 80 40 perhaps some other nations. for the celebration of his memory. For instance. The year of the death of Hisham ben Almughîra AhnaHizûm!. whilat thoso who remained in the country dated from the time when the last party of the emigrants had left. to ha. the time of Zoroastrianism used to date successively by the years of the reign of each of their kings. who is said to have changed the religion of Abraham. whieh have not been handed down to p. The day of Alf4A. is not borne out by the comparison of the chronological theories of both sides (Arabs and Persiams). however. after a long course of time.mr ben BaM'a. whose countries are far distant from ours. For they used to date from the construction of the Ea'ba by Abraham and IshmapI tiU the time when they were dispersed and left Tihâma. Thereupon they dated from the era of the Hijra. Those who went away dated from the time of their exodua. hâve eras of their own. Afterwajdsthey dated from the death of Ka'b ben Lu'ayy-till the Year T<-M!~M. they dropped his era. the Persians inposterity. and to have himself made the idols'Isâf amd Na'Na. in which thé contracting parties bound themselves to assist aU those to whom wrong was done. 34.–As the lahmaelite Araba. But afterwards. a second instance we mention EpOChs of the Anciemt Arabs.ON THE NATURE OF THE ERAS.ve brought from the city of Balka the idol Hubal.y&M epochs 1. and annihilated them. This is said to have happened at the time of Shapur Dhû-at'akt&f. Because the Banu-~uraish committed wrong and violence against eaeh other within the holy precinct of Makka. 3. This synchronism. Some Arabe uaed to date from famous accidents. When a king died. Thereupon they dated fron' the Year of Treason till the Year of the Nephante. in which the Lord. had the following ones 1.

2. there are 15 years. 4." Between the day of Alfijâr and the reconstruction of the Ea. Theda.'ha. The day of Ha{ib. we should do with them the Mme that we intend to do with all the other subjects connected with eras. 7.t my uncles. Among the tribes Bakr and Taghlib.tion 40 of their country.r of Alfijâr there were 20 years. M he has said himself present on the day of Ainjâr. ALBÎRÛNÎ. and had made it their home. If. 8. A. the event of the coming of Siyâwush ben EMk&'ûs down to Khwarizm. and between the year of Treason and tne year of the Elephants an interval of 110 yea~a.Lu'a.. Then 1 shot a.bra. However. 35. a similar way the people of KhwaChorasmian Antiqnities. 6..yy and the year of Treason there is an interval of 520 years. The day of TahM~-aJIimam. The day of Bughath. 4. 5. However. the rule of the Himyarites did not always proceed in complete order. as the Persiana by the reigns of their Eisras.mb)). At 1 wM p. Afterwards they adopted as the epoch of an era.ve stated thé duration of the reigns of their Mngs in our tables.–In rizm proceeded. 3. and of his . and the rule of Eaikhusrû. For thev dated from the beginning of the coloniza. and 5 years between the reconstruction of the Ka'ba and the time 30 when MuhMnmad was entrusted with bis divine mission.40 2.M*. and were aettled there. we ha. The day of AUmsMb&t. 3. 10 These and other "tocu-ys" were used as epocha among the different tribes and chns of the Arabs. Notwithstanding. The day of Mt~m and Mu'a. 980 before Alexander. these eras were kept in the proper order in which chronological subjects are to be treated. Their naanes refer to the places where they were fought.yofAlhmw. 20 people say that between the year of the death of Ka'b bpn . 5. The day of Alaaj&ra. this battle the Prophet waa present. and to their causes. who inhabited Hîra. the foUowing cpochs were used 1. Likewise the Himyarites and the Banû Kaht&n used to date by the reigna of their Tubb&'s.bbia. as also those of the kings of the Banû-Lakhm. and in their chronology there is much confusion. The day of Aha. The day of 'Unaiza. and between his birth and the yea. The day of Dâhis and Gha. the two sons of W&'il. The day of AJfa?M. The Prophet wM born 50 years a~er thé invasion of the Ethiopians. now. and the Greeks by the reigns of their Caesajs. Tht) duy uf Alru!.

ON THE NATURE OF THE ERAS.

41

descendants over the country, dating from the time whcn he immigra.ted and extendt'd his away over the empire of the Turks. This happened 92 years after the colonization of the country. At a later time they imitated the example of the Persians in dating by the years of the reign of each king of the line of Kajkhusrû, who ruled over the country, and who was called by thé title of NtaM~s. ThM went on down to the reign of Âfrtgh, one of the kings of that family. Hia name was considered a bad omen like that of Yazdajird thé Wicked, with the Persiana. His son succeeded him in the rule of 10 the country. He (Afrîgh) built his castle behind Alfîr, A. Alexandri 616. Now people began to date from him and his children (i.e. by the years of his reign and that of his descendants). This AlËr waa a fortresa on the outsMrta of the city of Khwanzm, built of clay and tiles, consisting of three forts, one built within the other, and at: three being of equal height andbeing rising above the whole of it were tue royal palaces, very much like Ghumdan in Yaman at the time when it was the residence of the Tubba's. For this Ghumdân wae a castle in SMi'a, opposite the great mosque, founded upon a rock, of which people say that it was built by Sem ben Noah after the 20 Déluge. In the castle there is a. cistern, which he (Sem) had digged. Others think tha.t it wa.s a temple built by Al~ahhak for Venus. This Alfir was to be seen from the distance of 10 miles and more. It waa broken and ahatte'ed by tbo Oxus, and was swcpt away piece by pièce every year, tiU thé last remains of it had disappeared A. Alexandri 1305. Of this dynasty was reigning at thé time wheu the Prophet was entrusted with his divine mission10. Arthamûkh ben 9. Bûzkâr ben 30 8. Khamgrî ben 7. Sbâwuah ben 6. Sakhr ben 5. Azkâjawâr ben f 4. Aakajamûk ben 8. Sa,khMM.): ben 2. Baghra ben 1. ÂMgh. When Kntaiba. ben Muslim had conquered XhwâMm the second time a&er thé inhabitants had rebelled, he constituted as their king14. Asbqamuk ben 40 13. AzkAja.wAr ben 12.Sa.brîben ll.Sa.Hu-ben 10. Artha.mAkh,

42

AMÎR~NÎ.

p. 36. and appointed him as their <SM&. t'he descendants of thé Kisr&s lost the oNtM of the WaH" (the govetnorship), but they retained the office of the Shdh, it being hereditary among them. And they acoommo. dated thomselves to dating from the Hijïa Moordmg to the use of the Muslims. ~utaiba ben Mus!im had extinguished and ruined in every possible way all those who tmew how to write and to read the Khw&nzn~ writing, who knew the history of the country and who studied their sciences. In consequence thèse things are involved in so much obscurity, that it is impossible to obtain an acourate knowledge of the hiatory of the 10 country since the time of MAm (not to speak of pM-MuhanmMdMt times). The WïMy<t(governorship) remained afterwards alternately in the hands of this family and 9f others, till the time when they lost both ï~ïMytt (governorship) and Shahiyya (SMhdom), after the death of the martyr 28. 'Abu 'Abdallâh Mnha.mmad ben 21. 'Ahmad ben 20. Muhammad ben 20 19. 'Irâ~ ben 18. Ma~Ar ban 17. 'AbtMMh ben 16. Turkasbâtha ben 16. Sh&wusMN'ben 14. Aekajamûk ben 13. AzMja.w&r ben 12.Sa.br!ben ? 11. Sakhr ben 10. Arthamûkh, in whose time, M 1 have attid, the Prophet was 80 entrusted with hie divine mission. Thia is ail 1 could McertMn regajdmg the celebrated er&s, to know them &U is imposedble for a hmnam being. Ctod helps to the nght nisicht.

43

CHAPTER IV.
TBB DÏFFEMNT MÏNMN8 OF VAIUOUS NATIONS BEGABDINa THE KÏNO CAM.BDDBO-ALKABNAINI OB BICOBNUTUS. WB must expkin in a separate chapter what think of thé beMer of thia name, of DhA-~amMni, for the people subject interrupts, in this part of the course of our exposition, the order in which our chronology would have to proceed. New it hM been said, that the atory about Mm as contained in thé Koran MweD-Jmown and intelligible to everybody who re~da thé veMea 10 spee~Uy devoted to his hiatory. The pith and marrow of it is this, that he was a good ~d powerful man, whom God ha.d gifted with extht. and power, and whose plans he had crowned with ordiMryauthonty both in eMt md west he conquered cities, subdued countries, reduced his subjeets to submission, and united the whole empire under his single away. He is gener~Iy assumed to have entèred the darkness in the north, to have seen the remoteat frontieM of thé mha.bitaMe world, to have fought both against mon and demona, to have passed between Qog Nid Magog, ao M to eut off their eommunl~tion, to have marched ont towarda the countries adjoining their territory in thé eMt 20 and north, t<, have re~med and repelled their mischievoua mroads by me~M of a wall, construeted in a mountain-pasa, whence they u~d to It pour forth. waa built of iron-Mocb joined by molten bMM, M is atill now the prMtice of MtMams. When Alexander, the son of Philip, Ionian, meanmg the Greek) had united under his sw~y thé Greek empire (? the empire of the Romans), which had P~o~y consisted of single prin. i..a? againat thé princea of thé west, overpo~ng~d subduing them, going as f~ as the C.~ S~. TheT.up.n he retumed to Egypt, where he founded Alesandria, giving it hia own name. Then 30 he marched towards Syria ~d thé L~Ute. of the country, went down

44-

AMÎRÛN!.

to Jérusalem, sacrinced in ita temple and made o&ringa. Thenee he turned to Armemia. and B&b-at'abw&b, and passed even beyond it. The Copte, BerbeM, and HebMwa obeyed him. Then ha marohed against Dâd, the son of D&r&,m order to take revenge for atl thé wronge whieh Syria had auSered at the bande of Buthtamassar (Nebuhtdmezzar) and the Babylonians. He fought with him and put him to night several times, and in one of those hattles D&r& was killed by the chief of hie body-guM-d, called NaujuahanM ben ÂdhM'baUit, whereupoD Alexander took possession of the Persian empire. Then he went to India amd China, making war upon the most distant nations, and snbdnmg a.Uthe tract <of country through which he passed. Thenee he returned to Khnr.u, conquered it, and built several tomis. On retnming to 'Ira~ he became ill in ShahrazAr, and died. In aJl his enterprises he acted under the gnidance of philosophical principles, and in aJl hie plans he took the ttdvice of his teaoher, Aristotle. Now, on Mcount of an thia he has been thought to be Dhù-aJtfH'naini, or Bicornutue. As to the interpretation of thia surname, people say ho was called so because he reaehed the two "Ao~M" of the aun, ~e. hie rising and setting places, just as Ardaahîr Bammamwas called Longimamus, beca.use hia command was omnipotent, wherever he liked, as if he had only to stretch out his hamd in order to set things right. According to others he was called ao because he descended from two different generations (M. borne) t.e. the Greeke amd Pemiams. And on thia <ubject they hs.Te adopted the vagoe opiniona whieh thé 1'eraiama have devised in a hostile spirit, OM.tha.t DarA the Grea.t had married hia mother, a daughter of Ning Philip, but ahe had an o&naive odour, which he could not endure, and so he sent her back to her father, ahe being pregnamt that he waa caNed a son of Philip, simply because the latter had educated him. Thia story of theire they try to prove by thé tact, tha.t Alexander, when he reached Dârâ, who was expiring, put hia head on his lap and spoke to him 0 my brother.teU me, who did thia to you, tha.t 1 may take revenge for you ? But Alexander ao addressed him only because he wanted to be kind towatda him, and to represent him (Dara) amd himself as brethren, it being impossible to address him as king, or to call him by Ma name, both of which would have betrayed a high degree of rudenesa unbeoomimg a king. On Real and Forged Pedigrees.–However, enemies are always ea.ger to revile the parentage of people, to detract from their reputa~on, and to attack their deeda and merite, in the same way as friende amd partisamsaMeagertoembeUiahthatwhMtiaugly.toeoveruptheweat parts, to proelaim publicly tha.t which ia noble, and to refer everything to great virtues, as the poet describea them in these worda The eye of benevolence ia blind to every &mlt, But the eye of hatred diacovera every vice."

10

20

80

40

THE KINtt

CAUED

BICORNUTUS.

45

Obstmacy in this direction frequently leada people to invent laudatory stories, and to forge gene&togies which go back to glorious ancestors, as p. 38. hM been dôme, eg. for Ibr 'AMalrazzâ~ AJtûs!, wheD he got made for MmsoK a genealogy ont of the SMhBama., whieh makes him descend from Mmôshethr, amd alao for the house of Buwaihi. For 'Ahû-'Isha~ 'IbrâMm ben HiMl Alsabt, in hia book called Altdj (the crown), makes Buwaihi descend from Ba,hram Gûr by the foUowing !ine of a.ncestora I. BuwMhi. Fam&Htuar&. 10 Thamân. KùM. V. SMrzaJDmor. Shtrk&dha. ShtrzM senior. ShMnaMh. Shirfa.na.. X. SMMtamsMh. Sas&n~hm*ra. SMza.

20

Sa~Mt&dha.r.

XTV. Bahrâm Ct&rthe king. 'Abù-Muhammad AIhMfm ben 'AK ben Nânâ in his epitome of the hiatory of the Buwaihides, says thatI. Buwaihi was the son of FamâHinsra, thé son of Thamân. Then some people continueThamAn, the son of X&M, the son of 30 V. Shtrzîl junior; whilat others drop Kûhî. Then they continneShïtzN seaior, the son of Shtrânshâh, thé son of SMr&uiit, the son of SManânsh&h, thé son of X. SaaamHmntb, the son of Shûz! the son of SMam&dhM,the son of 40 XIIL Bahrâm. Further, people disagree regarding this Bahram. Those who give the Buwaihidea a Persia.n engin, contend that he was Bahrâm Ctûr, amd continue the ennmet&tion of hie ancestors (down to the origin of the

46

AMÎB~NÎ.

whilst others who give them an Arabie origin, say that family S&s&n), hewas– Bahr&mben Al~&~&h ben Al'&bya<)bon Mu'&wiya ben AId~jMn ben B&mlben Dabba ben 'IJdd.

10

Others, again, mention among the series of ancestorsLahA ben Aldailom ben Bâsil, and maintain that from this BMne his son L&y&hajderived bis name. He, however, who coMtdeM what 1 have laid down at the beginning of this book, as the conditio <Mtegt<~ ?<)? for the knowledge of the Jproper mean between dispamgement and exaggeration, and the necessity of the greatest carefnlneas for everybody who wa,nta to give a fair jndpnent, will be aware of the fact, that the &f,t member of this family 20 who became celebrated was Buwaihi ben Fanâkhusra. And it is not at all known that those tribes were particularly cMefol in presprving and contjnning their genealogicaJ traditions, nor that they knew anything lib this of the family Buwaihi, before they came mto power. It very ra.rely happens tha.t genealogies are preserved without any interruption during a long period of time. In such cases the only possible way of dietinguishing a just claim to some noble descent from a false one is the agreement of ail, and the assent of the whole generation in question regarding tha.t subject. An inatance of this is the lord of mankind,– 30 I. Mnhfunmttd, for he is the son of 'AM-an&h ben 'Abd-ahnuttaJib ben Hâshun ben V.'AM-Ma.nMben j~usa.yyben EI&bben Mïm'a.ben :BM)ben X.im'Mryben 40 GhMb ben Fihr ben jMM&bm AIna~rben

THE EING

OAI.LED BICOENUTUS.

4~

XV. Emana ben Khuzaima ben Mudrika ben 'Dyâs ben Mn~arben XX.Niz&rben Ma,'add ben XXU. 'Adn&n. Nobody in the world doubts this lineage of ancestore, M they do not 10 doubt either, that he descends from Ishmael, the son of Abraham. The p. 39. ancestry beyond Abraham ia to be found in the Thora~ However, regarding thc link of parentage hetween 'Adnan and Ishmael there is a conaideratle divergence o~ opinions, inasmuch sa some people consider as the father the person whom others take for the son, and vice ce!-M, and as they add considerably in some places, and leave ont in others. Further as to our master, the commander, the prince, tbe gloriousand victorious, the henefactor, Shams-a.hna'aM, may God give him a long Hie, not one of hie frienda, whom may God help, nor any of hia opponents, whom may God desert, denies his noble and ancient descent, 20 well establiabed on both aides, although his pedigree back to the origin of Ide princely family bas not been preserved without any interruption. On the one side he descends from Ward&nahâh, whose nobility is weU.htown throughout OhNân; and this prince had a son, besides the prince, the martyr Mardawîj. People say, that thé son of Wardanshâh obeyed the orders of 'Asfar ben Shîrawaihi, and that it was he, who snggested to him (his brother Mardâwîj) the idea of delivering the people from the tyranny and oppression of 'Asfâr. On the other Bide he descends from the kings of Média, called the lapahbads of Khurasan and the Farbhw&rjarshaMs. And it bas never been denied /~&~ 80 that those among them, who belonged to the royal house of Persia, claimed to have a pedigree which unites them and the Esrâs into one family. For Ma uncle is the Ispahbad– I. Rustam ben (~j~ben Bnstamben ~arim ben V. Shahryârben C)t})*ben Bart~&b ben 40 ~ben Shâpûrben X. Hayûsben XI. ~nMdh, who was the father of Anôshîrwan. May God give to our master the empire from east and west over aU

48

ALBÎRÛN!.

the parts of the world, as he has assignedhim a noble origin on both sides. God's is the power to do it, and ail good cornéefrom him. The same applies to the kings of Xhur&san. For nobody contesta thé fact, that the first of this dynaatyI. 'Ism&'il was the son of 'Ahmad ben 'Asad ben Sâmân-khudâh ben V. ~*e-'<- ben 10 ~~<~ ben ben j~ BahrSm Sh&bîn ben IX. Bahr&m Jnsh&na.a, the commander of the marches of Adharbaij&n. The same applies further to the origine Shâhs of Khwârizm, who belonged to the royal house (of Persia.), and to the Sh&hs of Shirwân, because it ia believed by common consent, that they are descendants of the Eisrâs, although their pedigree bas not been preserved uninterruptedly. The fact that claims to some noble lineage, and aiso to other matters, are just and well founded, always becomes known somehow or other, 20 even if people try to conceal it, being like musk, whieh apreads its odour, if people although it be hidden. Under such circumstamces, therefore, want to settle their genealogy, it is not necessary to spend money and to make présents, as 'Ubidd-aJIâh ben Alhasan ben 'Ahmad ben 'Abdallâh ben Maimûn A~addâh oid to'the gèneatogists among the party of the a p. 40. Alides, when they declared his claim of descent from them to be lie, at the time when he came forward in Maghrib ËnaUy he succeeded in contenting them and in maldng them silent. Notwjthsta.nding thetruth is well known to the atudent, although the fabricated tale has been far to suppress 30 spread, and although his descendants are powerful enough is 'Abùany contradiction. That one of them, who reigns in our time, 'AM ben Nizâr ben Ma'add ben 'Ismâ'll ben Muhammad ben 'Ubaidallâh the usurper. 1 have enlarged on this subject only in order to show how partial people are to those whom they like, and how hostile towards those whom they hate, so that frequently their exaggeration in eithe" direction leads to the discovery cf their infamous designs. That Alexander was thé son of Philip is a fact, too évident to be concealed. Hia pedigree is stated by the most celebra.ted genealogists in this way I. ~~t Philip, t~ Hermès,

THE XJNG CAUED

BICOBNUTUS.

4{)

V. e)j~ J~

Meton. Borne. Y&nân. Yafeth.

10

X. tu~~*}) Bûmiya. Byzantium. bjt Jet~ TheopMI. Rome. ,}) XV. ~.S~ Al'a~fa.r. EIi&tz. ,~<)< Esau. Isa&k. Ct<t~< XIX. )<e~)<~ Abraham.

According to another tradition Dhû-a.lkamaini was a mam, called u-~H, who ma.rehed against Samu-us, one of the kings of Babel, fought with him, made him a prisoner and killed him; then he stripped off the skin of his head together with his hair and his two curls, got it 20 tanned, and used it as a crown. Therefore, he was called Dhu-a~kajna.im (Bicomutus). According to another version he is identical with Almundhir ben Ma-aJsa.m&,ie. Almundhir ben Iinru'ulkais. Altogether the moat curious opinions are afloat regarding the bearer ot thN ttajtie, that, e. his mother WM a. ~mon~ whieh is likewtse believed of Bil)tîs, for people say tha.t her mother waa a démon, amd of If 1 'AbdalMh ben Hilâl the juggler, for he was thought to be the devil's son-in-law, being married to his daughter. Such and simiLu- ridiculous stories people produce, and they a.re far known. It is related, that 'Umar ben Alkha.tfitb, when he heard one people 30 enteringinto a profound discussion on Dhn-&I~aj'naini, M.id, day W~sit not for to into the enough you, plunge stories on human beings, tha.t you muet paas into another field and draw the ajtgels into the discussion Some say, as Ibn Duraid mentions in hia &'M&m'))MA, that Dhûa~a.maini was AIsa.'b ben Alha.mmai Alhimya~î, whiist others take him for 'Abû.kajib Shammar Yur'ish ben 'IMMs Alhimyaj:, and believe tha.t he was called so en account of two curts which hung down his ehoulders, tha.t he reacched tho ea~t and west of the earth, upon and tN.versed its north and south, that he subdued the countries, and reduced the people to complete aubjection. It is this prince about whom 40 one of the princes of Yaman, 'As'ad ben 'Ami- ben Ba.bt'a. bep MMik ben ~ubajh ben 'AbdaJIah ben Zaid ben Yusu' ben Yun'Im All.lùnyarî boasts in hie poems, in which he sa.va DM.aJka.maJm was before me, a true believer, an exalted king on p. 41. thé earth, never subject to anybody. 4

joined together by molten brass. becanse the princes. especially in this latter report. Its garrison consisted of people of the neighbouring countries. from the geographical geographical situation. it must be stated that the wording of thé Ecran does not indicate its We learn. Whilet we know of no other Musiim nation which is separated from the territory of Islam. badly smelling country of the extent of many days' travelling further. that this nation. that they are Muslims and speak Arabie. from the direction of the country of the Khazars. Itinera et regna).50 AÏ. that this rampart had been opened (rendered accessible). except thé 10 20 30 40 .alman&r. that Almu'tasim dreamt one night.Yâjûj and M&jùj ttMMn~tit:. the traditions regardimg this Yaman prince. Then he saw the setting-place of the sun. Dh&. and others. resemble very much that which is related of him in the Koran. CM. oM!. Muhammad ben Jarîr Altabari relates in his chronicle. Dhû-aJ'adh'âr. However. that thé prince of Âdharbaijan. and described it as a. had sent a man to nnd the rampart. situat&d behind a moat of solid strueturc a&d impregnable. whose names begin with the word Dhû. 'AbdaUsh ben 'Abdallâh ben Ehurd&dhbih relates. there ia something whieh renders ita authenticity doubtful. Before him there was Bilk!a.g. however. occur only in the history of Yaman and nowhere eise Their names are always a compound.nM. Phû-alahan&tir. DhA-Nuwâs. As to the rampart which he constmcted between the two watls. Besides. at the time when hesets in thé woll of fovor-water and of badly smelling mud. Dhù-Tazan. that they were totally ignorant as to both Ehalif and the Ehalifate. and with a bolted gate. He went to thé countries of the eMt and wcst. Besides. Dh&al~. who live in the most southern parts of the 5th and 6th )cA~aT<t. e.a.the description of the inhabitants of that country. as Jt~-<~y<t and the . from which th-v are separated by a black. always seeking impérial power from a libéral and bountiful (Lord). Dhù-Jadaji. on theauthori~ of the dragoman at the court of the Xhalif. and found that it was constructed of iron tiles. very lofty Ybuilding of dark colour." Now it seema to me that of aU these versions the last is thé true one. my aunt. and the guide led them out into the district opposite Samarkand.. and to the countries of the Lân and Khazar nnally they arrived at the rampart. Therefore he sent out fifty men to inspect it. Then they returned. «ttworks. it is evident that the rampart must be situated in the north-west quarter of thé inhabitable earth. are a triba of the eastern Turks.ZitMe!-<M-Mt (the books called JM<M~t& i. although they are without the slightest connection with the civilized world.B~N<. From these two reports. at the time when the country was conquered.e. that this man saw thé rampart. the first part of which is the wom Dhù. until her empire came to an end by the hoopoo. They set out from the road which leads to B&b-al'abwab.ini.

Ji'7<!t~<t. And these people do not make the lea~t mention of auch a rampart.THE KMG CAU.they do not spea. this report rests on testimonies of this sort. If. and they are well aequainted with the Ehali&te and the Khalifs.& Arabie. a mixture of Tur)ash and Xha. This is what I wished to propound regarding Dh&-&~aTnMni.ED BICORNUTUS. who live towards the end of the civilized world. we do not wish to investigate thereby the truth of thé subject. AU&h 10 knows best!1 4 . therefore. 51 Bulghûr and the SawAr. in the most northern part of the 7th tA~tft. 42. in whose name they read even the p.zarî. but a language of their own.

M God has said in his book (Sïtra. Âbân Mâh.ttempttoand eut what 1 do mot know for certain. MtB-dMh Mah. And amt we give the montha 10 of the PeMiama. 1 have heard the geometrician 'Ab& Sa. Bmrdâdh Mah. Months Of the PersmM–The number of the months of one year is twelve. Bahmm Mâh. HBBETOMM!1 have mentioned atrea~y that every nation uaes a.t they called these months by other namea and commenced Sijiat&n. a. 36) With Qod thé number of the montha waa twelve montha. Âdhaj Mâh. in the book of ûod.tjaMt Ataijzî rela. Is&md&mtadh Mâh. 1 mention what I have learnt. they differ regarding the beginning of thé monthe. amd the rea~ona assigned therefor. DaiM&h. and do not a. So the Peraiama have twelve months of the foUowing namea F~wardin Mâh. Shalu~waj Mâh. likewise with Faj-wardîn Mâh. ix.'id 'Ahma." On thia subject there ia no diSerenee of opinion between the nations. ON THE NATUREOF THE MONTtM WHICHARE USBBIN THE PRECEDING EBA8.ting of the ancient inha.bitamta of tha. The names are these- I. special era of ita own. except in the leapyears. Of this subject. m J~ . AjdtbahiahtM&h.md regarding which I have no information from a trustworthy peraon. on the day when &od created the heaveNB amd the earth.d ben Muhammad ben 'Abd-a. CHAPTER V. regarding thé number of days of each of them. 20 T!rM&h. And in the same degree M they differ in the use of thé eraa.52 AMht~Nt. Mihr Mâh.

j~t m jy y M-<<& Thé author of the ~c!6. M~J~ xn. Din. month they give a spécial name in their language. Isfandàrmadh. the latter JBttThe sum total of the days ia 360. and they foUow in the samo 20 order. Asman. which are different from those of the days of each month.e. XXI. ~L. J~ Il. <~ 10 There ia no difference among the Persians M to the names of thèse days. 53 V. Ard. DM-bft-dm. 30 nor heard them from two men.~4~t <~t 1 . ~Mt KÂ<M-t~at<M). Thom are thé namesI. Mihr. XXVI. Khurdâdh. Those additional five days they called ~nt): (P<~t) and ~<t<&n-~ambizedAt&[~~ they are ajso called ~M<Mf~<t amd~MtM<a~<t (t. the former Farrukh. and gave them names. FMwajdîn.(j.t.~ ZMawMhi ben ShahawMhi in his book on the causes of the festivab of the Persiama. DM-ba-mihr. Hurmuz. Bâdh. Tir. Âbân. menions them in thia fonn– L~ LM~t~t IV. e~.U). Alnâ'ib Al&muH givea them thèse namesni. Bahman.M~ y. 6~~ in. V.t iv. the real year (t.<~&~a. Only the days Hurmuz and Antrân are c~Ued by some. Srôsh.ON THE NATURE 0F MONTHS. XVI. XI. VI. Every one ot the Persian monthe has 30 days. They added them being between Âbân Mâh and Adhar Mâh.O't~~ n. IV. Dai-ba-âdhar.i. aa we have already observed heretofore. Mâh. on account of their not reckoned as part of any one of thé months. Âdhaj. whilst. Ashtâdh. j~~ n. An!]'&n. <~M&~ Il. Zamyâdh. Bâm.ch day of a p. Shahrêwar.e. These names 1 never read in two books. ArdibaMsht. Murdâdh.e~~ m. Rashn. Jn another book 1 found them in the foUowing form I. Bahrâm. M&rM&nd. and to ea. 43. Ehùr. (Mah. they are the Mme for every month.~r IX. the mean Miaj or tropical year) hM 365i days.p. in the same way they are theseI.~ v.

t~itJ~~ IV. and chroniclers. and judgea. the cost had sometimes amounted to one million of denajs. t~t~ And lastly. )~~ V. they did not return to their original condition. reason was this that intercalation was an affair settted under the special patronage of their kings at a meeting of the mathematiciams. is distorbed). ~A. ao that the number of ita montha became thirteen. which happened in 120 years.) (Ustavaiti.veraiontoinoreasing the number of the days. was 365. t~M. it was called the ~M< of 7tt<erc<t!Œ<M?t. .U parts of the empire. was this. but only the months are liable to beingimtcrcaJa. and the years were no longer intercalated with them. II. Afterwarda the day-quarters were neglected. And the daya of thia additional month they called by the same names as those of the other months. 45.) V.te 30 said. that a man who made a low estima. In this mode thé Persiana proceeded tiU the time when both their empire and their religion periahed. J~ IH. Thia month they called ~MMC: (intercaJary month).u8cthoy had an a. if it is to be valid. real time). this was impossible by reason of the prescription of thé law regarding the days on which atm~ntM (whispering 40 prayer) must be said. in this formI. 1 have heard them from the geometrioiam 'Abù-aJhasam AdharHmra. Then they added this month to the other months of the year. therefore. till thèse quarters of a day had summed up to the days of one complète month. and remained The considerably behind the fixed points of time (!e.boca.tcd. This same day waa observed as the most important and the most glorious of ail festivals. after aU the persons I have mentioned had been aummoned to the royal court from a.54 ALBÎRÛNÎ. that according to their views. tM~ n. 1 myself heard 'Abû-alfaraj ben 'Ahmad bon Khalaf AIzamjnn! say that the Mobad in SMra!! had dictated them to him in this formI. (Vahist6isti. and.) (Vohukhshathra. (~ IV. literary celebrities. and on that day the king used to remit the taxes to his subjeets.) fi The aum total of their days.< ni. The reason why they did not add thé quarter of a day every fourth year as one complete day to one of the months or to the Epagomenea. not the days.) (Spent&mainyu.–on the baaia of an agreement of fUI those regarding the correctnesa of the calculation. 20 therefore. On this occasion money was spent profusely to such ajt extent. < It was a rule that on eaeh day aTpecial sort of odoriferous plants and p. and after they had held conncilB in order to come to an agreement. The quarter of a 10 day (beyond the 365 days) they neglected in their computation. historiographers. ~M~ (Ahunavaiti. the son of Tazdanl:hasîs. priests. If the number of days be increased by an additional day (the order of the days of <KNtM<tma according to the law.

According to a third view.E~t-M. they Tscd to postponc intorcalatiom. nor did they repeat the name of another month. according to their view of the millennia of the worid. because of all thc zodiacal signs. and ljkewise a spécial drinit. For in the first cycle of Sindhind the sun stands in the beginning of Ariea above thé middle between the two ends of the inhabitable world. Being. Then he ordered people in ail future times to do with the day-quarters the aame as he had done. And as this subject was of great importance and of général use to high and low.ON THE NATURE OF MOXTHS. which sign according to their tenets. whiist the sun stood in thé point of the vernal equinox in the middle of heaven. 55 nowers was put before the . with real timc). Cancer) is fit to be the horoscope of the growth of the world. The Persiana believe that the beginning of their year was fixed by the creation of the first man. as we have mentioned. that Cancer M the horoscope of the world. and they obeyed hia conunaud. they transferred thé five Epagomence and put them at the end of that month. except when ))t0(!e)'<t<e heat acts upon moist substances. Further. and to be carried out in <'onformity with nature (i. it (i. but they kept it simply in memory from one turn to another. which is a star of mpd<')'<tfe N<t<Mfeand as no growth is possible. The reason why they put the Bpagomenœ at the end of Âb&n Mâh. In that case. The astrologers hold similar opinions. where the intercalary month would have again to be inserted. signifies the commencement of rotation and growth. And other comparisons besides of a similar kind are brought forward by the astrologers. and by their becoming complete aJl growth became complete. and that thia took place on the day Hunuuz of Farwardtn Mâh. to which the turn of intercalation had proceeded on the last occasion of intercalating. afraid that there might arise uncertainty a8 to the place. Others say. This occurred at the beginning of the seventh nuUenium. ci'i!. and as it is required to be treated with knowledge. regarding which there was no difference of opinion. that Cancer was caHed thé horoscope ofthe world. when its time happened to occur at a period when thé condition of the empire was disturbed by calamities.becausebyits creation the creation of the four elements became complete.e. time returned to its original condition.e. and because in the same sign is the ~'«)/«t of Jupiter. however. in a well regulated order. people relate When Zoroaster arose and intercalated the years with the months. it stands nearest to the zenith of the inhabitable world. then they neglected 10 20 30 40 . between thia month and Âdhar Mâh pa«<Ma). Cancer was called so. to the king and to the subjects. Cancer is the horoscope. They did not call the intercalary month by a spécial name. which up to that time had summed up from the day-quarters.

~L~. when theyexpectedth~t .M4.~ . becMM theTmnsoYaniMM p. TheM Me the Dames of the thirty daysl. -H. 1> » Some people add a Jim (e) at the end of (~ and and p~noirnoe and s~ they add a Nûm and a J{m (~) at the end of 30 and U~ and pronomioe ~-< and They call each day by a.o two months. 5. they antioipated intercalating tha year at once by two montha. mt~c~tiou ao long. ae ia the apecial name. for no other motive but that of precaution.~ 12. <~<1 21. until thé day-quarters sununed up t.~tt 30.~ 7. 11. 2.j~..M~~ 16. . and the same number Sughd of days as those of the Persians.ALBiNtNÏ.~ 28. as it hM been done in the time of Yazdajird ben S&bur. the people of Khwârizm and of Their months have the same nimber. under the superintendence of DMt&r. A~tt– 6.t the time of the next comme MtercatatMn arcumstMices would distKM-t their itttentMm thorefrom. In that intercahtion the turn had come to Aban Mah. enatom with the PersiMM. 23. J~* &M~J 9. M. 46. M. 8. u&& 15. and commence the the 6th day of the PeMian month yeM~fh Khurd&dhroz So the beginning of thé months ia different until Farwardîn. L J~ of 30 daya. 22.6~ 13. on thé other hand. Âdhar Mâh a&erw~da 20 they have the same beginnings. VIL j~ of 30 daya. Months «f thé SogdiaM–Now 1 shall mention thé months of the Ma. the EpagomeM were added at its end. That was the last intercalation which they carried out. Alhizâiî.~ 20.frum which ho received hM name. 26. 27. u~j 24. HizAr waa an estate in the district of I~hhr caUedYMd~jird in F&M. append the five Ep~gomeme to the end of their year. < ~~< <~ . Onty between the beginning of the Persian and the Tranaoxanian montha there M a difference.j. 29.j~ 17.6~ 26. Thèse are the namos of the months of the Sughdians.j&~ 14.gmM of Transoxiana. therefore.jAM. and 10 there they have remained ever since on account of their neglecting° intercalation. Or. j~ 18. .

–The Khwanzmians.~ 19. (~. (~~ 30. M~. 4?. m.~ 28.~ 7.< 29.t tree of the Persian nation. (~-e<~ I.~ 3. iv. M aJso did their neglecting interealittion.~ vn.~ 2. branch of thé grea.tioN agrted with the pmetice of the 10 Persians.At!-y 10. These are the namea of thcir months- L ~~U~. ~< 16. difms as among the Persians. imitated the Sughdians M to the beginning of the year and the place where they add the Epagomena).9«-KM <)~ ~j<< )j~-M<-< 30 Thé thirty da.ON THE NATPBE OF MONTHS. (~ 12. although ii. s~~ (~. Months of thé ChorMmians. ~<j 14.< 18. Q. M!A~. Regarding theae nMnes the same difference exists among thé Sugh.~J~ 26.~ 21. .j. M~~ 5.'})~ These five days they add at the end of the last month The SugMjam system of interc~ia.~ 18.~M 17. ~. S7 Some people give the dayj!j<.M) V. ~~A&t 24. p. ~e~* v.t!~ 20. n. <~ 23.48. QA~ ni.~ 27.t<~t~ j~ (~ fj~~tt~ Others abbreviate these names and use them in this form1. (~) 9. 6.ye they c&!lby thé foUoTnng namsa 1.6)M p. They are &t6ocalled by thé foUowing NMNeS:– I. 8. !~t~ t~A~ 20 ~~c~ ~4*& j j j j vn. The names of the five Epagomenœ are the fotlowing n.6~ 22. 11. (~~ IV.~ < < J~J~ <.u<-< 15. which are appended at 40 . The reason why there arose a difference between the beginnings of the Sughdian and the Persian years 1 shall describe hereafter. the name j~.~ 4.L.~ 25.~ 1 have found that they begin the Epagomence.

They (the names of the daya of the month) have not been handed down to posterity. as we have mentioned. they became entirely illiterate (forgot writing and reading). Sughdiana. and relied in every knowledge or science which they required solely upon memory. saying and J)<[t-&<t-JMH)'. Into this subject. it would be mecessary k inquire more cloaely. Of the Sughdians and J)at-6<t-/f<!<M. in conformity with the beginning of the Thora. that they might always agree with the Greeks and thé people of Alexandïia. t. and J)<tt-6<t-Dm. used the names of the thirty days till the time when Augustus. he wai ~d till five yeara of hie rule had elapsed. amd had bumed their books and writinga. the second day they call Azmtn. But Allah knows best As to the three identjcal namea of daya (the 8ih. For after ~utaiba ben Muslim Albâhil! had killed their learned mon and priests. and that in it tho world had been croated.nd then he ordered people to intercalate one day in the montha in every fourth year. the Peraians refer them to the following. the vicinity of their country to that of the Syriana. EhwarizmiaM some do the same. They do not use or even know spécial names for the Epagomenm. Ymthé long coum of time they forgot tha. however. and bas adopted their usage (of giving spécial names to the thirty days of the month. first.58 ALBÎBÛN!. because there the prophets appeared and made people acquainted with thé fmt week. We have mot heard that anybody bas imitated the example of the Persians. ~)s< in Khwarizmian). instead of dividing them into weeks). 15th. the son of Qajus. thé third Ardawasht. Thereupon they dropped thé use of the namea of the single daya. and others connect the words in their language for "thé first. the second. For. and more particularly among the people of Syria and the neighbouring countries. and ao on till the nfth day Ispandarmaj!. amd compound them with these. For they. 10 20 30 40 . which prevails among the Peraiana and Sughdians.e. it was in use among the nations of the west. the third. 49. the ancient inhabitants of Egypt. Atthat time precisely five years were wanting till tht end of the gréât intercalation period. and kept by memory only that which had been generally agreed upon. the end of the month lapandarmajî. From these the use of the week spread to the other nations. because. D<M< in Sughdian. the lat of the month Nâwas&rjî. and EhwârizmiMM. but 1 bolieve that this fact simply arises from the same confusion. thoae who used and knew them would have required to invent a name for the intercalary day. Then they retnrm and commence anew with the first day ~*t~.t on which there had been a divergence of opinion. In the early times of their empire the Peraiana did not use the week. and 33rd. with the Mme name by which they begin the daya of the month.– D<ttin Persian. as people say. except the Copta. in the same way as the Greeks do. The pure Arabians adopted the week in consequence of p. a. ruled over them. regarding thèse namea. He wanted to induce them to intercalate the years." with each of them. Therefore.

!')e<)<. in which case the Epa.60. MechirSO These are the ancient names of the months.ys. 30 30 30 M 30 30 LThot Paophi 30 AthyrSO Choiak 30 M M TyM 30d&ys.ON THE NATURE OF MONTHS.me place the imtercaJary day is added. They call them by the foUowing Tm. and and < Thèse are the forma by the on which 20 people agree. May Jme My Augnft September October 30da. In the following we give 10 the names which were modemizett by one of their princes. 'layowtpM! ~qSpot~tos Mmprtet 81 da. umonths <e~ee!.M~t~. that the Weatet~ people (of Spaam?) use months.–The tnoBtha following are the names of their VII.mes 30 1.gomenœ are six days. 30 30 30 80 M M Then follow the &ve Ep~gometue at the end of the year. 'Awp:Ât! 30 da. Nonths of the GreekB. the beginnings of which agree with those of the Coptic months. Phameroth Phajmutbi Pachon Payni Epiphi 30 days. The lea. MMoN ttMM:<&they are appended at the end of MeMn. 80 M 30 30 M 30 30 VU.–Thc months of the Greeks are aJwa.p-yeM they call ~~<. which means "Se The five additional days they call. J~ <~ vn. (j-~4. November December January February March April 30 da. M M MMO! 'lom-tot 30 M 1 .re found in forma somewha. 28 M IV. in some books. however. and at the m. after interc&btion had been a~opted I.ys.t different from those we have mentioned.ys. AlamuM relates Nonths of the People of the West.ys twelTe in numher. which meams the s~ P.bMa in his JHMt-<Mm'~<t!At6!<t. these names a. Their tiMnes are thèse 40 I. 'E~ntyo~eMM.ys.Ahû-al'a. 59 Months of the EgyptianS. e~ ~A< ~«< m-" Some people call the names <<)~.

So that (this intercalation) preserved these (the months. 31 M X.60 VII. The tact is. for reMona which we have mentioned before. and we onrselves have observed that the sun's entering the &rst part of Aries precedes the beginning of Nîsân. keeping them in agreement with real time).. A~m~M 2an-4t~ta. and with aueh names as we have mentioned.ll intercalation. On this occasion ho has shown his ignorance. is less than one complète qnarter of a day. every four years. 31 daya. A ehajacteristic of their system is the division of the days of the montha into weeka. Therefore that which he mentions is possible. that according to the Indian fystem he has converted the difference betwccn thc Grcok year and the solar year into fractions. putting it down as 729 seconds. who are in the habit of interc&la. who ruled over them in bygone times. 1o<?ÀM. had recourse to tho yeara of the Indians that they then intercalated into their year the difference between the two years (viz. when the day-quarters had summed np to one complete year. and that in consequence the sun's entering the nrat part of Aries again took place at the beginning of Nîsan. that "they. 31 days. N!a&n returns to its original place." one. Then he changes aiso the day 10 20 30 40 . He who first induced people to intercalate the yeara waa Julius. being incapable of doing so. them to intercalate the da. The author of the X!<at-m<t')iA<!JA-<t!m<twa~ (method for thé déducp." This sma. No~%)M): 30 A<K~)tM 31 The aum of the days of their yea. they append it as one complete day to the month February. but bas not mnished it.y-quMtera into them (thé months) in every 1461st year." He bas tried to give an example. which takea place "great (MM. amd aa in &Ufour yeara the four quarters of a day are summed up. however. speaking of the Greeks. and even likely. This interoaiation they called the after they had called the intercalation. in his account of the Greeks. long before Moses. tion of certain times and dates) thinks tha. bas aiso rendered it evident that he is inimical to the Greeks. Further on he says. which corresponds to the Syriam Ntsân.th of the king (Julius Ceesar). so that this month hM in every fourth year 29 days. the <m<tB they did not introdnce until a long period had elapaed after the dea. 51. 'O~rS~to.ting the (&ty-KtWef. If we on our side do the same. as he. For astronomical observation bas taught that the fraction which follows the (365) days of the solar year. M the beginning of their era. And we confess tha.t in his account he comes pretty near the truth. and partial to others. had fixed the sun's entering Aries upon the beginning of April.30 AMtBÛNÎ. on perceiving that the beginning of their year had changed its place.Tis 365. He gave them the montha with auch a distribution (of He induced the days).t the Greeks and other nations. called Dictator. the Greek year and the solar year).

thé sun's entering the nrst part of Aries again takes place at the beginning of Nîsan. As a proof he adduced that Muhanunad ben Mûsâ ben Shakir. For 10 NÎS&H that date. However." (Sura xvii. would have to be added to the ËMt of Nisân. and 30 had not compared it with the most famous book of the Indians. 86. 1 20 should further like to know at what time the Gréées did what he relates of them. meant. and the time which it would he necessary to intercalate (po~K) !'<t<e)'c<~<t)t<&t). would necessitate the intercalation of 10~ days. cultivated among the Greeks. while the Gtreeks neglected in their intercala. and pointed out the errors of the ancients. and so clever in geometry and astronomy. and the beginning of would come near the sun's entering the first part of Taurus. Now. Now the Greek year being too short (according to him). at thé time when he was partial to the Persian mode of treating the solar year. For the vernal equinox took place according to their System at that time six or seven days before the firat of Nîsân. Now. when their artifices desert them and they are required to corne forward with an argument not to mention the sciences of philosophy and theology. Further. the beginning of N!sân precedes the snn's entering the first part of Aries. and of his brother 'Ahmad. If ho had done su. his conclusions would have led to the contrary of what he saya aad maintains.. To something similar Hamza ben At~asan Alisfahân! has applied himself in his treatise on the Naurôz. if we intercalate the past years of the Greek era.) That man had not read the Ahnagest. Now 1 should like to know which equinox this man." But he bas dropped his example. and they adhere so strictly to logical arguments. The difference between them must be evident to anybody in whom the slightest spark of sagacity is left. on account of this pins-différence." which were at his time 1. 40 and that he had produced the arguments for it. because they reckoned it as 365 days and 6~~ hours. called the Ci~MOtt SMM&M.r. had explained this subject. For they are so deeply imbued with. the astronomer. who had held erroneous views in this respect. who ia so partial to the Indians. 61 into seconds. and we have found that they prove only that these fractions are less than six hours. he says. so as to proceed as far as to the lOth of it. everybody acts according to his own mode. to which Alisfah&ni refers. because lie . and has not intercalated thé yeai-s. and had enlarged on it m one of his books on the solar vea.ON THE NATURE 0FMONTHS. which he wanted to treat as an example. we have examined the astronomical observations of Mohammad ben M&sâ.tion the fraction following the six hours. The booh. and each cuuununity enjoys what they have got of their own. is attributed to Thitbit ben Kurra. that they are far from having recourse to the theories of those who derive the bases of their knowledgefrom divine inspiration. and divides them by that difference. physies and p. 52 arts. This would be the space of time in which the calendar would necessitate the intercalation of one complete day.225 years. So he gets 118 years 6 months and 6~ days.

Therefore ye shall not eat leavened bread on this day ic that month when the trees blossom. They were ordered to observe this day.–Thé related to Moses. With aU this he was compelled to assume equal circles. after having left Egypt for thé desert AI-~h. was a~t'o/~e of those people. Bemember the day when ye 40 Further. that one. having been delivered from their oppression. in order to derive thereby the mean motion of the sun. Tishr! Marheshw&n Eisiew Têbeth Shefat (Shebha. However. on account of the motion of the apogée. for the solar year is. as it is said in the second book of the Thora (Exodus xii. 53. of of of of of of 30 days. and altogether separated from them. bas related. such a circle is not called a ~'<tc<tOM). but N!san because in the same book he commands Moses and Aaron. described (w'z. who claim to be Jewish Nonths. Nîsan Jyâr Sîwan Tammûz Âbh Elûl p.ve the following twelve months I.e. as we have defined already. entirely mixed up with them. ha.t) Adhâr of of of of of of 30 days. 2).ws of God. 17. Hebrews and aD the Jews. the Israelites reeeived the ordinances and the Ia. He had collected the materials of this book with the object of explaining the fact of the solar years not being always equal to each other. after having ceased to be the slaves of the Egyptians. If they simply used the lunar year as it is. and the beginning of the yeaj (Exodus xii. except those which moveinan excentric plane. the circles) round a point within it. 29 30 29 30 29 VI. . However. the sum of the days of their year and the number of their months would be identieaJ. they were compelled to use the solar year and thé lunar months the solar year in order that the 14th Nîsân should fall in thé beginning of spring.62 AMÎRÛNÎ." By the "?<< m<w<~ thé Lord does not mean Tishrî. and because it was he who polished for them their scientinc work. And this circle. and equal motions along with theu* times. Moses spake unto the peopk came out from bondage. 30 described in the second book of the Thora. solar year. But he did not find equal circles. which point is a~sumed exclusively for these cireles. that the month of passover should be the first of their months. 29 30 29 30 29 20 The sum total of their days is 3S4.18) Te shall observe this day as an ordinance to your generations for ever on the fourteenth of the first month. extends the six hours by 10 additional fHMitions (t. its time of revolution is 365 days 6 hours+a as t!a. being identicaj with the number of days of the lunar year. in which ail natoral occurrences which are liable to growth and to decay return te their original condition.mza. And this event took place in the night of the 16th Ntsan e[<full moon and spf-Mt~time." In consequence. which waa sought for.

Of these cycles they choose that one. is evident from the fact. for this reason. The cycle of 532 yea. IV. consisting 30 of lunar months. And of ail these days nothing wha-tscever occurs in the First Adhâr of a leap-year.))ed thf First ~<&<!r. the First Adhâr ia the original month. meajiing they compared the insertion of the supernumerary month into the yea. that the Ja. however. The cycle of 95 years. of arrangement as a help to facilitate their practical use.580 months. The cycle of 19 years.t the end of the year. the observation of which would be the easiest and simplest. 63 when the leaves of the trees and the blossoms of the fruit trees come forth'. n. that its place and length.da. Further. consisting of 6. which thpy cn. Thia quality IN peculiar to the cycles of 8 and of 19 years.176 months. standing in the sign of Libra. on the same day.~<!M)'.st.–Now for the leap-years they wanted a certain principle p.-r .because of its following immediately behind its namesake. called the Middle Cycle. in order that it should have its place a. called the ~fuM)' Cycle. are not liable to any changes. They added these days as a complete month.me agn'es 1 40 . however. the number of its days. !coBMH. of which there are 28 leap-months. is not the case. III.ON THE NATURE OF MONTHS. Therefore they looked out for cycles which were based upon solar years. According to another opinion.tt. it waa necessary for the same reason to append to the other months those days. 54. The cycle of 76 years. which is to be derived from Jtfe'~6<'r< in Hobrew." For ce ~)-e~M)i< (JT13Mp). consisting of 235 months. That the Second Adhâr is the original month. the body of the moon should be lit up completely. The leap-year they called *J'Mf!t' (*1*)3~). the fea. with this difference. called the Major Cycle. to a woman's bearing in her womb a foreign organism. Five Cycles.r. V. of which there are 3 leap-months. whiist in the First Adh&r of a leap-year he must be in the sign of Amphora. consisting of 940 months. whilst they called the original month of this name the 10 &co?t~ .ys which occur in it. the lunar months in order that. 20 This. during the Second Adhâr.and fast. of which there are 7 leap-months.. the name of which without any addition was used in the common year. And as the time in question would naturally advanee for a certain number of days (the aum of thé days of twelve lunar months not being a complète yeaf). Nîsan was to bo the first of their months. they make it a rule that. consisting of 1. the fnm should always stand in the aign of Pisces. of which there are 35 leap-months. Of those cycles they found the following ËYe:– I. and the Second Adhar is to be thé leap-month. that according to the command of the Thora. as soon as they made up one complete month. of which there are 196 leap-months.rs. The cycle of 8 years consiating of 99 months.

Those smaU particles of an hour they caU ~<t!a~ (t3''p?p). you get as the quotient. The aolar year is.755. then you get complete Mahzors. this If we now aJso 9.876.ks the number76.777. therefore. we get the sum ofhours long. they differed among each other regarding the nature of the beginning of the Mahzors. 16th. oxprossod in Indian ciphers. The other cycles are simply composed cf duplications of the cycle of 19 years. If you finally divide by this number the number of the EMftks of the cycle of 19 yeara.nd reduce tho numbor of yeait) to Mtthzûrs by dividing them by 19. you have got minutes. 19aolar years. and 18th years. 6th. ~) hour. we get 8 solar yeajs. For some take the current year of the ~!ra Adami. we got the following aum of HaJa~s 179.80 calation.e. with a remainder p.467. you multiply them by 18. and regulated thereby inter. Now. and when not.ks. 18th.989 days 16y~~ hours. when it bas to take place.!so produced a difference regarding the order of intercalation in the Mahzur.e.p. the 60th parts of an hour. thé years of 40 the Mahzor not yet finished. according to them. And if you want the converse operation. d.e.–Now. and you want to change them into ~alaka. of which you want to know whether it is a common year or a I~. And this bas a. t. and as a remainder. Therefore the Jews preferred this cycle. a. 7th. and a remainder of 1 day 13 hours and 387 HaJaks.080 make one hour. 365 days 6~~ latter fraction is nearly identical with 990 Hala~s. ~y~~ the 2nd.923 days 12 hours and 747 Hataks. Thé three Ordines Intercalatiomis.year. . although they agreed on the quality of the year as to the order of intercalation in the J~~of (1WR3 cycle).yca.867 If we divide this sum by the sum of the Halaks of the solar year.p.64 ALBÎBÛKÎ. more elosdy with solar years.190 tIaJata. the 60th parts of a second) thèse fractions you can then raiae to wholea. of which 1. and you get the corresponding number of I~alaks. For this cycle contains. And then thé order of the lea.e. we get as the sum of ittt Hala. which is nearly ~+~ (i.ve been used. i. which is nearly the 7th part of an hour and a fraction. of 145 HaJa~B. including the current yeax. Hence it is evident that the cycle of 19 years cornes nearest to real time. if we reduce thia cycle (of 19 yeara) to fractions and change it 10 into ~aJa~a. and you got a sum of thirds of an hour (t. If we perform the same operation with the cycle of 8 yeara containing 20 2.rs is nxed aceording to the formula. If. lOth. and is the best of aU cycles which ha. 55. according to them. you multiply the number of I~ataks by 200. reduce the solar year into ~aJa.

léth (5+3+3+3). 9th. Theae two cycles are attributed to the Jews of Syria. Others again subtract from thé sum of years two years. on which there cannot be any diSerenee of opinion. AU three modes of computation are to be traced back to one and thé same principle. Adami. because they attribute its invention M the Babylonians. 10 This latter mode of arrangement is thé most extensively diffused among the Jevs. 12th. 17th years. 5th (8=3+8). llth. subtract one year. and 19th (19=16+3) years. and fia the order of the lca. Mth (16=14+2).p-yea.rs in the remainder of the yeara of the incomplete Mahzôr according to the formula. as is illustrated by thé following circular figure 6 . they prefer it to others.e.. 16th. 8th. the 3rd.ON THE NATURE Ot' MONTH8. and compute the order of the leap-years by the formula t. 65 Others take the years of the same ~!m. ~3NnM' the 6th.

e. indicating thé order of the leap-yeara in the Majora the the third oircle. The year called ~ti. and serves to indicate on what days of the week the aohr yeaja com. So we get a combination of six apeciea of years. in which the montha Marhaahw&n and Eaiew hâve only 29 daya. the beginning doea not return to the same day. and Friday. 4 x yeaja. except in 28 yeara. The year called ~At. however. whether it M a common year or a leap-year.U on the daya of the inferior atara. The Jewiah year. The three kinda ofthe Jewish Year. For if the Jewiah year had simply 865 daya without the quarter. oeMMt. heretofore mentioned. ahall mot&. III. both Marheahwan and EiaMw Save 30 daya. 66. the intermediate lit. and to dis. Since. by which the beginning of Nîa&n ia regulated. Each of theae three species of yeara mav be either a common year or a leap-year. (Mercury and Venua) and that Paaaover. the formula The cycles which we hâve mentioned hitherto.e. the formula. though mot exoluaively. on being completed. and dia* tributed in the following représentation. however. that New Year ahall not fall on a Sanday. p. . on Monday. the formula.66 AlBÏE~Ni. tinguish between the two qualities whioh are prcper to them. do not.e. Wedneaday. 80 For thia reaaon thoir yoar comsista of the following three apeciea I. II. provided 20 the above-mentioned formula of computation for the yeara of the Mahzor bo known. when they happened to fall on one of the daya mentioned. For they have made an arrangement among themaelves. ~ttM ordinem Mtttm. the beginning of the year would in every aeYen yeara return to the 10 aame week-day. onaccount of ita arieing from a. or Friday. tT)~!13: t!T3N1*!M and tha "~sr circle. in which Marheahwan (~O~t).&< t. Thereby they were compelled either to poatpone orto advamce New Year and PaaaoTer. rett)m to the same week-day. the imperfect one (m9n). for reaaona on which we ahall hereafter enlarge as much aa possible. the perfect one in which (~Q~). except the largeat cycle.e. is a threefold one.e. Likewise the other cycles. The Arat (outer) cirole indieatea thé quality of the year. were either common yeara or leap-yeara. The aolar cycle conaiata of 28 yeara. second cirole. duplication of the cycle of 19 yeara with the solar cycle. t. haa 29 days. say futther If the Jewiah yeara had simply the &-at two qualities. Wedmeaday. aa we 4D have here illuatrated in the form of a genealogical diagram. The three other cirdea contain the three /or!H<f&B. mence. they are intercalated once in four years.e. are derived from the moon. and EiaMw 80 days.e. t. The year caUed ~. on the days of the aan and hia two atar. day. i. it would be easy to learn their beginnings. t.

"lE Y 1 Common yeN. 30 days. 29 days. one of which are the Rabbanites. that new moon. of 385 days. Détermination of New Noon–Begarding their knowledge of the beginning of the month. at the beginnings of 80 which heaven always happened to be clou. of 3. on account of the enmity which existed between them and thé Samaritans. 29 days. Ktaiew. of 3 4 daya. referred to the duration of the déluge. on the 3rd and 4th of the month.n. and they ordered them to light a Bre and to make a smoke. 30 days.of355d&ya.of 18 months. In order to prove that it was legally permitted to nx thé bcginning of tne month by catculation instead of observation. becanse heaven was covered p. jGdew. 67 THEYEAB. no regard being had as to whether new moon is visible tdreildv or not. they posted guards upon tho tops of the mountains to observe new moon. Intermède days. in order to be protected by a System of calculation against the deceitful practices of their enemies. MM~eshw. Imperfect. rose above observing the horizon from the east. By the foUowing accident they ~dTp. P9Tfect. people in Jerusalem found out this. t0 Leap-year of 13 monthe. Hence it waa evident that the Samaritans had deceived them. mdew. For it ~M their object to have a conventional time. and the mode in whieh it ia computed and used. which was to bo a. 30 days. FinaUy. Intenaediate. P-67 p. M~eshw~.ON THE NATURE OF MOXTHS. the Jews are divided into two sects. signal for them that new moon in fact had been seen. 30 days. ~29 &sMw. putation as weU as tables. M they relate themselves. 29 days. of 383 days. 30 days.ied.671 Perfect. 6 1 . to which they were exposed by their present method. Eislëw. thèse latter went and sent the smoke from the mountain one day before new moon was seen. i4 days. that was to begin from thé conjunction of aun and moon. For they assert that Noahthey and fixed computed 40 the beginnings of the months by calculation.30 daya. up This pracheo they continued during several months. induced to adopt this system: at the time when they returned to Jérusalem. which we shall not fail to explain hereafter. For the déduction of these differences they have manv modes of com.29d~. Now. 68. 1 1 '~y~?~ M~eshw~29d~r~shw&n. They derive the beginning of the month by means of calculation from the mean motioM of the two luminanea (sun and moon). m-. Therefore they had recourse to the scholars of their time. mr~eshw. mdew. EAR.

junction thé time of 24 hours muât elapse.-a work which was particularly attended to by EheMr ben P&rùah. who derived their name from 'An&n. so that i' had one Tammùz and a second Tammûz (t~n-) Mapt). an offspring of another family would not be fit for this omcc. the summer. on account of this. i. For if it was the corrected conjunction. being seattered aU over the world. computed for them the cycles. standing upright. If they found that the con. the he~ of the emigration (Mm'X) ~Mt).tnots. feeling convinced that their people would be seattered and dispersed in consequence of the last destructif of Jérusalem. and solely relying upon the MpeN-a. e. can reach his knee.68 ALBÎB~ and clouded for M long as six months. however. if they found that the conjunction of Tammuz preceded the Te~ufa of T~unmùz. were afraid that their eompa. In the same way they actod with the other Te~&fôth. they intercalated a month in this year. to return to them. Therefore they invented these caleubtions.solstice by about 80 days. etc even if it m&y be illogical and impracticable. junetion preceded the Te~&f.y. and to compare them with the conjunction of that month. they intercalated in that year a month Tammùz. This reform was brought about nearly 200 yeara after Alexander. not the mean one. that between new moon and the con.. so that a sehism among them might be avoided. to which the Te)tM&in question was to be referred. by about 30 days. wherever and under whatever circumatancea they lived. fall into and dissensions. And this comes neM-the truth. might. Thp mathematicians. deny that such guarda were posted. they are alao called ~Mit~ and ~M~. NM't~a. the Mholars and the priests of the Israelitea.e. the conjanctiona and the of new appearance moon. According to their opinion. on the computation of whieh we shall enlarge hereafter.f~~teo. and taught thpm how to find. who derive the beginning of the month from conjtmction. whieh of course in different countries would be different for them. who lived between 100 and 110 yeare ago. !e. and that they made a smoke as a signât. Some Rabbanites. One party of them is called the '. and ordered people to adhere to them. and her elongation from the sun would be about 12 degrees. the cause of the deduction of this system of calculation was the following. uo regard being had to considérations and analogies. The second ~et are the . b~a. as they thought. therefore. Theh ~~uon people relate. with thé tops of his 10 · 30 80 40 · . to use them. that only he is quahfied who. aschism in their doctrine might take place.nce of new moon. the year-quarters. the moon would in these hours move forward about 13 degrees.MM~. by ealcuhtion. during which time neither new moon nor any other phase of the moon couJd be observed. A head of thé emigration must of necessity be one of the descendants of David. Before that time they used to observe the Te~~ (n~BtpJt). viz. they demaud that people shall only follow the wording of the text.

and a t~Mr. The genealogy of this 'Ânan is the Mlowing tn Mimth in'ùn h ~:no~ h 'M M 's py h '?~tp '3 ~i 10 MM 'a }ra h Min '3 -fNBC:' '3 M:-)n m '2 K-'j~ h M-'py M~ M-'yo~ n''ptn h M~ 'a Mrws-1 h pn-)-' h M-'nEO pp M'r'D3 h M~n 'n ~ipy h M''3i~ 3 ~-ot h ~npn '3 . And some added the interc~Iary month to Shefat. not Adhâr. He &:ed the beginning of the month bv the appearance of the new moon in a similar way. not earing on what day of the week the beginning of the month happened to fall. If he found a Bj-st-fruit fit for friction and reaping. and of those uf his descendants who are qualified for the Imâma and the ru)e of thr community (the Muham. and not to rety upon the rule made for one certain place. because this would not be applicable eisewhere. 40 Christians in Svria. he in~rca. The mode of the prognosticating state of the corn was practically this.t~ii.m Nonths. For they use the months of the Qreebi. but have adopted the lat uf tlu.vi h 3 '2 '3 -xiI . This System of prognosticating the stat. whiist thé Babbanites use exelusively Adhâr. he counted from that day till Fassover 50 days. as is presciibed in Mâm.xu !:EC<irr' .e. If he found that thé Safâ. (?() fingers. He gave up 20 the system of computation of the Rabbanites. Therefore it w~uld be necessary to make a special rule for every place. 'Irak. and Khora~n have Syria.tnn" o~m h npM 3 '7~-)th -rns 3 ~iry~ h -xxxi pyl-r' 'a '7M''n'7M<c oii:T'3 ~tnn h nh ~n~n-''2 o'-p~D-' . he left the year M a common year.Ia. to examine–in Syria and the countries of a similar climate-the state of thé harley-st~d.xxvi gg p py .XLVI T~~ He opposed a community of Rabbanites in many of their observances. and ma.xxxvi nN'?~ '3 mu 1 f . if he found that it had 80 not yet corne ont. so that there was a SAe/a~and an whilut others added it to AdMr.en 'AM T"Mb. had already come out. just as people relate sxch things of the prmee of the tme benevera. !. madan world).ted a montL into the year. he intercalated the year.ON THE NATURE 0F MOXTHS. if he did not find that. so that there was an ~d7Mr t~e~.–The combined Greek and Jewish months.de the intercalation of a month depend upon the observation of barley-seed in 'Irak and Syria between the Ist and the 14th Nîsân. GreA Octobt-r as < t. 'Al: ).xvi -xxi . that one of his foUowers went out on the 23rd Shebât. The Ânânites mostly use Shefat.the prickles of the beard of the <w of corn. of the corn is a different one according to t'ie difference of the air and the climate of the countries.1 .

But 1 do not see why they derive these months from them. because in it people used to procure their pro. of31 Iyâr ~Mtr&nof30 M Ta. If that he the case.ve become widely known. Regarding the quality of the~ year they agree 20 with the Greeks. that it might be nearer to the Jewish new. 30 31 31 28 31 VI. e. i'. R~bi'11.ys.mm&z of 31 Âbh of 81 îl~l oiSO In the month SheMt they intercahte one day every four yeara. thé inhabitante of SawM the SawM of 'Ir&k being called S&nstAn. S~ ~w&l. and Ëxed thereby the d&tes of practical life. BaM'1. Dhû-alka. of their year. visions. going out in compamy of men which was called 40 &t~M~<t. Months of the Arabs. 80 Regarding the etymology of thèse names varions opinions have been advanced. The names of their months are these p.'cb.ted into Arabic. $&&u-. t. because a single yâ (without y<MM~ ia diMgreea. whiist others differ. becanse it was one of the ~ttt~tm. Ihmactân. Tishrtn ~e<Mm of Tishrtn ~rM of Kanûn kedîm of Xamttn ~M of SheMt of Adhâr of 31 days. Amd they call their months by SyriaB names. and at the time of heathenism they used the months of the Persians. if this Elit is not added. Safar WM called so. Jmnadâ I. ao that it then bas 29 da.e. the four ifacred months. The two months . Dh&-aJ~ijja.Ne to thé organ of thé Arabs. Nîs&n of 30 days. ta~ts of this country were Christians before the time of Islam. some of which agree with the Jewish namea. Rajab. JumadâII. and in the word they have added an Elif.ve been ttMtala. .70 AMÎRÛNÎ.e.y. I. Others say that Sunstan means Syria. The worde ~e<!tm (primus) and ~!m (postremus) ha. so that even the Musiims adopted them. Sha'bân. 60. People have derived these BNnea from the Syriane.year. the Nahateaans.. because Tishrt of the Jews atw&ysprecedes that date a Mttle. was called so.BftM'were called so on account of the forth coming of the flowers and blossome and of the contint fall of dew and min. These montha ha. so as to make it j~. and held 1C a middle position between Jewish and Greek theories. Vit.-The Arabs have the foUowing twelve months:– L Almuharram. because in Islâm they use the months ofthe Arabs. the inhabi. ~(HT~.

" 10 jMa'M)t was called so. which were given to them by thei. because in it people fm-med the intention of travelling. Then comes the turn of '~so<)H)t. and hence people say. DM-ft~a'At w&scalled so. Them comes Banna. aiso other names of the monthe of the Araba. VU. Z&bM. there being no fear of the e~ila of w&r. becMtse in them the water A~ C~). §nw&n.y count with your fingers. to which foUowa ~Mcftm. &Uthree are noble and beautiful. however. ~amtMn. whieh . For M<)'6c[ means «M<en<<M<<ÎM)tt (a thing by means of which a tree ia propped up). because in it people stayed in their homea. as you ma. And W~tti!<t. The two mouths jMma< were called ao. and '~d~. Now are complete the months of the year. the pilgrimage.ON THE NATURE OF MONTHS. Hw~ Butak. o~" &n the decrees of fortune. its next follower. has comprised them in tbe following versea 80 We have ctanmenced with J)f!t'<<t!)w. W&gMl. 71 AU of which refera to thé nature of that season which we call Ilautumn. J)At~ft~tt WMcaUed so. The forma M well as the order of thèse names sometimes diSer from what we bave given. mjit.N<t/tt-<t.y. And with Zabbâ comes ~a'M~. AtBMt~M waa called so. Al'a~amm. Kha.nd a&er it Burak.in which hatred ~a~ deaf.and XAftw~M.' aneestors. AIttm'tMMT. 'Âdil. One of the poets. because of the atones being t-oa~ff! by the intense heat. because in it tho tribes were disper8ed.e. They are the folSO lowing:I. becanse of the increasing and the decreasing StfucM~H ot the heat. was called so. because in it people performed the ~a~.ww&n. a. a propped up ())tMt~'a6~ yahH-~MeMMeAbears a heavy load of fruit. JM~. We found. :." but whieh thé Ar&ba ealled Il apring" (Jtate')." In the following we ahall expMn the menninga of thèse namea Mcordmg to the statementa of the dictionaries ~btUt'~Mtf meMM that it 40 the year M going to bring. waa cailed so. e. NM~.

A better versification of these names than the above-mentioned one is that by the Wazîr 'Iam&l ben 'Abb&d Ton wanted to know the months of the pagan Arabs. <otake care." The month was called so. Even he who ia tortured by thirst. 80 B<nnMwas ca!led so. y~ with W~M." JCK~TfMx!~ ia the form J~ of the verb <o<!ec~tw. on account of whioh a man tums his face aside. ~<tt6< '~<MttM. because it suddenly comes in after Ramadan. because of the kneeling down of the camels on being led to thé slaughtering-place. M. JM'<'< too. and Lboause in Eama~&n there was much wine-drinking."and SttM~mis the form J~t of the verb <opreserve. ~t!. beea. received its name from the fighting in it. before the month Rajab came in.E'X<KMo&t and 6'<Me<!<t are 40 connected by one tie. JMft: means a pot of <cttte. Take them acoording to the order of MuhMram (§afar. and B<ntN<t with Bm~A. of which they partake. if he tasted it in a boiling hot' month. « tMtMtM-e." For in this month people were in great haste and cagernesa to carry out whatever blood revenge or warlike expeditions they were npon. on account of thé next following months being the months of pilgrimage. ie. so that the daah of weapons was not heard. for many people used to "~MfM& in it. This circumatance is expressed in the following ~H that M j)Of<Mt<MM ptoverb: &<t~etM between Jt(m(!<Mand Bajab.use in it people indulged in drinking debauches." as it ia uaed . because in it people abstained from fighting. etc. The month was called so. because in it there was much and fréquent nghting. . ~otM means a ~ea< and frequmtly ucMtt-rt~ co~tM! The month 10 was called ao. because the sheep were et e~t~ on account of the drawing near of the time when they were to be killed. '~a is derived from *<t<B (whioh means either Il to be just or to turn aside "). 'cMtMn was called so.).pot.72 AMÎB~N!.Ni!):)' is derived from tt<~f. and frequently used that pot." p. which means in the foUowing verse A stinHng water. because it was one of the months of pilgrimage. then j~t! and . ~r<Mt!tt. WS~M means ornewho NUMsto a drinking-party te~to~i having been 20 tmM<e< This n~-nth was called so. intense heat. ~t comes Mu'tamir. thé wine." And these significations agreed with the natures of the montha at the time when they were nrat employed a< names for them. Burak was caUed s<<. when they used to abstain from the use of the ~&til.

The second intercalation applied t~ Sa. as it was required by the progression of the vear. when it had aummed up to one complete month. BaM* I. They said for instance From the time . because in every second or third year they postponed the beginning of thé year for a month. delivered a speech to the people at the fair. But then they dosired to perform the pilgrimage at such time as their mercbandiae (hides. And they used intercalation in a similar way to the Jews.–At Interoalation 10 thé Araba uaed their montha in a similar way to the Muslims.) was called S~far. calling thé next following month by the name of that month in which they were.ted the month.e. as he likes. etc.rn. Then their intercalators themselves. and of the remainder of the p!<M-t!emfe between the solar year . rose. fruit. in consequence the next following month (BaM I. ~ostpOMOtMmt. the time of paganism of thé AacieNt Arabs. after pilgnma.la. and so on and in this wayail the names of aU thé months were changed. The Arabs consented to this arrangement and adopted the decision of the ~MM!Mtt<K. in consequence of the accumulation of the fractions of the solar year. Therefore they learned the aystem of intercalation from the Jewa of their neighbourhood." But now. so that it ahould occur in the most agreeable and abundant season of the vear. Then they commenced anew what they had done the first time. we must suppose that between tho two periods of giving the names there WM a great interval of time. For in one clasa of the montha the highest pitch of the heat is Safar. And this went on till intercalation had passed through ail twelve montha of the year and retumed to Muharram. 78 If the etymologiea of tbese two classes of namea of thé montha are such as we hâve related. akins. Orneof their poeta has said We have an intercalator." 80 The first intercalation applied to Muha. under whose banner we march He déclares the months profane or sacrcd. the so-called ~oMMM of the tribe Einâna. adding the difference between their year and the solar year. or at two perioda whieh are not very far distant from each other. abont 200 yeam before the Hijra. and to fix it according to an invariable rule. was called Safar. This proceeding they called A'M?' t.fa. whilst in the other it is Ramadan and this (that the greatest heat ahould be either in Safar or in Ramadan) ia not possible at one and the same period. their pilgrimage went wandering around through the four seasons of the year.) was ready for the market. to the months of 20 their year.ON THE NATURE OF MONTHS.rra. Or eise our explanations and etymologiea would not be correct. in consequence §afar was c~led Muharram. The Arabs counted the cycles of intercalation and fixed thereby their dates.r.<! till the time y thé 40 yeMs have turned round one cycle. and interca.ge had been finished. if notwithstanding intercalation it became evident that a month progresaed beyond ita proper place in the four seasons of the year.

Haubar. This went on till the time when the Prophet &ed from Makka to Madîna. which means.itMMtt and JM~<!M-. year Bammdtn.BabMuhanunad ben Duraid Al'azdi relates in hia ~tM&~icMM~. t. . 20 Muizim. Mûïid." Arabie Names of Days. Beginning with the Nrst of the month. He aays that they '-ommenced their with the month Daimur. from ~<M~<t~.MM< and and Mmbil. which were derived from the state of the moon and her light during them. as we have mentioned. give spécial names to the single days of the month.) By which he meant that the months had returned 10 to their original places.74 ALBÎBÛNÎ. they made a second intercalation. and means the ~< of everything. that the people Thamûd called the monthe by the foUowing names I. J)f)M< then follow . Daimur. 68. VII. but they had spécial names for each three nights of every month.e." Others caU t~tfttt~ them <&«?." called the correct j):m<e. Musbil. . and said The ae&son. the "<M-e!ceK was alao ~~tm~e.–Tho Alaba did not. According to othe?s they were caUed so. the time bas gone round M it was on the day of ûod's creating the heavens and the earth. The following is a versification of these names by 'Ahn-SaM 'îa& ben Tahyâ AImMihî:– . Such a progression they were able to recognize from the rising and setting of the Lunar Mansions.e.M~t)-. ix. when the turn of intercalation. ?a&r. Then the Prophet waited till the "~tt~tceByt~n'M~e. the most 80 celebrated among them.e. had come to Sha."Thé months of Thamûd are JtM. and that they had been freed from what the Arabs used to do with them.Ab&. till it is finished.'bam. followed by JK<MtM and 2)atMtt< Then come . to make a pre8ent without any mecMttty. Haubal. Dâbir. Months of the Themadeni. and Ba. Now. they calledThe nrst three nights (Ist-Srd) ghurar. thia month was c&Ued MuhM-mm. Mu~dB-. EMM. 40 The second three nights (4th-6th) nufal. Mahan-am." on which occasion he addressed the people.'t6. M&JM'. Therefore." (S&N. and the lunar year. because during them the new moon appeared like a Utee on &e~fe&e<K!of (t t<M-ae." Thoreupon intercalation was prohibited and altogether neglected. to which latter they had added this plas-digerence. t. the white nights. MauM. Then come Haubar and Haubal. Mùjib i. 38. like the Persians. which ia the plural of ~t-e.m~an wM called p.

84.because they are remainders (or last parts). <o wAtc~ the other M quickly /oH<KMNy." beeause in it the moon is ~<H. they diatinguished certain nights of the month by spécial names. beea. The seventh three nighta (19th-21at) zulam.g. the ancient names of whieh are the followin 1. Origina~ly the ecmpa.e. The sixth three nights (16th-18th) (hu-a*. p. because the sun has nothing to do with it.ON THE NATURE 0F MONTHS. 10. differs from the colour of the rest of his body. . 'Ar&ba. The fifth three nights (13th-15th) 6M. 2. 3. Jubar.because m it the on account of there being moon &M&M &er<e~ it was aiso called /<tA<MtM no light in it. although it is not so in reality. and barâ'. on account of the waning ot the moon and the month. 4. The 13th night is caUed Mtcf! the 14th thé night of badr. Others derive it from the mode of walking of the camels. The fourth three nights (10th-12th) 'ns~a! because the tenth night is the first of them. Mu'nis. because the eolour of the head of him who la dressed in it.or Jubâr. 75 10 SO The third three nighta (7th-9th) htM'. They are mentioned by one of their poets in the following verse:– 1 strongly hope that 1 shaU reraain alive. The tenth three nights (28th-30th) m~o~. 7. on account of their being dark. 40 6. t. e g. Sunday. or '~ATesm.rk). 5. Others call them duhm. 80 For of everything that has become complete ycu say badara.use in most cases they were dark. and hcr light complete. Beaidea. e. 'Ahwan.nson was taken from a coat of mail in whieh people are clad. beca. of the night M particularly thick. because they are <"7<t<e by the shining of thé moon from the beginning of the night till the end.because it is in the <MAf(throat) of thé month. Shiyâr.use they a~e black at thé beginning like the sheep w!<&a Hac~ head and a MA~e body. M! 8tretching /M'f& the one foot. Likewise the last day of the month waa callfd }M~t)'.000 dirhams are called one badra. The Arabs used in their munths aiso the seven days of the week. the last night of the month was called M'yaf'. The eighth three nights (22nd-24th) ~(!Ka<~M (from AM:<?)'s=extremeIy da. because that is supposed to be the most complete and the laat number. 'Awwal. The ninth three nights (25th-27th) <&t'nA". bec&use the ninth night is the because in them the dartness bat of them. Dub&r. amd that my day (of death) will be either 'AttMt!. Others call them &!<&)'.

10 The Arabs fixed the beginning of the month by the appearance of new moon. 8. a pagan seet started into existence somehow or other.e. four.t)s newmunes gavethemthe foUowing AI-'ahad. are the Jews and 20 Christians. SpeaJ: they are certain moments of time for the use of mankind (in general) and for pilgrimage. and from the books whieh are intended to establish the bases on which the C<t?MM rest.th.. and that each complete month is followed by an incomplete one. whilst Muslims arè compeUed to observe new moon. Al-sabt.'arbi'ii AJ-Uiamïs AI-jum'&. attributed their authorships to Ja'far Al-sâdi):. adding various Hnds bf compu.two." AfterwMds theAra. and thé saine bas been established as a law in Islâm. Or thc foUowmg or it 1 get beyond day. six 40 incomplete. AI. but upon the mean. and in the researches regarding her motions (lit.moons. upon a lunar year of 354A days.. AI-thulathâ. the corrected.tipna and chronological tables. gathering.. But then they found that Jews and Christians have no certainty on this subject. and derive the knowledge of their fast days. 65. however. expeditions) and stations.DM6ar. eitherJMtt'ttM or '~rM6tt or ~tyar." Determimation of the length of Ramadan. we jndge from the nature of their Ca-nom. t. They considered how best to employ the imterpretation (of the Koran). sabba. ta. that. and eomposed their CfUMMM and books. 185) They will ask thee regarding the new moons. three. i. and into that which is common to both her visible and invisible halves. five. For these latter have astronomical tables and calculations. these calcujations are based not upon the apparent. Al-ithnân. . motions of sun and moon. beginning them with dissertations on thé éléments of thé Imowledge of the Arabiaa months. adopted some of them.–Some yeara ago. g0 Thereupon they had recourse to the astronomers. and npon the supposition that six months of the year are complete. that they differ. as the Lord bas said (Sûra ii.c. as they maintain. Now.76 ALBÏuttxt. and to inquire into the different phases of the light of the moon. and that one of them blindly foUows the other. p. However. . the Nonth of Fastmg. one. people. thinking that thèse calculations were based upon the observation of the new. although they had donc their ntmost in the study of the places of the moon. by means of which they compute their month. amd to attach themselves to the System of the exoteric school of interpreters who. and believed that they were one of the mysteries of propheuy.

which may happen at each beginning of the two months of Ea.tioM were correct. and clear at another. fasting mean the fasting of that day. astronomers and ail those who consider the sub. Ail this varies according to the different latitudes of the countries. afternoon of which new-moon becomes visible. beca. which they ha. and ctee versâ. aiso. on the contrary. sometimes complete. prépare of preparing yom-M~es<omeet him (d~~ic-ï ~). and ail this varies accord80 ing to the greater or less latitude of thé countries.ble forms and varieties. as people say. whilst the same mcnth is incomplete in southern countries. the power of the sight of the observera varies.ppeara. these differences in the various countries do not follow one and the same rule. she ascends in north and south.leuta. But even supposing that the use which they make of those tables and ca. being sometimes slower. being always mixed up with vapeurs. For. This refers either to different places where the air is either naturally clear or dark. in most cases. in th~ when she a.g. preceded the legitimate time by one day.nce of newmoon does not depend alone upon the latitudes. they assert that the month of Ramadan has neYer tesa than thirty days. precedes 10 Besides. are liable to various Hnds of coincidences. some being sha. Besides. However. 6 aiso upon the longitudes of the countries. the air being dense at one time. For these reasons the month Ramadan is sometimes incomplete. and their computation agreed with the appear. they would require special computations for each 40 degree of longitude. whilst she t's seen in another place not far to the west and frequently she is seen in both places at once.ppeaM (&~ ~~). frequently.ve made a fundamental principle. and 20 according to the difference of the atmosphere. or it refers to different times. And besides. and cease when she re-appears. one identical circumatance may happen to one month several consécutive times or with interruptions. in which case the Mt of that meeting. they are." For they asserted. or preceded it by one day. sometimes far distant. others slower.mnnn) appfars. some sections of the eeliptic sink faster. Whereupon they set about eliciting curious things from the following word of the Prophet: Fast.use the variation in the a. she is sometimes near the earth. Furthcr.ON THK NATURE OF MO~THS. ance of new-moon. however different others dim-sighted. their calculation. 77 But. so that. And ail these circumstances. when they tried to Sx thereby thé beginning and end of fasting.madftn and Shawwâl under innumera. when she (new.rp-sighted. new-moon is not seen in some place. e. and descends in them and each single one of thèse occurrences may ta.ke place on every point of the ecliptic. This is one of the reasons for whieh it would be necessary to have special calculations . lect attentively. in northem countries the month may bc complete. and mostly dusty. are well aware that the appearance of new-moon does not proceed regularly according to one and thé same rule for several reasons: the motion of the moon varies. that the words fast. but to a great extent p. sometimesfaster.

in aU they have committed. and that this is to be regulated by the appearance of newmoon. we muât say tha. meaning a complete month or thirty days. "jr~ when she (new-moon) and cease fasting when ct~tpeoM.)~J) j~* ~A. is the meaning of that tradition. if they will not diaregard them. 10 and relates to past time. their theory is quite utopian. via. or from the statements of the authors of the canons. as they have mentioned. the obligation of making the beginning and end of fasting precede the appearance of new. And this. not by calculation. a cloud or 6~ dua <AottM~M-ecem< you from o5ae~~ the new moon. via.e. meaning an incomplete month 20 or twenty-nine days. now. make the number thirty CMMpMe.t such an interpretation M unfounded. nor do we reckon (ca!ett&t<e). be clouded M re-appeare. and that both its beginning and end should be identical in the whole of the inhabited world. For the particle Lâm (M~eî~ ~) relates to future time.y. Then he repeated hia words. but if Ae<teem <M <o prevent your o~erMt<M&. follows.moon. in case the horizon should be covered by a cloud or by dust And this (t. it would not be neceaaary to give full thirty days to the month Sha'b&n. whieh M traced back to Muhammad himself." and at the third time he held back one thumb.t. as he says. except by performing thé fasting of the day in the evening of which thé new. ~J~! ~j~ (" dMe~~w &M oy ~Mt< day of the MOM&"). and their trickery in both smaU and great things. to give full thirty days to Ramadan) is not possible. moon is firat seen. we do not following saying of the Prophet write nor do we reckon thé month thus and thus and thus." each time showing his ten nnger~. M would follow from that table which they use. Compare with this the We are illiterate people. By this generally known sentence. not the first mentioned. Therefore. and incomplète another time. and tables for every single degree of longitude. For thé conclusion of the first-mentioned tradition proves 80 the impossibility of their assertion." But ii they say that the Prophet meant that each complete month should be followed by an incomplete one. and if thé beginning and end of fasting is to precede thé appearance of new-moon. they are refuted by the plain mets.reckon the month NA<t'Mm <M <&~ ~e.78 AI. from that moment when zdaya of the month were past already. the Prophet says. as the ehronologists reckon. in which case the writing does not precede the past part of the month." And in another tradition. wedo not mite. or to count the month Ramadan as full 40 thirty days. If they contend that from thé (above-mentioned) tradition. the Prophet ordained that the month should be one time complète." For if the appearance of new-moon ba Tmowf either from their tables and calculations. saying. is exposed. that the month of Ramadan should always be complete. e.e. . and thus and thus and thus. as you sa.BÎRÛNÎ.

amd instigates people to engage in things which no mind is inclined to adopt. However. fast. Sha'bân and Bama. and at the end of the month thé reality of the case became evident.ON THE NATURE 0F MOKTHS. Then 20 there is the foUowing saying. when he spoke "1 did not &oM out <Mt an~ to t/tose wlw ~e<M! astray" (i. his (Alsi~di~'s) att. and there had been some obstacle which had prevented them from observing new-moon at the beginning of Ramadan they gave the month the full number of thirty days.nthoritieS)–ma. in whieh he created the heavens and the earth therefore they (these six days) are not comprehended in the number (of the days of the year) "-regarding these traditionb we say. the word of the Prophet "and ce<Me~<M<M!~ <cAe!t she (~etp-Moom))~-t!~pM~ is to be interpreted. But from these he bas excopted aix da. if you consider the traditions which occur in God preserve their community 10 the books of the ~*At'c[ ~<tMKyy<t. The &<Awas that both consecutive months. such ideas would not p. ascribed by tradition to AIsâdiJi: When you observe the new-moon of Rajab. For thé Lord has created the year as consisting of 360 daya.o. and then begin fasting in the next following 40 year. the family of the Prophet. and then begin &. if they vere correct. further. which they did. people might do without the observation of new-moon for thé month Shaww&l. and that they adopted them as a uniting link for the SO minds of the community of the boliovers who profess to foUow them. have entered their heads. ceiMe~M<tmy. 67. In the samo way. count 354 days. the month Bamadan wpro aiwaya complete. that.y and whieh have been correeted by their a.dân. said jy you see the Ketc<?<)<)?. 79 If. and if you ~~eher again. 1 did not lend support to them). count thirty and <&em_/M< The same 'Abû-'Abd-Allah Alsadi~.y God bless them!-as for instance." AU thèse traditions in the code of the Shî'a refer only to the fasting. instead of imitating the example of their ancestor. party spirit makes clear-seeing eyes blind. were imperfect. But for this reason. that it (the month Bama.ys.–ma. the Prince of the Believers ('AI!).M day. and makes sharphearing ems deaf.dân) was really .stmg a~id the following saying ascribed to the same "If you seo the new-moon of the month of Ramadan at the time when she 1 appears. Then he ordered them still to perform the fasting of o. in his aversion to conciliating the obstinate sumera. As regards the foUowing saying. listened to such doctrines. and ita beginning were known. count fifty-nine days. related to have been prononnced by 'Abu 'Abd-Allah Alsadi~ <othe «tBte tnc)-e<Me T~ mo<:<& M !Mt&~ o/'BentM[f!a)t and deerease as the other mo~< Aiso the following is reported of thé same: "If you observe the mona jS~'Mm without being able <oMe <7te?te!omoon. thé following In the time of the Prince of the Believers ('AU) people had been fasting twenty-eight days in the month of Ramadan. on being asked regarding the new-moon.tempnt on this subject would rest on the supposition. It is astonishing that our masters.

that the subject was one that of necessity resnited from the and that the language (t. None of them would agree with you regarding your theory of the perpetual completeness of the month of Ban"tc)Mi none of them thinks that the celestial globe and NUNaud moon distinguish the moon of Bamad&n from among the others. similar to those here mentioned.000 dirhams. follow from his theories. Governor of KAfa. so as to move faster or slower just in . language has nothing whatever to do with the law and its corollarics. he said. that it proves the tradition to be. one of the Manichteans. Remind me of him when 1 return from the mosque. from the interpretation of the ~Bt-<t!<<M~t<). who was the uncle of Ma'n ben Za'idtt. whereupon he (Muhammad) ordered him to be brought and to be beheaded. 68. and afterwards the letter in his cause arrived. who replied p. till at last he wrote to Muhammad ordering him not to put'Abd-alkarîm to death. And now. 'Abù-aljabbâr reminded him of the prisoner. And verily. 10 'Ahd. and renders it void of authenticity. How thoroughly did this heretic deserve to be the author of this Tubtk interpretation which they have adopted. By God. ignorant. 1 shall give him 100. and 1 have made you fast when you ought not to have fasted. 1 teU you that 1 have put down 4. and these urged Mam~ùr in his faveur. such a tradition as is carried back by 80 an uninterrupted chain of witnesses to Muhammad himself). in which 1 forbid 80 that whieh is allowed. Meanwhile. In a chronicle 1 have read the foUowing 'AbA-Ja'far Muhammad ben Sulaim&n. had imprisoned 'Abd-atkarîm ben 'Abi-al'aujâ. under thé EhaMf Manaur. and did not follow the same ruie everywhere. and ailow that which is forbidden. however. whilst 1 to Muhanunad." Then. 1 have made you break your fast when you ought to have fasted. as whave heretofore mentioned.alkarun was expecting the arrivât of the letter in his cause. 1 answered: May God have mercy upon you God and his Prophet addressed us in the language generally known among the Arabs ? But the thing is this. He said to 'Ahû-atjahh&r con&dentiaUy If the 'Amîr gives me respite for three days.PÎRÛKÎ. when he returned. This mau.e." 'AM-aIjahbar told thia Tou have reminded me of him. now that you are going to kill me.false. On which occasion 1 compelled him to admit that consequences. Have not Thereupon. had many protectors in Baghdâd. had forgotten him.80 AI. knowing for certain that ho waa to be killed. But then in the end he declEjed. Such a method of accounting for the six days is something so subtte. greater in one place.000 traditions (in my books). and of its original (t." Thereupon he was beheaded.e. that you hâve nothing whatever to do with the Arabie language and aiso in the science of the law you are utterly 40 Leave thé law aside and address yourself to the astronomers.e. the text to which the interpretation refers) 1 myself have had a discussion with the originator of this sect. regarding thé Musnad-tmdition (i.

when intercalation. to connect that which is doubtful and unknown with that which is certain and known.ys have been dropped. 81 The luminaries do not Muslims. either for the student or for thé object of his researehea. and Negroes. This is nothing but evident witchcraft. It is only a congtomerated If we sent down to you a book (written) on paper. we do not intend. As to the months of the other nations. God spea~a (Sûra Iii. and (S&ra. The order of intercalation used in these months agrees with that of the Greeks and Syriacs. in order to facilita. arguing with people who are obsunate oi. And further they would say. eloud. Tibetans. vi. Teriiy the unbelieving would say. Hindus.te the study of the various kinda of them.did. postponing not agree with the method which we have followed hitherto. Ethiopians. severe in their obstinacy on account of their ignorance. We have collected in the following table the names of the months 30 which have been mentioned in thf preceding part of this book. purpose.ON THE NATUh" this particular month. Khazars. Chinese. we have managed to learn thé names of some of them. because to the Epagomenee in every fourth year one day is added by way of and so for that reason which we have mentioned. God leada to the truth! 6 . 44) If they saw a pièce of heaven falling down. as it does here. although Turks. 7) 10 they touched it with their hands. is not productive of any good. But the Persian da) are not used in these months. OF MONTH8.–The are thé Persian months. who distinguish mark out this month in it by performing their However. and per.' God grant that we may always belong to those who follow and further the truth. who crush and expose that which is false and wrong montha Months of the Reformed Calendar of AImu'ta. the (Pcrsian) names of the 6pea!dng of the months of the Egyptians. 20 single da. to mention them it till a time when we shall know them ail. as do the partieular fasting in it. with thc same names and the of Atmu'tadid same order.

'~NBé ~~TTT~~Tn m i! g î =3 d . AfBÎRÛKÎ. § ë! g 3 g «B a °~ iiiiii~dM~.~ Q<~3~js. ~f! ~~H i j ~!S N~ é g s i! S M !-<- <s S S <s i <-<! P ~J j M } S j~ S S jj B t 4: j~ i "f~~UM~~T ë'. m<~ 'm JB~M'' 3 3- 3 _I _E_ i i °'ëg ado j~.g~<<<< ~l!.?T~~€'?'! i F J .aj j~-g F!! ° ë ~t. 70. p! -s -s. 69.l! x Cd a~ x· N `~ x es ~I ~1 Ë m = f4 ë 1 p. c`~.82 p.

~<§ ë. ~s ~jJ.ON THE NATURE 0F ~)0\THS.°~'S -s~~a '$ ~a <g .g P.eaa~<ëg.S~ -J J ? 6* :!T ..a x _ëë~ë~agg~~ .-S ~s -S~~ 's~a ~1- i j ~ha~<i~!x~MO! g il e $ . 83 '~1 ô i~ â ~°' ~I â~ N E-1 _3~3~L ~S '&5Qt)3~ g *Ë -3 ô ~ii~i. â la § a ~d m M ~~i i.i i g a~ i j s pT S i!. _H~MMM"< JS J~ '§ S S § i s « `~ a:40 J g $ i 'a -S . i h f j W-~ j ? . sii~ f°' aS 3 a -S &.71.S S >. p'71.

but as guided by the desire of preventing the reader from getting tired. it gets easily tired Mid impatient. the mind ha. as people say. as we have already mentioned. 72.3 a longing for them. we must say that we do not do this because we seek to be lengthy and verbose. OF THE VARIOUS TRADITIONS. now. to fix the dura. UN THE DERIVATION 0F CHBONOLOGICAL THE DUBATMNS CHAPTER THE EBAS RELATING REIONS OF PNOM TO THE VI. p. by days for.tions (of the reigns of the kings) by the most correct and perspicuous method. if we in some places wander about through various branches of science. and enjoys the sight of them." . incunsfquence of which. 1 shall explain the intervals between the epochs of th usual era. it is as if it were wandering about in gardens. when it 30 is roving over one.s been but little need for the use of them.s by a. i. Now. For if the mind is continua. both years and months are differently measured.s been impossible 20 to obtain a knowledge of the real quality of the years of the various eras. EACH THE KINGS. but for the knowledge of the intervals between the epochs of the eras the etatement in daytis quite sunicient.84 ALBÎRÛNÎ. and which contain rules and paradigms.nders from one science to another. stating one era in [0 the terms of another). since it ha. Everything else is generally mentioned in years.which specify the various Hnda of calculation and of derivation (e. another one already presentt) ittif If.g'. but if the mind wa. But. AND ON THE AND TO THE COMMENCEMENTS ACCORDING DATBS. 1 find this subject to be a very wide one. OTHER. IT is the special object at which 1 aim in this book. meaaure which is counted in the same way by all nations. Agreeably to the method which 1 have adhered to from the beginning of this book. wishing to explain the derivation of the eras from each other in conformity with the usual mode of the caHOMs. where.Uy occupied with thé study of one single science. "Everything that is new offers enjoyment.e. and plunge into subjects which are not very ctosely connected with the order of our discussion. and there ha. and the wish to embrace this wLole science compels me to cause trouble both to myself and to the reader.

–Tcrah bcn Nahor till tho birth of his son Abraham 130 79 75 230 435 625 795 960 1122 1287 M54.J132 birth of Serug ben Ren-till hissonNahor.ERAS. placing them opposite to each other (in thé same table).–Adam the fathorotmanHnd–ti)t the birth of his son Seth.~ The Names of tho Descendants of Adam. his children and their descendants.ttmM. in order to facilitate the of their ))a..1787 207 200 1819 1849 50 148'1878 205. AH this wp shaU fix in tables.–MahaMee] ben Cainan-till the birthofhissonJared 165 Jared ben Mahalalcpi–tilï the 162 birthothisMnEnoeh Enoch bpnjared–titi the birth of his son M<. 230 Seth ben Adam-till the birth of 205 hi3f!ouEno8 Enos ben Seth–tiU thé birth of hissonCainan.165 Methuselah ben Enoch-till the birth of his son L~mcch 167 Laniech bon Methnsehth–til] tho birthothisMnNoah 188 X.1918 . and Christians. DATES. under his guidance.Mt . XX. who form the Chain of the E)-a. Nahor ben Serug–tOl the birth of MaemTœA. MO ?0' 800!. ~i g~u & ï ~~i~ ~E .1~i 20 80 40 I.135 176 170 119 209. "S. We commence by the help of God. MO From the Deluge till the birth of 2 ArphaxadbenShem the birth Arphaxad ben Shem–tiU 135 of his son Salah Salah ben Arphaxad–tiU the birth of his son Eber 130 XV.mes.–Eber ben Salah-till the birth of 134 hiasonPeteg the birth of Peleg ben Eber–tul hia sor. 73.–Noah b~n Lameeh-till the birth cHussonShem 600 Shem ben Koah–tiU the Déluge. Ren 130 Rem ben Peteg–tOl the birth of hissonSerug the .O ~~g }~ gdl ~ei 0 ~ï oS ej~ x Q~ ~S ~ë a~§ =~ ~S 'j~ n 10 p. &~d with Ma gracious support. 190 Cainan ben Enos-till the birth of 170 MssouMahatatef-] V. AND BE1UXS 0F KtXOS. aud thé studv of the different tr~ditiona pronunciation of thé Jewa On this suhjpct we Ct'mbine the traditions regarding them. aud Chronological the Chrouological Ditfer~uees between Cliriatiamc and Jews regarding theiu. "ëÏ'tg'§ . 85 of those to whom a divine book Now let us begin with the traditions was sent (Jews and Christians) regarding Adam.962 300 78Z 695 4M 600 0 4M! 460 396 865 969 ?77 950 6u0 0 4M 490 430 ?5 687 874 MM 1556 1656 1658 1693 1728 1757 30J179 32 80 M 70. 1612 2142 2242 2244 MM 2509 2643 2773 2905 3035 3114 MM 130 105 90 70 65 162 65 187 182 500 100 2 35 M M MO' 807 815 MO 912 905 180 235 825 ?5 460 622 MO.

ge. the Jews are asked to account for this différence. But a surplus in this case does not admit of any interpretation 40 whataoever. will become aware of the différence between the two systems (that of the Christians and that of the Jews). Ja~)b.thedieerence might be accounted for by aaauming that an interval between two persons might have been omitted.86 p. AI. does not apecify how old they were when a son was born to each of them. they maintain that that apace of time ia to be counted from the day when.t Jacob was born nnto Isaac when he wa.BÏBÛNÎ. when he led the Israelites ont of Egypt. From the second book of the we Thora. · Now. and that he afterwards lived 75 yeara more tha. 74. the years of every one of their rulers after Moses. the Israelites stayad in Egypt 210 yeara. by the fact. ariaing out of the three different copiea of the Thora. If thia sum were too smal1(less thanami]lennium).terperiodaof Biblical history. and add them together. now. all of them. that between their exodus from Egypt and Alexander there i)!an interval of 1. How little care the Jews beatow upon their chronology ia shown to evidence. amd 20 promised him to make him the father of many nations. according to the atate. although stating the duration of the livea of Abraham. corrected (ie. and that they rely on this number in their computation of the qualities of the years (whether they be perfeet or imperfect or But if we gather from their books which follow after intermediate) the Thora. but have been carried off to the countriea longer of the . that they.t lived 17 yeaja more. made to agree with the aun or real time) 30 by intercaJation. ment of the Jews. till the birth of Abraham. that between the birth of Abraham and that of Moses there waa an interval of 420 yeara. however. and that he after tha. nor how long they lived after that except in the oMe of Abraham.ccura. we get a sum which already at the building of Jerusalem goea beyond the millennium by auch a apace of time as ca. and to give to hia descendauta thé country of Canaan as an inheritance.a 60 yeara of age that 10 Jacob entered Egypt together with hia sons. some of them assert that the a. believe in the firat instance. and that Moses was 80 years of age. and Moses. he who studios the numbera of years of this table. If. But we lea. The chronological differences regarding the la. when he waa 130 yeara of a. who knowa beat what they mean.ve the matter to God. Being unable to give a satisfactory anawer to auch a question. For it is stated that Isaac wa~ born unto Abraham when he waa 100 yeara of age. Xohath. and that these records are no at their disposal.to specification of these yeM-s was found in the records of the family of Juda. the acn of Anu-am. are of the aa. leam that the entire length of the aojonmmg of the Israelitea in Egypt was 430 years. The Jewish copy of the Thora. Isaac.me kind as we have already explained.nnot be tolerated in chronological computations. Now.000 years. Isaac. and Jacob.Qod made the treaty with Abraham. Levi.

the years of the world. DATES. desert n Alhijaz. and both parties made war upon each other. which containa a lésa aum of years than that of the books follow after the Thora.EEA8. all of which rests on the authority of their chronieles. And thereupon he led them astray (to idolatry). i. .e. For after the death of Solomon. 75. who ruled over them after their exodus from Egypt. in the direction of Jerusalem. as we shaJl mention hereafter in the chapter on the Jewish festivals. whilst in some respects it cornes near to their original system The statements of both these kinds of their hiatorical records we have collected in the following synopsis. when they marched towa. His children reigned after him.rds M B<~)--<t!-tM!Htm (the Red Sea) in order to pass it. the son of Solomon. the Isra~litef were split into two parties. the client of Rehoboam. whilst the ten tribea elected as their king Jeroboam. and to march to ~!< a P. "~e following is a synopsis of the yeara of their ruicrs. But they have another book which they call ~~r-'oMm (07)~ *<1D). The tribes of Juda and Benjamin elected as their king the son of Solomon. AXD REIGXS 0F KtXSS. 87 Greeks.

Jndges tm'M]ite9t)NtheFonndationofthe Tempte. 8 409 40 TheFMIistines 449 Shimshôn the giant of the tribe of Dan 20 469 The people without a ruler 10 479 40 519 'Euthepnest The ark in the hands of the enemies.u:S j~ M S S c< J e3 S* .e. Egypt and dwelt in the desert till the death of Moses 40 40 Yehôahn'a. from Bethlehem 7 391 'Ëiôn 10 401 'AbdônbenHiIlêI. 321 339 345 352 362 370 390 430 440 40 30 20 20 40 3 442! 482 485 . until Samuel wa. the left-handed.TaÏùt he commenced the David building 40 609 Temple in the lith year of his reign Solomon ben David-till he nnished thé 3 612 Temple 80 40 7 ).e. also called Ntthshon. TheNameeof Thé Names of the t ho Qovernore. 76. of thé 80 205 Ephraunites 20 225 Shamgar ben 'Anâth Debôra the prophetess and her lieutenamtB&]-&t. the auccessor of Mosea 27 67 40 107 'Ottuu'elhen~enaz 'Eglôn the king of M6'&b and the AmaIfMtesoftheBamî-'Anunôm 18 135 'Ehûd ben Gêrâ. 40 265 7 272 TheMidiMutes.S g ~< g 40 67 107 10 JS §§~ *P ~<ë t i~ M 40 27 40 p. The Israelites lef*. of the tribe of Ma~ nasseh 22 360 ) The sons of 'Amunôn thé Philiatine. ben Nùn.o ) 44 J 18 6 7 10 8 20 40 10 187 227 234 a.88 AMÏBÛNÎ. whereupon he made Talût theirMng 20 549 20 569 Saul. ô 1 la ~'§ and of the Prieste.wMohiaaapaoect 480yeam. t. 8alere.t. § i§5~ ° S'~ .Ë. Bnlere. of the tribe of Ephraim 23 338 Yâ'îr from Gil'âd. Covemom.ofthetribeofMMiMseh 40 812 'AbîmêleHi ben CUd'ôn 3 S15 Tot&*ben Pû'â. till they asked him to give them a. 18 878 thepeopleofF&lestme 6 384 YiftatfromGUMd 'Ib~&n.theoppressors CHd'ônben'Ofr&.ssent 10 529 Samuel. king.

Men&shshe ben HizHyya 'Ammon ben Mena.aj made a. the king of all the tribea. prisoner by Nebucadnezar SidHyyâ– till he rebelled a~unst Nebucadnezar. till wa.ar.EBAS. TheNameaoftheKingsandother Bnleraof the Israeliteafrom the Fonndatîonofthe Temple ti))itaarat Deatraction. 78. set up by the king of Egypt ben Yehôyâkîm.n interval of i 90 11202 90 From Daniel till thé birth of the Messiah 483 1685 483 From the birth of the Messiah till the epoch of the flight of Muhammad '2285 600 600 1052 1052! il535 '2135 . S ° 5 ~a 10 20 30 Solomon ben David-after thé Temple was finished Beha-b'&m ben Solomon 'AMyyit ben Eeha. . tiU he he was Yehôy&Hun ben Yehôyâkhm Yehôyakîm.whiohis a space of 410y<. YehôrambenYchoshMat 'Ahazyâ ben YeMr&m she was HHpd hv Yo'ash 'Athalyâ-till Yô'âsh ben 'Aha. DAT~S.b'&m 'Âsâben'Abiyym YehôshM&t ben 'Â8H.1042 ~S gg.§ to~<E S.?7.shshê Yôshiyya ben 'Ammôn–ttU he was killed by the king of Egypt Yehô'itMz ben Yô'sMyyH–till he was made a prisoner by thé king of Egypt YehôyaMm ben Yehô'ah&z.j~ J )p <§ -= § Mg ~'i ~HJL ° 3 i~ 37 649 17 6G6 3 j C69 710 41 25 735 8 743 1 744 6 750 40 29 52 16 16 29 55 2 31 3 10 3 6 790 819 1 871 887 903 932 987 989 1020 1023 1033 ~1036 1036 . AXD BEIGNS OF KINGS. 668 697 749 765 773 602 857 859 890 40 The Temple remained in ruina But according to another view between 70 ~1112 j 70 the time when they were led into captivity and Daniel there was a. when he was killed and the Temple destroyed 37 522 17 539 2 541 41 582 23 605 ~611 11 622 6 628 40 29 52 16 16 29 55 2 31 ) 11 t 11 912 982 901 p.. 89 p.zy&–tiU he was killed by his people 'Amfbzvâ ben Yô'&sh–tUI he was killed 'Uzziyâ ben 'Amaayâ--till he died Yôthâm ben 'Uzzivya–till he died 'Âhâz ben Yôth&m–tiU he died HizMyya ben 'Âh&z.

bly from the sta-tements in detail this applies speciaJIy to the time of the &-st building of the Temple. regarding the reateat possible gift (of years of life) which the stars are supposed to bestow upon mankind in the p. when each woman who sucHed a child forgot her child. and to record thé duration of bis reign. 2.t such a nativity both mater familias amd paterfamilias. one author thinks that some ruler reigned over them so. crepancies with people who have several times suSered so much from captivity and war M the Jews. another part by the other tribes of tbe Israelites. during which they ruled aimultameousty. differs considem. And some people attribute to his rule more yeafs. ?9." (Sûra xxii. amd-so mamy years. if the following constellation occurs The sun must be a. The chronological system of the Seder-'ôlam. It is quite natural that they were distracted by other matters from preserving their hiatorical traditions. their rule was not organized so well nor their empire and government handed )ver from one to the other in such good order as to render it necessary for them both to preserve the dates when each of their rulers ascended the throne. For some people maintain after that. whilat another assigna to his rule a lesa number of yeara. you get a. more pa-rticularly at times of such distress. Kushân. common spa~e of time for two rulers. ie.90 ALBÎBÛNÎ.th of Solomon the aon of David then one part of them was held by the tribes of Juda and Benjamin. The length of the Human H&Some one among theinexperienced and foolith people of the j~<M&<ct~<t and Da&yt~tt sects. and held them under his sway during eight years. have rejected as incredible the long duration of life which has been ascribed to certain tribes in the pa~t. but came to be divided (among several tribes) after the dea.. drawing their conclusions from objects which they are able to observe in their own age. mentioned by the two authors.) Besides. They have adopted tke doctrine of astrologers. Further. amd maintains that the former number represents the duration of his whole life (not that of his rule) or a third possibility is this. They maintain that all this lies altogether beyond the limit of possibility. overpowered them. Likewise they consider a~ monstrous what bas been related of the huge size of their bodies. nativities. the governorahips and headships were not aJways held by one and the same tribe. the King of Mesopotamia. It cannot be thought strange that you should flnd similar dis. that then Othniel rosé. he muet stand 10 20 30 10 . except by a rough method of computation. although coming near to the sum (assumed by the genera~ity of the Jews). and each pregnant woman gave birth to the burthen of her womb. others less. Frequently. the death of Joshua. specially to the patriarchs before the time of Abraham. that by adding the two spaces of time. of the family of Lot. not to mention the uncertainty which hamgs over those points of their history whieh we have spoken of tefore.

beca. so as not to exercise any diminishing influence. so as not to stand within the ~ot <KÀ€t!rTtK<K. that the same is possible.BRAS. until the conjunction returns to its original place. They have built their theory on a basis.rter. Further.use the existence of the world depends upon the sun and this number of years represents the 20 greatest year8 of the sun. They say in their books that these planets of the fiery signs used to bestow their greatest yea." i. and in a con. The natural duration of life is to be 120 years. the contrajy of which is approved of by astronomers. In that case he bestows his greatest yeara. if thia same constellation occurs at the transitus of thé conjunction to Anea and its ~t'yotie. exercises the greatest power.e. And if reality followed their desire. about 960 yeara. t. of the conjunction from when the nativity coincides with the <)'a!M!'hM one trigon to another.rs in the mtHeMKM of the zodiac.e. that the new-born human being may live during thé years of the Rrea. i. He actually maintains that man may live during the years of a.in a cardo.rs of life) of the sun by one fourth. 120 yMJs. and do not oppose his audacity. The C(tp!t< J))-oeo)tMmust stand with the sun in the same sign of the ecliptie. This mon is their master in chronology they trust in his word. Those people have settled this question as it best pleases them.). or in his <tM!'<!<~o cordant masculine qua. ia of the same description. if it is not eut short by any accident. So the whole sum of years makes 215 years. heaven and earth would be greatly the worse for it. to which the Moon Venua Jupiter adds 25 years. in so far as they ascribe greatest yeara to these planets. DATES.test conjunction. whilst the (MCMM~M is one of the two ~o<Me< of either Saturn or Jupiter.e. thé two unlucky among 10 the stars (Saturn and Mars) must have no aspect to the horoscope. when the sun is ttMtto'/anMHfM in day-time. 30 yeara. AND REION9 OF KIN09. for they are not able to add a greater number of years. when in them the rule was exercised by the superior planeta (Saturn. 91 (3~mjM). in Ma domua (o~o. Jupiter. amd when the years of the sun and of Veuus were made to exceed by far the longest duration of life ascribed 80 to any one of the patriarchs. it increases the gift (of yea. mt(H'<coK/MKchoM (of Saturn and Jupiter). if they have a coM~-o)-<!<tK< aspect (in relation to the horoscope). 40 And the argument for the assertion. Mars). which they maintain to be the longest duration of life which mortal man may reach. . If this constellation occurs. but still sufficiently far from him. 8 12 These are the SHMBM< yeart of each of these three stara. and the moon at night.

I. the time in which the thing occurred bas gone by. It ia for the same reason that people. and if the thing might have already occurred before that time. there are other things occurring at times in which no cyclicat 80 order is apparent. If they. impossible. do not call them of 40 <M<M-< but rather a superfluity of material beyond the due proportions of the measure of everything. And if you find in such a report aU the conditions of authenticity. since they never saw anything like it in their own country. the book in which the swindling profession is cxposed). which the single planets are supposed to bestow upon mankind. and which undergo transformations as long a~ there is a possibility of their existing.Et'M& ~et~tA '<tK sM«'a< aKaMtcA (i. and which seem to happen at random. For.e.–Thero are still other things which occur in like manner. who come from northern countrics. nnds eonto superfluous subltance. e. though you have no idea of the nature nor of the cause of the matter in question.20 nation of animais amd treea. time. nuw. Ho hM explained and propounded this subject in tho beginning of Ma book. and we have given a direction how to use the best method in all questions where these yea. they wouldcerta. Formations Irregular of Nature. charncteristic of their species. ~!M& c~~MM <tMu/!y(tM)t~:o. when nature. are filled with admiration when they see palm-trees. are not observed as long as they are in existence. such as thé mutual impreg.tters appear in the course of time in manifold shapes. and the size of huge human bodies. animals with supernumerary limbe. till they saw it with their own eyes. if it were possible that men did not know these occurrences. which occur sometimes. Now. olive-trees. is their belief in the gifts (of years of life) of the stars. people think them to be improbable. whose tMk it M to preserve the ftpfcies M they are. 2)e j~M): Thif uow. of producing blossoms and fruits.92 ALBÎRÛNÎ. This applies to aJl cyclical occurrences. To this category belong. which ohé forme into eome shape instead of throwing it away 1 . etc. Regarding these years. Further.inJy think it improbable. but which are called "/(KtMs of nature on account of their tranfgressing that order which is (!M«M)M<Kf<B). then. There are certain things which are bound to certain times. and myrtie-trees. nothing remains of it except the report about it. and conclusions inferred therefrom. we have had a discussion with the astronomers who use them.g. and then were led to a tree. in the . you must accept it. and hasten to reject them as altogether p. stripped of its leaves. and what else has been related to be beyond the limits of possibility. personal observation alone.rs oecur in thé book entitled. For similar ma. and others standing in full-bloom at winter. If. and were told what occurs to the tree of getting green.. and t-ne forthcoming of the seeds and their fruits. however. 80. within whieh they turn round in a certain order. 10 do not prove a long duration of the human life.

sone compiptc body without a defect. . says. It w!). People describe them as 80 having. which Thabit ben Sinam ben Th&bit ben ~urr& relates in his chronicle. of BaghdM.pp. a being cornes into existence inserted into and mixed up with another one. and something like a tail on its forehead. Further. 93 likewise ammaJs with imperfect limbs. and thé (. the other for boys. people brought a dead kid with the round face. if it meets with such and if therc is a. and twenty-five ypK. two ]jea. and two mouths bctwpcn the loins were 20 genitals like those of a woman.)')))<')-<) (!/?!'at different times tha. ajld without an addition.h eyes. in tke days of his reign. again. L-There is no doubt that thé FM ~o~rn/M (the créative power of nature). the one ctuselv behind thé other. 81. Another report of his says. never drops any material unused.ns. that the one had an inclination for women.ns.rry out. the Vis ~[<if)-H/~ redoubles its crcating Such a double-creation somctimes procceds in this way. there was born a child. < in the case of twins somctimes a being cornes into existence tied up to another being.t the time when his father Mu'ixz-iUdaula was still aJiYe. in the winter of A. which died instantly.rded men). the jaws and teeth like those of man.t they used to ride on o)Manimal. 352.H.miued it. They were accotnpanied by their fathpr. and of complete structure j but its head had two heaks aud three eves. 10 The same author reports.EEAS.ula. ea. with comptcte lincaments. that to Tuzûn.ted by an example.rsof âge. cars. and bpsidt's susceptible of extcnding so far as to permit the one to rise from the side of the other. he relates that in the district Aituukharrim. o. pxcupt thitt two protubpra~nn's rose from it. two nostrils.ns. each of them.and he exa. it was hrought Ijefore Ghur&raldaula Babhtiy&r a. that onp of the nobles of the Greeks sent to Nasir-alda. DATES.e.cter. as in that case which we mentioned bpfore speaking of thé two AramaN. TLcy turned their fwes towards each other. and she gives it vital power as much as possible. in the case of the two Aramtea. M. as. and complète organs of génération that they did their eating and drinking.g. that one word being comes 40 into existence in close proximity to another. AND EEKHfS OP KIKGS.me time something separate by itself. He p. in all work it is inspired and cummissioned te. that he had seen near Surram:mra'& am Indian chic):en that had corne out of the egg without a defect. but the skiu. wit. ont of which the orifice of the penis of a man was apparent. two mpn grown together by the stoma~h they were Aramœa. but so as to turn their faces towards each other. being at thé sa. was long. which formed thé common connecting link between them. e.ra. at other tirnes. they were called JYtt~a~y<?< (i. This is illustra. when nature does not find the substance by which to complete the form of that animal in confr uty Y with the atructure of the spepies to which it belongs. and upon these thcre were two ('oniplete heads. but it had only one eye. in that case she forma the animal in such a sha. as that the defect is made to lose its obnoxious cha.bundarce of material.

e. you find a similar one inside. And in this case it would be correct to call such a formation an Fmror of Nature. Now. The various Hnds of double-croations of this and other descriptions are also found among the other animais (besides man). on which 1 have composed special books. as e. still they are found in that place wMch is appropriated to &ngers. said to be certain species of sea-nshes that are double ones. The nativity of a son of the King of Serendîb (Ceylon) was sent to him. There are. His ~cemdeM was Gemini n. 82.AlbalkM. Lemgth of the Humam Li&The length of hmnan life is taught by expérience to be regulated by a genealogical ratio. and hoof and that she moved it about aa she liked. at the double. and the Sun in Capricom M-. if you open such a fish. contmcting and extending it. at the fruits with double kernels. she increases the number of limbs. Frequently thé Via JWattt~M hM not succeeded in finishing the doublecréation.94 AI. the book in 40 which he brings mysterious subjects before the mind of the reader) p.id to . either in their proper places. all these and similar danses (of uncommon creations).BÏBÛNÎ. A]! of whieh is aJso found among the plants. with its shoulder.o. 1 mean to say. the reduplication of formation may pass into a multiplication.e. both young and old. Look. Thereupon. long life is a peculiarity. And in this respect they are still surpassed by thé Arabiana and Indiams. 1 sa. This case may justly be considered an error (of nature).o. whilst Saturn stood in Cancer sg. 20 had seen it. An example of such a double-formation. and produeing a complete whole. Besides long life occurs in one place to thé exclusion of others. for instance.g. e. For instance. 'Abû-Ma'shar gave his judgment that ho would live during the middle cycle of Satum.–or not in their proper places. Now. is an orange. be~use he would not find in them the 30 conditions of authenticity. Frequently. supernumerary fingers-for although they are more than usual and than is necessary. of which the one thing is inserted into the other.fruits that are grown together. and they related to me that it had on thé bunch dose to the neck a foreleg like its other two forelegs. quite complete. its joints.6t!'<Mt-a}(t. and because it had neither its proper place nor direction. For well-informed people relate that in those countries some people grow older than anywhere else. An instance of this is the cow that was in Jurjan at the time of the Sahib. the following story ia related by 'Abù-Sa'îd Shâdhân in his jr~a6-~mm<aaihtt-([. in the interior of whieh you find another orange of the same 10 kind. Everybody. with the Himyarites and others. would not be admitted as possible by anyone who did not witness them. because that supernumerary limb was quite useless. which are inc]uded in one shell. and when the family of Buwaihi held the country under their sway. too. in Farghana and Yamâma. In which case. Of this same 'Abû-Ma'shaj.

a.ndfa." 'Ahù-Ma. m except there be strong evidence (to the contrary). give lesa than his great and middle cycles.'îd Sh&dhan) relates of the same 'AbùMa'shar. of whom one knows beforehand that they live very long. Thia ia clear. plante and seeds. AND BEIONS 0F KINGS." 'Abù-Ma'shar "In that case you are right to be alarmed. he does not.'Isma Then consider whether that difference. in most cases. therefore. but he is not falling out of the Directio.1 havebeen told that. In another place he ('Abû-Sa.Ma'shar "Those people are the inhabitants of a xAtina. too. surely he is in ca~eM<<: (~ONM). whilst others soon meet with mishapa and exist only a ahort time. Doyou kuow of what age your father <lie<l ?i 'Ab&'Ma.) was alarmed about.ve you already reached the same age ? 1 have passed it already. You must subtraet Nfty yeara therefrom on account of the retrograde motion. décrépit state. Saturn occupies 10 the dignity of oMoStoTror~! in a KÂ<fM of his own.EBAS. God forbid in a (!f)NtMcadens of the ear~t'MM.'shar 'Abu-'Ism~: "Yes." 'Abû." 1 "But. in thia place." 'Abû-Ma.'shar: "Do you know how long your paternaJ grandfather Hved?" Tes. he is certain to perish. whilst Saturn is their co))~)a?!)OH. that he waa in his company when he was asked by 'Abû-'Isma. Now. Yeso 'Abù-Ma. so as not to give retrograde Mo<t'e!t more than its small cycle.grees with the life of your gra. they ha. For there are certain species of them whieh are known to exist very long.) The mysteries of the second are numerous.ve admitted that in one ftÀ~m 20 people live longer than in another. It is likewise in a well beneath the earth. For in any mishap that proceeded to explain befals a man when he ia as old as hia father or mother or his paternal 40 grandfather were at the time of their death." . 95 The oho~toTror~ moves backward in the crisis of him. regarding something in the signs of his nativity..s died so soon. DATES. which is 'Abu-Ma'ahar indicated by your nativity. 1 hâve passed already. If." 'Abû. which he ('Abù-'Isma. so that they frequently live on in a. the Wazîr of SaS&r. except he be !'? eadeM/e domo." Then he Nature ia most powerful. it does agree. people wonder that he ha. In this circumstance there is curious matter for aatonishment. if a man diea before reaching the middie cycle of Saturn." (Here is a laeuna.'shaj Ha.'ahar: "Quito so! He (Saturn) is falling out of the figure of the ~apec<<M.ther t' 'Ab&Isma Tes." 'Abu-'Iama Doyou know at what age your mother died ? 'Abù-Ma'shar 30 That âge. too." 'Abu-'Iama. But that 1 have not yet reached.

e.000 years. happen in some one age." They admit only that which suits them. x. and.Mans. terity except the uninterrupted chain of tradition. if will not admit anything that bas happened in their absence. they have in the course of time and the passing of generations no other tie which connects them with pos. because they base 30 their sciences upon inspiration. that astrological theory. they will reject it. the science of which they did not comprehend". If this sect will reject everything that does not oecur in their time or place. But if you then tell them what they. and the Myrobalana bellerica are expsrtcd. and they avoid everything that divers from their dogma. of argu. they would be mère sophists. and they will dwell on the various sorts of torture which they practise in castigating their own bodies. so as to fall under their personal observation. is devoid of sense. they have declared to be a lie something. t'. that the King of Jamâlâbadhra. a treatise on the duration of natural life. they will say: That is an old lie. 10 indeed. 83. it is necessary. reward and pumahment (eschatology).tsting acepticism of theirs absurd. 10) And as they would not be guided thereby. selves find this ever~. maintain. they will begin to speak of the of aU the teneta of the Indians in all questions of law and subtlety of religion. Therefore. that town whence the JM~o6<thM. if they would draw the last conclusions from their theory. and other absurdities of a similar kind would follow.t thc . and that therefore their doctrines are not trustworthy. where he maintains thatits greatest length is 140 solar years. 'Abù-Ma'shar again admits in this place that the duration of life is regulated by a genealogical ratio. and declare that the Indians are évident liars. not reaUy learned men. It is this sect whom God means in the verse of the Koran (Sûra. beyond which no increaseis . the neck of which is Burrounded by numerous iron collars. if they do not them. On the contrary. and behaved altogether like a young man. c"cn s. and that all this was the consequence of a dietetic treatment. if counted. voa p. as we have already mentioned. 1 hâve read a book of 'Abù-'AbdaIlah Albusain ben 'IbrAMm AItabar! AInâtd!. we can they only say that extraordinary occurrences do not happen at all times. since they admit such a genealogical ratio as not impossible. and rely on varioua sorts of tricks which they attribute to them. would find that they refer to thé traditions of the . and would be compelled to disbelieve anybody who would tell them that there are etill other countries in the world besides those in which they are living. Besides. iode and hunted and married. although it be true.96 ALBÎRÛnt. verily. Nay. 20 ment they aJways mention an Indian idol. 40): "Nay. Now. the f/~h~/MM emblica. would amount to an enor. and if they. which represent the Indian eras of 10.ge of 250 years. eut out of By way stone. If you would listen to them on the subjects which they propound. and in the other verse (Sûra xlvi. to which they cling. o~. mous sum of years. although it be 40 feeble. the Indians.

that <eefind. However. Therefore everybody may a.000 or something like it. 84. if he be married his public affaira. and in which it acquiesces. if he likes! If the Thora was read to them. except that in Ma premises he iays down the following theory Three StahM fe)~c<)OM!sare peeuliar to manI. that we cannot observe it in our time. his method and ours would be quite the sa. Rephâ'îm.e. and people would not compare with them everybody Who~in size exceeds their genus.w them with their own eyes. When he becomes able to govern himself. there is this difference. indeed.Et~s. if it be not necessary to believe it for thia reason. though up to that moment they had not declared the readers of the Thora to be Uars. we sa. A\P RE)~\s nf Ki\U<. The sum of these three fS<at!M is to be 140 years. if he be unmM-rMd his ffusUy aSadra. if we conceded to him that there are three such S/a/Ms Perfectionis. God knows best his meaning As regards the (superhuman) size of the bodies (of former generations). p. and his intellect proceeds from 10 to TroH)<rM. tMT)!M. that in our time man attains those phases of development. That is the beginning of the sixth .s not established the least proof for his assertion. God having given them an uncommon size (vidc Eoram. Petyce~'OKM We do not sco by what proportion 'Abù-'AbdaJIâh has calculated thpsp tmmbeM. they would declare the reader of the Thora to be a liar. who denies this so categorically. and they read it themselves. Verily.te his own race. 97 possible. But he ha.ttack amd ridicule this subject. and the belief in this has not been abandoned since the time when th<' Israelites sa. the like of which is related in the Thora of the bodies ofthe giants (Nephîlîm. He. that the sum of these Na<!ts is 100 or 1.S'ft'f). m. n. wMch he represents as the eharacteriatic signs of the Statua J'~e<!<to?M'e. is required to produce a proof. If. pre-supposing we did not apprehend being required to 20 estaNisn a proof. lass extraordinary). if lie exercise some public authority. in quite other ~S'ece~/ts and times than those wMch he mentions. as it ia 7 t Wi .me. and declared finally.y. there had never been classes of men with bodiea uf <m extraordinary vastness. no recollection of them would have remained in the uninterrupted chain ofjtumim tradition. it is there30 fore by no means impossible~ It is the same. For there is no proportion nor progresMon apparent amons them. 24). SM'mjnt. yet even if the giants were something quite different from what they are deseribed to be (i. That is the beginning of the second ~eMeM~. When his thinking power ripena. if we then counted them in the way lie bas done. Hia attaining to manhood (or wonmnhood). which the mind is obliged to accept. however. *Enak!m). ii. of which such thinga are related. and that there is an enormous interval between ua and that time. tho time when he becomes able to propaga. in case he related anything that is not borne out by their expérience 40 and observation.

Time bas not enabled me to correct the marnes of the Hngs on thé baais of their tme pronunciation. and honestly endeaTours to preserve them correct. 5]j. (the authors of those monuments) are when they hear of ?< day of <?<t)'i!:K«e. such as the houses which were eut intothe solid rocks in tho mountains of Midian. which are as large as camel-bones and even larger.096 yeaj-s. and to free him from fatigue of research. For they are corrupted by the tradition of the copyists. flying before them like fugitive aasea that fly before a lion (Koran. Their emendation is a work of many years. 1 hope. in order to frighten the enemies. For Alexander. when they pass from hand to hand among them. and altogether distinguished from all common people. therefore. For instance. and of bones buried in their interior. What would they say of the monuments of larger races of men which exist still at the present tirno. who like myself wishes to facilitate the subject for the student. known to us. In this book. and aetrologers (those who apply the comjunctiona of Saturn and Jupiter to history) reckon.98 ALBÎB~NÎ. But how can 1 expect them to believe n j regarding the people of 'Ad.–In some book 1 have found tables iUuetm. make grimaces in haughty disdain. beea. turn up their noses in joy over their theories. And nobody ought to transcribe these tables and the other ones except him who is well acquainted with the RtM'~ft~'Mmm~. when dying. the people of Mo~ul. that everyone wiH endeavour to correct and amend them. Christians. Now 1 have tramaferred those idemtical tables into this place of my book." But. the interval between the birth of Abraham and Alexander was reckoned as 2. and of the Ptolemœan princes. 10 20 30 40 . and in the persuasion that they are infinitely superior to.tive of the durations of the reigns of the Mngs of the Assyriens. the people of 'Ad have become proverbial in this sense. Ix dv. t. who reigned in Egypt. and we that of ours ChrOBOlogical TM)lea.nce the very wea&est of those argumenta which are urged against them. ordered that every long of the Greeks after him should be called Ftolenueus. which is more than Jevs. since they reject even that which is much nearer to our time and much more apparent? They produce such arguments M donot counterhala. they will get thé reward of their doings." they only laugh in a mocking way. which is so strong that you cannot enter there without covering the nose with something P ? And it is the common consent of all who inhabit those places that they ?<! people of <&<t'bte~a.use the word means "the «Mt'Hite.e." In the same book 1 have found the chronology of the later kings of thé Greeks. But God is aumcient for them. each of whom was called Ptolemeeus. They shun accepting the striking arguments. of the bad emell of those localities. of the kings of the Copts. of the graves built in the rocks.

AXD REIftXS 0F KIXRS. years. 40 50 50 42 20 7 1248 1285 1305 . He builtNinive in Mosul.tamea. Mamythos Mamchateus Sphairos XV. Abraham was tried by him.ga. Thônos Konkoleros N~MES or THEKntea op THEA88Y1UAII8. p.ioa XJL&V. 62 52 42 38 30 40 30 38 35 52 32 30 30 20 30 40 40 45 25 30 32 20 30 45 19 37 31 40 30 40 38 40 30 20 62 114 156 194 224 264 294 332 S67 419 451 481 511 531 561 601 641 686 711 741 773 793 823 868 887 924 955 995 1025 1065 1103 1143 1173 1193 10 20 30 p. who ia with the Greeks the Ërst poet. In hia time David reigned OYerIarael Laoathenêa. Sosamoa Mithïaios Tautanês. Ateioa Aralios Xerxes Annamithres Bêlôchos X. BalMos AltftdM. DeT~yloa EnpaJea. aum anm of The of the th reigned. '.ba Ab'a. I. Abrahajn was born in the [43rd ye&r] of Ma reign Semirajnis the wife of Ninos. who had made war uponit Teutaioa Thmaioa XXX. people of M08ul. AsarBttNa. On the 167th day of the 42nd year of his reign Homer W)tn bom. They are S7 h) n-ber. and Bed therefore to Pa. and they reigned during 1305yearw. DATES. In hia time the Israelites were divided into two kingdoms Piritiadea Ophrata. Majnyloa Sparethus As]mtades Amyntês Bêlochos XX. as Imrn'ul-KaM with the Ara. 85.ERAS. Bëloa Ninoa. Bal&torês Lamprid~B Sôaares Lampares PamyM XXV. 86.nes XXX VU.the .8. In hia time Ilion was taken by the Greeke.thepeopleofMoant. She founded the ameient Sâmarrâ west of â Sw)v<t-<)Mt)t-9'<t'<! ZNmes the son of N'mos. lestine m the [23rd year] of his reign V. How tong 99 P. Ophra.

Ch&ldeeams. brought the empire under their sway. but were their governors of Babylonia. and ending with thé time when m consequence of the dea. people took to calling them by the same name wMch they had formerly applied to their govemors. Nabonasear). during the reign of this last Mug (Thônos KonMeros. beginning with Nebukadnezar the First (t. we have tramafetred into thia book. 69 8S 226 10 5 M 154 236 241 M TnE Kntea opBABmoNu. the prophet Jonah was sent to Niniveh. Western authors relate that. t. 87. Asayriana p. called ~fMjt (Arbaces) in Hebrew. people began to date by the reigns of the Ptolemman princes.tiona 01:their reigns. As to the names. I have simply tramacribed them letter by let~ r. killed him. the kinga of Babylonia. yeam. Nimrôd u~ rae SSm~M 72 ÀTpaIdMhfMth till it wM ocoupied by the Babylom~ ~3m<rt\<crM. we have also found another ehronological tradition. since I have not had an opportunity to correct them according to their ~foimncia. J)at-(Min Persian.tiom.ted by the preceding table. having corrected the numbere for the dnja. Here we must remajt that the Cha~dtetma are not identical with thé 10 EaySmams. 88. Nimrôd ben Kûsh ben H&m ben Noah.th of Alexander o KT&T))!.100 p. whom western authors are in the habit of calling ChaJdeeans.e. and pa~~t in Arabie. This tradition. The chronology of the kings that have been recorded.e. the chronology of whom bas been iUastra. alias Sardamapalus). Thé reign of ArbtMM Jaated seventy-two yeare. founded a Hmgdom in Babylonia twenty-three years after thé Confusion of Languages. . made war upon him. put him to flight. For the kings of Babylonia. And that was the earliest kingdom established ou earth. AMÎBÛNÎ. however. For the original residence of the Ka. The aame chronider mentions other kings that rose after Nimr6d.y&niama was Ba~kh. According to some ohronider. 40 The following table containa thia chronological tradition. is represented by the following table How long Snm of the they ]cet)pted. and when they came down to Mesopotfunia. holding it till the time when the Kay&niana. The Confusion of Languages happened contemporaneously with the birth of the pa. and that a foreigner. until the empire passed into thé hands of the Assy~iitn 20 kinga.trifHfch Be'&. came forward against this king. and took possession of the empire. now.

DATE~. Theimm of the years. TABMOFTHEK!KES TABLE op xas Kuaa 0FTHt OaAanx. 89 . the ~!)t!<t~M< begins Nebucadnezar.. Darius the Median. Renceforward people commenced to date from the reign of Philippus. AND REMXX OF KIKUS. 10 20 30 With him the eta. How long each otthem reigned. (MMM (~ Darius Alexander ben Macedo. who rebuilt JeraaaJem CambyMa Damna Xerxes ArtaxerxeaPnmTM Darius Artaxerxes Seeundua.na~aar Primus.erra. Nadios Chimzêroa Ilulaios Mardokempad Arceanus 'A~Àt~o: Bilibes ApMtmadios ErigeMos Mesesimordakos 'Aj8o<r&tM~O! Sturfpo: Asandinos SMaduchinos Nabopolassaros and Kiniittdamos Nebucadnezar BnIchtMM~ar. ô «-Mm~. 14 2 5 5 12 5 2 3 6 1 4 8 13 20 22 21 43 2 4 17 9 8 36 21 43 19 46 21 2 6 8 14 16 21 26 38 43 45 48 54 55 59 67 80 100 122 143 186 188 192 209 218 226 262 283 326 345 391 412 414 420 428 p.ERAS. in Bukhta. the First Cyros. 101 oa Tas OnAM~ANS. who conquered Jerusalem j*!)~ BdteshM9M.

beaideathe PetsomB.hiops XX..91.and they reigneddtmnfr 894years. now long them reigned. p.Ne]d. LDicapolitia Smendis S~ NepheroherÈB. Nechepaôa Nectar Psammêtichos NechepBô(?)Neehao(?) XXV..8 AchônB PsajnmùthMMidMntMtos() Nehtamebes Teôa.a.bakômjBthiopa SebicMa Tajatos~tMopa __Amtmeïis~'H.. M 40 .P~thi. V. L. p.this. XXXV..MMa 8. ae thé reading of another mMtnBCï:pf. 178 26 101 4 9 6 9 35 21 15 *13 25 9 10 44 12 12 20 12 7 6 8 44 6 17 25 114 c 6 12 2 13 7 M The som of the 178 204 305 309 010 324 368 389 "°" ~? 442 451 461 505 517 549 561 568 574 582 626 632 6?4 ~e 830 836 854 856 869 876 894 10 20 p. adde 68.Nephent.0sôrth8n TakeMthis Osôrth&m Psananos ~W~?~ Sa.Amen&phthia.nebos Henceforward people ceased to date bythé reigns of these and the Chaddesm kings and commenced to use the era of Alexander the Greek. NAMm or -nnsCorne Kmes IN Eaïfj.102 ALBÎBÛN}. 90. They are 34 in number..Stephiaa. P.90. OsocMr Psinachês Fa&SNmêa SesomcMm X. Y~ AmMM The PemiMM tiU DMius _Amyrttuoa XXX..

whoare the Gi'eeks(I<mians). and because after his death the Christian faith was generally adopted. He caused thé Thora to be tranalated into Greek Ptolemeus Euergetes Phuskon Primus PtolemeausPhilometor Ptolemmua Epiphanes Phuskon Seejndus Ptolemceua Philopator the Deliverer Ptolemœus Euergetes Alexander Secundus Ptolemœus Soter the Iron-smith.rdsheyestoTed! them to liberty and ma~e them a present of the TMeaoftheirTempIe PtolemœuB PhïiaAelphus.BEAS.. on account of her being a woman. when the empire had devolved upon him.'cs of the Pto!en]:r:)ns and the Roman Emperors.~M! J'/t!7<p!. Cleopatra.6m. it remained with his descendants. consists of three parts:–I. also called PtolemeeaM. 7 12 7 19 p. n. went up to Jerusalem and led the Israélites intoca.~H)n ~M~M~t. till the time when he (Augustus) kiUed her How long Snmof the thcy reigned. she wa. of . But as ahe resided in 40 Alesmdria. the secord are the intercalated yeara of the Greeks and With this of the same kind as the second are the ~MM)DtoeMtat: king a new era commences. m. in Latin Julius. till the time when Gajus. 14a. Philippus Alexajidern-nItusAlexajidri PtoIemaMs filius La~i o Âoytxot. in Latin Julius. God knows best the tables NAMES or THEKixGs OFMArEDOxtA. of ." .s caJIed by that name. till the death of Gajus and thé succession of his son Augustus.. became Dictator Cleopatra.~MMDiocletiani.use. DATES. Chronology since the time of Philippus (AridiBUs) of . years.b. heca.93. Gajus.ptivity. 279 294 Thecalling Cleopatra by the name of J'<o!em<B:«is a point of discussion. The firat are the MD-interca.ns king of the world. and waa the queen of it. He conquered Palestine. 6m.la. Another (later) era than the 10 JBrct DiocMKMtthas not been mentioned. . AXD KEIQXS UF KtXGS. Afterwa. 20 2C 38 25 17 24 35 29 36 29 39 77 102 119 143 178 8 207 243 272 275 30 4a.ted years of the Alexandrians. mef. 103 Here we add the chronological ta. although the rtde several timea Hère follow slipped out of the hands of his family.~)-<MtMt J''<tM<o)' Ptolemœua Dionysius Optimus Cleopatra.

he destroyed it.udius Aureliamus Probus Cajua and Carinus J j Seven How long each ot them reigned. Majnmtea. ~ajamus Hadrianus. One year after his accession to the throne he con~uered PaJestine.r.23 Commodus . Then he left the island and dweit in EphesM Nerya.8 Yaleriamus C]a. meajis Maximinue . and abolished their religious rites 'J'tus Domitiamua.32 Severus and Antoninus Antoninus alone. Towards the end of his reign (Menus died Alexander filius MammeeN.104 ALHÎRÛNÎ. who occurs in the story of the Neepers GtaJIus . 43 22 4 14 Smn °* the of yea". and having besieged the Jews in Jérusalem for three years. ]>. the Cœsarswhoresided in home.t he composed a book on anatomy in the begiBning of his reign . In the 9th year of his reign Johannes the Evangelist was bajiiahed. p. who killed the Apostle Paul and Simeon Pctrua Nero. 93. 94.93. NAttES OFTHEBoMAN KtKe.a.18 Gordiamus Philippus Decius. killed many. Augustus Cœsa. They are thé Banû-at'aafar. t. who killed the believers . Galenus says tha. It was he who destroyed Jerusalem and forbade anyone entering it in the 18th year of his reign Antoninus. 43 65 69 83 97 10 10 3 107 110 15 1 19 21 125 126 145 166 189 221 246 250 26g 266 272 278 279 282 a87 288 294 grn 303 20 p. the descendants of SepM ben 'EUphazben Esan bon Isaak bon Abraham. 25 4 13 3 6 6 1 3 15 1 6 7 2 30 40 . It was he who rebuilt JerusaJem. t.e.. scattered the rest over the empire. after he had killed Cleopatra Tibprms filius Auguati Gajus Claudius.14 VespMianua. Thereupon he hid himself on an island till the emperor's death.

nns. Sa. OFTa& Of THE KINGS Knros OFCUUISTEXD01f. The Greeks eut off his nose Leontins. Tiberins. s-mght for ihe wood of In the 19th year the biehops which she finally found. HewasbesegedbyMasîamaben'Abd-almauk He deceited Maalanm and repulsed him from Léo the Great. p. He bdonged to thé moderate party HewasaJacobito.voniam. Knms or Camaraxnoa. of Chrhin Nicaea and estabtishcd tho canons 10 assembled tianity Constantinns (Constantins) Jnlianna Apostata Yatcntinianns Valens. Mauricius.& JnatiniannB&hinomêt03 4. NAriBa OFTHE NANM NUER 105 95. In their Mareianns and 20 wereexcommnnicated Léo the Great.inescaping. the last of their kinga 403 406 413 422 424 425 t" Î'S 4S7 606 °" 62S 4 18 18 7 7a. reign his mother. 6m. Apaimarns . and was a Jacobite Anastasins.mabam Theodomna thé Great Arcadius. the son of Conatantinna Constantinus Junior. Hng who adopted Christianity. time thé Jacobites his wife Palcherîa. HowbM Anui I ~eh °f ~em Ktsned. OFCmMTEXMM. Dioeletianna Ho The nri't Constantinus. In the Ist year of his baitt the waUa of Constantinople. Constantinople the son of Léo the Great Conatantinm. Phocas. Sohewasdethi-oned Tiberins. who waa besieged tu Constantinople the fanerai ofKiMa 80 Heracliuq tbe wiae Couetantinns. ~1 21 Diocle. thé Cross.. Anaatasins.95.0 Phiiippicna when He was dethroned. being décrépit. Hp!ene. ~'°' 32 24 2 1 14 17 13 42 6 18 17 27 9 37 1~ 14! 8 81 1 10 3 3 2 1 M 77 79 °" 94 124 188 166 172 190 207 234 24S 280 298! 318 cw p. A. He was murdered in the bath Conatantinna Constantinm Jmstmi&Tms. HehetpedKisrAaKainstBahramShûbiu. ben Michael Constantinopolitanna philns BeaCina the Sh. Ms M)n ln his time Nestorins was cxcommmuTheodoain& Minor. 6m. p. the aon of Leo Junior Angnsta. He bnïit Ammorium. ZenoAlarmtnak:. Senior Léo Janior. (Irène) mied the Greek empire tho son of Nieephoma 50 NicephoraB and Stanracim Michael the son of Georgina by Michael in the charoh Lco. Jnstinns He bni)t the chnrch in Rnhâ (Edeesa) Jnstinianno.HUAS. by ShahrbarAx. AtMmna (ArtemitM). . He was found to be a weak mau. catcd. 96. he could not carry on the war Theodosius.SD REMXS OF E1XGS. till ho waa murdered of Loo bon Théothe mnrdcrer Michael Conatantinopolita. He~vasbnmed. UATES.

Mason M JnlianuBhianephew. thé Tiotoriona . p. M~mMAU. Months.H.the son of Leo.106 AMÎ&ÛNÎ.did 26 Alexander. Dnring their reign the Pro_P~etdied gl CoMta.299 1 ConBtfmtin)M. YeMa.thesonofHeraolea 10 8 LeoorLeon(LMorElyûn) Tiberius 7 EBttnns(Jastinumns). the son ot Héraclès . During hie reign the flight of the Prophet oocnrred g Heraohna and hie son. A.hleaon 22 Michael. 2 Theodosina 10 Gœtiftnns.26 16 OoMtantmns. 6 Anastamna 6 TheodoBtns 2 Léo. With thh king thé dynasty expirée–at the time of the Khalif Al. 10 87 129 168 174 176 192 219 281 269 278! 293 301 332 867 ? P 884 894 397 411 P 417 423 426 460 466 466 471 476 486 4M [476P] 498 . 0 0 6 9 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 4 9 8 8 4 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 10 6 0 11 2 g 8 0 0 0 2 81 'M 74 M 68 0 0 6 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 10 7 10 1 6 g 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 6 11 11 10 0 6 8 8 8 8 10 1 p.97.' YeMS.n~ authonty of thé jn~eeAhmki'. People think that he WM a wortUess ohmacter. 9 Constantinna 6 Irene. aow lonK reigned Smm of tho thcye~.TatentiBKmna 6 Arcadina.Mseon 0 Mtohaeî. yeora. Dnring his reign the empire of the Banû'Umayya wae diemembered 26 Léo.thettonofHeractee'wife 17 Oonstfuitimus. who received the empire from her father 6 Nioephoms.hMspn 7 IheepmiM.A. He died from a tnmonrinthebeUy. the son of TheophUna.th.tttthetuneofH&rûnAhfM)Md 8 Stauracino. Conatantinm. 98. Darii~hMreigntheFrophet~mabom 88 StephaniM 4 tbrcmnns (Matmcim) During his reign the Prophet reoeivedhie D:vine misaMn 20 Phooas. the son of Helene.jjg 546 [ 672] J [673] 20 30 40 50 . Months.who tookthem trommhootthfttbetongedtothe GreekEmperor. notwithstanding the length of hia reign 6 CoMtantinua.ntmm).thesonofLeo.theaonofTheodosns 18 Theodosina. E KtNMof CmsMtrmmpLE. mn'tazz 28 BftsiUnsthoS~vonian 20 Léo thé son of BmiMns. thé son of BMinne.m.f~MKc.801.thesonofAroadica 42 Utrcianns 29 Leo Senior 16 LeoJcnjor 1 ~o 17 AnMtMuM 27 ArtBs 11 ~aatrôndttB.B. thé son ot OonatfmtinnB. Anno 278 at the Hijrœ timo of Ahmn'ta.81 Constfmtinna.

This ia what 1 have hea.use a. From that time till the time when Ardashîr ben Bâbak came forward. being bewildered a..e. Then God sent him to Ahriman. Regarding tte beginnmg of the world. Part II. i. At laat. and began to travel about in the world. and transferred their acientiNo treasures to his own country.lha.lh& amd Ma. t. 6eM~ The chronology of the Persians beginning with Gayômarth is divided into three parts A. and the Zoroa.rd from the geometrician. regarding the origin of mankind." beca. is related by 'Abu-'AM Muha.yôma. and the Persian empire was re-esta. that 1 may still for some time look at the beauty of the world. and when he had come as far as the testicles and the spermatic vessels in the loins.e. the Persians relate mamy curious traditions.e.t the gate of hell he would suffer a painful terror.lkM. Part m. C. C~oNMtrtA." knowing quite well that Ahriman would do the contrarv of what he told him. But now Ahriman remounted him. 9! Chronology of the Persians. And out of these drops grew two B!bas bushes (-B/M<M)t ft6M). On having arrived. seized upon the provinces of the Persians. From that time till the time when Yazdajird ben Shahry&r wa~ killed.t the gate of hell. a.rd and Majdana.e.rth was born. M~)OM<t!. Then Ahriman commenced devouring him from the head. there being nothing but clay). CtbMA. N:o)-M People say that his name (Gayômarth) means living. "king of the clay. when the empire of the Sasanian dynasty wa. was bom out of thé thought of God and uf his pride in the world. who overpowered him. Ahriman asked him what was the most odious and horrible thing to him.ERAS. AND KEMN8 0F K1NGS. that on arriving a.Mished. Whereupon he said. two drops of sperma. From Gayômarth till the time when Alexander killed 10 Damua. In a different form this tradition. the devil. They are also called Ma. always riding upon him. DATES. the Persian Adam and Eve. i. 'Abû-aJha. Parti.striams of Khwârizm call them Ma.t that time there was no other man in existence (but himself. Gayômarth answered: From the side of the foot.s dissolved and Islâm arose. then. And also regarding 20 Cbyômajth for God. with the sumamie GtmMA.t the sight of Ahriman. and asked him from what aide he was to begin devouring 30 him.. and managed by various eontrivances to throw off the rider. from among whieh Mcshit and Mêshâna. as others say. in the . M7 The Persians call the nrst man p. M~ of the moM!~<t: or. how Ahriman. B.mmad ben 'Ahmftd Alba. fell down on the earth. sprang up. was covered with sweat on the forehead this he wiped off and threw away and out of this sweat Gta.yAna. he became refractory. t.sam 40 Âdhaj'khûr. the poet.

Lust arose in them.rma.pe. go he ahowed him Brat the pumahmenta of thia world and of the day of reaurrection and other thinga. the Maubadh of the city of Sabûr.nd drinking. joyfnUy amd without any pain. who premiaea that the following aourcea I.) began to eat. Besidea he bas compared his account with that of the Zcroaatriam Bahrâm of Herât. He aaya Gay&marth atayed in Paradiae 3.108 ShâhnAma. they relate thinga which do not seem admissible to thé mind of the reader. tiN the time when all that ia evil in the worid was brought about by Ahriman. Ahriman had a son called ~&f." dwelt in the mountaina (Aljibâl-Modia). thoae of Cancer. by IV. The aeventh birth produced Siy&mak and Frâvâk.yomarth at last deaired to die.~ OMMtmtain. whereupon he at once again became a young man.ÏMt. 10 i. who one day met with Gayômarth. by V. he has oorreoted hia report on thé baaia of 'Abdatlah ben Almu~ama. HuMm ben Aïkaaim. Ahriman complained to God 20 of Ctayôma. who married 40 and begot a aon Hôahamg. the livea of the kings and their famona deeds. much beauty that no living being could view him without becoming terrified and loaing the control of ita senses. being endowed with ao p. ALBÎBÛNÎ. But then Ahriman appeared to them in the ahape of an old man. Then he fell down on the earth and lived there safely and quietly three other mniemua. the aim of our undertaking being to . because <?tr means in PaMa.e. But then God inapired their hearta with mildnees. in conaequence of which they copula. amd induced them to take the fruit of the treea. by BaJu-am ben Mihran AUahahanî. of Ariea. and Virgo.rth and God reaolYed to puniah him in order to keep those covenanta that existed between him and Ahriman.Fifty yeara they lived without any neceaai<y for go eating a. whereupon God killed him. the mtUemnia. Now.t Cta. ao tha. Léo.1d.venousneaa. and Gemini. The story is as foltowa: that Chy6marth. Then they were plunged into misfortunea and evils. Afterwarde the wife gave birth to six other children. and waa killed by him. on which at the beginning of the ninth month the limba (of two human bodiea) began to appear. However. He himaelf commenced eating them. but they devoured it from aheer ra. Mu~ammad ben Aljahm AIba. And now they (M~ahâ and Mêahyàna. Bahrâm ben Mardânahah.a!ot!<M<: by nby ni. At the same moment two dropa of sperma. and out of them grew two B!b&s-buahea. Taurus. ftMt-<!yar.100. These two are Mêshâ and Jfëahy&na.ted. which by the end of that month ha. feU down out of hie loina on the mountain Damdadh in IstaKhr. A child was bom unto them. Whereupon. Regarding the chronology of this nrat part.000 yeara. thé namiea of whom are known in the Avaata. who was called Ct~MA.d become complète and aaaumed human sha.

waihi. Dahiatân Sûl. as we have doue lieretofoi-e. the Turks. gharghaz thé Shuzz-Turks.EKA8.Ml. Marw Kanhâr. AXD REIGKS OF EtXf.e. Dunbâwajid Masma.. The Sasamian kings of the Persians .ghan. Nishapûr Tarichûn. whilst as to the other kings. To thé names of the kings we add their epithets. Eash IkhshM. and which is received on their authority. we record that on which the scholars of thé Persians.waihi. in order that our work may proceed on the SMMe plan whieh we have laid down for the chronologies cî the other nations. (HtM-jistân Zadha.. we collect the materiala in tables. Ptoicmœns. Jurjan Aitahpadh. Tudun. because they are distinguished by individual epithets.bMMt&n Ispahbadh. and TaEhAkhân. the Hêrbadhs.. p.ghbùr. common epithets correspond to the SMhansMh of the Persiaus. Shar. Sarakhs BahmanaNasâ and Abîward NMûn.nnûj the Ethiopians AInajâsM. it is one common to their whole class. Hanûta. DATES. Thf-Ephhets that apply to tlm PH~C' 20 30 40 Shahanshah and Eisra. Ka. the mountains of Ta.mMi Tubba. Cœsa. hy which Those he as well as everybody else who reigns in his place is cal]cd. theNubiama E&M1. the Chinese Ba. BaM. A list of them we give in the following table The C~of Thé Clsasesof M. thé islands in the eMiern ocean MaJiMâj. Faï~hana Asrûshanat Afshm. India. . Shash Maha. The kings of AJexaJidria.r. not to criticize and correct historical accounts. B&th~r&.nr Alhajjâj. Prinee8. Chazar. The Greek kings BasH!.S. Samarksnd Sa.c. Ya. and M&ubadhs of the Zoroastrmns agree among At the s:nne time themsolves. if they 10 have any epithet at all. 109 collect and to communicate chronological material.

Shah. who practised justice on earth." They did not rule over the whole earth. And to ~m AI'Mk was given by dint of force. a descendant of the family of the hjsras.Ehudah. thé heroes. The Epitheta that apply to the Princes of these Ctasaea.. The &rat who divided the empires of the world was Fredûn the Pure.110 ALBÎBÛN!.bMr. Thé Classes of Prinoea. KabuI-Shah. Syria and Greeee &~far as the setting-plaee of the snn We have given to a champion. Between thèse parts (of ancient Persian chronology) there are gaps. to Salm.s Ohtajned thé rule.oh.BAmiy&N. Guzgânan G&zgan-Ehudah. which means "~eqp!e<&eMyM<MMh. Shirwan Shirw&n. and found out the elements of hMidicraAs and arts. In their days the rule over the world became divided between the various nations. of the Sclavonians. He ha. NintrMh.those who ruled over the whole world. Individual epithets (of princes) were not in use before the reign of lel&m. and so a cousin go Holda the country of the Turka. JEtmye of jgMM. Just as people divide méat on a mea." 3. AJ'MÎz. poet. B~miyan SMr-i. p. Part 1.102. saysThen we have divided onr empire in our time. M divided into three parts 1. ~a. on aecount of which the order and progress of chronology are much troubled and obseured. Xabu! H Tinnidh Tirmidh. To Toz the Turks were given. according to the opinion of the generatity of the Persians. BuMiarâ BuHi&ra. Egvpt.t-hoard. founded cities. X<t~M[<M.P&M:MM<NM. 10 Khw&rizm Ehwârizm-Sh&h. and worshipped 20 God as is his due. for he divided them between his sons. as a. Hère follow the kings of Part L. The kings . the Syrians the Egyptians Phfn'a.Shâb. discovered mines and produced the metaJa. except among the Persians. and we have obtained the benefits thereof. 2.

After that. .. Till MoaM amd MèsMna. 30 . t. 40 AImanbadh 200 2199 g0 'S MIed by hia bis btntbera brothers Satm Sn!m and ~Mj. rei~ned after him. pfoplp lived in health and happiness -till tho time when he hid himself He continned to be Mdden–t!n he was seized by Aldahhâlc. Snm earhof of tho thc How! n-tj~ied. '5g Till the cime when the son of TAj occnpied t-g 3 . He was killed were 'al) .S 3 S ~a 66 300 100 599 ) 899 30 999 AzMaha): 1000 1999 p.g DATES. P~hdâdh Zëbâwand 40 t 29 253 254 283 Shêdh 60 60 60 100 333 383 433 633 20 J§ g ."Theao ~~) cC~ twoarethePeraianAdamandEve. S~ reib-ned. Till thé time when ho ordered people to divide themsetves into fonr etassea Tin the time when ho made war npon tho demona and enbdned them Till tho time when ho urdered the démons to break rocks ont of the monntains and to carry them Till the time when ho ordered a vheeMto be conatructed.104. Therea treatyonthebamBofthe g npontheymado weU.S ?'t)). who ia caUed"Mafe)'or"]nc<~Htt)')'tn. and drove Min&shjihr ont of the eonntry ° . who reigned TBj.ERAS. ben AIrâw&k ben SiyàmaT: ben MesM ben ~/rM<!)t Gho ben Athfiyân Ni~o Athny4n ben Athfiyân ben Shahrgao ben Athny&n ben AthnyAn SipMh~~o bec Akhnnbagâo Athnyân Dizagâo ben AthBy&n N!g4o ben Nêfnr&ah ben Jam the King Girshah. who toro ont his boweïs and aawpdbimwithaaaw ~!ffaAM<.e.M) Ërânabahr. carnage stmcted. I jtfm&ihj~r lraj..10S. o n tiU the timo when hc killed T&j and Salm. the danghter of Ïraj– g. Tas Ximma Ta" HeYSS as av Titt sas Pmusi Psasxrs of PART eaehot Bmas Kntoo ~.kttownarrow-Bhot Aimn~tatt Ferez 300 20 60 M 2499 2619 2679 2579 M MM .eü Thelr p. AND REIONS Ot' KINGS.S ben Bashang ben înat ben BMunan FMstyM +> S)~* ben Tnrk ben Zabanaap ben Arshasp ben Tej -S –tiD the time when Minûahjihr gained the victory over him and drove him away. married Ti)) thé birth of Hôshang ben SiyAmak ben M6sh& HMa))!) ben AMwtk ïMmOfO~ ben WijaMn ben Ïnkahadh ben Hothe coming-forwat~ of Bùdasaf shan~f–tiU The eame-after that event Jam ben W~jah&n. Ul :The classe.1 40 60 93 70 120 213 M 10 0<t)/&"ar<h Till the birth of Meshâ and MêaMna. and he rode npon it. Of the )~ King. They were'all three sona of Afrêdûn §' ben Gûzan. who was the father of the pure Arabians. bon 'mwan of the Amalekites or– with another ben Arwaudnamo–Bêvarasp ben ben Bartshand ben asp Ztn~às Ghar. It tM< con. From the time when he ordered people to fabricato weapons till the time when he ordered them to spin and weave.ShajminPeraian.

FirasivAb S'g~.whodeatreyedit rheBa'-trian The Bame after that event the appearance XatMM)tt<!<p ben Lnhraap–ti!! of Zoroaster Alherbadh The aame after that event ben K<<MMr–B«!<m<mbenMandiyar fTaBin WshMsp the body.BÎRÛNi. but in a different shape.e.3 p. r~. 'Mnntap companioM. which we have given. The chronology cf this same part. t . is stated very differently in the ~!M&-(tbtyar.. c.112 AÏ.ys that he has endef. T. teigned.voured of great m<t<tOtM of <&e ~<M< to correct his account by meaM of thé ~&<M<< which is the religious code (of thé Zoroastrians).m .'°ï.FTmPtM.a ben Mi. 60 60 30 90 30 12 14 Jj6 30 to< 3328 3340 33M The account of the chronology of thia Part I.MKt!. 1 have also found in 40 the book of Hamza ben AIhusaùi Alisfali&nî. ben Ashak ben N6sh ben Dtsar e'S. however.M. which he c&HB C~t~mo~gy and ~)!-e<eM< He M.M~theTtu-toeenpyingAl'Mk E Zdb bon Tahmiap ben Kamjahubar ben ZA ben~) HAahab bon WMina). nus E-t ) n&ahjauJ J ~attoM<!h ben Zagh ben N&dhaga ben MaishA ben N&dnar ben Minoabjihr The Fimt yaiM<b ben Kainiya ben Ka~obàjh–tut he rebelled. SAm ben Narimtn ben ~'° 0<t)'~)<i<!j). bM) Bùmr ben Mi.s them yem. ~8 12 ) 2619 2631 his death i Minoshjihr–tiH . Our account.. The ~M 0 Fautego.t. . Therefore I have tramsierred it into this place oï my book.~ p nôahjibrtOKetherwith– h Thetwo g'S.03 "1 J.105. -metr How 8\11U ~. ~mtMdMt the danghter of Ardaaht~–Bahman Cairâz&d Ddrd ben ArdaaMr–Bahman Thé great M<4 ben MfA–tiB he was MUed by AJexander the Greek Thesecond 10 100 2736 t § ?5 75 60 28t] 2886 2946 3006 30C6 3096 3186 20 g .m. comes nearest to that view regarding which people agree. wherenpon he waa tahej prisoner and atterwarde by Shammar delivered Rnstam ben Daatan ben GarsMep the Kingby Ntmmd The aame–front the latter event till his death ymUttere ben Siy&wnBh ben KaiMûs–tin the time when he went away as a holy pilgrim and hid Mmm]f Hnmtyùn ~ath<?)n!sp ben Kaiwaj) ben Kaimanish ben Kaiknba~h–tat he sent BnHttanaMar to Jemsatem.

126 150 80 120 MO 112 M 12 14 2494 2646 2726 2846 2966 3078 3108 3120 3134 .ERAS. 20 XMkobâcUl B~ikâ&s KMkhuN-M Eajluhr&sp EmMshtâsp. takenfromtheAbMtit. NAMES 0F THEP~SBC~BHtAN Kttea.M6. 40 Snmof "*°'of Yeara. Howtong cachot them reigaed. Cihr&zad D!H&t)enBaJnnam. EaJtMdaaMr.th 10 Jam BSwtH&sp AfrëdAn Minûshcihr.i 500 120 12 80 HO 726 1726 2226 2346 MM 9 3 2367 2370 p. .begummgwith Gayûnmrth.. NA:n!9OFTHEKAXJUnAN KtKM. or PART I. DATES. FiTtiay&t An interregnwm of nnknown length. Dârâ ben Dârâ 1000 40 30 616 . 113 TABLE U. A\P t:E)GNS 0F KINGS.107. Garshâsp together with Zâb An interregnum. Z&b.Ct&yôm&rththe&rstmaji An interregnum of 170 years. Hoshemg Tahm&ra. 40 P.

110. and we should tum away the mind of the reader therefrom. the last of the Persian Hnga we~md Now. AMÎaÛNt. and ending with D&râ. Till their desth X~y~ ~?" Iffashang 't~hm~th. N~tt:s OFTBEMsBDADHMKmas. now. beginning with Frêdûn. taken&cmtheCopyetthethnbaah. Farther. with their governors of Babylonia. ing those reeorda. 130 2fi4 S64 2010 251G 2510 NAMN O?TM KAYÂtm-tt KntM.nala. as people say.ted from the works of Western authora.109. you find an aecount of the kings of reK~ and Babylonia.vebeentra.hman g~ DM ben Dârâ · · 50 40 616 1~ 1000 500 120 q. ~0 ~0 60 120 120 L~ 30 12 2734 294~ 3069~ 3184 8326 3338 p. whom they call. S~ S~~ Kaikhuerau Luhrâep Bisht^ Cihrâzâd Dârâ ben Ba. We. But if we altogether refram from mention. ~MB~ relates that he hM found a1so this part of Persian chronology in the copy of the Maubadh. and put both side by aide. in . sueh M ia exhibited in the following table TABLE HL 0F PARTI. exhibit this tradition in a special table of its own. Howtoner eMhot S~mof Yea~o. TM&I (Pûl ?). as to the durationa of their reigns. Ct&yAmtH-th. 1 am inclined to think that they confounded the kings of Persia. we ahonid deprive thi~ book of something that foi-ms 40 &due part of it. Jam-tUlheMdMmMM Sw~ R~~ ~d~ MmM~~r: Z~dC~h~p P.M8. In the biographical and hiatorical booh that ha. that these records differ greatly (from Eastern records) as to the numher of the kings and their marnes. their history. and their description.114 P.

34 OMmbyMS 80 D&r&II. 5 gg 70 84 g~ 93 96 145 176 209 266 267 269 278 286 320 400 ~gg 462 503 533 542 583 610 622 638 p.n&.t the end of which ail created beinga perish. cannot adopt that whieh is built upon 40 them.e. and having gained cej-tain views regarding them. except after producing varions sorts of interpretations whieh he adde of his own. 27 ArsesbenOchua 12 Dârâ. having previously admitted the truth of such origines. Sa. AND BEIONS OF KIXGS. acoordingta begiBmmg Western ant~. 36 Xerxes ben Dârâ. How~g each g~ reigaed. t. who denies auch origines. whilst they grow at their beginning that each such cycle has a special Adam and Eve of ita own. however.e.e. 8 . 9 Koresh. ie. Luhrâap . He. 30 Sogdianne.e. ~nd some people maintain that lime consists of cycles. Kmkhustau 8 Cyrus.e.e. t. i. EhusrM I.111. PEM~. tha y~.EBAS. and the valons seets of them. D&nus. the last king of Persia 16 The Jews.e. EMtMs 57 Evitad ben BuHttama~M 1 Beltesha~~ar ben Evilad 2 D&r&Alm&M I. M 20 80 s.m Yâf:3l. DATES. W. p. Zoroastriane. a. ie. m Persiam: Sa.ELhusN.112.t. called /«u~o~. Mtt 9 Sardûm (Bzarhaddon). relate the or~MMa)tMma[tand carry chronology down from them. and that the chronology of this cy :le depends upon them. Rere it foUows Tnz KINGS op with Frêdtn. 31 o M&JMa 33 BnMitm~~M'. the epoch of an era. i.. those o<a t. 41 ArdMhîrHI.rrMûm 3535 35 TigMathPilesar ie. Salm S sar. Christiams. Longimmnus 41 . However. Notos ben Ehusr&n 9 ArdMMrbenD&râII. Zû ban T&m&ap 3 After him the following powerful kings reigned:– p~ 49 Sanherib U.InMmMaM. 26 Ardashîr ben Xerxes. Adam and Eve. TMM. on which people either agree or differ.e. have been used as MWt<!t..TtII. ie.t. 115 order to prevent confusion getting into the aïrangement of the various systems and traditions of thia book.e..SsJm 14 l<t SMmenb ben SaImanMaM t.

amd their meeting the demon waa one year. clovea. Many philoaophera of this ciMa have built up auch aystema. There they dwelt. by which that period waa moet improperly cnrtajied. He M.118. the beginning of all chronology. Othera say that thé Ashk&niama came into power some time a.fter Alexander. till one day a. and that hence the dieerenceof human structure.thoae 30 princes whom Alexander had installed M rulers over certain special districta.y. . in order to construet some syatem 'by meana of them. and made them mamy each other. the juat king. Me. (j~ Most Persiam chroniclers have connected the reign of Alexander 40 immediately with that of the nmt Ashkâniam prince.e. and ao he drove them ont of that country. called Firdam (Paradise).~Ï6 AMhtÛNt. But then. 20 is extremely long. To the sa. Therenpon they eommitted ein. but ouly honoured them for thia reason. It waa a place where aloe.ya that thé interval between the time of their aettlement in Paradise. nmety. and began king with them.–Aa nology from Alexander tiU the rise of Ardashîr ben Bâba~. You could hMdly find a prettier tale of this kind than that one produced by S&'îd bon Mohammad AldhuM! in hie book. Pêshdddh. demon ('J~-<<)came the of npon them. the wicked. who held 'Ir&k and the p. maintain tha. and all kinds of delicious thinga were to be found. and langnage is to be derived. hold thia fooliah persuasion. For the nrst prince of the AshMniams WM~eM ~nAsUt&n.quarrelling thé patenta of whom were nnknown. Aljibâl.n house. country of Mâh. 1 ahall relate in this place such of their traditions as 1 have learned. t.t. to Part Il. that they descended fi-om the royal Peraia.e. that time hM no <<!rmMKM a quo at a!I they take some dogmas from the foundera of religions.t in each cycle a special Adam amd Eve exist for each oountry in partic~Iar. Chronology of the AsNkMuams. transplanted them to a place. Other people. till thé time when Mêsha and Mêshâna. it must be known that during thia period the "Pe«y r~MCM" existed. They were thé must valimt among the Petty F~MM atiU the others did not obey them. For he says "People lived in bitter enmity and atnfe with each other the better among them were 10 maltreated and oppresaed by the worse. situated hetweenAdsn and Serendib. who were all totally independent of each other. These he educated and caUed them JK~M and ~K~XatM. again. and vanoua sorts of perfumes were growing. Other people. of Persian ehro. But then he ceases from going on with his chronological account and does not carry it on. forty-one years till their death. two moreyeara elapaed till their majrmge. under their swa.nine years elapsed. wero found. In thé same place PêshdMh found a boy and gui. whilat othem go on bhtnder. ing without any ~nowledge of the matter. beaidea. at last.caUedAfghArBhahbenBal&shbenSMp&rbenAshkanben ben Siyâwush bem Ea~aùs.me period belongs the empire of the AahMniams. nature." The tale as it has been related. thirty yeara and till the death of Pêshdâdh.

TABLE II. Ashk ben AshMn AaMc ben Ashk ben Aahk Shâpûr ben Ashk BahT&m ben Shâpûr NMs!benB&hrMn HurmuzbenNMsi Bahrâm ben Htu-muz Fêrôz ben Bah.. the nephew oî the preceding.wân ben Balâsh ben Fêrôz&n 14 66 90 140 161 180 210 227 239 279 303 358 .. 117 and sMI endeavour. to refute that which is false. p.30 Za. 14 52 24 50 21 19 30 17 12 40 M 55 Ym~ –S–j Alexander the Greek Ashk ben Balâsh ben Shâpûr ben Ashkân ben Ash the hero Shti. as much sa ia in my power. oîthem~ ) reigtied. that which I~ajnz~ has taken from the Abastâ. and to establish the truth.20 How tong each ofthem reigned. the uncle f thé precedimg FêrôzambenHurmuzân ghusrau ben Fêrôzân BaMahbenFeroz&n Arda. TIT of Parts I.me name (as Table I.EEAS.-Nn Xisr& ben Ferez NaM.. and to bring the tables.. of F~TtL.. 40 J&dhaj'benWïjambenBal&sh N&n)!tbenW)]:ui Hunnazân ben Balâsh. OF PART II.mn Khmrmi QtsuwMSMar Bôahan ) B:). 10 Alexamder the Ctreek.[a. gnm °~" °*"° Yea. 111. ben Ferez 20 Ardetwân ben N&rs! .. IN THE ARRANGEMENT How long 80 80 NAMES OF THE AsHSBÂKIAt) KtNGS. for the purpose of connecting those portions of the three parts of Persian chronology that bear thé sa.. DATES. AND BEIONS OF KJXGS.pûrbenAfthh J&dîmr ben '~t~. of the same Part I. to amend that which is wrong. of Fart I. This.114.. 1 aleo caU it Table I.) with each other. conespondingto the Table I. 1 call the Tabula n.14 ) Khôshdih. It will not be necessary to mention this another time OF THE TABLES. TheirSnmames. into a good order... beginning with that which corresponds most nearly to the Table I.IM BM&dib j SMk&r! The last . 14 27 52 82 103 128 168 193 210 230 260 280 21 25 40 25 17 20 30 Next follows what corresponds to the Table n.18 . (of Part H. each g r n~ tMiCordmgtoptmza. H. again..) TABLE 0FTHE NAMES OFTHE AsHKAKIAX KlXGS.n ben Shâpûr j W!jMi ben Balâsh ben Shâpûr. n. thereby.25 Ashkân .

the third one. He that the P~i~ fixed only the historié tradition regarding not regarding the other ~eA.Iamza from the Copy of the Maubadh.ticia.. it h~ been done in the two preceding tablea. "r~ brought . TABLE in. gives the following account of ~d the "F~ rw~ durions of their reigns. ArdawAn ben BaJashân ArdawamtheCtrea. N~'Mo~'rBEAmK~mAjtKmas. 14 68 20 60 11 11 40 17 24 S 13 23 15 15 22 20 31 Snm ~the Years.lâshân. 14 88 92 112 172 183 194 234 251 251 327 340 363 378 393 415 496 3. This man.benAshkân&n KhusrM ben Ashk&n&a B.hbenABhkan&n NMdbenABhk&nân each of them reigned. Alexander the Greek After him reigned a class of Gfreek princes.raqadri 246.ubadh. altogether 14 in number AshkbenDâr&benD&r&benD~ AshkbenAshMn Shâpûr ben Aahkân Ba.fromtheC.a~pnnce.M.t.n J&dh~rbemAshkân&n Bida.T~ produce what of 'AM-j 'Ibrâhûn ben 'Al. taken from the copy of the Ma. 10 .ofI~rtH. M is exhibited thé in the following table. by takmby~mz. –T–< or PART II.115.lâ8hbenFer$z S=~ Ba. in order ~ht! that the snbjeet may be carried on. taken l.MSrIdbemAahk&n.1af Alzanjânî the ma.118 Toth~ ALBÎBÛNÎ.thema.L-at and Jibâl under their ~y ~lr. P. on having taken pains to compare the discordant traditions with each other.n. HerefoUowathe'~Mem.hr&m ben Shâpûr Balâsh ben Shâpûr Hurmuz ben Balâsh · Ferôz ben Hurmuz Ba. ..1mad ben Kha. with their Persian ~m. 1 add that whieh in the order of the tables i.pyofthe~badh.

80 Ashk ben Dârâ. p.ble:– . . McotdingtotheChromcteof'AM.tion of these tables.: 14 246 10 60 10 21 19 40 17 i 40 24 13 \ff<Xe~M e5 .117. and generally a. Both these limite are well known. How tong each of them .lra. DATES. It is a. 119 g~ Y~ THEAsBKANtAKs.rsibenB~r&m.greed upon. such as we exhibit in the 20 Miovingta.w&n ArdawAn . g~ the Year8.i 13 25 30 51 25 40 5 7 20 30 20 13 38 68 119 144 184 189 196 216 246 266 The nature of this Part n. is brought to light by a comparative eBtmina. HurmuzbenNms! BaJirambenHunDuz Hurmuz FerôzbenHurmuz. AXD REtGXS OF KINGS. and ends with the rising of Ardashîr ben Bâbak 40 amd hia seizing the empire out of the hands of the Ashkâniams. Junior 14 260 270 330 340 361 ?0 420 437 489 513 526 -i -) We have also found a chronological synopsis of this same Part IL in the Sh&hnâma. then.t begins with Alexamder's conquest of Persia. NMsibenFêrôz Arda.<<: Ai~ximderthe&reek The"JP<'MyjP~)Me!)" Afghûrsh&h.reigned. period tha. How. THEAsHKAKiANs. according to othem a desœndamt ofJ. by 'Abù-Majieùr 'AM-a.aMma].~ Ashk ben Ashk Shâpûr ben Ashk Bahrâm ben Shâpûr Na.Semor Bîzan the Ashkânian J&dEmtheAshk&mMi Narsî the Ashkânian nurmuz H– Ardawân Khusrau Balâsh Ardawân. accordingto thé ShàhmUna. SËttpùrtenAshk&n Jùdhar.Howlong' eachof them reigned.ERAS.zzâ~.

.wn to what mish~pt~diti. It is evident and not unknown to anybody. Table L. go we get a aum of 690 years. For all thia ~nhi~nc. corresponding to the sum that occuM in the &-st calculation. and do not further notice it. and proceed to the Tables m.tiona~dnott~efurther notice of it.. is about 410 yeare. 280 yeara. We drop this calculation. f~ Princes.me way as we have 80 done with Table 1. which exceeds our gauge six by years. and to measure all their records. of ~le~ y~TTT we add the aum which will be exhibited by Table II. mind that we are not able to make ~bekeptin outbyT~ course of reasoning the duration of the rule of e~?theA~h~ princes. of Part Il. M.kit~weU. whjeh ie again leas than our gauge by about 125 years. 20 which is lesa than o~gauge by about 263 years. ie.n hM been subject. caJcula.120 ALBÎBÛNÎ. in ~~b?~d~x~ sa. which is again below our gauge by about thirteen ye~. Hereto we add that sum which we shall of the reign of Ardashîr till that of the of Yazdajird. The to Hin our power. Let us îr~ yeara get from the Table I. For chronology ~~S' difference." nOl' the number of the persona who occupied the throne. and we get the aum total of 818 years. matter of doubt to us However. that the year in which This undeniable date 10 ~~K~~ a basis. too. reign IL. P~ calculation.~ If we make the same calculation with the years exhibited in the book :et'~? combining the –pondi:g:o~ the get sum of 949 yoMa. We shall ~~oropthM drop thi. P~ we consider the aum of years contained in the Table H. respectively. although it may be to approach the truth. and II. of Part IL.lXi~ a. "S. can the interval between them be a. nor of the other. Then we get the sum of 930 years.h. Íl order to combine the like tables (ie.

OM!. Mâni in his law has forbidden telling lies.119. which is used as a religious code.. saya in this book in the chapter of the coming of the prophet. as most authors do. or Anno ~s<ro!towMrMnt 539.rs after the beginning of the whom 1 believe to be Arda. Besides. the correctness of which is proved by their mutual agreement. favoured by God with a long duration. we get the sum ofl52~ degrees.. called SMMrihM. and the horoscope of the year in which Yazdajird rose was the sixth degree of Cancer. If we subtract thisfrom the rising-placo of the degree of the horoscope of that year. by 407 yeara. now. The latter is therefore an irreconcileable supposition («ts.or something more. And thia result is correct. Now we shall put aside all these calculations. But if we count that interval (between Alexander and Ardashîr) as 260-270 years. we find the interval between Zoroaster and Yazdajird ben SMpûr to be nearly 970 years. Anno Alex. it is one that may be relied upon (as a witness) for thé time immediately following the rise of ArdasMr (ben Babak). now. we get a sum of about 600 years. that the last intercalation was carried out at the time of Yazdajird ben Shâpûr. AND BEIRNS 0F KINGS. and four yea. 527. and he had no need what. as 300 years. soever for falaifying history. and take the are of the Kmadnder for the . In the same chapter he says that he first receiveddivine revelation when he was thirteen yeara of age.e. between Alexander and Ardashîr as 537 years. and try to dérive an emendation of them from the book of MM. whieh is thé surplus of the solar cycle over the whole days according to the Persians. i.tth. reign of the king ~(!&<t)-6<m. we multiply 93~ degrees. Hereby Mânî states that the interval between Alexander and Ardashîr is 537 yeara. of all Persian books. since it waa their custom to intercalate one month in every 120 years.ERAS. to which the tum of intercalation had p. and that the interval between Ardashîr and the succession of Yazdajird ie 406 years. that the interval between Alexander and Ardashîr is not more than 260-300 years). this calculation would still less agree with our gauge (than the preceding ones). that he was bom in Babylonia Anno A8tronomorum Bo6y!o)ttfB S27. 121 10 20 80 40 If we pass by this and add together the years as reported in the ShAhn&ma for this Part n. If. in which only five leap months would be due. If. in which Yazdajird came to the throne. we are informed by traditions. with the result of any of the tables of Part m.w&n the LMt. whilst we hâve already mentioned their report stating that eight leap months are due in that period. Mân!. DATES. we count the interval corne. in which eight leap months are due. and that the Epagomenfe were put at thé end of that mo. two B(t6y!ottMe yeara after the beginning of the reign of Ardashîr the king of kings. being based upon the testimony of a book. Further. the eighth month (Âb&n-M&h). Likewise it is written in the books of astrologers. since. now. that thé horoscope of the year in which Ardashîr (ben Bûbak) rose was about hait of Gemini.

as we shall explain. If you gather the dates from the migleta.ed the dation. when the order of our exposition comes to that subject. Mdni. blending together so~e of their n~e. If we subtract therefrnm 266 yeara for the period of the reign of get for the rule of the S~mns. ThM part of chronology also M not free from the same détecta that beset the former two part. 1 commence this part with the Table L.ALBÎRÛKÎ. more or~s the horoscope does not agree (with what it is reported to have been).M. in consequence of the fact that the years of the PeramM and Greeks commence at different thnes that Alkisrawî.sa.. i. that whieh is confirmed by two than that which M contradicted more trustworthy by many." 20 Further. on account of their 1 shall enumerate them as shniMty they re~ly are. on haymg studied this subject. however. months and minor fractions of time. mentioned by the astrologers. from Ardashîr till the accession of Yazdajird. corresponding to the (first) tables of each of the two precedmg parts. the 537 yeara ~d are reported by the SMbur~n. If we add to the 407 years.e. whom the chroniclersthey have not mentioned. of course.120. So.ned. ben M~diyar. follows 40 . he. you get the consecutive course of Peraian Here chronology. and 1 shall proceed here~r with Table H. but still they are leas conaiderable. In their o~ traditions the Persil have no auch chronological system. For family of IM~n ~~the son of B~ Shâh ben S~&n ben Bâbak ben Sâ8ân ben Bahâfirîd ben M~rmish ben Sa~ senior ben B~hma. are either place. which the astrologers mention. And here be it noticed that have forgotten the ~nee of some of them. he B~8 Thereupon we studied and examined the number of their kings.bleB of the three parts. "Thé interval between Alexander and Yazdajird's accession to the throne is 942 years. The surplus of P-~ 10 reports of such authors as do not give detailed the B~teme~reg~diu. Chronology of the SMMiams-Ncw we proceed to tre~t of the third part of Persian ~y. And that M the year of the ~Era Alexandri for Yazdajird's ~°of throne. of which is the riaing 30 beginning of Ardashîr ben Bâbak of the ben M~ndiy&r. p. of their reigns and their number. and perceived the confusion we have menti.. If the years. has mcre." Accordingly. we get thesum of 944 yeara. M~. if God permits. rising-place of which waa the the horoscope is half of Gemini close to the residence of the msr. 676 years.

9 ° ¡ ~] s ~j H CÎ R Stj cO .Pt ~c¡ ~¡t11 i 4 ° PW P g~r:it:s~ P9~~i~~i `~ ~~td ~s:lesgs~gg~de.og~~gCCQ~~g~c2Ñds. M .!î] J~ ~të~tS~~SM~aëaS~~M~~ '° s s .o-oS h. M~ :.t1 ~§~ 11 S i '3*3 cs ë 'E . ~Q F ° ·e~p BS~ 11 :1 I .aa.s§§~s~s~g~j~9_ j~gOMOOOOOOOO~OgOOOOOOOSO~~OOM ~oo- OOgOOC.o .g'E]~.~ t3 -SB . s~~ëji. D4 .ERAS.jj?-i' 1I:æZ~O~ZZN~ `w HC.i.s~ ~a ~i.B s:I ô .g..ë mé~aC c5 i 0" e ~~1 ~g~'c-'o -ooc. PATES.1~ .~q~is.u.ÿ 0 A -S 0 1 -s! ggy .g. &'c.g e~S~ ~-ë5?S~S ~a JS< 3~ i Bg ~t't 'J '3 g -j~ a S El "3'i~B'ëisJ'g~~ T.d n~~ <:S ¡:.~·F. p a.!i~ s_s_s W a^1 ':1 s:I Õ &5! d ~3~~ i m .c. J *'o° "'C.i ~st-s~~ ~~m'o°<E ~S~S.0 e.g~~ +r" â E g a S. 123 ) s~gg~~s~sNNSS~~°°°°°°°°SSSSSSS S2~°" S~ g 's œ ~C~M~~m~NNNmœOS~ =~o~O~Q~eo~ ~sëe~ss.g œ 11 a e O ~g~ J. A~T) RE~XS 0F KJXGS.'oa' as .¡~1~g!.Q "J'gs~'Ei~=ëË~ CI) t-4 c<I A c5 fa 0 +r v -a '!i~i~F!~ g 1!g Q).g.o 1 ° E* $ m GL S. 0':= . .R·pR ij~jij~~H~i~ Gp ~EIEI i~i~j~i?~i~i~ 5 ~1! :.a ô "d~o e~:9~~ j. ~o~oma~oMOO~o~2moooooo~~o-S~ !}"' ~g ~3S~"&S~"S~S2~~S~S°~°"° –r-T-rTrrT–rr–7~7-7.

j Daya.. danghter of 25.5. tadha daughter 40 $hursâd Khuera ~3dt~: TMd~dbenSh~&r .2SIO 1 Ba. Ardashîr ben Shîrawaihi ArdMhirbenSM~wajM Pûrândnkht. gobâd ben Fêrôz._Bahr&mbe. L. ~y'1 2§ M 3 o 4 s o 0 4 5 0 27 4 43 47 11 S 0 Ï 1 (1: 0 t 20 0 0 0 7 7 s 6 6 2 1 0 1 1 c0 0 8 0 Il 0 0 0 0 8 0 28 1 0 0 0 10 1 0 0 0 ° 0 0 S 0 265 28S 310 S14 S57 416 i~ 456 ~8 458 459 2 7 7 7 9 i l' 11 j 3 5.Md. Yeare. -th. Hurmuz ben AnoehirHurmuz wAn ben AnôshirFM-~zb'enHurmnz J Shira.. An. B~hr&mbeBHunnuz . 10 j of thé Smnof the Team.]hhr..~hibenP~iz.Ard.(S~pt~: Azarmîdukht.!M. Bâbak ArdMMrBâb&k ~pûrbe. Guakanu 2S.l1râm S 1 g SiS 17 0 7 72 4 50 B~~T~d. '1 N~B~Hurmuzben Narsi ben IhmmM Shâpûr Dhù-at'aktM M.BMrw. 20.l1râm ~~±~ Fèrôz ben Yazdagird S~S.ArdMhirbenHimnMz ben Shâpûr Shâpûr SMp&rbenSh&p~ ~B~ Yazdagird ben Ba.nbenB:. ~M* The following the Sitâb.p<jr Bahrâm ben Hurmuz.134 Ajmî~ON!.mben Ba. of Hewtongeaohofthemj Mtgned. ben Yazdagird.ttmitj a~ who TABLE II.l1râm.ataiyar-Alkab£r.Mr HurmuzbonSh.m Bahr&mbenBatr. 14 44 îc 49 111 76 °~ m 2pg 9 6 6 8 S 0 0 p 28 28 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 g 88 8 ° 18 18 18 18 M 18 18 20 la M oF Taz &ta"-zàN NAMESOFTMSÂtAKUN Knfus. or PART in. 20. ~~M. Gûr..nth.i.

Amoshirw&n. =- Sumof the Y.k&n-sh&h NMa&benBa.! 10 Shâpflr ben Ardashîr HurmuzbenSMpur Ba. Fêrôz ben Yazdagird. tmnscnbed from the copy of the Maubadh. HurmuzbenAnôshirwan . in thia Part is that one which t. Bid&shbmFerôz. U&TBs. . meh as Hamza 6ayahe bas takenfrom the Copyof theManbadb. 0 Ardashîr ben Shîrawaihi 1 M' l Fûtan.126.t(after! ha..hram.mza.FN-wiz 38 KoMdSMra.Daya.ya he p. YeMB.. TazdagirdbenBa. m~s OFT~ S.125. AXf BïtUNt. .aO.EKAS..hram Hurmuz ben Narsa Sh&pûrDhù-aJ'~tM Ardashîr ben Hurmuz M 30 3 17 40 9 7 72 4 5 11 21 19 14 17 4 41 48 12 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 0 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 M..ughterofPMwiz 0 Fêrôz 0 25-Azajmîdukht 1 KhurnuI&dhinnMra. j–< ArdMMrb. 20 Yazdagird ben Shahryar 10 C 3 0 4 0 0 O 0 0 0 5 11 4 0 0 0 0 0 O 8 6 4 1 6 0 0 M 44 48 65 105 114 121 193 197 202 213 234 254 269 286 290 331 379 391 429 429 ?1 432 432 433 434 4M 10 M 1 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 11 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 M 4 ) 8 9 3 3 3 0 15 15 15 M 15 15 15 M 15 15 3 3 M 21 21 21 21 21jl 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 p.tus B:thrâmGûr.TingmadewMupon! the"fe«yry!'Mcee").M.Baba.hr&mbenHurmuz S.Months~DayB.ShapûrbenShâpùr B&hr&mbenShâpûr 20 YMdagMScelera.15. 125 The following Table ni.da. KoMdbenFêrôz.[a.waiH. Ot KtXGS.BithramSa. Yeam.Months.

YeMa.~hobesleged the Greeks ~d P&ran. 0 Ï o 0 0 0 .u 80 30.waihi 2&. BahrâmGûr. 1 Sh!mwMhi~PM~z Arda. p.~twe ~nr preceding two herewith the Chronological Table ends.f~' R~ AMÎRt)NÎ. M~t~.p.j Daya. Daya.126 . 'Montha.18.~ughter. Mimed.22S 248 279 279 322 370 381 î~ 420 420 420 421 422 î~ 422 423 S 1 5 5 9 3 .o~t in this place. the Yeam. daughter I 3~F~SSSdK~~M. HurmMbenAB8sM~n FMwîzbenHumuz Shirawaihi ben Pal'wtz.j Farrukhzâd Khusra.127. Azarmidukht. Ardaah~-benB&batc Sh&p&rbenArdMhtr Hurmuz ben ShApûr. ycara. KoMdandTam.1-10 6 6 3 o 0 0 0 4 o 5 n 4 0 0 p 0 0 7 7 o 7 5 0 3 6 a 2 4 1 0 0 0 0 18 3 0 0 0 0 5 15 n o 0 0 ° 22 0 o n 0 o 0 0 S 162 ~S 182 204 . ~s~B~ SMptrbenSMpAr . of 'Abû. 3 l? 9 72 11 21 ig 7 7 4 47 II 33 S8 o 0 0 o. HurmuzbenSMpûr mhr&mbenHurmuz 5. in co~ity~t.11 "H~ Hurmuz Fêrôa ben Yaz ~JjS~ Balâsh ben Fèrôz.1 10.Mnsj 20. ~r~~Lu.. Anôshirwânbenliobâd 20 ~M P.Xhûhan.fP~rwIz GushamMpteMllm Gushanasptadha.Bahr&mbenB~hr&m &hrambenBaLhr&mben BaJu-ttm N~ibenB~hram..5 B~ambenSh&pûr Yazdagird ShApûr Y~girdScel~tuB BahrâmOur.Yazdagird ben Shshryâr 14 31 1 1. ben Shâpûr Hurmuz Dhûal'aktâf .138. Bixas according to thé Traditionof –r– 'AM-aMarajAbanj~)!.i 21 21 21 9 9 20 30 0 1~ 0 0 i~ 47 S ¡ 10 ? 1 5 5 18 21 SI 21 21 7 '§0 2 I 0 12 I 7 a 0 S 7 j 7 y 0 o 7 2 9 ? 4 9 ~20 10 '? 9 2 2 0 5 20 20 20 12 12 12 12 40 g0 .alfa-caj found the chronotogy Part diffe7iing from our accounts in the preceding three taM~ we have added M. Row long eaehof them N~ns o? THE NaxEaoFxss SAsANuN SAsJtNUN 8mn of thé Snm K tKes.MrbenSMra.

not to that of thé Ashgh&nian 80 rule.wî. for us to use either of these two traditions.. because underthe SasAnians the empire was in good order.ys he bas taken from and amended by means of the ~&<!sM. Such were. 1 should like to know why he refem it to the period of the SAs&nian. and thinks that the existence of sueh confusion is an establisbed fact. this period is longer even than 350 years (HamzaNow it is necessary Abasta. the ruin of aU fine arts which were the recreation and the desire of thé people. 127 Next we return to fulfil our promise of explaining the way in which p. which he sa. everyone minded only his own affairs. and the other tradition which he saya he bas taken from the copy of the Maubadh. the calamities wMch Alexander aud his Greek lieutenants brought upon them. Or did he possibly place his confidence in tli~t one which we have mentioned. when the Greeks reigned over them. although we cannot help wondering very much at him and at his method. 496 yars). Therefore the period preceding this event was much more liable to confusion (than the 40 later period of the S&saniams). between Alexander and Ardashîr. This is the reason why they have neglected a certain space of time in the first part of the period. he destroyed the wonderful archi80 tectural monuments. and delivered them up to the flames. he bas subtracted from the period between Alexander and Yazdagird 266 years for the period of the Ashgh&nian r'de. ar.DATES. And more than that. He (Alexander) burned the greatest part of their religtous code. This is proved by ail the testimonies which we have produced in support of this our view. Hamza. e. And they did not begin to settle their chronology until their fright and terror had subsided in consequence of the establishment of the AshMnian rule over them.now. and people were prevented by various circumstances from preserving their chronology. however. . or to add to them that one which AtMsrawî holds to be correct (as a third tradition). People even say that even at the present time the traces of the tire are visible in some places. e. AIkisrawî works out the chronology of this Part Ill. further the conflagration of all the literature in whieh people delighted. and derived from the Shahnama (266 years) ? Further.g.ËBAS. in order not to use any other tradition but those which he himself mentions. viz. having -perceived the confusion of the former two parts. because during their period the Persian empire waa disorganized. those in the mountains of Istakhr. whilst in the time of those (their predecessors) there was much confusion. And according to 10 both these traditions. For there was much more opportunity for mistakes creeping into the chronology of the Ashghanians (than into that of the Sasanians).as Alkisrawî has done this.g. whilst trying and experimenting.AXD BEIGXS0F KIKGS. records only that tradition.189. For. 358 years Hamza-Maubadh. Hère follows the table containing the so-called emendation of ADdsM. now-a-days known as the Mosque of Solomon ben David.d the royal dignity was transmitted in their family in uninterrupted succession.

~i~M. dtmghter of Eisrâ Pan~z 1 0 0 674 5 9 40 Klmshnnahbamda.waJM. (Gnsh. PtUMO Of Shaj-w!n 82 0 0 373 7~0: Yazdagird ben YMd&23 0 0 prd. S.. a descendant of ArdMMr ben Bâbak 0 2 0 675 7 9 Azarmîdukht. TeaM. Montha. son of 23 0 0 419 7 0 thepTeceding 18 5 0 437' i 0 YMdagtrdb. C~NMtM. Smof the Yean. Daya.t.9 9 0 108 7 0 Hurmuz ben Nara~ .&ïjunûd 0 0~62 1 10 0 54 0 0 Hurmuzb. Fêr&z. danghter of Parwiz 0 4 0 1 675 11 9 t'M'rnkhzMbenBlnm&u b.td'aktM 0 M.hmz.YMdttgirdbenShtJu'yâr 9 .lS0. Mrepottedby!. Bahrâm Gur. Months.. 7 0 610 8 1 HnmmzbemAnôaMrwNB 23 0 0 633 8 1 Parwîz ben Hurmuz 0 0 671 38 8 1 SMrawaihi ben Hnnnnz O 8 0 672 4 1 25.thr&mben 10 Bithr&m 13 4 0 99 7 0 NMs&benBa.hr&m 0 . ArdaaMrbenSMrMMuM 100 673 4 1 Shahrbar&z 0 1 8 673 5 9 Bûr&n. ALBÎBÛNÎ.brotherofBa.PaJwiz.010 676 0 9 20 0 0 696 0 t4. N~EaOFTMBA.Bahr&mCmr 0 S6 1 0 463 1 BahrâmbenY&zdagird.gtrd ben Bfthr&m. BEsmother 50 WM CHM.128 p. Mtgneq.82 0 0 279 7 0 Bithr&m.aister of BahrAm ShûMn 0 . S96 7 0 15. )_ aooordingto the Emendation ofA!]deramt.020 0 674 7 9 HhuarM ben Knb&d ben HnrmTU! 0 10 0 675 5 9 30. _i ArdMMrbenBâM: . How long esohof them V' N Sumof the Years.SAMr.19 10 0 19 M 0 82 4 2~0 S&Mr.IamMptadh&) .~w.~junùd Bahr&mbenHormuz 9 3 0-63 3 30 0 5. son of the pre12 0 0 291 0 ceding 7 ) 20 TMda. brother of 4 0 0 ) 197 thepreoeding 7 0 Sh&p&rben Sh&pûrDhûat'aktM . Days. Teera.KMsa.29 0 1 492 1 1 30 BalashbenFêr6z 3 0 0 495 1 1 20. ArdMMr.Msh 68 0 0 563 1 1 1 Anôshirw&n ben KuMd 47 p.131. Bahrâm ben Bthram 23 0 0 86 30 0 B~hr&mbenB..72 0 0 193 7 Sh&p&rDM. Kubad.13 0 0 121 7 0 . 0 Fêrôz ben B&hr&m .

Such a cg. saymg that already to nearly thirty years. empire.t who the 'Abbâside present occupies the prince.n! 20 reign when 'AH ben Buwaihi. common sense. the astrologer HmduEa~ka. He determined. Therefore to be only the (apirithe astrologers throne of the Khilâfa. 129 is a theory of the astrologers that p.. if we mention here the titles which. such as Helper of the Empire. with the word enemies indiscriminately. tuit!) head used to prophesy this state of Already in ancient times astrologera in the book of 'Ahmf. and at the beginning the hands been transferred from had and thé rule Aùnust~M!. Sword 1~~ (ie. how to carry their Imew and the same titles. On TMes in the Khali&te-It and the other kings of the Musiims reigns none of the khalifs of IsMm of Ahnut!' that extended the As to reign than twenty.M. compounded ot the Empire.khs!. Now it a~l those who were directly attached to chss distinction between this besides the their court. ERAS. not a political with the Jewa. friends When thé Bam!Abba8 had decorated their assistants.. adding matter became the utterly opposed to In tûis of ShahiMMh.) and that the authority and secular affair. in was only a juridical and religious. Islam. have been bestowed by their majesties comprise thein in the following table. 9 . 30&ndtheothers. so that to the highest degree.Ta. the riskofmissing to It will not do any harm.where he spea.han (as a clajmamt to ehould 'Imad-a. M held by but not a of king.Uy themaelves between their court claimed something new as a distinction But then Thereupon the khalife bestowed doubletitles. prophecy you the of conjum-tion of Saturn amd Alt~yio AIsa. in corne forward Ispa. with vain titles. all reasonable went for in this they beyond etc ). This went on so long till those who were eapecia. they of that of a. othera wanted also the became necessary a second time to create a point by bribery. in the Mata sign for he maintained that the of Ab~Md.ks was The same distinctly declared by the of Cancer. the time also. way title he who men. affaira. and clumsy that he who has commenced. the empire of Buwaihi (Buy~ of the family of 'AhMa into those of the family which remained with the Bani-'Abbâs Bôya.four years. and he the time for prayer. their empire perished attached to limits. So the khalifs bestowed triple titles. our time. A~nREtONS DATES.d ben find. longer it in this account for way.Of KtXGS. from Ispahân.t rule and exercises a surt of religious authority a.133. to a man who would corne be transferred 'Abbaa would of the Ba.lda. empire.nla. who of the like the JM-~M<M 10 fact something dignity without any actua. up 40 shall We the khalifs. called -) and supreme power). he tired before scarcely them tions gets who addresses them runs wi~es them loses his time and writing.t the end of the reign of AImutta.

Harb AUtabMM ben 'AM. 'Izz-d&tda. 'AM-Mam~ûr Buwaihi ben AIhasan Mu'ayyid-&I-dfmb. wa Shama-al. 'AM-'Ish~bemA~uaMm 'Umdat-td. mill&. ~usah). Mu~amunad TbraMm.at-d&w]&. 'Al)û-MM~ûtB!s~tûmbenWMhm. hasam.dMtla. ALBÎB~N!.mma.nulla.danb.134.dtmh.aJhaaan ben Na~ir. Buht. ~l~L.uLh . SMf. ShM-af-d~u~ wa. g!r.daula wa 'Amtn.a!'abbaaTâshAIM]ib Husâm-al-daula.183. Fanâkhuam. His son.milla.al. Sa.~T&j. ?aMr.MaMÛrAIpAKianAlMliMn Mu'ïn-aI. The TitIeB wMohwere beatowed by Their Majeatiesthe Khalifs.miUa. ~AM. Waliyy-al-daula.130 P. 'ImM-fJ-daula. Smad-a.al-daula. 'Amîd-al-daula. 'A~ud.'umma.aJ.'d.ula 'IbraMm. Abû..~ Ghiy&th-al. Al~aaimben'Ubaid-aJMh.md&m 'AM~nBuwMhi 'AM-aJ~Man 'A~m&d béa Buwaihi Al~MambenBuwaihi 10 'AM.'Tannia AbA-KNtnjM Ma.Shujà' Fanâkhuera ben AI. mMabenWMhmgir S~m~-m~'&M. ~Abû-EMmJM-benFMiaHtusm F~hr-~da~~Mak.al. Ya. AJm&rznb&nbenBakhtiyâr Tz&z-d~ul&. 'Abû-athasam F&aIMt~a 'Amîd-al-daula. 'Abù-'A~mad HMth ben 'Ahmad Wa]iyy-~l.aI-d&Y)l&.iM-m~~kaM-umma.ZMnam-al. a. P.daul& 'Ab&.t-d&ul&. 'AM.Mm~ Bakhtiyâr ben 'Abî&thasam.al-da..uia. Aiterwards he received the title of N~ir-aJ-din wal-daula.aMawàns Bektùzûn Alhâjib Sinân-al-daula 'Abu-a~àsim Muhammad ben Na~r-al-da.t~ ~. SabnM&g!n. +atî]L 80 'Abù~~ Xhurra Fêrôz ben Bahfi-al-daula wapiyA-al. 'AM-Mu~tuamad ben Ï~Mndan Hiason 'Abû-a~asam 'A)î ben Ha. 'Abù-'AB Mn~ammad ben MuhamNa~ir-aI-dauJa.daub.da. The Nameeof those on whom ~Uea were bestowed.uIa. mad ben 'Ibr&hîm. 'Abû.&I.&I-da. Mu'izz-al. 'AM.nla.daula. N~ir.wa.6Mt Mu~n-al.aJ. MahmùdbemSabuktaghi Saii. Ab~aNmM~mûdbemSabuk.tznb&n ben Sam~&m.d~uh.nl1n.al-da.

. 2)AM.e. ~f. them ignominy in this world. imitated the example of the khalifs nay. calling them20 selves '. but his noble mind declined it.ygave thé titles of . increasing them everlastingly. 131 AJso thé Wazîrs of the Ehalifs have received certain titles. in whieh they live.g.~)-t'uM~)'M. when he had come forward (to claim supreme power) A. The &jnHy of S~tnan. the rulers of Khm'&s&n. DATES. Some of them. may God give a long duration to his reign (to whom this book is dedicf. fS'cn/tt!t!t&[. AND REIGXS OF KINGS. when.~MM)t-<tM<tMh. . To their Ëeld-maj-shals. by the rays of his heights. and abhorred the idea of being compared with those who were called by sueh titles but only in a very metaphorical way. who illuminates the darkness. 40 and sees and knows all the aN'airs of his slaves 1 this digression we now return Intervals between the Eras. p.&K. contenting themselves with their ~KM~s (such as '~K. Next we must turn our attention towards fulfilling our promise of teaching the reader that knowledge by means of which he may cumpute the eras that are 9 . He bas become-may God give a long duration to his power !–among thé kings of the world like the s!m. ~l!H!!t~ast! and after their death.had no desire for such 10 titles.~!M!K'ayya(?. however. and show to them and to others their weakness 1 As to the Amir. compounded with the word J)/. The same was done l'y Bughr&khan.–After to the point whenca we stM'ted. ~M<nH<f!. in imitation of &K/<tM<Mt!<t. They wanted to redouble and to increaae his title. ~ust')'-<t!~aM~.AMsi't'-ttHaMh.a come into high faveur with the khalifs as a prince of the Believers. /M. ma.M. '~H~. jS'iMaM-~AtMJ'ct.t/'a<. Jtf!t'i'?t-t!M<t!th. J)M-M/'n!/a<a!')t. m)d proceed.~Ma/iM. aelected for himself a title 30 the full meaning of which did not excced bis merits (iS'&<M)M-c[!-m<t'<Ht. e.N)t-aMaMy(t. and offered to him titles.~?)-. He ha. and their title-giving was nothing ùut one great lie. therefore. '~&M<tM<M<Mt. ~~HN'oz~~mttHS.etc. the power passed into their hands. Xft/(tM.ted). The Buwaihi family. have gone beyond thia limit. ~M. May God give him a longlife may he enlighten all the parts of the world by his justice. His Majesty the Ehalif addressed him in a letter. '~«tM-a~~K~. ~a~. *~M. such as those compounded with thé word Daula (e. <h<. when they called their Wazh~. and bless them by his look.~ jlPftMA~. '~l!'K-a/-A(?s!'H!. Alsadid. He.H. the ways of the khalifs. as e. as we have mentioned.ERAS.y He raise his affairs and those of the subjects who dwell in his shadow to perfection. 382. the glorious Prince.g. after having finished thé collection of chronological dates in the preceding tables.tlmM'-<<M<M)t and S~y!<<t!H)M)' May God mBict or. however.!)-.g.). D&M-<tH~a~)H<K. God is ahuighty to do this.'jN:<M-aMa!t!a. ~/M'M. But then he considered himself superior to them. In their lifetime they were called ~1!H!<&. ~~MMico~ft~.yaMioMM. etc. i. calling himself SA~nt-aHMth. '~&'i-(t!-A~)'!<A).135. they made it still worse. iam.5a<~ ftH~M. Sun of the Bet~A<s). -DM-a~at/<)t. jlb'atf.

9. used in the Canons. 20 in Now.e its epoch) precedes the unknown one. hundreds. whilst the lower ones are tho same days in their various degrees (units. for astronomical observations.615. And the remainderof da. To thia we shall prefix a twofold ?'<t!~M~!t.' noted according to the sexa.0. length.709.jmown calculation is an example of this system of notation. and transcribed into the ~My. you find the distances computed in days and written in Indian ciphers.m the {[(16~]~ sum. Thereupon he must divide this sum of days by the number of days of that kind of year which is ascribed to the er: in question. 27. he subtracts the equation from the basis. This threefold system of notation we use for no other purpose but this. its epoch) followb the unknown one. 3.073.1 system: 30.744.e these characters one after the cther into Indian ciphers. our 7~!&M~ is to be understood.o.446. if we commence with o~ for the first check. in days. This sum. et<) transcribed from the Indiam ciphers into thé tenths ~M~/ aljummal. amd elaewhere. the same way as this example.551. In the upper half you find two Mnds of numbers. 30. let him reduoe the whole of the known era into days. the upper ones are thèse identical days written according to thé sexagésimal system. Rere are the days of the intervale between the epochs of the various eras represented in the twofold ~t~M~. on the other the known hand. and subtract 1 &. i.B~MHoK.e." If. 10 The following well. which wiU indicate the intervals between the single eras in a. We mention our method only in a summary way. We say. 31. 50. we get the total sum of the reduplications of all the checks of the chesaboard. that each mode should bear testimony to the other in case a doubt should arise regarding some of the charters and figures that denote the numbers.Uwisf .132 AMtBÛNÎ. notedmindiam ciphers. is theioUowmg: 18. e.gesima. and this sum is caJIed The jB~ Then he must take the 30 interval between the two ema. then. the known and the unknown ones This we call The .ys istobe 40 distributed over the months of the year according to the proper lengths which we have mentioned as peculiar to each of the different Hnds of them. you get the above-mentioned number. If.15. God is a. (i. 40. constant measure. 5.e. the known era. era (t. in commercial stipulations and contrants. because the reader of this book must be more than a beginner in mathematics. Bythis division he gets complete years.136. if a man wants to find an (unknown) era by the help of a known one. he adda the equation to the basis.~MMnM:: ~'T'ta~~tonn~Mn If you ttanscnt. and not at full p. In the lower half under the diagonal. And the sum which he gets is the number of days of the unknown era. If wetake or 16M.

4. 4 . )Jag g~ s S ~_cS '<=! .ERAS. s S! S r< S ? S 133 S~ m ëj ~~5 s s s4 2 W ~jr s~ J s~ -h -~i 'SS S.s~ ~T ~JS~ 3~ s t! ~d~ '° . DATES.s~ s -C. ~< 'a~ 0 ss § îx ~t i~~i j~ !r-! '.<tr-< ).B~Q ~6 § S 9 S S g M M s ? ? 8 § S S" *'a_r-< s -t ë j§"L '-<<c ej ~i S ~.s ça ec &§<eo'QO ë S S? g~ S~ S~ S} ~a' g S Sf s j3_3_ ej '-< s ~< g<c s s4 s~ ~t~ s §~ ~i sî <! s_LS_~ s ~î. ~}! =. ~t~. AND RE!CN8 OF EIXGS.

r ratio. the distance of the 9th Sth~ equal to the distance of the 5th check from the first one. first we muet premise that you should know. the last number. we take the double of the largest.u!a. fo. Now.-For the solution of the chesa problem (lit. of the Ciphers) "II shaJl explain the method of the calculation (Book of the chess problem. If wetake the square of the square of the square of 16. pïogresNon bas only one middle number. If you diminish that number by 1. 'Abù-~ihân in says his~M6. And 32-1 is 31. it has two middle number of the reduplications is an odd the one. Example: The number of thé 6th check ia 32.138.) one thing you must know beforehand. The number of the 33rd check is equal to the square of the number of the 17th check. the square of 16 (1~=256. multiplied by itself (~. (lu c~e there is only ~e of the two =r:r~r~gy~ This is numbers. the reduplication of the chess and its mental rules. you get the sum of the numbers of all the checks of the chessboard.e. that in a progression But of powers of 2 the single numbers are distant from each other according to a sb. the number of that check the distance of wh~tn. The multiplication of tho two ends by each other is equal to the nn~phc.thisiBidenticaIwithMdngt~~ the number of the 33rd check. 10 The second rule is thia The number of a check mmua 1 ia equal to the sum total of the numbem of aJ! thé preceding checks. the number cf the reduplic.rI6~.stomed~a. ALBÎEÛKÎ. i. that 30 ~ereader~get~. of- 1+2+4+8+16 (=31). th~T~ check equal to the square of the number of the number of the ~X ~b~6~ check) is the abovementioned number 16. The one of them ia this calculation) therf~t~~ The square of the number of a check x of the 64 checks of the chessboard . {[(16~~ . by which operation the number 20 check is to be found.equal1. i.pplyit. which is the number belonging to the 9th check. thé check x is equal to thé distance of the check from the Ist check.e. The other is èhis ~rd~f~~ any progression of powers of 2.hon of the two middle numbers.tionjthé number of the single members of a progression is an even one. The Chess Problem. which is equal to the sum of the preceding checks. and subtract .134 p. The number of the check is equal to the number of the 9th check. For example take the square of the number of the 5th check.

The square of 4. Thereby they are changed into '~tt~r (loads).446. which is the number 1. If we subtract from thia aum 1. their medium is the 33rd check. 4. in consequence of the reduplications of powers of 2. we consider the 65th check a. the fifth médium. Between the checks 5 and 1. the sixth medium.000. they (the herds) might graze on the bordera of W<Mte. the third medium. are formed into ~({m (herda). If.294. the check 3 is the medium. which is the first medium in the 33rd check. Thereby it ia changed into Bidar (auma of 10. t. the first member of the progression. that. the check 9 is the médium.000. then. the fifth medium.e.967. The 'f are divided by 10.967. Thc rcmiundcr is the sum total of thèse reduplications (i.EBAS. ie. which is the fourth medium in the 5th check. p. which ia the second medium in the 17th check.139. the number of the 3rd cheek. after having establiahed this.~ rotation). The square of 256 is 65. Now. the second medium. then it is evident that the number which belongs to this 65th check.R16. whioh is the third médium in the 9th check. AND REIGNS OF KIXGS.000. the check 17 is the medium. the remainder is the sum of the numbera of a~l the checks of the chessboard. Between the checks 33 and 1.~Oi<5].000. beginning with 1. If. therefore. if we add to the checks of the chessboajd one check. to which belongs the number 2. as it were.< the nrst numhcr. the fourth medium. Taking the square of (2~).073. the check 2 is the medium.000 kids on the border of eMh tt~Mt. that carry them. is (1x4=2~).Hpst. the remainder is the sum of the numbers of all the checks of the ehesaboajd. The square of 16 Is 256.744. 135 10 20 30 40 thcrefrom thc sma. each of them consisting of 10.e. The ~'Mf~ a. Thereby the mules.1. the numh"r of the nrat check. Between the checks 9 and 1. DATES. The square of 65.296. . !.294.296 is 18. the check 5 is the médium. The immenaity of thia number cannot be nxed except by dividing it by 10.536. of this progression).636 ia 4. This product. 1 is subtracted from thia sum.re divided by 1. is equal to the sum of the numbers of atl the checks of the chcssboard minus the Ist check. The square of 4 is 16. we get a sum which is a product of the multiplication of the number of the Ist check by that of the 3rd check The number of the Ist check is 1. a 65th one.nd the Ist as the two ends of a progression.000 dirhams). The Bidar are divided by 8. Hetween the checka 17 and 1. I mean that number which at the beginning of thia digression we have used as an example (of the threefold mode of numera. now. the first medium. Between the checks 3 and 1.

The remaining fourth-parts we HMe again to whole days. We begin with Tôt. by dint of frequently dividing. because are connected with the yo~N and months of the Jews. common year. And thesethey are very intricate and obscure. part of which we have already mentioned before. But these are (numerical) notions that the earth does not contain. For which reason we must direct our attention exclusively to this subject.136 ALBÎEÛNÎ. To thé month Shubat we must give twenty-nine 40 days in a leap year. we multiply thé Dies J'ftfa<<B by 4.N<t6(MMHMaf! or the ~B)-<tPMH~pt. toyeara. calated ~&<t Ya~a~r~t. however. In this way. These days we call Dies P<tfa<<B. If there ia a remainder of days that do not fill up one month. And now we commence with the detailed exposition of the eras.e. t. this remainder represents the date of that identical month. who 20 uses it in his Cano-a (or calendar). Then we distribute them over the single months. If we want to find the Era . postpone our exposition of the derivation of thé ~re 10 ~<&tMtand ~'a Diluvii according to Jews and Christians. JP~a&s by 365~ days. If the remainder is less or more (t.305. we divide its Dies J'~<~<B by 365. If we want to find the ~nt Diluvii. The leap year is recognized in this way.000.e. and thé sum total we divide by 1. ie. and oSer many dinieultiea for calculation. or 3.Mâh in the non-intercalated ~B~-<t 30 If we want to find thé ~<t Alemandti. M it were. beginning with Tiahrîn I. It the remainder Is 2. by the days of the year reduced into fourtu-parts. . We must. God ia aHwise and almighty p. that we consider the remainder which we get after dividing the fourth-parts (of the j?tee r<tt-a<<B) by 4. thé derivation of the eras one from the other).140. If there ia a remainder of days. you find the number of those )Ko«! to be 2. we change them into Egyptian months. the year is a. 10. Rules for the Reduction of the diSërent Eras. 4). The Ist of Tôt of this ~t 2)a<tMt always eoincides with the 18th of BaJunan-Mah in thé non-inter. which cannot be dispensed with.-Now we shall give a detailed exposition of the subject of this chapter (t'. whereby we get The complete remainder of days is distributed over the single months. whereby we get complète years. the Ist of which always coincides with [the lat of] Dai. and explain it in a spécial chapter.e. each month its proper portion. pre-supposing the number of days which form the intervals between the epochs of the eras and that day which is sought to be known. we divide its Dies J'at-a<<Bby 365.461. changing them into fourth-parts. to each month its proper portion.000 Hiow~<wi!! should rise out of each IFodt. dividing them by 4. according to 'Abù-Ma.a chapter. Thereby we get complète years. we divide its Dies ya~~Mt. 1.'shM. the currrent year is a leap year. that. The tfAM) are divided by 10. and twenty-eight days in a common yeaj.

since they are plaoed at the end of the year. the beginning of the Ch-eet year differs from that of the Syrian year.we compute its Dies J°<t)'a<<e the same way as we have done with the Era Alexandri. we subtract 92 from the number of its Dies Pa)'a<<B.gomence as six days. The remainder (of fo~rth-pa~s of a day) we divide by 4. i. Of thé ~Er<tDiocletiani. beginning with J<ïMMt)'MM. (In this calculation the Syrian year and months are used. commencing with JctMtarttts. that the leap year preceded the beginning of the era. The leap year is ascertained in the same way that we have mentioned before. and thé Ist of Tôt always coïncides with the 29th of the Syrian month Âbh.p. so that at the beginning of the pm two fourth-parts of a day had already summed up. parts at the beginning of the era.rts. Of the Era ~<!<MU!H.y a. The leap year Is recognized by there being one quarter of a day as a remainder of the fourth-parts (of a day). so as to get complete yea. in If we want to find the Era ~Itt~Hsh'. twenty-nine days.e. at the end of the era there ia a remainder of two fourth-pa. Eanûn the Last. thoMfore. and distribute them over the single months. the snMH mott&.s for the ~Ei'<tjUta'attdft.e. etc. to each month its proper portion. The leap yea. and distribute the whole days over the single months. beginning with Tôt. The remainder we compute in the same w:y as we have done according to the method of the Syrians. we count the J~a~ontetMB. Shubât. however. These latter we change into days. compute this era according to the method of the because Greeks.rs and a remainder of fourth-paits of a day. Of which the reason is this. in a common year twenty-eight days. together with the two fourth. If. i. The lea. to each month its proper portion. The remaining fourth. If the year is a leap year. In a leap year we count the Epa. DATES. make up o<tecompleto day. In that case the year is a leap year. In a leap year we give to Februarius.r is recognized by there being no remainder of fourthparts of a day after we have converted them into whole days.141. we compute the Dies J'at-tt<œ in the same way as we have done with the Era Atigusti.) If we.pycaris recognized in thé samc ws.e. begmning with Tôt.. . On this subject (<7t< ~(t~ottteKœ)thcre cannot be much uncertainty. day.ERAS. AKD EEMN8 QP EIXGS.we compute the complete years in the same way that we have cxpl&ined for the Era Augusti. whilst in a common year we count it as five days. i. so as to get complete years and to convert thé fourth-parts again into complète days. as six days. 137 10 20 30 40 The reason of this is.e.rs. to eaeh month its proper portion. by there being two fourth-parta as the remainder of the fourth-parts of a. Thereupon we distribute them over the single months.. and distribute them over the single months. these. Eanûn the Last. that intercalation preceded the bpoch of this era by two yea. t.parts we raise to whole days.

ô daya). which we distribute over the single montha. The quotient represents complete lunar yeara. We give to each month ita proper as to the Persian months. and M the means for the perpetuation of their traditiona they relied aolely upon memory and poetry. If we divide these by 30. The remainder of days that doea not make up one complete month. thia is a subject that haa been utterly neglected. But afterwards. There is no possibility of finding out auch matters. then. repreaenta the date of that identical month. beginning with Farwardm-Mah.631. that the lunar year may exceed the above-mentioned measure (of 354~. it muet be remarked that two imperfect montha (of twenty-nine daya) may follow each other as well as three perfect onea (of thirty days). there was no further mention of them. wo get again whole days. and the remainder con. giving to one month thirty days. In this way we corne to know the era. M&h. which ia effected by multiplying thé number of days by 80. The remainder we distribute by over the single months to each month ite proper portion. The aum we div. 354~+~ daya 10 (354~ days). with ~rwardin. beginning the epoch of which is the beginning of his reign. whereby 30 we get complete years. they all go back to one and the aame principle. t'.ba and their montha.142.de by 10. and in what order they arranged them in pagan times. The Arabe were totally illiterate. 20 Thia ia the methcd for the computation of the eras used in the C<MMM But if there are still other methoda which people adopt for this purpose. beginning with AhnuharrMn. Of the ~t ïaM~M. If we. want to find the Era of the ~o)-o<M(rM~. we divide the JMet ~M<<B 365. sists of thirtieth-parts of a day. to the other twenty-nine alternately.138 ALBÎRÛN!. not from the year in which he ascended the throne.Mah.4~)-~ or .Bra Alexandri. calated them. however. we divide ita Dia . which ia recognized in the aame way as in the . (we count the . the reason o~ whioh ia the variation in the rotation of the moon. how they inter. as far proceeding sa the beginning ofAdhar. If we want to find the Rra of the Hijra as used in p. Mam. the year ia a leap year.parta of a day. when the geueration of those who practised these thinga had died out.. The Era of ~mM'<~MMtB~ we compnte in the same way as thé 40 ~!eM~tT.<K. and portion. As for the calculation which is baaed upon the appearance of new moon. plus ~=~+?. The remainder is thé Era of the Zoroastrima. by there being a remainder of tw fourth. whieh ia the product of 354 multiplied by 30.P<M-<t<o.we subtract twenty yeara from the . that era which ia used in the Canons. whilat it may not attain this length at other times. Att regards the eras of the Ara. For they date from the year in which Yazdagird was killed and their national empire ceased to exiat.Er& Yazdagirdi.e. If. the smaUest common denominator for both fractions. fifth and sixth parts. by the mean length of the lunar year.

391. and if also the najne of the month is known. whereby we learn on what day of Tammûz the da.nd those who have to employ it may not always know what to do with it. of which are various speci'es that do not belong to one and the same ~eHM. together with some era. the known parts p. Thereby we find what we wanted to find. the numericaJ values of whieh are known. There is. whilst you know the name of :uMther month that corresponds with it.H. New-Year (Naurâz) always coincidea with the llth of H&xh'&n.rmah) as six days.v Hurmuz falls. In this way the three eras together with their specie8 and genera are found out.uught tu Le cunaidered. if the week-day a. are tno~ j. and thereby to compute thé nrst third of Bam&dân. Example (a) On Friday 30 (b) in the nrst third of Baana.dymentioned by the help and the support of God Now it would scem proper to add a chapter whieh is wan"ing in the Canons. And still it is a subject of frequent occurrence. this is an aid and a help for obtaining a correct result. e.y is known. if he uoutiidcra thé ttubjHut.g. and bas not been treated by anybody except by 'Abû-a. whilst in a ~ayoMMMtB common year we count them oniy a. If besides these elements the name of the week-da.143. In this case the proper method is to compute the Era Alexandri for the Ist of Muha-rra. Thereby we le!un with what month and day of the Arabian months the Ist of Tammûz coincides.for those reasons whieh we have a.as H. Then we consider the week-days. Exa. that you 10 may be required to compute a date for a certain time. The thing ia this.]t'ea. of whieh the name of me mouth in question ia not known. in his commentary on AJmagest. DATES. a day the date of which within a Greek.ERAS.mp]e (a) On the day Hurmuz (b) in the month Tammûz 20 (c) in the year uf the Hijra 391. to which. Further. . AND BEÏGN8 OF E!NGS. Further. 139 between Ab&n-M&h and Âdha. these two months do not belong.dan (c) in the year of Yazdagird 370. you can find this out in the same way as we have mentioned. Hère the right method would be nrst to compute the Arabic era for the Naurôz of this year of the ~)-<t Yazdagirdi.nd its place within some month. Arabic. we compute the Era Tn~o~M!' for the Ist of Tammûz.s five days.bbas Alfadl ben Hatim Alnairîzî. or snch an era. you know an era. Likewise. If those parts of such dates. a.i'a. to find whieh of them are the beginnings of the months. The student who thoroughly knows a~U these methods will be able to 40 solve whatever question of this sort be put to him he will find out everything.m of A. however. or Persian month is known but the name of this month is unknown.

-in such cases the clever. day the 25th. although thé calouIa. you s~y of a.y ~t:<M 34.140 AI. referring the 5 to a Greek. of which either one is known. neas of the atudent will manage to solve the problem. and the 300 to a Persian era. or of which the two are unhMnm or if you aa. ehould be composed of diverse elemente. Persian month and the 20 to a.tioM necessary for aueh a derivation may be very long. so that their «<t~ mean some.5.BÎBÛNÎ. Gtreek month.–e. God helpa to nnd the truth 1 . the 40 to an Arabian. referring the 5 to a. thing différent from what the <!ec<t~ (tentha) )nean.

which is the time of the sun's moving in the sign of Aries. For it is the opposition occurring within this time.141 CHAPTER VII. rotating at the rate of velocity found by Mtronomleal observation. However. we shall now have to explain the method by whieh we may obtain a knowledge of these two eras. reaches any place whatever of the .AND ON THE LEAP MONTHS BOTHIN JEWISHAND OTHEttYEARS.ON THEtR VANOU8 QUAMTIB8. that on an average the Jewish passover always varies between the 18th of the Syrian month Adhâr and the 16th of Niaân.44-8 years.4!eMMtaMwould be equal to thé ~m J(f«tt~ plus 3. is thia. If thé lat of Tisbrî coincided with the Ist of Tt'ftM!: J*)-N):M. according to Jewish doctrine. But this M impossible. minus 20 that time by which the beginning of the Jewish year precedes the beginning of the Christian one. with the exception of thé Era ~daon and ~Br~ DNuoM. followed by an investigation of 10 their cycles and the JMoM<!< the conuroncementa of the years of other nations. For if the solar 30 year went on parallel with the days of the Gtree~ year (lacuna??). on an a<)er<t~e. of their years. Therefore. ON THE MOLËDS AND MONTHS. thp ~w ~l~eaftmf&'t. The reason why the lat of Tishrî always varies witbin those days (27th Âbh–24th Ïlul). is only an approximate calculation. the interval between Adam and Alexander. To thia we shall prpCx a treatise on the Jewish years and months. HAViNGin the preceding pages explained the derivation of the eras from each other. however. This. M equal to the complete ~Ert Adami. the lat of Tisbr! always falla between the 27th of Âbh and the 24th of îlûl. according to the systems of Jews and Christians. Now we proceed to atate that the ~'<t ~<!emt is used by the Jewe. thé ~Erct DthtMt by the Chriatiams. which is. OP THE YEABSp. plus thé interval between Adam and Alexander. ON THE CYCLES AND YEAB POINTS. since we have found by astronomical observation that this fraction (beyond the 365 complete days of the year) ia 5h. 46' 20" 56" Therefore the sun. And hereto we ahall add auch things as may prove a ready help towards obtaining the objeet in view.the ~r<t . on which ail those circumstances depend which form the cfMMHMo sine ~t non for passover.144.

and how we may ascerta.142 AMÎR~NÎ. intermediate. and shall now explain how p. further. opposite to the year of the cycle.. that ffdis either in the end of Âbh or in îlûl. if we want to find this.448 ye&ra. tion faUs. The remainder we compare with Cirete I. or ~e)~ec<. whether it bo a common or a leap year. and divide the remainder by 19.145. we subtract 2 from the number of years. both of whieh months precede that ~nM)! Primua whence we started in this calculation. of the Assaying Circle. we may find the beginning of their year. we add to the date of the ~'e ~Heœfor the lat of the Syrian KoMM F)-!w«<.in ita nature. the tMBM of this Syrian month. their own system. Thereby we <tM~ft. 10 If we. 3. Further. There we find in Cirde H. Now. get the corresponding date of the JE~m~<&[Mtfor the lst of (theJewish) Tiahrî. we find in Circle IV. we find in Circle III. !ntpe~<. ediptio earlier than he would reach it by that rotation on which their method is based.') We shall use. the date of the Syrian month on which thé beginning of the year in ques. want to ~now whether the year of whieh we have found the beginning be a common year or a leap year. the quotient we get represents the number of complete Minor Cye~M. however. Hère follows thé diagram of the Assaying Circle on . in each 165 complète days (M'c. And lastly. whether it be a commott or a leap year. an indication of its nature.

by methods which will be hereafter explained. but it seems rather likely that it was made for Jeruealem or ite environs. Therefore it becomes necessary to fix it on a day earUer or later. corresponds. 12h. But now the beginning of Tishr! frequently falls on such days which the Jews. we compute. retomed to the Mme day of If thé . the length of 365d. 44' 2" 1?'" 21iv ] 12v Therefore the diSprence between the two computations is 30 1" 2'" 38iv 48V n. in whichsoever of these two months that day may fall. 793 Çalaks. for there was their central seat. on being complète. whilst the Jews compute it everywhere according to one and the same rule. AXPMAP MOXTHS. We do not know for which 40 particuiM place this mode of computation was originally calcittated. p. Astronomers teach that that portion of the y~&eMeroK which elapses between the time of conjunction and that moment when new moon becomea visible.) 44. for the indication of the days of the weeks on whieh the New-Year days of the single years of the Enneadecateris would fall. is an average calculation.. This. whioh. now. it is impracticable. however. Under these circumstances. varies according to thé differences of both the longitudes and latitudes of thé places. On having carried out this. according to the theory of the Jews themselves. 20 not that of the astronomers. want to acquaint ourselves with this correction (lit. M not the case. without any other correction being employed. our calculation regarding the lat of Tishrî.TEABFOIKT8. 12h. as we have already mentioned. 12h. the commemcementa of either Âbh or ïl&t of the yeaj in 10 question. if they reckon with mathematical accuracy. IH.MÔtÊDS. which is equal to (29d. If we want to find the week-day with which thé day indicated in Circle III. equation). the length of29d. For between these two theories there are certain divergencies I.' 3" 20' [whiist modem observera have found it to be 29d. we muât first know the conjunetion of aun and moon at the beginning of Tishrt. If we. .E!MM<tt?<M<M'M. we should have added in the Assaying Oire~ a circle V. They give the solar year. we leam what we wanted to know. 6~h. They give to the lunar month. the week whence it started. do not allow to be New-Year's day.146. as we have atready mentioned. wh3at modem aatronomers have found it to be shorter.M3 CYCLES. extending from conjunction to conjunction.

we consider the remainder of yefrs that do not fill up one 20 complete minor cycle. They compute the conjunctions by the mean. Therefore passover frequently falls two complete daya later than the real opposition-one day in consequence of the . They determine this space of time (between the oonjunction and the appearamce of new moon) by ~at K<t<pt)ctu. till the end of the year which is preeeded by the month Ti'oM in question. 8h. and add it to the other hours each 24 hours we convert into 1 dav. mytnn (i.E~~to)! another day in consequence of their postponing passover from a Dies illicita to a Dies licita. 40 We have meie such a computation for a year of the JEr<t .147. IV. Thereupon. and 18th.14~ AMÎBÛNÎ. 7th. Whiist it is well known that it is mot allowed to use them for the computation of conjunction. 14h. The number of common years we multiply by 4d.4!ez<M!tM.e. How mamy of them are common years. We convert the number of years into jtftmo)-Cycles. and subtract thérefrom always 12 years.e. whieh you get as a remainder if you convert the days of the minor cycle into weeks. is the time of the conjuncp. of the Moled of a Year according to the Jewish M Computation we. lOth. aud multiply the number of cycles by 2d. 876~. 16h. the 2nd. the number of lea. we take the complete yeara of the . in order to facilitate the process and to simplify the apparatus. 80 30 which represents thë interval between the time of the conjunction and the beginning of the night of Sunday that was the commencement of thc nrst ycar of the ~-<t ~<~BM. The product which arises we keep in mind. except on the equator.–H the Jews apply to the conjunction at the beginning of eMh month M well as the conjunction at the beginning of every cycle.MoM of a year. want to Bnd the . that time to whieh in the last instance our calculation leads us. mot the apparent motion. 16th. tion at the beginning of Tiskri. Now. Then we raise each 1. V. we learn by the Ordo t~e<-c<t!(t<:omte. which term System. 21h. take the yeara of the ~Bw ~~aKttt~ft. Kh.~t Adami. whieh are the remainder of the minor cycle at the epoch of thé JEra. and add it to the other days. 589 The product of these two multiplications we add to the sum we have kept in mind. and the remainder of days that are less than a week is the distance of the Môlêd from the beginning of the night of Sunday. .p years. now.years of thé cycle are leap yeajs)..p years by 6d. 596~. i.080 Halaks to 1 hour. To the sum we always add 5d. 13th. how many lea. The sum of days that arises we convert into weeks. If you want to find the conjunction at the beginning of Tidir}.

r of the ~)'<t jl~eaxtMfM. question. according t« the Ordo tM<~)'cftM!'ot:M ~QtSM. if they are of a sunicient number to give complete great cycles.148. AXD LËAT-MO~THS.fOIXTS.y<). compare with the table of thé great cycles. and take the number of days.035 550 65 660 175 770 285 10 . and ~al&kîm which you find 10 opposite them. if you get such.080 HitMkîm into an hour. The remainder of years divide by 19 the quotient you get is the number of minor cycles.ndri. These two number add together. and keep in mind what remainder of yeara you have got. YEAB.whieh is written in the table uppermost. and the days into weeks. and HaJa~un to HaJa~îm. Convert eaeh 1. 20 This is according to Jewish calculation. Convert thèse minor cycles into great cycles. and which ia the Môlêd of the 12th yea. that they commence the with sunset.CYCLES. and the number of days. 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 19 38 57 76 95 114 133 152 171 190 209 228 247 266' 28S Daya. hours to houra. according to the Ordo Mt<ey<Kth<!Ottts The great cycles. We have used as the starting-point in this our calculation the beginT'mg of the night for no other reason but this. a~ we have mentioned in thé first part of this . hours. days to da. and I~&lâ~îm which you find opposite them.N~cM&eMefOtt boo& Hère follows the table. The remainder of days you get is the distance between the beginning of the night of Sunday and the time of the conjunction. 40 2 5 1 3 6 2 4 0 3 5 1 4 6 2 6 16 9 1 18 10 3 19 12 4 21 14 G 23 15 8 595 110 705 220 815 330 925 440 1. They are thé current ye&rs ot the cycle in XHQ3J. computed by that method of calculation whieh we have exphdned in the preceding pages:– p. This aum add to thé BfMM. Hours. 145 Alexa. each 24 hours into a day. houra. ~ft!&Mm. MÔLËDS. SmaUCyctea. The small cycles compare with the table of the amall cycles. The Knmbem TheYears of thé of the SmaUCycles.

ThéNnmbera Thé Yeam of the ofthe SmaUCyotea. Hoars. tM~ 1 8 6 2 4 0 3 5 1 4 6 2 5 0 17 9 2 19 11 4 20 13 5 22 14 7 880 3M 990 505 20 615 130 725 240 835 350 945 460 10 p. Homo. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 M 14 15 16 17 18 19 2 0 4 3 0 5 4 1 5 4 2 0 5 2 3 0 6 3 21 6 15 12 21 19 3 12 10 19 3 1 10 19 16 1 22 7 16 75 951 747 256 52 928 437 233 29 618 414 1003 799 696 689 ?5 181 770 566 20 L L L L L L L 80 .SmaMOyelea.149. QaltMm.ya. The Single Yt~reof the SmaUCycle. Leap Yeam. Days.146 AMÎBÛNÎ. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 304 ?3 342 361 3M 399 418 437 456 475 494 513 532 Da.

e. i.150. Of a.-H a mathe. etc. Hipparchus. 460 920 300 760 140 600 1060 0 440 900 280 740 120 580 10 5 ~3 7 14 22 5 13 20 3 11 18 2 9 17 0 Astronomical of the Moled of a Year.). and their aMU in.IaIAJ¡:tm. Computation matician wants to Imow the time of conjunction as determined by astronomical observation. the view of EhAlid ben 'AbdaJmaJik of M&rwtu-ûdh. YEAB-POIXTS.the date of the conjunction at the beginning of the 13th year of the ~Ent ~!<œct!~)t. 56 minutes from the date of the same conjunction at Baghdâd. It occurred at Baghdâd. which we have tried to compute in the same way as thé preceding onea. 20' S0" 14'" 29iv. MÔLÊDS. I. he may use the (following) table. and warranted the correctnessof their observations. on the basis of the corrected observa. ita more western longitude. on account of 40 Tuesday.U these. 21h. mot that one which is found by the rules of 20 the Jewish chronologers.get as a remainder thé . p. the methoda of astronomical observations. because achola~a bore witBesa of them to this effect. the view of the aona of Mûs& ben Shâkir.uae they were unique in their age 30 for their knowledge of. Daye. we found the most deserving to be adopted and followed that of thé sons of Mûa& ben Shâkir. 9aMMm. AXD MAP-MONTHS. So we for Jérusalem. vis.BtMM 20h. For this purpose we have consulted the view of Ptolemy regarding thé mean length of the month. because they spent their whole energy in endeavouring to find the truth beca.isi. because there is a long interval between their observations and those of thé i<uciHnt)t (Ptolemy. is behind the meridian of Baghdâd by 14 SKMM. n 5 3 1 0 5 3 2 0 5 4 2 0 6 Honra.tions that have been made not long before our time. Now we have computed the B<MM according to their view. according to his meuiuremente made at Damascus. 10 .' "~1 GTeatCyolea. from the time when the sons of Mûs& ben Shâkir made their observations). and of others.e. we have subtracted the corresponding apace of time. and lastly. after noon on a And because the meridian of Jerusalem. 24' 60" 14"' 29~ after noon.e. 147 The Nmnbem The Years of the of the n SreatOyotee. i.CYCLES. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 532 1064 1596 2128 2660 3192 3724 4256 4788 5320 5852 6384 6916 p. whilRt our time is not far distant from theirs (t.

including the current year). minutes./ ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 30 21 22 33 24 S!6 26 27 28 12 19 88 57 76 95 114 133 152 171 190 209 228 247 266 286 304 323 342 361 380 399 418 437 466 475 494 613 532 2 2C 2(\ I 2 16 8 5 1 1 ) I? 3 6 10 2 2 4 19 0 11 4 3 5 20 1 13 4 5 6 22 2 14 5 7 0 23 3 16 6 8 2 1 4 17 0 10 3 2 5 19 1 11 4 4 6 22 2 13 5 5 28 57 57 55 26 53 55 51 24 49~ 53 47 22 45 51 43 41 20 49 39 18 37 47 35 16 33 45 31 14 29 43 27 12 1 25 41 23 10 21 39 19 8 17 37 15 6 13 35 11 4 9 7 33 2 5 81 3 1 I 57 55 53 51 49-25 47 45 1 43 40 38 3C 34 32 30 28 26 24 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 4 2 0 53 46 39 32 18 11 4 57 50 43 36 29 22 15 8 1 54 47 40 83 26 19 12 5 68 51 44 1 20 M 60 14 I 29 30 40 . from thé . Fonrths. etc.SSeconds. seconds. \thich corresponds in the tables to each of thèse numbers of great and small cycles.e. econds. together. and converts the remainder into great and small cycles.. P.162. Thirds. This sum he adda to the ~a<M. He who calculates on this basis subtracts always 12 from the Mtcomplete years of thé ~)'<t ~~eœct~rt (i. Thereupon he converts the days into weeks. Honrs. he takes the values which he nnds in the table (of the opposite this number of years. SmaUCyolee.<Sf6 ~~)!ft!t~)-t.Minntes. based upon astronomical o~erfa<tOtM:– Hère follows the table <M p. ThcB03is..lS2. "'hcB<MM. Daya. and adds these three C*&<t)'<M<efe and the Cot~e~MM Years of the latter) Ore<t<Cyc!e<. and raisea thé hours and 10 fractions of an hoor to days and the correspol ding wholes. and the remainder which he geta is that time which has elapsed between the noon of Sunday at Jerusalem and the conjunction at the beginning of Tishrî. The The Thé Years The of thé of thé . He takes that portion of hours. the &)MtH C~e~M.148 ALBÎBÛNÎ. The remainder of single yeais he compares with the table of the consécutive years of the small cycle. SmaUCycles.Minutes.

Tews by <!p<t< p!<M a fraction. that we may more eMily find the equation for the mnl&d by thia method than by using the horizons (i. Hours. Thu-da.165. Seconds. Seconds. Fourths. 40 tet~tttUMa quo for no other reason but this. MÔLÈPS. reckoning from stmset. Minutes.1S3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 532 1064 1596 2128 2660 3192 3724 4256 4788 5320 5852 6884 6916 5 3 1 6 5 3 1 6 5 <! 1 6 4 5 11 16 22 3 9 14 20 1 7 12 18 23 31 2 33 4 35 6 37 8 39 10 41 12 43 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 i 27 30 33 36 39 0 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 44 28 12 56 40 24 8 52 36 20 4 48 32 30 (In this our calculation of the conjunction) we have used Moo~as p. Minutes. xatpucM . !maHCyotea. AXD LEAP-MOXTHS. Days. 1 l' I. sa the Jews do). Therefore the calculation of the . ThMs. The houm of the longest day for the latitude of Jerusalem are 13h. L' 1 5 29 45 ? 5 81 32 21 45 2 3 6 ) 32 2029 I Frr57 13 4935 3 L 0 16 9 24 42 3 4 6 12 41 54 37 ? 5 L 3 21 21 30 55 52 6 2 19 2 51 41 27 7 0 3 19 9 41 61 8L 4 12 39 46 37 55 9 3 10 12 16 23 30 10 0 M 0 43 51 44 11L 6 3 11 49 19 58 12 4 1 21 41 ) 5 33 13 1 10 10 47 8 j 33 14L 5 18 68 36 2 1 15 4 16 M 5 47 36 16 L 2 1 19 M 33 j M 17 0 22 52 1 3 ) 25 7 18 5 40 30 29 39 16 19 L 2 28 67 57 53 P. YEAB-POtNTS.CYCLES. Hoars. The Nnmbera of the Their Yeara.e. Fourtha.I54. 149 10 20 TheSmgIe! ) ii! Yeara of the Daya. –T 1 ~S4. GrmtCyclei).

in the day of Monday. if the preoeding year iB a. the conjonction at the beginning of Tiahrî always either precedea or follows the autumnal equinox by a considerable apace of time. we look into the column of leap yeare. or FromnoomofMonda. if the is a. . 2(M. 30 3 } Intennediate. 689H. never happens. Thbreupon we look in the Table of Limita for a apace of time in the week within the limita of which the oonjunction aa found by our calculation Mia. except in case the conjunotion at the beginning of Tiahrî should coincide with the autumnal equinox. in the night of Tnesda. in Common Team.y FtomnoomofSii.y. in the night of Sanday ") till 3h. whilst we have &trea. ia incorrect.y Ferfect. and combining with it our knowledge as to whether the year ia a common or a leap year. whether it be imperfect. If the year be a leap year. -If we. Once knowing the beginning of the year (ita precise date im the week) and ite quality. we look into the column of common yeara. Saturda. From 9h. Having made out thia. in the day of Monday. 204H. 2 2 pïecedimg yeNr Noon of Monday.tnrda. 689H. we arrive at the knowledge of the beginning of the year and of ita chamcter. now. and of the quality of the year. This. 204H.y till 9h. intermediate.in the night of Snnda. Relation between the beginning of the Year and its Charaoter. Hère follows the Table of the Limita Tha Limiteof the Time Spherea M diatdbnted overthe Week.H. as we have explained heretofore.dypreviously learnt how to know whether the year he a common or a leap year. On the contrary.commonyeaj From 3h. or by means of the table which we have constructed according to their theory. make out the time of the conjunction hy the traditional eaJculation of the Jews.p year. we 20 come to know the beginning of the next following year. 2 J Imperfect.y New-Ye&r'a ChM&eter of the Ye&r. till 9h. lea.150 ALBÎBÙN!. wa find opposite the indication of the week-day on which the year commences. however. Day. if it be a common year. 10 or perfect.

in the night of Friday. or From 9h. tiU 9h.New-Year'sj of the Year. 7 Imperfect. YEAK. m the day Sïmda.Intenn9dia. if the following year is a. t~ o f n~ ) )NoonofTuesda. 208H.POtXTS. From noon of Thuraday 10 M Oh.turda. t. over the Week. in the night of Friday. m Commcm in the night of Tuesday 804H.5 Intermediate. 7 J Perfect. in the night of Thursday 8MH. Day. in the night of Friday. Charaoter .y ) 2 Perfect.y j) 2 Imperfect. AXD LEAP. in the night of Thumdfty From 9h.y day of From 8h. till 9h. 204H.jl in the of ) 8h. J }.te.y . Character aa d iatribnted New-Year'B Thé Limite of thé Time Sphères the Years. 491H. tin ) Noon of Monday noon From Momday ) 3 . MÔLÊOS. Sunda. tiU Noon of Thuraday From 9h. tiU Noon of Saturday. in the night of Frida. leap yeaj From Oh. 204. 20 p.157.MONTHS.OYCMS.y. 151 TheUmitaottheTime-SphereaaadMtribnted Yoars. FromnoonofSa. 5 tJ Perfect. 491H. of m Yearf).H. Leap Day. 208H. 204H. if the foUowing yeM is a common year. overthe Week.

New.e. AtMM~y.169.y.ISS.imLeapYeara. if New-Year'a day is&Thtu-sda. f ) ') 7 5 Perfect. TtMedœy.fFr!d. T~Md~M It cannot be Intennedi&te. S<t<ttfAt~. p. Tttt!-«&[y (t.491H. mthe night of Wednesday 5 S ) Intermediate. 491H. Further.y).69SH. IN BOTH COMMON AND LEAP YBABS. FromnoonofTneada. of these conditions and qualities there are certain ones which exclusively attach to the year in CMe its beginning falls on a certain day of the week.y. and will facilitate the method. If we them m a ?MfM< it will afford a help towards utilizing thia comprise circumstance. Itisaiwa.pyear. of these conditions there are certain ones which may happen in two consecutive years.y llh. 10 7 ) Pertect. It can never be Intermediate. In the following figure we represent this subject bymeans of divisions 20 and ramifications THE YEA& is either or a common year alea. 30 Further.ys Intennedubte. The Limiteof the Time Sphems as diatnbnted overthé Wee~. it will prove an aid towards obtaining the object in view. 695H. We must look into the square which belonge . Perfect.y From 8h. It cam never be Intermediate.~th.Year's' Chmaoter of the Yeara. The yeM cannot be Imperfect.d. the other conditions being excluded. Intennediate Fromllh.y 8h. in the day of Friday w < NoonofSitturda. p.152 AMÎBÛNÎ. If you call this circumstance to help. whilst othets cannot. Day.inthemightofWedBeBd&y Noon of Thi]md&y From noon of ThuMda.

T.920. CMtollow eachother. as the Table of ~t<a<)'oMat the end of this book will show. in that square it ia indicated whether the two yeam of two auch qualitiea c&n follow eMh other or not. we should be able to compute the qualities of the Jewish years by means of tables. i.m~)~~ Inteimed~te. thrce months which arp perfect <!e<'c)'y to ~'? 20 (MJpetn'aKce of MM)mo<M!.e.940 days. Intermedmte. 1 ~t. CMUMtMIow eachother.e. The reason why two imperfeet years cannot follow ea.t the hegumings of t. the môlêds of these cycles do C'&fOK!coK not return to the same time of the week except in 689. However. ) q 10 6 Camfollow eachother. 1 4 5 follow Cajmot n rme each other.ch other is this.160. of thé Jewish Year returns to In what Period the beginning the a. t Perfect. ~hother.CYCLES. similar to thé of the Christians. ie. S C&n Mtow eachother. Because . MÛI~DS.wo conSame Date. and of the variation of the setting of the zodiacal signs (i.472 years. The reason why two intermediate years cannot follow each other ia p. except in a number of cycles. AXD I. 5 Can follow eMh other. And their following each other is possible only in consequence of the variation of the motions of the two great luminaries (sun and moon). 125 perfect months and only 110 imperfect ones. ifthey were cyclical in such a way as to begin always a. 153 in common to the two qua. 59&H.t ~enect.e. e For the samc rcMon. this.f. 16h. i. 1 Imperfect. T. p. comprising the years of a great cycle.–H conjunctions the secutive great cycles (of 532 years) coincided with each other (i. TEAB-POIXTS.e.EAr-MOXTHS.ca. the vaj-ying velocity with which the sun moves through the varions signs of the Ecliptic). that their ends and beginnings cannot be brought into concord with each other.. For thé snia. Quittes y~. This fraction is not raised to one whole. the remainder which you get by dividing its number of days by ?.U cycle comprises 6. whilst of the imperfect months not more than two can follow each other. 25. is 2d.t Imperfect. Character of the small cycle.t the same time of the 30 week).Utiea of the twovears. for thé following reason T. that the perfect months among the months of the cycle (Enneadecateris) prepondemte over the imperfeet ones. which is equal to the number of I~alatîm of one Nychthemeron.n follow each other.

e. This information we have recorded in three tables:I. which Mis aiwaya (a little) later than 'KshA The whole number of yeara you compare with the vertical column of years thé single years (of the penods of nineteen yem) yon compare with the horizontal column otycam. 10 20 80 40 . exempt when multiplied by a number which ia equal to the complete number of thé same Hnd of fractions of one whole (!. beca.920) by 7. and the corresponding days of the Syriam montha on which the days of New Year fall. for auch a number of years M that the student will not require more in the majority of caaes. (~) means a ye)yec< year. t.N~eMemexMt (25.920) and thé number of the remainder of the ~al~im of the cycles (595) te divided by 5. Then yon find in thé square which is common to both.888.use in their language it is called !viDn. t. shows the qualities ofthe yeara. mences thé 9'a~'& ~~M-as:. Comparison between the Jewish Em and the Em of Alexander. and simplifies and facilitates that which is dimcult and intricate. conjunction and opposition retum to the aame place (i.472). In general. The letter t ()~) désignâtes an Imperfect year. representing the days on which thé Jewish New Year Mis. 689. The first represents the day of the week on which the year com.Kl. becanae they caU it p'TM. whieh is equal to of the ~fd&)pm of the NychthemeMn. Vaing thèse tables you take the ~m jl~~tMM for thé current year.] -167. whioh 1 have muted into one. But as both the number of the ~atâ~m of the J~tHOt-OK (25. Now. Thé letter p. It is sufficient for us to know thebegimdnga amdthe qualities of the years. the tmetiona will be raised to wholes if multiplied may by a number of cyclea.e.e. IL The second. beginning with Tlah~n L. inasmuch as it triea to bring near that which is distant. that whieh you wanted. by the denominator). or Tabula Q<M~<<tM. happen again at the same time of the week) in each 181. we have not thought it proper to deviate from the traditional method. the conjunction (at thé beginning of the yeM) doea not Mtnm to the same time of the week except in a number of cycles which is the sevenfold of this number (5184). which ia the product of the m~tip!ic&tioN of the number of ~aitt~îm of one . The letter (~) meama an Jm<e!~M<!t<!<e year. because they call it 0''0' m.440 montha. if God permita 1 pp_162 [TIeie fo!low the three tables. the days ofîl))limb!&ekin]t. the days of Âbh in red ink.e. 36.154 ALBi~Ni. And this ia the number of cycles which represent the above-montioned number of yeMa (~M. -Bince it ia not possible to use thia method for chronological purposes. fractions are not raised tu wholes. 5184. The B!<t Integritatum et Qtt<Mt<t<<~<tt~.

COt~ ~g _j~§~ lO~.K~ '8~)~ ~eo'~M "S ~1'8~' M~j~~ 6`t !~i E~.~ 's~G~ H n~ 's~ rM-W~ i~ ~S'~§~3~S'~ ft-' t~ M ^I ~S ~3 ~3'~ r~ C-' c-' r·1 's~ Wr~ r~ M~ ri -8* ~<~ E~ N C~ 1~ 0 C~ i-i-' -a~ '&-< -a-~ r·1 r~ t~ –J~J~±~±~J~J~J°S_3_~S'S r~ t f1~ –JlS_J~ < ––JL~~J~J~ E~ CI JD-' ~G!m f-' 1W '8t-' CQ ui '8'" ~p u7 'S~ '8' rF jnt-) M u~ j~ t0 c~ u> C-' >p ui '8~ '8~ ~O r~r y.I. n~ ~. -8~ C'1 1~ '8~ l'4ci~i '&" E~ C~ -8-< j-<! ft<! C<< t-.I. J~ '~S 'f T~ 'S" C~ -8~ 1~ JE~ 'n~'l~n~a~' 1O~ h. C~ r?-. -8~ Ly 'r'.'BS '8~ C~ ~S 'S~ '8~ E~ 'T~ -8~ -8~ E~ 1~ -8~ 'n~'1~~ 1~ -a~ E~ ~g.~i COt.It`~I'Inr~il~'°'I~iICNIn`~Inr-yl~ô.S ~Sï'~ <o~ ~S S!~j~' 0 aI ~S.I~I ~I.I~ -a-< I~ J -8-~ n~ -1.M' t~MJMM m~f~M lJ:I-II'9-'I'9-'I~IJ:I-IIJ:I-IIJ:I-II~'I~I~I~I~IJ:I-II~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~ 3 'S~ C~ C. I.~g'U)~ COtg lOg t-.C'1g <T!-< '8~ n~ r~ -8~ -11O~ C~ C~f~ e' l~')T~&t-~ ~lO_g.o~ -8'ft-' ~~<)~. ~1Q 1N0 rp .ss S !U411~ 3 S /111-1 e~. d~ M ip CO yn'.C-~ ~M C~ B' '8~ la N ~C W rM. 1010 cc. cc10 1 in~l. ')~ 10 t-. '-tp-. ~j~j~ ~3.. -8~!n' 1~ -8~ -8'" ~<.'=" r:04 Î" iv GO ~~S !I . n~ co~. S ~2'~2 ~N l-a< ~j~j~ '8~ n~ 'e Co r-)-) ~p ~o .2:S. c~S 's~ ––IL~S'~S~S s U)~ _JI a 1 d ~s~ ~It~S ~ST 3 S Ii S I~ S I~ n~ <~3 t~ tY~ '°~ 1~ ~99~~9~9~~§SSëë§~33~3?:S~ëj I~ Ii c~ a –j~~ e~ S S S S jS S I~ Ii ~ë t~ ~s -a~ f~ I~S r~ ~g¡. "C 1O~ 1~S '8~ aQ~. M 0 ao ~f~ 5 ~o'OtOtatOMttOtOtOtOioto~ Ii lm Il ¡~ c~ «s i~ ~1i~ tC~ 'c-< I~ c~~c~!c~ ~i~ <T~t~ c1 . '&-< MM 1O~ -s~ SI 'S~.g¡ 'S~S~ hS n~ ~<T-' h~ E~ ~M ~g! 1~ ~C)~2'! I~Sï t~~ ~~S'~ I. J-e ft-.<8~ '8~ '8.T.cc10la Il). '8~ t~ C~ C~ -8-< '8-~ j~ n~ c~ -8<< '8- n~iT.~T ~C ~T C~S~ T~~ ~C C~ i~e~ '8~'i~'-s~'r'~E' -s~n~ ~r~r~f~'r'<in'~ –M~J~S. 'B-' <T~)-a~tfi. 1 U) CiG~2 ~L~ -8~jfi<<~r< up M~p r~ -a~ ~1~· -< a ~f ~M' 1 ~<o C~w'~M E~ 1 -8~ ~<..1. t-.Mj~ ~3Së8S~S'SSS8~a<Bsp~°~'Me)~oo~oo! ~BB} 0!OoB5B*S*t *S '='SSSS~s~!S~N33S2SS33S~.-)-< rw ~n . S I~ 'c~' ~S'~ n~ -a~ 11-a~ h~ -8~ C'1~ MM'M S ~S~S I~ f~ t-.S_<s ~§ toI ôI~.COt_lO~ fT-')-ab-) T~ r~ Ê-11 1~1~1~1~1~1~1~lrl~l~ i~i~ i~i~'i~~ ~I~I ci~~lt'I"I.In'I. 1 ID t-.w 1O~ S ~S S'~ ~t~ M~ t.=~3 ~S ~S'S~S.la cc 10 cccccc.g. 'j~~S j~!c~ 1- C'1~. –J~J~<±~J~J~ N~ ri . ~S C-' -8~ =nC-% et:= tn"~ C~ ~S'~ c-' C'1~ l&-< b 'SS 'S~ 'S~ '8~ f~ M ni"a ~S 0-' ni"~ '8~'1-4 '°~ ~& 1. E~ COt~ ~'a4 ~-LLLL~LLL~L~LL~MJJL I.p nà 'S~ '&< l i~ 1 00 iD-' C~ rs= ~J~ 1 c< '8~ ft-< i~ o~ 1)~ E~ rs= E~ C~ 1:< Ir< re-f ~-4 rg 1 j~-< 1 n)-< 1 ~t 1 ~-< -8~ 1)~ ~-j -8~ '8~! f~ c~ C~ E~ J:I-I -8~ < ~a~rt-E~'t-a~r~a~' 1)~ 1 c< j c< c< 1 II~I J)< 1)< 1O~ l-a< i~CM~2 em ne r~ Id j- 1 l-a~ 1 ~-) ~c~< –S_J~â.1-COtg ~gt. n~ -8~ -8~ ~j. i~' . c10cct.o 0 t- ~3'~3 ~3 ~3 ~S ~S'~ers ~S ~2'~3 ~3 &'& -8~ 'T-' 1O~ -8~' 1~ E~ '8~ 1ao o i~ 1O~ -8~ o0 i' -8'-< 1O~ '~n~r~ -8' 1O~ 11O~ h~.-r'r' C'1 t M · C'1 eZ . et~ ~<o 10 COt t-.<<j~j~r~-a<<)-a-<! 1 i ~S ~s I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~I~ "S ~S'~3 '°S-joS'2_j.~S_~3_~S'i_ e r~i ~S 1'~S.S f~ 14 ~S << c< t~ ~-M h~ '& ~M' rw M M –) ~oo iw 'n<T ~§ e~ h. r~~ i.~NIn"~ _MMj'M_~Mj~M~e< MM'j~M ~M –J~±~fl~J~c<S_ s j~3~j~3~~Sj"S'3 C~ 10 -s~ -8-~ ~S ~S'~ -8-0 eo S ~3 J~ 1-.a n~)-a~ ~^2 1w-N -8~ rw n~ ~S C~ -8~ n~8~ ~)~ rt"' ~'S ~M ~F n~-) d~ M _±~J~j~j~j. 1~ E~8~ <-)~ ~g¡ -s~ S O'M'Ot-o °° I~ j~-r W c-.~a G`~rM-~ nn'. 1 0cc 10cc.I ~c I~It~lr'I~'In~l'I ~It~l 1~lrl~I~I~I~lr 10" & ~e j-)-< it. ~t ~S S~ _1- ~at ` 1- 1~S'3_3.I~'I~ItôIn~.i 'T~ '8' ~E.S_~3'~3 C~ c~ t-. ~S ~'< M~S C'" i~ -8' 'T~8~ i~ ~c~na~'l~n~'1~~ r~ ~t~ _)~e< ID ~.~In~t~l~l ~I~.

of the beginning of their year. e 4 1 tiv. 4m ImpertMt siv.L 7 VI. and we had preon what date of Âbh or îlul on viousiy learnt from the ~m~Mj/ CM-c!e an average it Mis (no regard being had to the J)aAt~u&). <V. I. if thé 20 year be a common year in the table of leap years. PYLInterme~tete i!?vi. 7 VL SIV. You compare the Bo<&-&<M/MM<M with the Table of the Signum (week-day) of Tishn in the table of common years.-Let us suppose we did p. (In thia way) we obtain a knowledge of the eia of the Jewa. 1 21. AND LEAP-MONTHa.ïntœmeaia. 6V. either by distributimg over thé montha their proper portions of days in conformity with the two qualities of the year in queation (whether it be C<<3 or M or a common or leap year). For the Jews aasign to each month which is preceded by a complete month two beginnings (two first days). which indicatea whether the year be imperfect. or by means of thé Tahtb Initiorum ~fetMtMOt. 3. 6Y.169. viz. SU.8 8 1 S 8 si.S 6V. and the two beginnings of each incomplete month. if the year be a leap year.n. for it ia part of their bewildering terminology. and the preceding day.< 4 3 Sn. j~ Qmdtty 4nr. el. TVt. I. 21. or tho 30th day of the preceding complète month. 61V. This you must keep in mind. Table of Common Years.I.I. MÔLÊDS. or perfeet. you find in the corresponding squares the beginning of each complete month.ipertMt. 4 ev.. I.s an.Pert<!et.CYCLES. ceed to leam the beginnings of thé single montha of their year. ai. 4n~9 40 "v.l68.7 Imiettect 7 7 t a 3 5 b 4m.HO?T THE YEAB. one day which is in reatity the beginning of the month. but we knew from the Tabula Signorum on what day of the week it faits. 5 4IH. IVILe an. God is aliwise and almighty 80 TABLE SHOWlNa ON WHATDAYS OF THB WEM THE BZOlNjriNGOF p. 4 1VH. intermediate. YEAR-POINTS. not know by means of the TeMa QwaM/i'/ahn~on what precise date in the months Âbh or Î1M the Jewish New Year Mis..~ ZL ?~ tni.te 7VI. perteot.'s'ivn. 1 7 ? 4m. 6 e 21. At the aide of this column you find another.2 <I. and of ita complicated nature. .6 4 7 8 7 4 ivi. lu this case we should be suSiciently informed to know in what way to advance or to poatpone the date of the Syrian month if this day of tho wee]: should be incompatible with ~o!)~-t<MtsM!t< so as to get at last the legitimate 10 New-Year'a day (lacuna) more particularly aa the three festivals are to be found with perfect aceutacy in the preceding three tables. 9 4m S 6T. 155 The beginnings of the Jewish Monthe. After having made out this. Hence we pro. ivn. THE MONTHSFALLSTKBOUC.

ai 4in. thé days into weelca. 17VL B 5 IV. amd 80 the Opposition opposite its for the common year in thé Fortnight column of common yeara for the leap years in the column of lea. 21. 287H. we derive them from thé ~&-o/' jM&Mi)(M~. 7 ev. 8L lu.54m !tlVn. Therefore they refen-ed thia 30th day to the month that had passed. TttMeofLea.!)lvn. Into the 30th day. of the 30th day. 4m IVn.FM-ttM~. and to 20 the incomplete month (just commencing).p9rtect.12 S !)I. 287H. the fractions we convert into conjunetion wholes. and that is in ÎMt thé correct time of the interval between two consécutive conjunetiOM.1 J. . 4m. P- They were induced to assume two Bo~~g~ as 1 am inclined to think. p.pyeam The number we find we add to the M81M Tishrî. so that this latter one got two beginnings (i. 1 VIL l~n.js 7VI. ?6V. ]IL 64m ai.ssiv. t.7 ImterfMt. SiiIV.4m 7 Y. M that thereby it became in reality complete.rmtect. But God knows best what they intended 1 Compntation of the beginning and middle of the Honths accordmg to Jewieh and Astronomical we now want to know the time of conjunction at the Systems–If beginning of a month. 5 4 s ai. fi 0<1 4 6V. or thé time of opposition in the middle of thé month.~65IV. ~vi.156 AMÎB~NÎ. and the first whole day of the new month).IV. J.ImpmteetJit 6 IV. 7 6 7 8 V. SU I~I 9 PL 17VI.e. SI. 7~ !. the &-st 12 hours 793 Hat&Tpm of the 30th day belong to the preceding month.e.. III. 4 5 4 III.pTeM'a.4m S Z 5 6 B si l i Perfeet. ? 8 II.~0.!æ. 2 91. 4 4ni. itivn. the latter llh. belong to the following month). <12~ 77 7 ¡ g S 1 I 1 6 i M 8L L 7ev.!) ev. according to the System of the Jewa. by thé circumstance that originally they counted the complete month as 29 days pure (t. "V. MMt. 4 SU. to the at the beginning of Tishr!. lu thia way we find what we wanted to know. whilet the latter Hh.4in. where we find the Conjunction opposite the môlêd nf each month.e.!)IVn. <iIV. Iatarme~ta 5IV. 1.Intmnedhte~!) i'vi. however.I. Impt~ct. 1 S 3 9 !)I. 4m.6V. faJl the fractions of the synodic month (i. 8 I VIL ai 71. 3 9L 2]L 4 an.e. without any fraction).

6 Itsfortnight 0)12 1 MMedT&mmuz .766t 2 20 83 14 3 479t .172.:Z ? 109t 1)506 .3 3 19 902~ 219 4 j 14 8 615jt 5j 1012 6 . i.4 4 Its fortnight 5 . 0 o 0 o 18 396t 12 793 . j!MdFortnights Days~Houm.'1 1 M 41t 4 438 2 22 . using the table of common years if the year in question be a common year. and mers.Daya.) 0 0 0) 18.8 .!2 2 83t~ 3 17 151 11 . and tho table of leap years if thé year in question be a leap year.1053jt 1 ? 370 2 1 .. Here follow the tables pp.5 Môlêd ShebAth ) 6 Its fortnight . Itsfortnight Môlêd Tammnz Itsfortnight Môlêd Âbh Itsfortnight MoIM'E!&).CYCLES. TABUC OF THE MÔLÊDS AND FfNTtfMHTa..a. 173.«Kc<i«Ks Oppositions. In this way we arrive at the knowledge of both conjunctions and oppositions which we wanted.to 0 0 1 TheMNMs !tt~ oftheMomtiM..4 4 647t 6 6.396~ 793 12 7 M9t 1 606 19 902t 219 14 8 6154 2 1012 21 328t 13 725 10 -tl~ 4 438 22 83t~ illâ 17 Ml 11 547~! 6 944 0 260J I~ 18 657 1053~ 7 3TO 1 766~ 20 20 83 14 479~ 8 876 3 192t 20 M Môlêd T"ri MôlMTishrt Itsfortnight Môlêd MarheshwAn Its fortnight MÔIMKi!!lëw Its fortnight MNM Ttbeth Its fortnight i M&MdShebMLt Itsfortnight M&)cd 'Adhâr Itsfortnight Môlêd NMn. 2 ° S Its fortnight MôMdNMn..!3 3 3 Its fortnight 4 Môlêd Têbeth ]ts fortnight . we make the same calculation with the Table of Co)t. LEATYMB. 157 If we want to learn the same ~ecording to the doctrine of the astrono..B~ y8.'2 2 Itsfortnight MôiMAbh . Houm. 10 10 TheMotMs and Fortnighta oftheMontha. AXD LEAP-MOXTHS.!6 6 M6)M 'Adhâr 0 1 Itafortnight MAtM *Adh&r 11.4 Its fortnight MAtM'Iy4r.9-t4 6 0 260t . YEAB-POIKTS.~33 MôtM'EIM ..~6~21j328~ 0 15 725 . Itsfortnight M6)M'Iy4r.. and with the conjunction at the beginning of Tiahr! as computed by the astronomers. MÛLËDS. 6 6 Itsfortnight Môlêd S:w4n. Coxxox Yssn..6 6 657 18 0 12 .2 2 Ita fortnight .. CONKONYEAB...0 0 0 Itafortnight 1 Môlêd Mar~eshwàn .S Its fortnight MôlMS!w4n. Ita fortnight Môlêd TiBurt MMedTisM.!2 2 Itsfortnight MôtMKistèw .. 3 .

6 C~m~e ItftMtmMn.)om.ja Itdfullmoon.{e 3lie~. OmnumYBMt. .imMthmot 40tRsMtm<Mn. ~ontoBOtionoï ItafnNmoon.. 10{CoBjmM!ttonot Ica fnll moon filtItafaUmoon. 7t '71 9 49. 0 0 M 2 Il S 3 4 5 N M 1 B N 17 11 Il 6 M o 1 B M 8 Mt<n.9 ~tamethmett.J'nMthHMMd °~ Í. .t t~m~a BeMlmoon. CmjmMttonof 6 M 1 Z 9 M 4 6 s 6 0 1 3 a 8 4 < 47tIt<tMlnmon. PP. Ite a~CmdmMttonofl moon.O Iss fou maon Cmjnmetionctl ItatMImoon.1:ti'moon. ~B~Nm~~s If 4~C«nj)m..III C~m~~ KaMlmocn. 28!Con]mM-Monot3 9 lvisAn. ïtaMImoon.4 C~m~t ItsMtmoon.1?4. ~CoBhmetionof ~BaMImocn.!ttonofs !S ItaMtTMxm.t! o~g~o. I. 44} go 6} 4C M. f ~i~j o 0 0 lS M 0 e 2S 4* 0 1 9 S 8 4 6 M M M 18 40 10 4 2 M M 8 II e 0 M ls 7 1 80 M N 14 M M ae M 4!) 4 14 M 10 II U M 14 M 17 M 18 19 M m sl !S M M M 6 e 9 s 2 8 8 Mtte 4 14 U 6 7 je 6 7 j l!~ < g 1 ~ij i i J j j I!ï 0 M 76 7.6 l!~ M~ 14 S S 21 12 M 56 18 40 10 4 N 2 M 46 8 11 n 6 Q M M 19 7 1 M M 8 8 80 M ? M ? M aa M 43 4 M 48 10 0 N 4t 8 0 1 9 3 S 4 e 8 9 M 11 M M 14 M 17 M M M M M u N 24 ? M 27 M 0 S~M 17'Zl~ 26 1} if M 42} s 3.MpTMtt. S 43 N 0 9 M 26 85 44 N 1 10 M M ? M 44 M 44 9 10 19 M M a Con. 4!). TABM OW CoNjmfOTIONa ANDOtTOSÏTIONS. The Oon. M 46 Conjmctiozofe ? 44 N 1 10 M M 37 ? 44 ts 2 M M M} 71 ItsMImoca.9 C~m~O ItoMtDMom. ÎM. ItsMlmoen.9 C~m~4 ItoMImooa.e t~m~~ K-fMImoon. !)? lOt M bit M K} Ni} 33j M M 30 80 0 in.1~1111Ij The Oon. TheCOn)mmt)om<ma ~S~r ~~d J j l. 18 StIt«Mlm<)<m.158 ALBh~NÎ.ttcnofje It«Mlmoo)t.Co~nmtionot 30}K<iMt!M<)n.Z Oo~ettenotZ ItoMtmoon.ote Shebh1t ItsMlmoon. mp N IZ{ Conjnnettonofl ItsMInSon. <i3)C<H~MiMMo)tot tStItBtailmoon. TheOon.a 0 8 17 M 26 M ? N 0 0 Cmt.

near to one of the limita of Frequently. to the second we (the next following) day. occurs on one of Dies 2/tct<<B. If. or of Cancer. or imperfect. occurring m that apace of time within the limite of which the Jewiah paqsover va. or it bas been advanced when.ry). according to them. or the aun is about to leave Anes.e. computing the next opposition (or full moon) after thé vernal equinox. now. 40 their two passovers. AND LEAF-MOXTHS. TEAB-POÏSTS. week-day) of this latter pMSover you add two. 159 We also find what we want to know regarding the Jewish years.y of thé lat of TIshri that lies m the middle between the two passovers. Then you make the same computation in order to find the pMsover of 10 the preceding year. the or thé following opposition was either fit to be preceding employed. by p. For this reason there is a différence between the Jewish computation amd this (astronomical) method. to such a degree that frequently this astronomical according to the Jewa the year was a leap year. or imperfect).nmce. there ia a difference between them. Thia postponement of passover they call in their Tanguage ~jrrt DftA!. and moon movea in the middle part of Spica. you get no exact information as to thé quality of the year. To the Signu1n (i. the correctness of thèse trary is to be adopted.riea then we consider on what day within this time it falls. observed. the year is a common year.e. it occurs on one of the Dies t!Kct<<B. If the opposition that day ia the day of passover if. was at vanance and M' ma<ie of mm monn. ought of the Jewa. that year in which the latter passover lies is a leap yeM* if they are less. and they of the two we ahall conaider oppositions our to décision. places of alternate acceleration and retardaon account the with ita mean place. postpone passover plameta. is te bc rcjccted a. MÛLÈDS. calculation proves Likewise there ia a différence between Jews and Chriatians regarding the leap year. reckoning the day from one sunrise to the next one. Therefore. 80 adopted. as we shall explain in the chapter on the Christian FMt. how. whilst the conof truth. Then you count the days intervening between the two pa. whether it be perfeot.CYCLES. t. In this chapter you may learn the primary qualities of thé yeaj (ita being common or mtercata. . whereby you get thé da. in conformity with the total sum Therefore. whilst vice <?)'<?. whilst each of the that apace of time.ssovers if they exceed the number of days of a solar year. oT)tfrom appca.ccoïdmg to both system. if are God permita.176. mtermedia. accept willing the at which shall that that opposition say. intermediate. To the lover the conditions we have mentioned are if two assertions will be apparent.te. common and it to have been a year. tion of the motion of sun and moon. thé days of the three inferior ever. even the opposition occurred within which passover varies. such an opposition not being of their F?tt< ~~<M<t<MM. For frequently passover to the advanced when it to have been theory aecording 20 poatponed. but not its secondary qualities (its being haa been perfect. it ought to have been postponed.

2-6) "If anyone of you buv a servant from am~ng the Israélites. whioh is forty-nine years. For God says in the second book of the Thora (Exod." Thé land shall not be sold for ever. in order that in their sales the higher and lower prioes should always correspond to the remaining number of yeara of the cycle. the cyole of TH~ and the cycle of ~MM'. and it is set free. in the third book of the Thora (Levit. if he have got one. and you shall hatlow it for the fiftieth year.e. But tha seventh year thou shalt let it rest." Litewise their religion and law allow a poor man to seU his child to a rich man." For God says. untess it doos not choose to be set free. for that requires a marriage. to do service unto him but not for sexnat intercourse. eg. 40).ll sow the land seven times seven. of seven years." Thesame commend God repeats inthesecond book ofthe Thora (Exodus 10 p. he and his wife. but in thé 20 seventh year he will go out of his possession. xxv. 8-13) You sha. The first years of both cycles are called "fM<t<«~'o)t~eat'a.ttle.11) "And six years thou shalt sow thy land. i. and shall bore his cars with an awl. and be sold unto thee. And in the 30 fiftieth year the restitution shall take place. and shall keep him as a servant as long as he pleases. for the land is mine and yon are ita inhabitants and aojoumers with me (Levit. You shall not sow nor reap. :e." Because of the circumstances brought about by these regulations they required these two cycles. ye shall sow and reap and prune your vineyards six years. and to those who sojoum with you. to give it in hire to him. Then you shall cause the tmmpet to sound throughout all your land. The child does him service during the cycle of SMM'.portion and a marriage-comtract. then his master shall bring him near the door-post. regatJing thé cycle of seven years. a servant does not wish to be set free. I love my master and will not leave his service. xxv. In the same book (Levit. There are still other religions regulations of theirs which rendered them necessary." î. God says If thy brother be waxen poor. xxv. . but as a hired servant and as a sojoumer until the year of restitution.e. Ton shall sell aceording to the number of years. But in the seventh year ye shall not sow nor gather your grapes. thou shalt not compel him to serve as a bond servant. xxv. If. but leave them to your servants and maids. Everything that bas been sold is to be restored in thé fiftieth year. xxv.13-15). six years he shall serve.177. e. aad will be free to go where he pleases. and to the cf. 23). and shalt leave thy produce during that year to the poor and the ca. and gather in the produce thereof. The Cycles of Tobel and SJmbn'The Jews hâve atill other cycles. xxi. 10. the remaining years of the cycle of Yôbel (Levit." The cycle of Tôbel was wanted on account of the following command of God in the third book of the Thora (Levit. 39.160 AMÎBÛNÎ. xxiu. But if the servant say.ttle and the birds. 2-7) "When ye come into the land of Canaan.

16J and remains in the condition of a servant dnring the whole eycle of Yôbêl. –rT. AXD LEAP.4 :<5~ 1 10.47 7 M S 7123234 148 48 1.2 1~17 6 2 U8 18 6 143 43 3 1S9 18 7 1 3 119 M 714444 416919 412020~114545~517020 5121212146466171213 6~122 22 3 147.f tha ~)-a ~lf!at))i.MtMTHS. he cannot be retained after that period.CYCLES. take the years c. including the current year. MÔLÊD8. p. if you wMtt <o know how many years have elapsed of each of the two cycles (at a certain time). 3 M 13 7 8838 411313 14 1 M M 5 114 14'2 139 39 )ilMI4 14. 414141 11~016 5 1117 17'5 14~4~. 4 85 8535 35 1 1I10M 110 10 5 135 1. subtract therefrom 1.33!71M8 4 8.010. however.9111 M M 5 37 37 2 ? M 6 87 37 3 1M M 7 137 37 4 IS! M M'13 113838 5 M M 6 ? M.*35 160 10 10 3!H:35 35 35 7~6010. 6 130 36 316111 U'.1'4 4 7 102 S 4 127 27 I 15~ 2 5 4 6 129 M 31M 5 7 130 30 4M5 6 113131 5 M 4 5 6 7 7 1 2. 1 5 8S36 2 11111.178. The romaludt.4 9949 4!i0~50~1.17S23 ~)!!4M:'i)4949.OU7 8 8~3133.5107 7 SMN. or add thereto 740 divido tho sum by 350.179 E S i~'ë~~Z~~i~ B &i~6:)3jS 1 1 126!26 SN 1 9~2 2 27 27 6 S2 2 2 3 .125 25'615050. compare with the column of numbers in the Tabula J~e~KHt.3 !ieM 10 3 6u 10. 3 541 e! 6 7~ 1 2~ 3~ 4 3332828753347928)1033512898~15336. 8333~6: gQ 108 t33~33!S~S9 9 9 23~34.U 43636)1.1 § K I zjSë '11 S 76 M 7727 S z ? S :S S 6 Kl 1 3 M M 7 151. 44 4 S 7929 21M 4M~!9 tM :~t !S930:S'K S 6 6030 3105 e 6 631'31~3'M 6 7 M M 4106 7 7 73S33~4.59 843* 7 109 9~413t3t!ll59 9 9. Mid negleut thé quotieut. opposite which you find the atatement of the numher of years which have elapsed in each of the two cycles.S7 7 1 ?32. Now. 11 2 3 4 5 7 196 46 74B:494'7121 147'47 5'7222.6. S!i9747 248!48!6'7323 3 98 48 34949 774'24. 10 Hère follows the Ta&!th Le~Km TABULALEOUM. YEAR-fOINl'S.r.14 7 39 39'4 M 7 M H 565t5 2 MM 611515 314040 M M 14040 2 41 41'6 M 16 ~M'M 17J17 34242:76717 4 43 43 1 68 18 go 18 19 18 19 5 M M 26919 20 ZO 64545!3'702079545 21 21 2222 28 23 2t2t 'MM 3 4 M 41 9242 S 93 43 6 9444 7 116 h.7!i~25)5jMOSO .2~174M6~ 3 175 25 2.

2M. 71 h.points. a.4~eMJ4iaS9~S9~<ett!4'aM9M.' 23042 33434S 7 N9 M 4M444 1320!M 20 .M7.s! ll 8j~8 9.1SiNia5M7. 5 2-m. 182 j f j E'~5~251 On the Tekn&th or Year.M.'tJ6:S76!:6 !t77a79.2M.~5185Î11250!50· M f!S939 M 6 M M 7Nt4lJ43t6!l6 129949 5 N7 <M.âi0-501 '_JJ_f p.Ml'i~M6M~9'Mt. the autumnal equinox.180. 91 d.a!!M'203ZM4!! 91 4 tM 46 7 M ~197 47.N iM.lM3~43 )tM44~f!19M'a2<H4t ~lM4S.M36 sa 6~SI1111. The interval between two consécutive Te~Moth they determine eqna.tion of the TetAfoth.7mN~ S. sj 4! si 10 !tMM.~ !?<?!.S9.St'<!ji!MJeS~KH:Sl 7Ma'6j4tia~l'tSM Msa7t)M7'7.Nl31 eiaastaa MM. ~!</K means with them ho commencement of each of the quarters of the year. t.at9<a lM49~a!!4!z4J7. 7M747 1SM4S a:s<949 SS50Sf~7 3.a6. the HsjM/ftof RttttmM.1)y at one-fourth of the days of the year. the have other cycles called Te~t~t~ M~StpH.4S M6 46 1 S71 31 S N6 9M:S!629747 s M M. em~u'ssMse!?~ S SSB-SBj 3'M737 7M!u~433737'l 4'9938 t3!3~)3~t!M838'2 M M ZS14Jt4~63!!939 S!)M'l!i.ao6 6M5s!3M030'7S))!i jtMset.to7tf!. the winter solstice.N<).43~93t8M 6M.M 4SM SM~9. P.SO tNt.7' à41830 64~33030 301 6 7 7 S.7M[)40 M 1M41'S.e.!M.9M!9!i~)Mo)i!0 b0i4. the summer solstice.MaS93.47 1M 48jS:SEN. Therefore 30 the T~jM~ of JHe~ is the vernal equinox.l 4M tSM SD7m 7~6 S t397K 3 aN8e8 M 4 S 6~ t. .1N9J49S3M'M s~jMjZSM~. 3~MaM~7'M3t3 a 3 4:6717 9 1 SM M 7 j Mt M 4 3M t!!8S35 S'SM~eiaSMSfi.5S454S 46 SN 33SËS 4 M si aS 6 SM 46 7 I i8 43 6' 7 1 3 4 < 6 5 20 M 'Se7!a4]44'SNS9~t!MM fi'Me~e !M40tMM M '4iaNSM~6'M141 tM4a3~N7!l7~7M4a jlM43~4. and the 9%~M~of Têbeth.!~2 At~JtÛNÎ.7!7's'Ma!s!:sao? tNN'l M 8'i!'S!HJM'aMS~9!f!SS!93~33M.eSM 180 W: a2m.8 tM M )a M9 e 6 SM!)t 3 b~861 ~Mtu NM e M'M36Mt07~M 188jg8 4 811 tM~M~mutjeMfte 11 1~I858 t87!87SMMaJM7S7j6MM tM'M69MM 4'MOK mi 4 8'3S9M.4~Ma. ~j~jJ~"h A~A~A. 7M'<8 4274.M~3MJ~ 7270M~4SM.M.–Besidea the cycles we have mentioned.SSSS b'975i21 8·~01~.e. And on thm mie they have based their calcnlatione for the dete'na.S7: JM)M~nMj37~.liiMai 3~SOt. the T~~ of r.M9:49 ~0 MeMi4.'a)'6.

that) the Jewish prifsts forbade the common people (thé laity) to take any food at the bour of thé Te~ufft. a stone with a yellow dot on the surface. In thé computation of the Te~&fôth they do not reckon the year with 40 mathematical accura~y.n. sa related by the Jews. of course. that people do not start on any undertaking unless thev are guided by Rabbinical opinions and Babbinieft! directions.sing moonlight. MÔLÊD!S.t the hours of the 3fuMo of the montha the water becomes turbid and one Jew. if they recroît ~IUt ma. This dot increa. Therefore these appearances. told me that he himaelf had witneMed it. TEAR-POIXTS. it must. whilst during its decrease it sinks back into the interior of the body. and by which they have managed to catch them and to bring them under their swa. who is considerpd a wise and learned ma. that a. Tishr!=92~d. for it is. and most moist substances increase and decrease with the increase and decrease of the moonlight. The Jew who told me this is a trustworthy authority.. however. The mterraJs between the TekMôth.rts. possibility of auch a tact. 10 But God makea his account with them The Jews maintain. For. not by means of their traditional System of chronological On thé whole. f. we do not deny thé a.thelti&tnxtj acuUlituy.y fia he soliti' yeiu itt 365 d.se of moonHght runs from the interior of the body towards the outer pa. AX1' LNAP-MUXTHS. are identical with those of Ptolemy.mmuz=94~d.s]csa. and that the blood during the increa. N!san=90sd.CYCLES. Thé thing bas come to thia.nd 20 jugs begins to move so as to get turbid with sediment. This.ses together with the inerea. as if the Rabbis were Lords beside the Lord. The nature of the J/etpte L!<N<B is still more strtmge than aU this. to whose accuunt 30 no suspicion attaches. tU3 (which were rendered necessary for this rcason.bst!'a<*t computation. For thé students of physicaJ sciences maintain that marrow and brain. Ta. M nothing but one of the snares and nets which the Rabbis have laid for the people. too. that the wine in ca.aea again in the same proportion as the moonlight. This gives a sum of 365~ days. be explained by the résulta of astronomical observation.y. t. as Ariatotte says. 5~~ h il . as reckuned hy the Jewish scholars. If thia be the truth.e. as we have already mentioned. are mot impossible in the abstract. maintaining that. From thé Tekùfâ of Tishrî to the Tekuf& of Têbeth N!sân Tammuz TebHth=88:d. without asking any other person's advice. so as to extend over the whole surface of the stone when the moon ha.h(. this would prove injurions to the body.s become full afterwards it decrea. eggs.

of the Distance of the Apogée from the Vernal Peint. Already before. such as it was at thé time of their observations. of Capricom. after it hM be n converted into the same 10 kind of fractions. in recording their theory. ~v. Further we draw the two diameters~A and &~d. to the whole circle. Computation.1M p. the sun in his mean motion traversea the half ciroum- . as a representation of the ~eeeat~M: Sp~e.e. The point of contact is 1 Then we draw the line <z. and nnaUy the radiuo f~ which we prolong as a straight line as far M e. now. 30 Let z be the centre of the ~cea~-tc jSp~efe. know the days of the year-quarters. the diameter <M& k parallel with the diameter a &c through thé centre x. parallel with the diameter &T?. we knowalso thé place of the apogee of the solar sphere. 35. For one day stands in the same proportion to aU t!ie days of the solar year as that portion of degrees of thc spheK.–If we. as they have described it. Now we draw the cirele <t 6e <<. around the centre h. which the sun traverses in one day.975. i. represonting the solar sphère as 20 homocentric with the EcUptic. If ne want to know the place of the apogee.e. we must fmd thé mean motion of the sun for one day.496. which they cstU the SMfM' C~ch. 183 AMÎB~NÎ. Therefore the centre of the J&ceM~c Sphere must lie in this quarter.. Around it we draw the circle s </ n. Then you make a the beginning t the beginning c the beginning <! the beginning of Arles of Cancer of Libre.351. touching thé homocentric aphere. By this method. We multiply thé fractions of one ~cmemo'ott.. which number they call the ~<MM. t. now. we have mentioned that the sun requires niore time to traverse the q)iaj~ <~6 than the other quM-ters. by 360 and thé product we divide by the length of the solar year. Because. 98. you find the mean motion of the sun for one Nychthemeron to be atout 0° 59' 8" 17'" Tnr.

180 degrpM. thé section a/ Mof the EtCM~t'iCSphere is equal to 184° 18' 52" 43'" 12'v. MÔLÊDS. Simce the sun traverses the quarter <tin the ~ecettMc Sphere is equal to 94~ days. 704. squares of each of the two aides !Band e and This gives 287. i. AXU LËAP-Mu~THs. And because Y! is the aum of ~7. If wo subtrMt from thia thé half circle <' t f k. i. th are known. the aum of the vernal and aummer quarters.whieh is equal to s h. 184 add them together.e. is equal to 0~ 2' 16" 30'" 57~ if you take the TadiuaTx as 1 degree. we get 0° 2' 28" 59"' 401V-.. which is be equal . we get as a.e. Therefore. 466.e. This is thc line a: tM. If we take the root of this number.e. whilst the longest side is unknown. wo aides x < amd e & Now. If we look for the correspondirg arc in the Sine Tables. 674eighths. t. remainder the sum of x ). and of r the quarter of a eircle. the tine x <.. YE&B-POtXTS. 4° 18' 52" 43'" 12iv. However. we get 2° 22' 19" 12'" 16~. which is known.amd k n.e.f'YOMS. on subtraeting ftom z/. equa. the section x </ of 93° 8' 34" 38'" 44iv. these tto (Frimd FM) are equal. 30 which is the distance between the two centres. in the rectangular triangle x < &. t/to to the remainder.i to the sine of the (h'eft<M< Equation. 0° 59' 8" 17'" 8~. 1~ ference a &c. Therefore each of thom is 3° 9' 26" 21"' 36~ 10 And the sine of each of them. since the two diMneters are pMaIM. 20 The sine of ?7 according to the sajne meaanre ie 0° 1' 1" 55'" 35iv. we take the p. i. i. we find. in 187 daya.

3ov. For A z. and their corresponding aides are proportional to each other. if mtasured by the line~œ < M1 degree. to the aum of plus 1 degree. Further we draw the line ('? at right angles to the diameter oTc. as 1 degree. Btamds in the same proportion toY~ 20 which is also known.if measured by y< as 1 degree. t. So we get 0" 64' 34" M'" 48iv. now. as we compute the nnknown number BinaUy ont of four numbers which stand in proportion te each other. as the sine of the right augle ~Tt. that of the homocentric and that of the ex. everybody knows trigonometry knows tha. which is known. z~. we multiply~ by 1 degree and divide the sum by & plue 1 degree. ie. the line <~ which we wanted to find. who Now.jf~meMnred by t <afj1 degree. to the '"ne of the angle <T~ i. measured by z as 1 degree.t in a triangle the aide a stands in the same proportion to the side j8 as the sine of the angle opposite the aide to the sine of the angle opposite the side~S. For half (t) of iTz. centrio sphère. the Sinus ~<M.r. If we. stands in the same aa proportion to (!<M«!M). 30 nore follows the figure of the circle. we compute this line.166 ALBÎPÛx!.e. 10 In tMa way the distance between the two centres in its proportion to each of tho two diameters. whioh is thé a~t<M< ~!M<tOM(&MMM)one degree. Now thé two triangles < « Aand i6<& are aimi)a. becomes known. Therefore & z. want to know how long the line al h is. The corresponding arc is 65° 26' 29" 32' whieh is the line ~T or the distance of the apogee from the vernal equinox. . Thereby we nnd as measured by the line t h. And that is what we wanted to demonstrate. stands in the same proportion to a)< M o A..e. t.

MONTHS. a freedman of the 'Amir. aa it were. Let me hope that the reader will accept this apology of mine. tjmu'minîn. of The method. has found out for the solution uf the preceding problem. and an accurate knowledge of the length of the solar year. YEAB. In p. Scorpio. Amphora). If 1 plunge into subjects foreign to thé plan of this book. Modern astronomers. it is only for the purpose of leading the reader. t.. Léo.EtM&-<tH~MAM<~ 6t&MtM/<t&t'fxa<~ much superior to that of modern astronomers as the method of the latter ia superior to that of the ancient astronomers. knowing that it is extremely difficult amd next to impossible to determine the times of thé two solstices.).eM.rO!XTS. which my Taurus. MÔLËPS.EAP. 185 I have shown that this method is as my . however.tion of three points of the ecliptie.-quttrt. 1C7 This is the method ot the ancient astronomers for the caculation of the apogee.e. chosen ad 10 libitum. master 'AbA-Nasr Majeur b. 'Ali b. t.AXD OTOÎ. so as to prevent hia mmft and eye beeotning veary and getting a dislike (to continue the reading of this book). requires thé dftermina. ~he middle parts of the Fn~)t tStg~M(t. preferred in their observations of the four points a b c d the middle parts of the y<!a.e. 'Irâk.ES. about in the gardens of wisdom. .

. so aa to get finally a. 1~ day. if we convert these 182d. th<. we come as far as thé beginning of thé Srat hour of the night of Wednesday.y the 6th of Tiehrî. after the creation. Their oounting the sum of days from the beginning of the night of Wedneaday ia for no other reaaon but thia. The aolajyear. they take the yeaM of the -tM<M)M. convert them into Solar Cycles \\Muh you diaregaxd the remainder of yeaM compaje with the column of the Cycle till you find the oorreaponding number. If we convert it into weeks.ppea]-.me moment wbence weatarted. in case they do not reckon with mathematical aeoto'aey. and we get oniy a remainder of 15h. the current year ineluded. or they increase them by 3 and count the aum from the beginning of the night of Sunday. Others among the Jewa maintain that the aun was crea. 642H. Further. the vernal equinox of the year in question. interval be- . thereby the other onea are known too. find the yeaj-qnarters. that some of them maintain that the Ma was created on Wedmeaday the 27th of ÏI&l. therefore. These days they count either from thé begin. and convert them into Solar Cycles (dividing them by 28). Then you find opposite. 9h. If we.t tbis aarne moment whence the computation of the 30 Te~ùf&th atajta. we come back a.the current p. 15h. 186 y* ine-luded. As for the remaining yeara. one of the Te~Afôth ia known. that he was in conjunction with the moon. Thia brings them ]0 0 to thé Te~M& of Nisân. If we begin (in the computation of the Tekûfoth) from the beginning of the Solar Cycle either from the beginning of day or night. the nomaïoa and the learned one. And that ia the moment whence the computation we have mentioned ata-rta. we get as a remainder 1t day.r (the Character of the Te~ùfa). !. t. If.nd we count these houM. thé r~~<& of some year. Now take the yeaja of thé ~M ~<&tmt. reckon from the Te~ûfâ of Tishrî backward. number of daya leaa than seven. if not computed with mathematical accuracy. mng of the night of Wednesda.t the Te~ûfâ of Tiahr! (autumnal equinox) took place at the end of the third hour of the day of Wedmeada.ted in the fint part of Ariea a. The number of weeka which are contained in this aum they diaregard. they take for every single year 30 houre.veMe the two yeaj-quartera of apring and aummer in 183 d.e. a. 40 According to thia mode of calculation we have computed thé Tekùfôth of a Solar Cycle. Now. further.!68 ALB!KCx!. 15h. t.e.t the end of the cycle to the aa. into weeka. they make 20 the aun tra. so as to form the M&l&dof Niaân. In the preceding we have already explained the intervals between the single Te~&f&th aocording to both views. which ia the surplus of each Te~ûfâ over the correaponding ong of the preceding yea.e. as we have before mentioned. the daya diaa. of thé Tekn&th according to the Jewish Computation -Now we return to our subject amd say If the Jewa want to System. Therefore we take thia Character for each of the remaining yeaja.y. ia 365t days. and tha.

the presiding planet of that B~oMR. Shabbethm. 1 540 Ta. 1) Nôg:Jt. 0 13 540 Tammuz 0 21 0 Tiahrî 1 4 540 Têbeth 0 1 12 Nîsan. Snnday. 5 Tiumnuz J5 5 13 540 0 9 21 Tishrî F 4 540 Têbeth j p 12 12 0 NMn. -I Sunday. 0 4 18 Nîs&u. in which the Te~Ma they mention th~iie DfOtt~t hour Hours. Lebhênâ. ~Themtervah! ''?TS~ the TeMfôth and the beginning ottheNightot. Se<lek.3 0 0 4 Msan.M' TABLE 0F TEKÛFÔTH.2 2 M 540' Têbeth 2 18 0 N!san. they are hours of the day. NôgaJi. Hammâ. YEAR-POJXTS. they are houN of the niglit if they are more.'adhun. Hammâ.. . 5 1 540 Tammuz . lU" the TeMMth le e lat year 20 2na year Shabbethâî. –ici YO Cotumnof the Solar Cycle..0 0 10 540 Têbeth The Monthsof thé FonrTetûMth. !d.. P. Srdyefu- 30 4th year SthyeM 6th year 1. Lebhënâ.4 7 MO Tammuz 4 4 15 0 0 TIsh)-! Tishrî Tebeth 14 22 540 6 0 Nisan. The~<M~M of to. MÔLÊDS.2 2 3 Tishrî 0 .5 5 9 0 Tishrî 5 16 540 Têbeth 6 0 0 NîsaL. H. 1 19 540 Tsunmnz .6 6 19 540 Tammuz 3 0 Tishrî . three Te~ùMth and the jDoMi'HM For falls. Sêdek. M~'adium.)6 23 540 Têbeth ~6 0 0 6 Nîsân. h.h. Kôkha.bh Hammâ. So you may aubtract therefrom 12 hours. Nôga. ANP MAP-HOXTHR.3 Têbeth 3 16 540 .munuz 3 3 9 0 Tiahd 3 .tYt ms.e. 7 540 Tammuz 6 0 M Tishn . and the remainder représenta the corresponding hour of the day. Shabbetha!. Sedek Ma. !'tby<~r 8thyeM- . the next following i. I. ton. 169 tween thé Te~ùfa of Ntsân and the beginning of the night of Sunday in the current year in question." If of /7<e together with the Tekufôth and caJI them ITot-oscopes the houra you get are leas than 12.bhHMnmâ. 1" Kôkha. there you find.

Tammuz Tishrî Têbeth NMm. Tammuz Têbeth Nta&n.mday. 6 16 540 0 0 o KN~~hH~m~ o 7 540 0 15 0 Lebh&nâ. h.170 AMÎR~Î. 3 13 540 3 21 0 Sh~be~~ 4 4 540 4 12 O Sede~ 20 4 19 540 5 3 0 m'fMtMm. TMnmuz Têbeth & 'M llthyeM ISthyeM ISthyeM 14thyeM. 9th year lOth year N!s&n.. M 0 22 540 Pl 1 6 0 Sh~bethM. Tammuz Tiahrî Têbeth NMn. TajnmiM Tiahrî Têbeth NMn. 5 22 540 6 6 0 Sed~. Tammuz TMML Têbeth N:s&n. d.fthe houra Tel¡:fôth and 'M<e)-«)ff&etotiM hioh the' thebegimungJ~~MohtheTetMtth ofthoNightof 8. 1 1 5~o 1 9 0 ~ramâ.eth&t. 1 M 540 pi 2 o 0 N&aah. Tammuz Tishrî Têbeth Ntsam. cM. 5 7 540 ee 5 15 O SlmM. o 18 0 Ma'adMm. Tammuz Tiahrî Têbeth Nta&n. ISthyeM- 16th year 17thye~ 18thy<~r ISthye~ 1 2 ~~5~ 22 540 $y 3 6 0 Lebh6n&. The between the 81 .to Columnof Cohmnofthe the SotarCyde. The Monthsof th TheMonthaofthe FonrTe~MAth. TmuniM! Tiahrî Têbeth NM&n. 2 4 540 2 12 0 Ma'a'dMm 2 19 540 3 8 3 540 & Hammâ 3 3 10 540 3 M 0 '40 4 1 540 N&g~ 4 9 0 E:6~Mbhï[!UNm&. Tammuz T~M Têbeth NM&n. 4 16 540 1" 5 0 0 LebMn&. 1 M 540 1 21 0 9edek. 2 g. 6 13 540 6 21 540 50 0 4 540 . 5 10 540 jp 6 18 0 Hamma. 6 1 540 2t 6 9 0 Nôgah.TekAfAthm~ o. ~ajnmnz Têbeth Têbeth NM~.

-The names p.tiou.192 of the phmets which we have mentioned in the Table of << TeM/t are Hebrew names.mmA.CYCLES. Tammuz Tishrl Têbeth Nîsan.~f6th.urT. Tammuz Tishrî Têbeth N!s&n.'adhîm. -j– 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 0 0 0 12 19 8 10 18 1 9 16 0 7 15 22 6 13 21 4 12 19 3 10 18 1 9 16 0 'Ha. 540 0 Ma. 540 0 Kobha. 540 0 Eôkh&bh Ha.ve mentioned as well as the naanes in other lamgua. So~Cyote.LebhênA. TheMontTiaofthe The Mentheof the the F. MÔt~DS. 0 .bbeth& 540 0 Sedek. Nîsân Ta. 540 0 Shabbethâ!. MO il 0 Hsmunâ. in which form they arc used by them. Therefore here follows a table exhibiting the names of the planets in various languages. Tammuz Tishrî Têbeth.bhHa. Tammuz Tiahrî Têbeth Nîsan. Tammuz TisM Têbeth Nisân.~ which Tetûfôth ~°~° tlie in inwhiohtheTe~Mth occur.Dtma.bhHamunâ.YttAR-FOtXrs. 540 0 Eôkha. 20thyeaj' 10 21at year 23ndyeM 20 23rdyea. MO 0 Lebhenâ.100 Tammuz TIshi! Têbeth NMm. 0 Nog&h. Each na. however. 540 0 540 Ha. . MO 0 Nôgah. MO' Ootamnoftho Columuof BolarCyole. Tammuz Tishrî Tébeth Nîsan. 540 Sedek. The reader will find here the Hebrew niMmifwhich we ha. if they want to mention the planets. AXD U:AP-MO!<THS.]71 Theinterv&le) betweenthe J'a~CMqf MetoKM T~httAth cv. Tammuz Tiahï! Tebeth 1 7 1 15 1 22 2 6 2 13 2 21 3 4 3 12 3 19 4 3 4 M Names of the Planots and the Signs of the Zodiac.mma.'&dMm.gM. 540. 540 Il 0 !Lebhen&.mnmz Tishrî Têbeth Ntsân. o ~Ti~f Sanday. must call them by the names of their own language.r 24th yeax 25thye!u30 26th year 27thyeM- 40 28thyear N!sam. 540 0 Ma. 540 0 Sha.mmâ MÛ)' 0 Nôgah.

172 ALBÎRÛN). << 9 Q 1 J.g . ë j' j~_ MJ t~ t I 1 1 1 1 1 o t 's's i .g .g .g .-B & J S a -jLJLjLA_AJLi__ !z.a -s .g . i a S 3 :S g s ë $ j ¡ III m H )-) H E-) a¡ Eo 1 § o <II g J.

SMr Ah-&mi Alkau6 1 Aljady 30 Aldalw AIhût Alhnt n~p DhMITt Bahî 'AtyoK<joM! 'YSpo~oo: D61 MaM Mâ-hi ~'I~Mt! ) 'IX66eç Alaama.ngua.~ 1 TtSID garkaîa Eajka.tpos B&Ta. For ho who wanta this for thé planeta.-ILM 'Meftha. Syriao.) O} . Hère follows the table containing the namea of the signa of the zodiac in various la.n i~i ~t. N^mae NtmMp ( ~Amo I )(. ~Js 's~ 20 Al'asad At<~ ~t Si&ha.b AJLkMs 0 Zuyot Tarazû !~2to0&0 !TM-azA Îzi~ IL OTM!0 1 ~l7Zt 3-)py -) ~3 t~ 't ~t w i iMaJta~ ) Eumba.é~ika.CYCLES. 173 And now natural relationship (between the planets and the signa of the zodiac) dema. wants somethiNg of the same kind for the signa of the zodiac. ) Perat&n.ta.ka.LDI ~o2 t~otZ ~CD ~lf )-t7N I. nor is it requisite. AND LEAP-1IIONTHS. S&naMit. II BÉVOS1 IIop~os Xsmy& Kan Al'MHir& ) 1~ ) Xhoslia) f(~oAo) Al'adhrA Ahnîz&n Ahakrab At'a..A. 1 VMh& ox ) 4&8vuoL Dûpaikar !~&t8M/tot Alta. Hebrow. ie. ~jAlsunbula1 r Aisunbuta.~m.n.n'sanân) Al~~1 AlaMatàn i Ka~Ku-o: 1~'zang Xajzamg O~Mn~Mithuna. ~t~ Tulâ Tula ~ljt~t E&zhdum to~~ ~KOpatos ISazhdum Stop~M! i~i~ ) ) 11 To~w~.nds. Bam Gâu 't~Dt I.~ Pô.mal Alh&bsh Althaur Aljauz"a A1JMZ& KWg ~M! At~mid 1 Ta. construct a table containing &11that we hnow of their names in various languages. although it ia mot necesaary in this place of our book. p. TEAB-POINTS. MÔLÊD8. ~cü ipM Yrscib ~~J `Qr.~ Khôsha ~A\ n7~S I Xanyâ ¡'II1:1 â t~t.t~. that we should do the same with regard to the signa of the zodiac whieh we have done for the planets.gea. Alha.193 10 AtaMo. Greok. ~~P~sBMa.

If we convert this sum of cycles and yeaM into days.758 years and a.788. If we.788. 353B This is the interval between the môlêd of the Rrat year of the ~E~ ~<&tMt and the môlêd of the present above-mentioned year (~1. the autumnal equinox. arranged according to thé Ordo Jm<e)-ca!<t<MMM fn~iT~ so that six out of these nine yem'a are common-years and three leap. 253=. occurred at the beginning of the ~~a Adami.e. If we divide this interval by 365~d.200d. 7h. given ia the preceding. t. take thé J~ ~<&[m!for the lat of Tiehr!. 2S3~ of daytime. 1. is quite intolerable. The Author criticizeslthe Jewish comput~tiom oftheTekuibth. Till this Solar year is complete. and HalâMm to thé môlêd of the present year.Tiahïî of the first year of the ers and the môlêd of the present year. we get 4. we advance as far as the night of Tuesday 9h. from the sum we have got. llh. Such a difference. and night and day are again equal. ~damt 4759).195d. furth~r. to which they bring us. yeara. thé correaponding day of the Syrian month. t.]74 p. and 9 10 complete~MH-s. enable the student to find the week day on which the Tekûfa falls. If we aubtract these 5d. t. this Te~ufâ falls by 14 days later than the equinox as determined by astronomical observation.e. the môlêd of which falle on Sunday the lat of îlùl in the year 1311 of Alexander. remainder of 335~ days. 5 days and 1 hour after the môlêd of thé year. hours. This popular use we have illustrated by our table according to the theory of the Jews. If we add this number of days. on the lst day of the month TM~m Primus. we get the anm of 1. differs from real time to an intolerable extent. even if it be mnch less. IM AUittfÛKÎ.– We return to our subject and say The calculation and tables. 26 <MH<tH cycles (26 x 19=494). We have already stated before that according to Jewiah dogEia. however. thé 20 Tekufoth-Tiahrî. althongh popular use may be based upon it. take this interval between the nrat Teinta and the 40 môlM of the present year.e. Let us eg. 80 29d. The number of complete years of the ~Ent Adami is 4759 or 8 great eyc~ (8x532=4256). 6h. to Sunday Th. 827H more are required.lh. Now. . we get as remainder the interval between the Te~ùfath.

:il~IÀ..2'6!7!3 1 1 4 6 2:4 4 7 3 8~4.5.5 5 1 3 5 7~3 7 3 L 3 736L 4 7 27.aF I.i.Qe fi -I.624'733614!625 7 11~7!3 s!l 4 5 1 3 6'14 L 12 2 5 7!3 3 6 6 2 47'2 2 5 1' 3 6 2 13)3!6 6 1!4 4 7 7 3!51. 22 7 3 5J1 4 4 7 2.6 5 1 4 9.7 3 23'14 5 L 23'1 4 6125 6~2 5 6!2 6 2 417'25:11 4~72 S~l.CI> 'Q S S-.MO~THS. ~x~ i l' ° fi â b'i..5'1257~3514 5 4 6.6!l 1 3. L 3472.x ~i ~i.5'1 36 2 3 6 1 46 6 167'35144!725736 17 14 6:25 5 5'! 3 6 1 4 7 18 2S 73 6 6!2!4'7 2 5 1 19 3i6 6 7 3 L 14'7 l 4j6!2!4 1 2 4 7 4 19 3 1 611 4 7 1 205!13!6!226j7!3514 21 62 47 3 3 6_14 6 ¡ 1~4 6 2 5 6.195 THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SYBIAC AND GREER MONTHS. AKD LEAP.3 4 7 3 2j5 5 1 1 4~6!24 14!4~7 2 5 L IS.6 5 10. MÔLÊDS. 24~3 3 6 l!4 4 7 7 3 5!1'3 3 6 a! L 25'4 7 2 6114 62 473: 2 2 3 51 1 4: 6 26.280.g:IOI~Ic. YEAB-FOINTS. 175 and multiply it by 98.s a4~m éi_z A'ÂA~~m 20 30 1 2 5 7 3 6 6 2 4 7 2 5 1 3 6 21 236 1 4 7 7 3~5'1 4. Addâ). m ~3~ _H.y ot their Solar year (of B. o rtJ '5 7~ .¡ O. TABLE OF showing how to find the beginning of a year of any p.305 (Great h<<N<) Nethods era.8 . we get the sum of 171. '3 R o p o i~ l~iU~~tii . which is the number of fractions of one da.6247~34725 5 6 5 1 3 6:1 28 ~1 4 6!2!5 1 Il .2 47 3 36l!4 6 2 3 6 5'7'3'S'l 1-44 4!7'2'6 5 7 6 1'4'6~2!5 5 1'3!6 1 4 7 6 7 3!5 13 3 6 2 L 7.fYCLES.7 2i5 2 2 5 7 3.496.ci1.¡ i Ic.

We add 5 to them and divide the sum by 7. if there is a remainder. we take its com. consisting of days. and to the sum we add 4~.~<t Diocletiani. we reckon in the sajne way as we have done for the Era ~!e. The nrst we multiply by 354 days. to find the week-day o*t which a year of thia era. the yeax is a leap-year common-year. and in order to find the beginnings of the single months. the year is a leap-year. With the remainder. the second by 22 minutes. and the third by 1 second. 196 AUtht~î. that we add 2 to its complete years and divide the sum by 4. the current year M not a leap-year. Ifwewant tu kuowthp same for the~'m~Mj/M~i (i. we drop them. and the remainder is Signum of Muharram. If we want to learn the beginning!! of the years and months of the -<~<! ~tyœ by chronological computation. Thereby we get the S~HMM(of the week-day) of the Ist of Thôt. if there is T)oremainder. that we add 3 to its complete years and divide the sum by 4.MM<!)*! according to the Greek syatem. The leap-years are in this era af certained in this way. we add them as one whole if they are less. that we add 1 to the number of the complète yea. we add to its years of them. we increase its of them. as determined by chronological computation which is based upon the mean motion of the moon. are Mcertained in this way. Then we convert the three sums in the three places Into wholes. Then we complete years by make the same calculation (as for the ~-<t ~l~N~t). The leap-years in this era. To thé number of minutes we add 34 minutes. and the sum we divide by 7. it is a leap-year. ~t is a remainder.herpto divido thé whole by 7.M and divide the aum by 4.e. commences). If we want to learn the Signum of another month.psed before the month in question. the remainder of less than 7 is the Signunt of Muhajrajn. Thereby we find the S~Mnm of the month we seek. which have aia. If t itère is a remainder. If there is no if there is a remainder. alternately for one month 2 days. and the sum we add to the The whole we divide by 7. If we want to know the same for the ~En! ~MfoHiM. If the minutes are more than 15. The sum we get represents the time which has elapsed between the beginning of the ~E)~ . of them. for the other 1 day. To this sum we add 6 and plete years and add t. Now. we take its complete years and write them down in three places. The computation according to the appearance of new-moon is a subject the ofpnoitinn nt which wculd bc both of great length and dinictdty and 10 20 30 40 . it is a common-year. To thia S!jyH!t)K we add 2 for each complète month that has elapsed before the date you want to find.FMjjfœ and the beginning of the year in question. As regards thé . the Signum of the month in question.year m thé ~-a Diocletiaibi is ascertained iu this way. If there is no remainder. and to thé aum we add 4~. The leap-.176 p. wf take for the months.

]f in hnth tiiese portions (in of and the year of the Hijt'. If. The two' computations. which vou get.e.t) you gt't a fraction.nd numerous t:thtcs. if you divide 354 by 7) were coNvcrtcd into weeks. The same principe we have explaiued lias been adopted bv the sect who claim to have esott'ric dwtrines and represent themselves as the So they have produccd a.m. aud in that om' of Habash t)n' mathematician. the matter comes to thé same result.y aud divided thé products by the denominators of thé two fractions (. of Muhauuuad b. you get as remainder 4. the other-mentioned is counted from Thursday. If you add these to the Si'~KMm J)f!fAftn'f))M/. which are the time till Bmnd.you p~'t the . Then add to the sum 4 and divide the whole by 7. Subnecessaryfor get :ttot:dof tract 7 and you get as remainder 4 this is what remains of thé sum of the two a. which they. )n~))tij'!y thpt)) hy 4 and add to the snm years aud e (i. In case of neccssity the stndent mny consnh thon.?.AR-Pf))\TS. ~~) of the nuu]))er of yr~n-s. to take t and of the years of the Hijra Further. And if we udd thereto 6 and count thé surn from Sunday.< 5 x 6=30). method of ta.Em J'yrp. are multiptied by 4. for this reaaon. \\n ). Yt. It is suScient to know what ou this subjcct is said in the C<7MO<. that in the former case the 34 minutes are 12 . from Fridav to Sundav.ÈPs.)tttXT))s. ~aBi<H).CYOUES.< the addition of 6 days for the pnrpose of thé ppoch of the era.tions a. is the same as if you would take y day and So this day for each single year.m and eombinin~ with it the 5 davs. add it as one complète day t(. bv 7.ac of thf tnvstt'rK's of prophecv.maintain tn bc t. the other days. it is thé same as if the days of cach year and the rem:uuders (i'. Haring already added 6 for Muharra.. If therefore the years of thé Hijra. that you getFurther. 354 davs. f.you 11 da. tak~ thp rnm~h'tf of the Hijra. Jabir Albattam. we come to the S'i~KKHt Jfit~iTOH!).l!)7. The remainder bevond 7. ]77 10 20 30 40 w~ uM require dimcult CtJcula. \)nt. calculation party of the Family (cf 'Ali). aud the postponmg addition of 5 days for the purpose of converting tue jS't~t!fMi j~M~<!)')'a)i!t into the S~MOt ~tBMtffaM!). It is this p. therefore. which is thé beuiuniu~ of the . This caleulatiou is based upon what we have mentioned.S~MM ~xtif!?. thé reason why those peop)e add 4 is this. thé one which is eounted from Friday. by alternately taking 2 days for une month and 1 day for the next onetill thé beginniug of Ramadan the sum of 5 days. the 4 days which remain.t:AP. if one of thcm or hoth h'gether are tnore than half the denomiuator of either of thc two fractions (} and ~). If you want to )<uow thr hc~inuh)~ of Kamadan. is the St~MM)).Ung and of the years cornes to the same thing as if vou each year by multiplied and da.e. agree shortly before-which with each other. For if you divide the days of each Lunar vear.d'Utions (/. the whole is divided by 7 and the remainder is counted from Frida.

as some people in Ta. as far as the chapter of the astrono. similar to a wound-up serpent. by observation be attacks them and blames them.198. which was constructed by I~abash in his CoKoa for the purpose of correcting the method of dating employcd in astronomical calculations. A man who considers astronomical aBajrs with an unbiassed mind could not décide against the necessity of the observation of new-moon nor against its possibility.a)-a~ (i. in which the beginning and the end of the numben meet together. reason just mentioned further he bas altend the sbape of the table. the pure table. if he had himseK with their nature and with thé real character of the acquainted practiœs of both Jews and Christians. !the &~Km ~~M-raM:.a<< occurs. whilst in the latter case none of thé fractions are raised to a whole.llness. For astronomers agree that the assumed SO measures in the most difficult parts of the practice of the observation of new-moon are certain distances which cannot be ascert&iB. a Shaikh who hv(.u-tap bas added to each number of the table. This and similar modes of computation have been adopted by the followers of this new theory in this sect.n have given it fie form of a circle. Besides. the serew-ngure (here given in the form of a common40 table) whieh bas been transformed out of the Ja~< . giving it-instead of the perpendieular form of a table-the form of a screw-like train. saying that for both Christians and Jews it is rendered by their tables to observe new-moon for the déterminationsuperfiuous of their fast-days and the 20 beginnings of their months.). so called from their founder. particularly when new-moon occurs near the end of that distance which bas been assumed. nuea] methods for the observation of new-moon. the observations themselves are subjeet to certain circumstances of a geometrical nature. he would have learned that that which they have adopted is obscurity itself. wbo are tnown in Khwnrizm as the A~fM~yc.d except by experunent. He bas also followed the of the example people (of the same sect) in composing a book in whieh he abuses those who want to find the new.s m BaphdAd. sect. in consequence of which that which is observed by the eye differs in greatness and sma. divested of any accessory). moon p.. 10 for the 5.e. Perhaps he who is acquainted with our preceding explanations will find out the truth of this.t78 AJfRtRÛ~t. 1 hava found that one of their leaders bas taken the Jct~M. whilst Muslims trouble themselves with a subject of so dubious a character (as the observation of new-mooa) But if he had read farther (in the book of Habash) beyond that place where the J<wa~~a.bMMt. aummed to ont day. Now thia sect.

11 ni 111 141) i vi'i7i'iv IV 172 Il 1 )IH)VI 142. the numbera of the week-days rising by 1. 22. V. YEAR-POJ~TS. in the netd of the Srst years the years rise in thM way 1.56'VI 67~ m 1 58! 59 1 V 60 n II VI IV 1 V in VII IV IV H VI III 1 V in VII IV II VI in 1 V in VII IV II 61 M M G3 6t M 66 67 68 69 ? M 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 M 86 87 M 89 90 in the form of a screw.122. V ~12 III VII '13 V '14 15 II 16 VI on 17 IV 1 18 V !l9 )20'11)60 VII izi V . 64.159 111 130. Il.A. and thé week-days 40 rise in this way vri.. VII. V 206'm IV 116 Il 1 -16 VII VI IV 177: 11)207'VU 1 117 lt7 208 V VI 1M IV 1M U 178 VII IV 209.1TO.169. 43. 1.2' 1 !3 3 VI 4 in '5'VU !6 V II ~!7 '8! VI ~9'IV 9 IV M 1 !ll. \xn t. 182 1~3 y ~153)111 III 183 1 I H Il 93!YII 153 11~3 )V 931 I VII. 124 ]8t V VI 9t!lV n!l5t. 190. II 199'VII I 1M VI .M vi iv 25 1 26! V M M ? m VU 29 IV 30 31 M .IV V i II 14-1 v '174 nt. l!lV . 12 . V. . etc. HOLÈHs.). 43. 176. 85.I>o~ J_i_) _) 121 il!151 !I 181 VIl 91 Y ) VI JI . 179 TABLE showing on whitt WEEK-DAYSthé SINGLEYBARSof the CYCI.aa~'SS.11 III 1M' 1 149 V! I 179 V 150 III 180 I i 210 v VII 120 ( 51 52 53 54 55 .200 201. n.B of 210 LUNARYEARa commence. 22. 35 36 37 38 39 M 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 B -1 A o q A B A B!A B. vn.VII.106. '.22 Il M .148.139 IV V VI 110 IV)140[lI .'A B !O~E-<g~a.156. (1. For nimbera instance.127.1I III 127 1 :157. (IV.EAP-MOXTHf!.33! 33 3t.167 138 VII 168) V 198 III IV 108 II 169. the fields of the serew there is a stea<]y progression longitudinal of thé rears rising by 21.204! vi vn n5 V 145~111 175 i '205. In the In the original Arabic thia table is arranged of both numbers.Yn 111.CYCLES.YI 187'IV V M 1 II 98 VII 128!V'158 UI~18S.202jVII 113 III 143 1 )l73)Vl!203. etc. VI. IV'185 MB'YII 1 96 VI 126iIY.) IV. VU 152 ~V III IV 92. V.Y)I Il 18311 11 I H!I "5 1 125 VI'155. 160 V 190 ni IV 100 H VI IV 16t 11 191 VU 1 101 13l! V VI 102 IV 132 n 162 VU 192 193 n HI 103 1 133 VI 163 IV VI 131 IV 16t II 1M VII I 104 IV V 105 in 135 1 !l65 VI Mo 196 1 II 106 VII 136 V !166 111 1 197 VI VII 107 V 137 111. 159 1 VI VII VU 99 M V 129 I I ~1S9 189 V 129~111.B A B 1 lA . MS. III.

you get the Signum for the Ist of Muharram.180 AMtR~Nt. Add to the minutes 5 days and 34 minutes. and not for a less or larger number of years. Let him who wants to ascertain the truth ~f our worda compare thia screw-figure-for it ia the JtM~Mt!MM/a!f<t~itself. if the number is more than 7. For in some dates there is a différence on aecount of the conversion of the minutes under 60 into days. subtract always 210 from the years of the Hijm. It will be clear to the reader why the table has been constructed for 210 years.). adding five in places where ~abash had added the fractions as a whole day to thé other days. Considering that in the Ja~toa! jtf~or. including the current year. The fractions following after the whole days we have also noticed. This man whom we have mentioned. The result of this computation compare with the screw. if he studies the BUbject thoroughly. If you use this corrected table. God ia all-wise. and so afford a help aiso for other things.ft(! produced by ~abash thé sage in his canon known M the Canon f)-ot<t<~ (tacuna. Ais method iB the same for the Tabula JMe~Mt~ot. He is our aumciency and our help .figure. which he ought not to hâve done. With the remainder compare the column of the numbers and take the days and minutes which you find opposite in the corresponding square.so that by this he was preserved from error. and you 20 If you add thereto 5. transferred thence the screw-ngure (into hia work). Eliminate the 7. and convert them into whole days. get the Signum of Ramadan. wishing that they should come under occular inspection. only inereased by 5 so as to represent the Signum Bem~tn–\nth the Co}Tec<<<! Table which 10 we have computed for the Signum JtfM/tan-cmM. if their number bo more than 210.

0.90.6)12~126! 4 12 156 212186 6 M 187 4M 3 040 5 2 M 159 160 M M 1 18 189 6 340 1 8 2 M 9 . M 62 6~ 528 S e 0 50 35 M M SS0~65 3 66 ? 112 5 SE e~3!3tM?!lStl57 99 5 M U9 240 M 108 102 1M 8 0 2 130 M M ~~i~j~MM.g:j û_âl~ !J~ -oi 1 5 M Il 3 22 42231 qig~qqg p80G9. AND LEAP.is3 s .20 4M 6 48 48 4 10 132 83 1 iiji4ji7 3 16 172 82.20.M5!6!.26J143 126173 6 M M 34 6 E6 I ~3 Sl M 4 86 448 M 248 86 ll4 M 8315 126 203 0 4 48 1 144 S 48 174 e!48)l44 178162634820t 55 010 115 2 M ? 1M M ~M~M 3 M M M SS 632 83 6 M 439 32 U6 4 M 032 M 532 J. 6 M M 111 3 4!! 1 M 3 2 70 M M 72 M 8 75 76 77 78 79 440IM 2 6 346 M 1 53010S 2M1M 0 4M 1 Si 14 107 108 109 6S8J139 4.3220S 203 2.140 ti~'M 4 2 M M 2 24 M M M M. 181 THE COBBECTED TABLE.146 3 M ? 86/' 1M M 2 M 207 e~M.M M IM j IN g 7 6 M 540UO 9 !)1M 3 24 83442 04643 5 23045 6!346 4 14 4M1N 146 M 4 ( 21 I lâ'i M 6 8 330135 os 5 14 136 137 2 934182 M 946163 M 130 6S2166 3 036 14 4 OMM2 0 E4 192 4 46 193 8 les M s!24 Ef 5 2146 0'8 8 4M 162 6 14 81M 165 Z 630 3S2196 114197 167 168 M 13648 S 3 O~a M 49 M M 236138 536198336 2S3199J.6)123 5 3216 4 .IN M 3 M M 1.32.CTCUSS. ZB i 143 1 86 3 026 4 fB~lM 6:4.M 2 M M 11 M 111 M 14 15 M 17 80 18 19 M go 2a N N 23 M ? M as 27 SO 28 ? I4C40 9 241 49 640 4 124 13446 S 844 030 4S 47 2 636 ~M 1~20 5j42 5 ji 2 4 52 M 4M S M 81. Ml IN 2 22! 61~ 022 9 2 11 44 44 61 44 4 44 122 1221044 544182 44 32 6 4t~ 62 4 4t M 22 4t 0 44 152 3 6 633 M2 S 44 182 sl44 3 2 4il93 6 M 4)6)63 1 6 s 0. MÔ~DS.MONTHS.14!! 4 4 IN 2 420!0 S 4 MM M 411316: 3. i~i!ih'!HjM:dMJ~ Li fak~Û F71?7~c~^Li.lj50.S8 20o! 20l! S M 642171 170.OMIM S 2 j~ M S6MM4~ai~S<:MOSSUStMtM<SS1881K 9 4 18 39 69 . 831176 M 58 1M 8Si616 M 4!M~48 !!16!178 016208 538 89~338 119 138 149 638 179 438209 !!4!!J 4 88 4' 4j 4M 4 86 148 6 M 332 83 3 054 S 238 0 M 038!i9 «):e6eseMiieM06oi!i040M02omooe .~ .~147 2:39¡14& 0 4M.01K!4M18!i 3~12! 0~ 96. YEAB-POIKTS.

12 S6yiS4'6? 42467184 66124671 64672366 7 1 7134672.201. If the atudent would consider the <?c&M<e!-ts on whieh this table ia based. ShiMb. who WM counted among the leaders of the pMÙriyy~-sect and one of the greatest of their missioma. however. 1 have found with'Ahmad b. ALBÎEÛNÎ. Therefore this table does not differ from the corrected Jadwal-Mujarrad. the following table." Further. Muha.202.3 8 6 1 4 2 6 4 67il 1 6 s 1 E 7 7 4 2 6 8 3 1 6 3'46 1 6 3 7 9 4 E 2 6 8 ? 6 2 E 6 4 1 61 4 1 6 3 8 7 6 2 E 7 e! 8 1 6 b E 2 7 4 2 10 This table. TABLE OF THE MoNTHS. Muhft. he aa. ia certainly derived from the ~t<!«xtH~<nv<M!. 'i 1 Jd 186612!4i6 2?2S66. ton. And the least of this is the knowledge of fasting for every year and every day. Further. This same trickater of a missionary relates that this table was the work of Ja'faj b. before he had disdosed before our eyes both the past and the future till the end of the world. that He (the prophet) did not leave his people.182 p.add thereto 4 and divide the sum by 8.nee.y of the week. he would find that the new-year-days of the years of this cycle return to 20 the same da. In thia case the minus-difference of 4 minutes causes a very disagreeable confusion. Accordingto 30 him Jafar said 1 swear by him who in truth bas sent Muhammad p. except when the Octaeteris in the course of time recurs many timea.ia to be used in thM way l'ake the complete yeam of the Era J~t~tt!. which.y6. that they. and opposite you find the week-day of the beginning of whatever month you like. fall short (of a complète revolution and return to the same day) by a fraction of 4 minutes. The remainder under 7 you compare with the column of numbers. he is reported to havo said: . as a prophet.nnnad Als&dik at the time when he–so that man aays–explained the difference of opinion and the uncertainty that exista among Muallms regarding the month Eama~am.mmaJ b.

Then ta. menta. add to 2 for each month whose number in the 80 the St<KMM)t MttAM'fftHH daya order of months is an odd one. The remainder divide by 7. in order to make the days begin with Sunday. Divide the sum by 7. The second method is this it is an even number. and the remainder you get is the Muharrami. Take half of the number of years. and proceeds in the same way as the beforementioned methods." This malefactor has inventcd tales about that wise Lord. the wisest of the Inmms–God's blessing be upon their names !–by making him responsible for something that is mconsiatent with the religion of his ancestor (i. MÔLÈDS. of any other month (!)M< If you want the Si'~MtMt Muharram).t. omit it.ry of these assertions is the truth. Multiply this number in one place by 3. But if there is a fraction of more than 30 minutes. 7 minus 5. if it is an odd one. I. which must be adhered to. with the addition of 5. Take for each complete 30 years of the ~E)'a ~t-<F which have elapsed. as long as you use the hebdomadal cycle. and for each complete single year take 4 days 8~ hours. male a. and the remainder is the Signum JtfK$c?v(!m! . as we have mentioned before.nd put it into two different places.).e. 183 Sha'Mn has never been more-and Ramadan bas never been Icss– than SO days.mentioned by 'Abù-Ja'far Alkhazin in his Great . number of (&ty-mM!tte< With thé remainder combine that which you ha.e.MroAfc~'Mt to ~s<)-o!tOMty. 5 days. It is thc same whether you add 5 or aubtract 2. As regards the remainder of less than 30 years. A~D MAr-MOXTHS. subtract 1 therefrom. 22min. 1 day 16 hours.ke the half of this remainder of years a. the nobicst of th~ nobles. (i. Divide the sum by 7. if H.S't~tMM of the month in question. It bas been proved that the contra.e. as thé C<Mfec~ Table shows. and add the sum to the number of days. if it is less. So you get days. take for each 10 years 1~ days.Te kept in mind (4d. and 1 day for each month whose number la an even one. if you convert those years into days and divide them by 7. YEAR-POIXTS.CYCLES. and keep in mind for it 4d. To the sum we add 5. In the other place multiply it by 8. To thé sum you get in this way add 5 or subtract 2. For the days and fractions of days that are taken for certain numbers of years are the remainders which you get. which is equal to half the number of the years. count it as a whole. NtjjftMtM 20 This method is correct. *A1!). 22. and the remainder is the . if the years are without a fraction. For each 5 years of the further remainder take 20 l'ours.1note of it). That pious Imam was far from anUying himself by traditions like those. From the sum subtract a. ie. and never dreamt that he would be defiled by their insolence in referring them to his authority 10 -God's blessing be upon him There are two methods for the finding of the Si~MMitJftttftn~tHM. and divide it by 4.

is the same M to divide the whole by 4. If they. ~) of the whole number by a measure (a quantity) which amounts for the M&o<e number to the same as a corresponding number of sixtieth parts (or minutes) for half the number (i. we always add 3 to the number of complete years. The sum we divide by 7. of the number. if the number be more than seven. for the whole number x this plus. That which you keep in mind (4d.e. To multiply the half of the remaining years (t. If we want to know the Stymtm of another month.M&h.80 Mah. now. The som we add to the ~M(M of Farwardîn.e. difference isY~B. If you. and the Yazdagird. we take for each of the complete months. or day for each year. which you get after having divided 354d. is correct.ve before mentioned is evident. For each following month we add 2 days to the N~KMtt ~<tM<t~t. whieh evcnt is tho epoch of thé ~o Magorum.gird. h6. which is more than ~+~ you get (~) of the whole number of years by a number of minutes which is equal to half the number of years. multiply half of the number of years by 3 and divide the product by 4. If we want to find the Signum of the new-year's day of a year of the ~r<t y<!fK&tj)w<H.e. FinaJIy you take 6 and day. and subtract 7. 20 and you subtract them from the sum. 22': 7. the remainder p.184 ALBÎRÛNÎ. In this way we find the jS't~Mtmof 40 the month in question. remainder we compute in the same way as we have done for the preceding era.nd based on the circumstances we have mentioned. a. 22') is the intercala. re. except Aban.nd (~) The analogy of the other parts of this calculation with what weyears. The re. the half of (t. These 4 days are the whole days which you get by dividing thé Lunar year by 7 (354d. ~) of any number is more than ~+~ (t. are counted in 60th parts. But if we use the months of the ~ughdians or Ehwarizmians. after the sub. traction of 1. t. As remainder we get the Signum of Nausard or J'MtM~'?.ve mentioned . and divide thé sum by 7. for the reason whieh we ha. and the remainder of this division is Nt~tMfmof Farwardîn-Mâh. i.e. you get of thé a. which is the same as yof~). that have passed.e. for ~Meh we take nothing. we take the number of complete years and add thereto always 3. Thia method. the epoch of which is the death of we add aJways 5 to the number of complète years. However. as practised by the Persiama before the decline of their empire.e.tory portion of the year which you subtract from the total sum of years. 22' by 7. we take the Persian years from the end of the reign of TMdf. and add thereto 70. in case weuse for this era the Persian months. mainder 4). too. in minutes. 2 days. mainder is the St~Mtm of the month in question.203. For the Magorum. therefore. If we want to know the intercalation. in case the number of years be an odd one) by 8.

and it used to be to be where Naurôz comes there. Thereif there is a remainder of months. these months corresponding to the number of intercalations.r's da. MÔI. TEAB-POINTS. year of the year to thé we have we add thé beginning got upon lea. The quotient M the number of intercalations tha.p-months this caleulation to which we find N&urôz on that da. is confusion in their chronu!og\. AXD t.CYCLES. The tea.204. and to the sum 4}.ÈDS. we add for each month that has in a lea. The we divide by 7. whcn it used to coincide witb the summer. If there is no remainder the year remainder it is a common-year. rema. cxcept ÂMn-M&h. then. and wishing the Stj/Mttm of some other month. of FMwaj-din-M&h by For the ~M of ~HMt'<<<! we find the Sf'y)HtM: whole adding to the complete years of them.p-years of this era. is a common the year. But p.t onght to have been carried eut Now we since thé time when they commenced to neglect intercalation. by year.y of a year.y 10 in question. 185 in the first part of this book. to find Knowing the . you find by dividing its complete years is a leap-y ear if there is a.M&h. So again brings in the time of the Kisras. The sum we divide by 120. make up complete years. take for the total sum of the years of the era a number of months If.r and passed 2 days.p-yea.ke 1 and the remainder The sum we divide in a common 7. without giving a. 20 nothing is the SiyMtm of the month in question. as is due to Him .yea.inder. us. Mnch praise be unto God.p. by 4. and the remainder is the StgKKHt of Farwardin. for which we ta. Now we think that this long exposition will be aumcient.S't~Mtm of New.MuNTHS. for there year approximately.EAP. solstice aa calculated by their astronomical tables. the year is a ~en.

accession of Bishtasf.th.rMusht appeared thirty years a.186 AI. pseudo-propheta came forward. rentes in his book which ht). intending to refute tlieir creed.e. tenacious adherent.MdMM/ who came forward in Budhasaf–Thé India after the Ist year of Tahmûra. Ter~h.ying that ho among their chiefa was the most deeply imbued with their religion and its most p. and worshipped them as holy 20 until the time wheu Zu.THE CUBSN 0F THE LOBD BE TPON THEM' 1 WB shaN explain thé method of dating the ems by the peeudo-prophets. their na. the planets and the prima. for this affords a help.ns are living in ~rr&n. place in history. The remnants of those 9&bia. atnSed with tief) and . For in the intervats between the prophets amd kings whom we have mentioned. for the knowledge of their history. the number and history of whom it would be impossible to detail in this book. Some of them perished without having gained adherents. ~~<t!T~tyyct) being derived from their place.1 elements. CHAPTER VIII. aJso. It is necessary.n writing and caJled people to the religion of the ~6nMM.me (t.BÎRÛN{. Othera derive it from HMn b.205. therefore. the Christian.fter the beings. sa. I~ ~a~tM (Syncelluo).mong them. He introduced the Persia. ON THE EBAS 0F THE PSEUDO-PBOPHETS AND THEIB COMMMfITÏES WHO W~ttE BELTDEDBY THEM. to mention the erM of the most notorious a.n kings and some of the Kayanians who resided in Baikh held in great veneration the sun and moon. the brother of Abraham. Whereupon many people followed him. not leaving anything behind them but a. Ërst mentioned is . Whiist others were followed by a 10 community who kept up their institutes and used their method of dating. The Peshdâdhia.

using in their not the Via J'ost<tOttM. too. Porta. One of their monuments is the eupola over the JtfiAn~ beside the It was their place of jM<t~s~m in the great Mcsque of Damascus. and left their community. however. But. Saturn. he is not unjust. For instance.e. Pythagoras. let him go free with the sacrifice of a ram. and you return to us with two sina. Hermes the Egyptian. and that everybody who suffered from this diseaso was considered impure. however.whouscdit time of the rising of Islam. in his reply to the book of 'Abdall&h b. he does not wrong.Ucd by the names of the sun. 20 indeterminable. 187 futile stories. and that the worahippers of those images belon~ed to their community. that 40 the Ka'ba and ita iini'ges originally belonged to them. whcu the Muslims made it their MosqueThey had temples and images. but that at present they are not allowed to do it in public. most of whom were Greek philosophers. aeized by wra. since a They call himby the NoMUHftF~c~etVi'nM. and Sawnr the grandfather of Plato on the mother'a side. he circumcised himself. The city of HarrAn wa'' attributed to the mooii.s. we b-now of them is that they profess monotheism and describe God as exempt from anything that is bad.c. ca. ond another village called Tovt'm.alma. that Abraham left their community simpty because leprosy a. Go away. Somo . Also 'Abd.ns. Ail. it being their custom to SMrince their children. AIzuhara. Therefore he eut off his foreskin. they say "he is description the Via JWe~ftttOKM. real description of him is excluded according to them. on *. when he heard a voice speaking to him: "0 Abraham. and -)thei's. he is invisible. And the fires they hold in great considération." but only metaphorically. the temple of Ba'al-bel: was sacred to the ido! of the Sun.th. 'IsM~ Alkindi. c. WuMs. 'Ism&'tl AlMshinu.. as that author maintains. its ancient name being ~oH<tMt-s'M.ppea." Theroupon Abraham. In this state he entered one of their idol-temples. and do not again come to us.sîh b. Agathodmmou. and seeing beings.eemg him truly repentant. worship aa long as Greeks and Romans professed their religion afterwards it passed into the hands of the Jews. he repented and wished 10 to sacrifice his son to the plamet Sa.tum.red on his foreskin. Close to Harran there are another place called Se!f)tMf'K. t'. as their churchtiUthe 80 Then it was occupied by the Christia. who made it their synagogue.ON THE EEAS OF THE PSEUDO-PEOPHETS. and excluded from ail society. aud the like of which are mentioned by 'Abu-Ma'shar Albalkhi in his book on the houses of worship. after having done it. !m(tyo ~)Htœ. speaking. i. Vencris. and that ~H<?/twas called Zuhal aud ~l~'«~f!. ~.e. which they consider as living. They have many prophets. you went away from us with ono sin. hearing. that they are notorious for their sacrificing human beings. broke the idols in pieces. it being built in thé ehape of the moon like a r(n7ftMH. t'. B&bu. relates of them. People say. The rule of the universe they attribute to thé celcstia.g.1 globe and its bodies. the forms of which are known. the Christian.

who is mentioned in the Thora as Henokh. in thé districts of Ja'far. They differ from thé Harrâmiams. AIjâmida.e. others maintain that the Harranians are not the real $abians. By this means they elicit the knowledge of the future of the man who offers thé offering. Again. the third at sun. they have voluntary prayers. not being ordered to do so. i. one for the time of sunrise with p. nor peas because they stupify and impair the intellect and originaUy grew in the skull of man. whilst others. Some of those to whom God bas given a divine code (Jews and 40 Christians) say that Methuselah had another son besides Lamech. qmdthat the ~abians derive their name from him. as they maintain.. Those remaining tribea felt themselves at. Most of their regulations about women and their penal law are similar to those of the Muslims. Their prayer ia preceded by purification and washing. Each of the inclinatione at their prayer 10 consista of three prostrations. who called himself ~t'. They offer oSerings to the stars. They aiso wash themselves after a pollution. They pretend to be the descendants of Enos the son of Seth.alsila. nor ehickens because they are always feverish. In praying. Idrîs. .. relating to pollution caused hy touching dead bodies. they turn towards the north pole. their images and temples. whilst according to others Hermes is identical with Budhâsaf.inhabiting the eastern Dart of the world and worshipping idole. and thé two Nahr.30 tracted to the rites of the Magians. They have three prayers in writing. and adopted a system Blixed up of Magism and Judaism like that of the Samaritans in Syria. Besides. in Sawâd-al'ira~. The femnants of them are at pre. the second immediately before the sun leaves the centre of heaven (the meridian) with five inclinations. and 20 practise saerinees carried out by their priests and seducers. whilst the Harraniams turn towards the south pole.t Wâsit. fearing it might be a S!h<r?M~ecfrt'cMo. For the ~aLiams are the remnajit of the Jewish tribes who remained in Babylonia. one in the second hour of the day. ~âb!) towards the religion of Nebukadnezzar. etc. and &third one in the third hour of the night. are similar to those of the Thora. another in the niuth hour of the day. set with five inclinations. blaming their doctrines and not agreeing with them except in few matters. They do not circumcise themaelves. nor garlic because it produces headache and burns the Mood or the spenna genitale on which the existence of the world depends. but those who are called in the books ~«t<tetM and J&Me<-s. and so they inclined (were inclined. they call Hermès. Before thc nmt establishment of their rites amd the appearance of B&dhasaf people were 5ajMMMot. The greatest number of them are settled a. when Cie other tribes left it for Jerusalem in thé days of Cyrns and Artaxerxes.206. even.188 ALBÎBtNÎ of them did not allow themselves to eat fish. eight inclinations. and the answer to his inquiries.

d no schism or dissension in it till the time came when Jesus rose.rûn came for\ra. We have a. What we have just mentioned regarding the division is a proof in 20 favour of the Egyptians in the matter of the T~-HitH). h<' pn"'):timed h)mself tu bo a.ns in some regarda they contained more. as well as themselves.rciun. Therefore any arguing on the subject and any interpretation are altogetber devoid of sense. their J-'arNwrM are still to be seen on thé frontier countries between Khur&~n and India.l M. the (Great whole cha. when thrown off its ptMp. God knows best ]ij[m~–Aft<'). flying in an infinito oac~HMt. did not go so far as to separate them and 40 their followers from the bulk of the Christians.irea. and the heginning of the chapter on Ba. Christians. which they divide into four periods.isan maintained that the I~M of God was residing in his own heart.rda. for we. nor were their gospels in all matters different from that of the Christia. Jf. and maintain that its duration is of 10 one million of years. But others of them believe that the world his been ereated (within time). and go on to state that the Persians adhered to the Magian religion of Zarâdusht. China. part from what heard the word of Jesus. We think they will dispute with us on the astronomical interpretation wepropose. in others less. whilst Ptolemv reckons it as 266 years.457.f.isan are missing. and declared everything else to be a lie..radusht. they had heard the dogma of the eternal doctrine. the existence Pt'tMCt~M. On having acquainted himsfif with the doctrices uf j the Magians. 189 the people of sent in India.Da. !HCMNO. goes in a circular motion.rd. They believe in the cternity of time and the migration of souls. . that they ha. call them Ehur&san idols. and his pupils the Gospel.ptcr on Za. ¡ are familiar with the science of the subjeet. Their monuments.307.0~ THE EBAS 0F THE FSErDO-t'ROFHETS. and both one of them the countries.dy said before that the time between Alexander and ArdasMr is longer than 400 yeara. a containing separate systems of them two Each of the produced a gospel.B~rditisAn a. and Du~Usts.n. For according to them the duration of the ï'~x. as they say. and have endeavoured to settle this question of chronology. We return now to our subject.). the first ~a< thousand the ~«rea four hundred years.that therefore downward since anything that is ronnd. So eaeh of them derived from both from Za.) So he geta the sum of 3. spread through 30 BMdaisân and Marcion were among those who followed his call and Part they took from him.7t<!)of their the B<tA")-cs S)ia)HaHt?H.'MMS of Venus in Pisces is 400 years. Ibn. T he end of the chapter on BùdMsa. they tllink that the globe of thé universe is it bas a rotatory motion. origin of which he traced back to thé Messiah. p.radusht. When they thus spread through all the world preaching came to Persia. and among the yf'n. The difference. however.u)/ thé pupil of Fnda.

Thereupon this revelation bas come down. to give as alma thé tithe of their property. the messenger of the God of truth to Babylonia. to hurt the fire. however. to suppress cupidity and lust. to live in monogamy. if a man felt ni. preaching his doctrines and guiding people into the right path. viz. have not found in what 1 have rea. this prophecy in this last age througb me. in the year 527 of the era. abstinent in it.lms as much as possible. to prefer poverty to riches. So in one age they have been brought by the messenger. he fnrther forbade sexual intercourse. and to give a. and to remove everything that troubles and pains them. the -<t ~~œt~W. their followers and adherents who have to do with worldly affaira. in another by Zarâdusht to Persia. He received the first divine revelation in his 13th year. to India. and plants. Mun! was born in a village called Ma.temect in his book Shabûr~m. His doctrines regarding the existence and the form of the world are contradicted by the resulta of scientific arguments and proofs. the 10 last of them).e.e. water. I. He eatab~ished laws which are obligatory only for the S!'<Hi~ i.rdtnû on the upper canal of Kûthâ. called Buddha. and ordered them continually to wander about in the world. in another by Jesus to thé West.190 ALBÎBÛX!. to ahmdon the world. and as proof of this they relate that every Manicheam used to be accompanied by a young. clined. in the chapter on the coming of the prophet. in the 4th year of 40 the king Adharbân.Knd of thé spirit of life. viz. to fast during the seventh part of life-time. ~~mo Astronomorum ~oty!oMt<B539. 80 Some people maintain that he allowed pederasty. beardiess and hairlesa servant. Thia part of chronology we have already tried to correct in the chapter preceding that of the duration of the rule of the Ashkaniams and the~MM& <t~(HMt' . continually to fast. Mîtnî. Other laws he imposed upon the ~MMKa' (laymen). in the 2nd year of Ardaahîr.e. the Bjmg of Eings. ArdasMr." In his gospel. prophet. He forbade them to acquire any property except food for one day and dress for one year. He taught that light and darkness are without beginning and end. to befriend the ~fM~e (saints). He absolutely forbade his followers to slaughter animals and to hnrt them. acording to his own sta.nichseans. t. He preached of the empire of the worlds of light. and that he is the seal of the prophets (i. ie.he says: "Wisdom and deedshave aiways from time to time been brought to mankind by the messengera of God. of the np<aro. for the saints and a. to be 20 p.d of his books a word indicating anything of this kind. of the Babyloniam astronomers.*Af6pMro!.which he composed for Shâpûr b.208.scetics among the Ma. which he arranged according to the twenty-two lettera of the alphabet. he says that he M the Paraclete announced by Messiah. even his life proves the contmry of this assertion. In the beginning of his boak called SAatKt-MM. Nay.

te.ta atftv thprp for «nme davs. that 20 6a. his gospel. When he ea. the Shabur!. until the time when BahT:\m b. in Mp boo~ on to VahyK b. According Co~t'oMS ~e MK of the Magians.ns. 191 thé ChnstM~.me to believe in him when he had ascended with him towarda and they had been standing in thé air between heaven and heaven.mma~an countries.m say that Shapûr banished him out of bis empire. made him witness a miracle. t'M<i<e))so He mMntainpd that he bad exptahied treatises. before anything of his piMS sbould It is well known that he killed M)m!.'descend to them. Mânî. and died in prison.ninnf). he said This man has come forward found calling be had him. except 80 the community in Samarkand. and hung it up at the gâte of Gundîsapnr. that he was put in prison on aecount of a relative of the king who believed that he was possessed by the devil. and relating that he only informed people of thé signs and wonders indicative of the coming of the Messiah a. Hnrmuz )() and Hurmuz He gave 'orders to xparch for Mnn!. some remnants that are considered as Manichœa. to begin by deIt will be necessary people to destroy thé world.nd doctrine. of the people of China and Thibet and some of the Hindus. (TXesaMHfS . H. the Bock of Books.nd his coinpanions. we have to state that most of thé eastern Turks.209.fU). adhère still to Ms law a. into thé street. faithful to the law of Zaradnsht whieh . and when ascended the throne. Jtbr&t b. filled it which is even with grass.me forward. the Christian. M&nî had promised to cure him." MMuchœa. pa. mti-cte. and many what had only been hinted at by thé Nessiah. he realized. in whieh he relates the fate of Man!. réfutation of the Christians." stroying him.zdanbal:ht's one of Mnui's pupils composed a book. thereby. Shâpûr. Hurmuz also killed a number of the still known as the MHm-ga. Besides. known by the name of &!&t'ans. Manichteism increased by degrees b.nr! 1 have heard the Iapahbadh Marzubân ben Rusta. Nuh. ynHZ-a?')'Ayt? the Bock of the Giants. Of his adherents. that he should be a warning example to others. mMY people believed in him and followed him.n are still extant they are scattered throughout thé world and do not live together in any particular place of Muhammadan countries. and his body was thrown p.ys in his reply to Ya. his son Shâpûr under Ardash!r. whilst the other party maintains that he in fact work-?'t signs and miracles. and tliat the king Shâpûr ca. they relate that he sometimes used to rise to heaven from among his comthen to r. but when he could not effect it.EMt'Mca~'oMt's). one party maintaining that he never worked a. He composed many books. Regarding their prophet Man! they hold two différent opinions. His head was exposed before the entrance of the royal tent. Ain~'man. Mam was called by the Christians P~etttts. As regards non-Muha.PROPH~TS. jn earth. he was chained hand and foot. stripped off his skin.ON THE ERAR 0F THR PSEUOO.

e.re speaMng?" They 30 answered "We are speaking just as He spoke.doing people. a native of Ntsa.–Thereaponcame forward a man called Jfa~t<!aiHen Barno. Greeting unto those who foUow the right guidance etc. and preached thei-e his Afterwards h returned. by fitting together the wings of birds.To Muhammad the Prophet of God.. h. He taught that both property and women belonged in common to all. One half of the earth belongs to us and one half to ~uraish But the Kumish are evil.) MTsa. eut off. And the end will be in favour of the pious. Kob&dh.jf(t<~a<7/t." The people of Ta. So Manî went off to India.Missing.«] come. by means of similar feathera. NazMak. who managed to concoct this system.. God has made me partake with thee in thé rule. the end of Mazhdak and beginning of MusaUima. China. i. this Mazhdak was a cunning sort of man.mâm& let themselves be deluded by him by such tricks as introducing an egg tha.Batr AIsiddi~ . was seized by Bahr&m and killed for gospel.192 AMÎRÛNÎ." Mazhdak did as he wished. and ordered her to be handed over (Z<Mt<K<t.r into a glMsbottle. and to come forward with it simply bee~use he knew that Xobadh wa~ charmed by a woman who was the wife of his MMin and that for this reason EobMh hastened to adopt it.t had been soaked in vinega. He preached Dualism and opposed ZajMnsht in many points. But some of the Persians maintain that his adhesion was a compulsory one. The earth belongs to God. too. Eob&dh said Your enterprise shall not succeed 20 unlesa you make me master of the mother of An&shirwan. since hM reign was not safe against the mass of the followers of Mazhdak. 1 Bhould behead both of you. The Banû Ha~f&kept possession of Yamâma until Musailima was killed by Khâlid b." Then he gave them his answer: "From Muhammad the Prophet of God to Musailima the liar. ~fM?!. which he had previously ~) p. MazbdaJ: ordered him to abatain from sacrincing cattle before the naturat term of their lit. he gives it as an inheritance to whomsoever of his servants he pleases. Alwa.aima. and Thibet. He imposed upon Mm the obligation never to return. Greeting unto thee etc." Thereupon the "If it was not the custom not to kill Prophet said messengers. and by such-like humbug and swindle. as he had thereby forfeited his life. So he found innumeritHe 10 followers. broken the having stipulation. He waa J~!t<&<t~<:H. chief-justice during the reign of EoMdh ben Fêrôz. believed in him. again. demands the expulsion of pseudo-prophets from the country. To these the Prophet said: What is it you a. that 1 may enjoy her." This letter he sent off with two messengers.210. According to others.l!d in the year when 'Abn.

one relating to the resurrection and last judgment. and told people that he had witnessed him desceuding from heaven. place called Sîr&wamd. Which their Lord nught infiict upon them. They did not guard against the punishment.e. one in praise of the one God." Before Musailima in the time of heathendom thé Banû Hanîfa. and from waat. that God had inapired him. This man he told that he had been in heaven during his absence from them. and had sent him down upon earth in that sa. one of the districts of N!sMpûr. He maintained that he secretly received divine revelationa. a mixture of dates. the founder of the 'AbMaide dynasty. but he believed in Zarâdusht. one 40 relating to those in heaven and hell and what is prepared for them. peasant who was ploughing part of his field." Bahaûrid b. had dresaed him in that shirt. N&M~Mhin. So a poet of the Banû Tam!m said The Banû ~tanifa. came forward a man called ~a&n~)-M60} JtfnA/)')M~~t in Ehwaf. amd claimed for his fouowers all the institutes of Za. 10 From wMch they were suffering already a long time. have eaten their Lord for hunger. Then they lamented his death in verses one of the Banû Ham!fa. when he came forward as a prophet and preached his knew doctrine. had got an idol of /~a~ (. and dried curd). o*Abu-Thum&ma." Another said: Thé H:m!f&ahave eaten their Lord At the time of want and hunger.ON THE ERAS OF THE PSBPDO.. in a. and he established seven prayers for his followers. But once. In the beginning 20 of his ca. Then he returned.radusht. He ordered them to worship thé substance of the aun. He differed from the Magians in most rites. 193 succeeded. could be held in the gra~p of a human hand so thin and flexible was it. and in praying 13 .being a native of Zûzan. I<u<'t'ling on one knee. which they worahipped for a long time. sa. whcn folded up. they devoured it. and one in praise of the people of paraditie. he waa observed hy a. ajid brought with him among other Chinese curiosities a green shirt which. So he found many adherents among the Magians. one relating to thé creation of heaven and earth.ya "Alas for thee. butter.' i [Thou WMt] like the sun beaming forth from a cloud. that heaven and hell had been shown unto him.PBOFHBTa. and when he thence descended in the morning.–There~ponin thé days of 'Ahu-MuaHm. He composed for them a book in Persian. one relating to the création of the auimala and to their nourishment. The peasant believed his 80 words. being pressed by hunger.reer he disappeared and betook himself to China for seven yeara. one relating to death.me hour. He went up to a temple during the night.

in a village e:dled KâwaJcfmardan. the subject bas been exhaustively treated in my Itiatory of the ~ruba. called AthaH~Thereupon . Shu'ba. So he sent 'Abdallâh b. but finally he was besieged and killed A. called the . known AbmïktHUUt'Thereupon by the name of . When 'Abû-MusIim came to NiaMpûr. not to eat the flesh of animals that have died a sudden death M not having p. sisters. always to turn towards the sun whcrever he might be. He seattered the armies of Almahd!.BaM/H-Mtyya.tm. keep still the institutes of their founder and strongly oppose the ~i.d told them that the prophet had ascended into heaven on a common dark-brown horse. Further. They maintain that the servant of their prophet ha. and ail his followers of whom he could get hold.b. There is still a sect in TranBOxiana who practise hia religion. His followers. and the I~armatians. and that he had incarnated himself. been killed according to prescription. and the property and women (of his enemipa) he delivered up to 30 them. He entered into correspnndence with the Ehâkân and Mlieited his help. nieces. to fetch him. in consequence. 169. who put him to death. he did not succeed in annihilating hie it was found in the oven.MmMamong the Magians. who was then in Ha. he ordered them to keep roads and bridges in good condition by means of the seventh part of their property and of the revenue of their labour.211. not exceed the sum of four hundred dirhams as dowry.f. since before incamation nobody could see God. came forward Hâshun b. Ho made obligatory for them all thé laws and institutes which Mazhdak had established.~mt~MMMt'. but 40 only secretly. not to sacrifice smaU cattle except they be already decrepit. in Marw.y as he 20 ascended and will take vengeance on his enemies. came forward a $ûf: of Persian origin. and roted during fourteen yeara. to let their hair aud looks grow. because he had only one eye. and that he will again come down to them in the same wa. not to marry their mothers. He used to veil himself in green silk. Being surrounded on all sides he burned himself. daughto tera. The sect of the JMc~ and the Turks gathered round him.194 ALBÎRÛNÎ. not to drink wine. ~atnn. to give up the ~!tHmm<t at dinner. that his body might be annihilated. and his head vas eut off and sent body to the XhaHf AJmahdî. He caught him in the motmtadns of Bâdaghîs and brought him before 'Abû-MusIim. He maintained that he was Ctod. However. and.la. The history of Almu~anna* 1 have tranalated from the Persian into Arabic. the Maubadhs and Herbadhs M assembled before him telling him that this man had infected Islam as well as their own religion. his followers might see therein a confirmation of his claim of being God. killing everybody who opposed him.H. whilst in public they profess Islâm.vv)da. He passed the river Oxus and went to the districts of Eash and Nasa.

O?) THE EBA8 OP THE PSE~DO-PBOPBETS. He was a juggler and artful sort of man." He composed booka on the subject of his preaching. who hopes for thus and thy mercy. 0 thou who knowest all mysteries!–spettks thus.H. but he contrived to get out of it 'again. He was the nrst to preach thé coming in Dailam. the Srat He. parading the streets. 1 bear witness p." And his followers began their letters to him in thia way "Fta. In that book it is also mentioned that Aldajjâl. Somewhere in the bo. he ordered the executioner to give him a thousand lashes. the Khal!f AhnnMa~ij-bill&h laid hands upon him.hd!. who Aihusain b. believing that he is alive and resides in the mountain Badwâ. the window from which the light shines. the perfection of all delights. *AK. 'Abî-'Ubaid Altha. Nay.Eh&-JiMtM-~M~tMJfM! ~&<tf. the seducer. exyx'ct tbe comin~ «f Atftufy&mwho is mentioned in the MctMMw. to eut off bis bande and feet am-1 to behead him. Then he was put into prison. A remna. the original origin. and he that dwelling Holy Further. and say that he will issue from Tâla~an. the light-giver.lae unto thee. when Ahnukhtâr b. he would como from that TMaMn Alma. will issue from the district of Isfahân. 0 sublime being. the JEïMtand the ~tM6-J<tmm-< the . mixing himself his views. During the whole esccution he did not utter a syllable nor distort his face nor move his lips. Even in our time people expect the Mahdi to come. thy wretehed and poor one. 0 gréât. and in thia our time in the figure of Thy slave. 'Abdallah. who is represented in every shape-to his slave N. who reveaJs himself in every time and age. the beaming and shining light. up with every human being according to his belief and in the Ghost was him. the proof of aJl proofs. AIhana.kafi called people to rally round Muhammad b. Manaûr! seeks help with thee. and maintained that this was the predicted Mahdî. 0 heing of all beings.hdî.)]! it is said that he will be Muhammad b.212.Bt of his followers who are called after him is still extant. that thou art the eternal creator. the Lord of the Mountain (Sina. A. 195 10 20 30 ~0 of . N. preached he called himself God. who raisea the clouds. His letters to hia followers bore thé following superscription: "From the He.nyya. Of this same Mahdi it is said in the -KtM6-~tK<!H~tm that he will fill the earth with justice as it heretofore bas been filled with injustice.yya.~MMi'M ben JtM~Mf ~?~??'?). they preaeb thé coming of Alma. Likewise the Banù'Ifma. eg. whilst astrologers maintain tha. the Lord of the Lords.t he will 13 . the eternal. he produced as a testimony an authentic tradition. and burnt his body. maintaining him through They seized upon him and led him into Baghdad. elsewhere that he will be Muhammad b. who fiies for refuge to thee. then they besprinkled him with natta. and threw the ashes into the Tigris.i). 301.

Aiso in the Gospel you nnd mentioned the signa that will foreshow his coming. a man who ia stupidiy partial to Magism and who hopes for an age in wMeh .Bco-f. he shculd be dragged on Ms face over a distance of forty yards. ne ~M<o m<~M penm im~tHet-e~ If anybody infringed this rule. suspended it afterwards in the Mosque of Kûfa.. and they followed him. If. 1. he cursed all the prophets of former times and their companions.–but with this restriction. 'Abû. him originally forward. Historians relate that 'Umar ben AUbattab on was met by the Jews of Damascus. whereupon they Miswered: "He will bo one of the tribe of Benjamin. for they were artful deceivers and on the wrong path. and then he returned home. Those who would not practise pederasty were 30 killed by the butcher. Tûhir Sulaimân b. thé tongue of everybody who extingmahed it by blowing to have intercourse with young men. issue from the island of . are They wrong. as we team from MAr Theodorus. a young man of bad character. Likewise 'Abû-'AbdaUah A!'M! h~ been mistakon. in his commentary on the Gospel." and more of that sort. He slaughtered him. Ho ordered them to worship and honour the fires. as regards the restoration of the empire to the Magians.H. In such a conditon they remained till God gave during him into the power of that man who had eighty days. Ilm '~t-Zft~ a native of Tamâm.196 ALBÎBÛNÎ. We adjure do not return until you conquer it. this be the time which Jâmasp and Zarâdusht meant. and so their schemes tumedbrought back upon their own necks.H. 0 nation of the Arabs. the Bishop of Mopsoeste. 20 Ibm Abi-Zakariyya. Bahrâm AJjannâM marched out and reaehed Makka A. OFârnk! Thou art the Lord of~!Iia. For this at the happened end of ~!ra Alexandri 1242." In the times after AIhaUâj the ~amnatiams rose into power. however. 319 came forward p. they 40 are right as far as chronology is concerned. They spo~e thus: entering Syria "Greeting to thee. which 1 hâve su&eientîy related in my history of the Mubawida and the ~armatians.?'~four hundred and sixty-Bix yeara after Yazdagird ben Shahry&r. 318 he killed in an atrocious way the people who were passing round the circuit of the Ka'ba. 'AM. he took the Mack smashed away stone. a male prostitute. now.213.Sa'id Athasan b.-On thé Ist Ramadan A. to wash them and to nU them with wine to eut off the hand of everybody who exttnguished the fire with hia hand. he carried oS the garments and the corpses golden implements of the Holy House." He asked them as to theebyGod. in Christian books. and destroyed its aqueduct. Ee called upon people to recognise him as the Lord. Aldajjâl. and threw the into the weU Zamzam. he ia called 'A~~pMrro!. you will kill him at a distance of ten to twenty yards from the gate of Lydda. In Greek.500 years after Zarâdusht. it. He ordered them to eut open the stomachs of thé dead. JO you. ie. By God.

kariyya) the Karma. to the Turks and Chazare.r. who are a Ehurâs&nî. B~sides he a. mise each other regarding the restoration of the rule to the Persians.wân of the Greeks.f! and Almutttadir. he will do away with all evil. according to his prophecies. both dynasties (Dailamites as well as Abbasides) are alike far from renewing the rule of the Persians and farther atill from restoring their ancient religion. 197 10 20 30 40 Aïka'im is to . Wliilat the othera will burn in fire and hell. a. They promised each other the coming of him who is exto come during the 7th conjunction under a fiery Tf~o~om. pected so that 'Abû-T&hir Sulajmân b. Besides. an eastern dynasty. That time ~hich this man indicates must of necessity refrr to Almuirta. 1 do not know why they preferred the Dailamite dynasty. AIhasam says on f~ subject: The most glorious beneËt 1 bestow on you wiU be my return to Ha. Now. although the doings of the Buwaihi family were Dot like those of the ancient kings. he will unite all mankind in one religion and under one rue.tppHH. Then.tiajis believed in some dogmaa of the Esoterics. and will rule during 7~ conjnBction". considered as adherents of the family of the blessed House (of 'Alî).214. As far aa the J~aira. When Mars rises from Babylonia. whilst thé fact of the transitus into a.e]' that one who is ruling in the 17th conjunction. Then he will praise my exploits and approve of what he ordered. For he bas composed a book on the cycles and conjunctions. Before thé appearance of that youth (Ibn 'Abî Za. Buwaihi called 'ImadThis is what people used to proalda. my dweHing-pIa~. bewa. were to have taken place after their time. Then.jaj. ~)-~ rr)'~o)Mm is the most evident proof indicative of thé Abbaside dynasty. the rule over Dailam was seized by 'Ali b. during fiery conjunctions. whieh is Now he maintains that presided over by Saturn and Sagittarius.nd they were p.t'. When the Ttoo j8'~)-shave left him. then beware. People say that the Sasanian rule existed during fiery conjunctions. but it has not brought about those cTenta which.re 1 Is it not I who is mentioned in all the seriptures i' ? Is it mot 1 who is described in the Sûra ~&!)tNMt)' ? 1 shall rule the people of the earth.bia.sserta that no Ara. in which he says that thé 18th conjunction since the birth of Muhammad coincides with the lOth millennium. And 1 shaH live until the coming of Jesus the son of Mary. no dou))t. east and west. verily the news will reach you. then a man wiU corne forward who will restore the ruie of Magiam he will occupy the whole world. will do away with the ruto of the Arabs and others.ula.ii prince will rule a. after a while.e will be in paradise.OX THE ERAS OP THE PSEUPn-PBOPHUTS." .

'Al! b. Thereupon came forwaid a man called J~tt '~H!oeM~)). and compoaed a. relating to the abrogation of the rites.b. too): which he called Me 6th &!Me. him. He maintained that the Holy Ghost was dwelling in ShaJumgMn.t98 ALB~~Nt. (The end c/tM ct~er and flle 6fy.<) .<!awy o/e~by/otc/N~ are )H)Mf').

aJld thé birds were busy in hia service.y are the hours of tho aun. and when he again dcsceuded to earth the swallow came brmgiD~ some water in his beak.me of God who has crea. 0 that we had Naurôz every da. and so it did. !&). whieh is the na." So Sotomon did. Please. Persian schola. Then thé Persians sa.kd. On its morning. Ali'adt relates Un the mountain Da. thé princes came before in him. The happiest hours of this da. produced. It is a "j))'e/e<'o&!e" day beeause it is called Hurmuz. turn a.uruz there is observed a far-spreadin~ and strung-shining light- .and said. the new day has corne. he at once regained his former majesty.id.t'ng the création. and reared the world and its inhabitants. formed.nd do uot smash them. Naurôz.e.side a.rdîn-M&h.urôz.'idb. dawu ia the shortest possible. p. and sa.use of the wa.mit in FArs every ni~ht of Na.rs say tha-t in thé day of Naurôz there is an hour in 20 whieh the sphcre of Fêrôz is driven on by the spirits for the purpose of renova. and it is considered as a good omen to look at this dawn. and made him a present of the foot of a locust.t<. Solomon ordered the wind to carry him. but was reinstated after forty Y days.) and he divided the cup among his companions.) (1. ~MM <!HMf& i. ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE PERSIANS. This is the ca.215.y A philosopher of the Hashwiyya~sehool relates that when Solomon the son of David had lost his seal and his empire.id.199 CHAPTER IX. of whose kindness and charity nobody could describe evn a part. "0 Hug. Then a swallow met him. which he spruiMed before the king. (Faj'wa.Iha.r-sprinHing and of the presents on Naurôz. Therefore that day was called Na.ve got a nest with little eggs in it.

and thev amused themselves with swinging in order to imitate Jamshid.t the time when they practised interca.aMa. having already befcre been held in great veneration. Now 1 said to 'Abû-AIfajaj. and that t ère are innumerable fires and lights which appear on the west side of the Tigris. does not this phenomenon remain bactr behind Naurôz P Or if it M not necessary that it should reBM. the following o&. the mathematician. told me that he had witnessed it together with a number of other people who went to ~alw&dh& in that year when 'Adud. Jamshid succeeded. then. that thé sugar. although one does not feel inclined to believe thé thing without having seen it.-that he. eat on a golden throne and was thus carried away by the men on thoir necka.ne which dropped Borne of )~ juice.la. 40 According to ÂdharMdh.cane was first discovered during the reign of Jam on thé day of Naurôz. opposite Ea. The d~y of Naurôz recèdes from its proper place in conséquence of tLq Persians neglecting intercalation. in every state of the weather.b&wand to Babel. theMa'~adh of BaghdMh.inbehind. the reason is this. they found out wa~ this. The charm-mongera say He who thrice sips honey on Naurôz in 20 p.nla.200 ALBÎRÔKÎ.. tastcd it. and the Jinna and Dëws carried him in one day through the air from Da. and as soon as they went away the fires came nearer. The Sultan had there posted his guards to find out 10 the truth in order not to be deceived by the Magians. entered Baghd&dh.216. having before been unknown. Ail. the da. however. When. Then it was made a feast day. Naurôz. they did homage to him and were full of joy and made that day a fcast day.Iwadha.th. on having obtained the carriage. Why. and his work.ij)tn. the morning before speaking. Then he otjeled tho juice of the sugar- . ning. that the Snbiama arose during the reign of Ta. For Jam on seeing a juicy cr. ascended it on this 80 day. When. was called New-Day. in that night with the morning of which Naurôz begins.te of whieh was a. On Naurôz it was the custom for people to présent each other sugar. a. whother the sky be clear or covered with clouda. 'AbQ-alfaraj Atzanjâni.a.hmûra.tioni"' Upon which he could not give a satisfactory answer. when wishing to enter Âdhaj1. One Persian scholar adduces as the rcason why this day wa~ called Naurôz. he renovated the religion. did it then faJ! earlier a. StiU more curious than this are the fires of Kalw&dM. theu. Another account of the reason why it was made a feast day ia this. the rays of the sun fell on him and people saw him. will be safe against all diseases. and perfumes hia room with three pieces of wax.nd found that it had pn agreeable sweetncss. that JajnsMJ. Now people made this day a feast day on account of the wonder which they had seen during it. then. that as soon as they came neajer to the fires they went farther off. Another report says that Jam was going about in the country.

in whatsoever place of the earth the observation be made. 201 came to be pressed out and sugar to be made thereof.urôz. and then they made each other présents of sugar. mentioned before. bas receded from its original proper place. is thé Great Na. and EuiHntsi'a. 1 meMiNa. Therefore it is more proper to p.scenf'ed into tho air.stes sugar on the morning of ¡ . They have adopted the time of the summer-solstice as the beginning of the year for this reason in particular. On the other hand the two equinoctial da.s proBted something thereby. Whencc it ha. solstice is nea~'er to the zenith of the northern countries.rdîn. On the 6th of Fa. tha. for the Persians a fea. nioreover.use a variation of the level shadow takes place uotwithsta. And if the perpendicula. On this day-they sa. or occurred very nea.y to dress their wa. gather the taxes at this time than at any other. and buows how to place and how to use the instru20 ments of observation.pted for marking the beginning of the year than the equinoctial points." T!tc chM-Jtt-mongeM s~y He who ta. that the two sotstitia. so that in our time it coincides with the sun's entering the sign of Aries. and the level shadow at the winter-solstice.st of great importance.ye.u a.y of the solstice. And this nobody will find out unless he studios ast-'on~my and ha. On this God crea.y–they sa.me day the l'appy lots atc distributt'd a. the day EhurdMh.ne earth. On thé sa. uniess you have found beforehajtd the latitude of the place and the (?<.nding the small amount of declination. It was roady on the fifth day.rwa. This day. which is the beginning of spring.ON THE FESTIVALS IX THE MONTHS OF THE PEKSIAXS. because the rising of Sirius coincided in 30 bygone times with this solstice. Therefore the solstitial points a~e better ada.Me)'< J')fc~'tM<oM. for it is thé last ot thé six days. On the sinue d!). Many of the seholars and sages of the Grceks observed the horoscope at the time of the rising of Sirius and commenced the ycar at that tune.r 10 shadow at the summer-solstice isobserved.r it.m mg thé pcople of <.urôz.t it ia the time of the ripening of the corn.t-points are casier to be ascertained by the help of instruments and by observa~ tion than the equinoctial points. Therefore the Persitms call it < .s become the eustom of the princes of Ehurusan on this da. cajmot be ascertained.y– thé S'co-t~(!)-Œ</tM~f(B came to hold communion with God. The same was also the custom on Mihnun. beca. though he may be entirely ignorant in geometry and astrononty. And as thc stimmer. the observer cannot possibly mistake the da.217. not with the vernal equinox. for the former are thé beginning of the advance of the sun towards one of the two poles of the universe and of his turnmg away from the muic pole. if the H<&/ ia considerable.rriors in spring -and summer-dresses. therefore its most lucky hours 40 are those of Saturn. ppople preferred it to the wintcr-solstice for this reason.?~ hope.tcd Saturn.y– God finished thé creation.

and anoints himself with oil. and from their growth they drew conclusions regarding the corn of that year.202 ALBtBÛNÎ. :. And everybody planted barley in a vessel or somewhere else. So people said !-o~-t-tM!t. His behaviour towards the people was such as pleased God. In the time of Jam the population incre&sed a.Me tinn of the next year. . Now people were astonished at the rising of two suns. Then people retumed into a state of justice and prosperity and were freed from that trial.t such a rate that the earth could no longer contain them therefore God made the earth thrice as large as it had been before. ordering them to destroy the old temples and not to build a new one on that day. and that thé water was led into them on this day. so that people could not satisfy their hunger nor quench their thirot and he had prevented the 10 wind &'om blowing. and washed themselves in the water that was sent them (by the channels).t 40 their prosperity. On the same day Ja.20 t. and remained there for some time until he had extingnished that plague. Then came-by the command and under the guidance of God-Jam to the southern region. his sister's son.nt nowera in his hand Is seen on the mountain Bûshanj he is visible for one hour and then disa. proclamation to those who were present. He (Jam) ordered people to wash themselves with water in order to clean themselves of their sins. On the morning of t! . Under such circumstamcea Jam returned to the world (i.e. considering it as a good omen. Ever since.ppeare.e. Others. from envy and frailty. who rewarded him by delivering his people from diseases and décrépitude.rched towards the residence of 'Iblîs and of his followers.te seven kinds of grain on seven columns. and does not reappear until tho sa. Some people maintain that Jam ordered channels to be dug.f. M though he shome like the sun. again. So tho trees withered up and the world was near to utter decay.I effect. No being was sick or died. a new day. 30 p. and wrote to those who were absent. Eran) and rose on that day like the sun.msMd issued n. and sorro~-s and disa~ters.b had ruined ail the dw~Uings of Erânshahr. who killed Jam and subdued his realm. amd to do so every year that God might keep them aloof from the eala. He ma.218. the light beaming forth from him. as long as he ruled-until the time when Bêwarasp. appeared.mities of the year. ~?Mft! For thc cursed 'IbJis had deprived eating and drinking of their benencia. and all dried-up wood became green. maintain that he who let the water into the channela was Zu. will keep off all sorts of mishap during the greater part of this same year. Therefore people rejoiced a. whether it would be good or bad.s day. a silent person with a bundle of fra. this day before speaking.gra. and in this respect the later générations have considered it a good omen to imitate the former ones. it haa been the custom on this day to sow around a pla. after Afrasia. Zâdawaihi says that the cause of this was the nsing of the sun from the southern région.

2U3 According to another view. the second for the nobility. According to another report. whcN JamshH. and all the documents to which the royal seal was to be applied were sealed.e. the angel of the water. On the same day they used to prépare all the neeessafy paper and the hides on which their despatches to the provinces of the empire were written. brought them the good news of which wo have spoken. Therefore people rose on this day carlv. and went to the water of thé aqueducts and wells. and bestow benents upon them. Frenuentty. In these nve days it was the eustom of the Eisras that the king opened the Na. 30 the fifth for the people. but that they got copious t'ai]]. i. On the same day people sprinkie water over cach othpr. tho c~use of the washing is this–that this day is sacred to HarûdM. On the fourth day it was for his family. highest Maubadhs. this water-sprMdmg simply ho]ds the place of a puriSca. and for the members of the great familief. So everybody received the rank and distinction he was en- . and on the fifth da. and the sixth for the herdsnn'n. The man who connected the two Naurôz with each other is said to have been Hormuz ben Shâpûr the Hero. thé reason was this–that during a long time the rain was with10 held from Erunsha-hr. since they consume all unwholesome elements in the air and dissolve and sca. After the time of Jam the kings made this whole month.0\ THE FËST!YALS fN THE MOXTHS dp THE PKRStAXS. Besides he ordered fires to be kindled on high places. beca. On the third day the session wa. who stands in relation to the water. having ascended the throne. at the rising of dawn.. According to another explanation. they drew runnmg water in a vase. Such a document waa called Bs~Hf?Mtt)o~7. The first five days were feast days for the princes. Fa.use he considered it a good omen. his relations and domcstics.urôz and then proclaimed to aU that he would hold a 40 session for them. Therefore they considered thc rain a good omen. considering thia a good omen aud a means to keep off hurt. too. of which thé cause is said to be thé same as that of the washing.tion. On the second day the session was for men of high rank. Besides it serves the purpose of removing from the air that corruption which produces epidemie and other diseases. aud for the purpose of purifying the air.rwardm-Mah. the fourth for their clients. distributed over its six parts. one festival.y it was for his children amd clients. which has remained among them as a custom. and poured it over each other.sfor his warriors.tter those miasmata that produce corruption. for he raised to festivals all the days between the two Naurôz. :'y which people eleansed their hodies from the smoke of the fire and from the dirt connected with attending to the fires. and poured it over themseh-ea.<. and for the p. the third for the servants of the princes. On the same day Jam brought forward all kinds of mcasures there20 fore the kings considered Ms way of counting as of good omen.

" or according to another explanation. On the 3rd. !< eïpressing yourself by whispering. so called on account of the identity of the name of the month and the day. what relieved. When the sixth d:ty came and he had done justice to all of them.204 AMÎRÛxt. On the Mth.Up when such dreams occur as will be fulfilled one day and when ail angels and démons enjoy themselves. the last of wMoh is the last day of the month. The word ArdîhaJusht means <~& M <~e best. arranged according to those who had pr~sented them. The 17th is the da. he celebrated Naurôz for himself and converaed only with his spécial friends and those who were admitted into his privaey. not by clear speech. it lasts five da. In these daya God created the earth. ?<-utmost of good.y of Serôsh. speaking not being allowed during prayer. when thé time ia agreea. and the birds to sing when the sick man begins to rest. and the sorrowful to feel some. Thrice in the night he rises above the world then he smites the Jmna and drives off the sorcerers he makes the night shine 20 The air is getting cold. or Ardîbahisht-Rôz. and thé lust of sexual intercourse begins to bum in aJI ~nimaJs. A similar feast-day they have got in every month. the true man from the liar. and deposited what he liked in bis treasury. Then he ordered to be brought before him thc whole amount of présents. who first ordered the ~tBiMma. ArdibaMsht-Mâh. This Gahambâr is called J'M<M&<~Mt- . According to another authonty. there ia a feast. now.rkhûrâ. This day is a blessed day in every month. thé cocks begin crowing. or Ashtadh-Hoz.U angels against the Jimns and sorcerers. The 26th. titled to. God bas ordered him to wateh over thèse elements to remove the weaknesses and diseases by drugs and nourishments to distinguish truth from fatsehood. distributed of them what he liked. when the traveller travels in safety." ArdîbaJusht is the genius of fire and light both elements stand in relation to him. He is also said to be Gabriel. the ~mMMM is intendud to prevent the breath of the mouth from touching the food. He is the most powerful of a. For they said 10 prayers. they express themselves by whispers and signs. Thus 1 was told by the geometrician Âdha. the water sweet bnUiajitIy by his appearance. One of his three risings is the rising of dawn. the flowers to grow. whilst handing to each other the food. or Fa. and obtained those rémunérations and benefits whioh ho had deserved. is the firat day of the third Gahanb&r. praised and celebrated God. there is a feast called -KtyMtn-fh~t on Mcount of the identity of the name of the day and of the month in 30 which it lies. when the plants begin to thrive. because Serôsh is the name of that angel who watches over the night.rwajdîn-Bôz. by 60 means of those oaths that are manifest in the Avasta.ys. He considered them. ~r~oAM&tf~aK.

and to keep off all impure substances from the water. On the 13th. thé 10 last day of which is the last of the month. The 6th day." Har'ûdha is the genius instrueted to watch over thé growth of the création. but 1 have detcr30 mined to sacrifice it for you.~ to grind the wheat and to bake the bread because the wheat was late in ripening. of the trees and plants. It is called ~~M~KM-CaA. there is a feast so called on account of the identity of the name of the month andTîntgan. T!r-Mâh. unripe as they were. The meaning of thé name is"the stabit. a noble. pious. Ansh stepped forward. tr<mk of a nut-tree that was so large that there had never been a tree like it in the world. there is a feaat called C<M~M~a)-. one is this.000 Farsakh. and while besieging Minôeihr in Tabaristan. is a feast EhurdAdhngnn. have been established by Zoroaster.Mah. nnaUy they took the wheat and the fruits." Then he applied himself to the work. 1 know that when 1 shoot with this bow and arrow 1 shall fatt to pieces and my life wiU be gone. ground them and ate them. Of the two causes to whtch it is traced back. and feU asunder into pieces. 40 During this siege Minôcihr a. On the 6th. took off his elothes. asked him some faveur. and ye others. the day.y. The26th.ty of the creation. Afrûsiâb and Minôcihr made a treaty on the basis of this shot that was shot on this <M. so paUcd on account of the identity of the nune of thé month and the day.dh he ordered to be brought a bow and an arrow of such a aize as he himself had indicated to the arrow-maker. and bent the bow with ail the power God had given him then he shot. in confonnity with that which is in the Avastâ. Ehurdadh. Then he sent ~< for Arish. each of whieh lasts five days. and said: 0 king. 205 <?<?A. The distance between the where the arrow place was shot and that where it feU was 1. orAshtMh-Rôz. considered to be of recent origin. not being a. 1 am free from any wound or disease. or T!r-Bôz. During this Gahanbar God created the trees and plants. Minôeihr complied with his wish. and wise man. Thence it has become a rule for this day to cook wheat Md fruits. is the first day of the fourth Gahanb&r. eaUed Isfandanna. or EhurdfMh-Bôz.The six Gahimhars. that Afrasiab after ha.nd the people of Erânshahr had been MfFmng from want. In consequence people made it a feast-day. or Khurdadh-Bôz. . on the condition 20 that he (Afrasiitb) should restore to him a part of Eranshahras long and M broad as an arrow-shot. look at my body.ON THE FESTIVALS M THE MOXTHS OF THE PERSIAXS.ving subdued Erânshahr. On that occasion there was a genius present. and ordered him to take the bow and to shoot the arrow. By order of God the wind bore the arrow away from the mountain of Rûyân and it to the utmost frontier of Khnrâsân between Farghâna and brought there it hit the Tabaristân.

and thé festival of this day is the amall Tîragân. The J)<t&K/<KM!'yya was founded by Hôsha. or Btnrdadh-B6z. which means "the office of guarding and watching over the world and of reigning m it. Tir. He went up the mountain vhieh overhange the town.B<tAt'-ttH:/taz<H-. Now Hôshang spoke in praise of his brother on this same day. and gave to him as his share the . whereby he was so terrified that he swooned. of wMch thé reason is this-that EaJHiusra. i. Maubadhs. and said ie." and thé J)<t~tt)M. on returning from the war against A&asiab. passed on this day through the territory of Sâwa. on the other hand the 14th. is thé great Tîrag&n. by hie brother Waikard. afterwards was altered and m-utilated into ~Imf! Ever since. the arrow was shot on thia day. in praise and honour of both the . About that time TVïjamben Jûda~z arrived. The second c&use of the feast 'Kragan is the following: The DaM.. there is the feast Murdâdhagttn.e. whieh means thé office 10 of cultivating the world. continued to wear the dresa of the SM-t6Muntil the time of Gushtaap. ao caJIed on account of the identity of the name of the month and the day. and 40 try to dip each other on this day the whole day long. ~tMRi'~o.n.nK. of sowing in it.Et'/(!t(t and ~)a7iAa!M.ng. or Gôsh-Rôz. and of distributing it "–thèse two are twins on whom rest the civilMatioN of the world. Thereupon thé Mng ordered which a town to be built around that fountain. and called it JM<tm<<M.221. since on this day they were liberated from Afrâsiâb amd everybody was free to go to hia work. that day on whieh the news arrived that the arrow had fallen. Dihkans.DaA~MMt. ordered people to dresa in thé dress of the Scribes amdJ)~a<M. do motbe afraid. play in the water.BÎRÛK!. Therefore people made this day a feast in 20 On thia day he (Hôshamg) praise and honour of him (Waikard). when the king had already recovered himself so he sprinkled some of that water on his face. who ia the star of the scribes. Therefore the princes. p. it bas been the custom of people to wash themselves in this water and in all fountain-waters.hka. There an angel 30 appeared unto Mm. le&ned him against &rock. The inhabitants of Âmul go out to the . On the same day the Peraiana used to wash themselres. The meaniug of the word Murdâdh M <tte eoe)'!tM(Mt~ <!<n\ttt0tt of the . wMch is identical with the Ettt6a. On the 7th. the Da. amd the setting nght of anything that is wrong in it.206 AI. Accordin~ to anather report. Murd&dh-Mâh. The ~<<?6a (the office of writer) followa next to them and is connected with both of them. and sat down at a fountain quite alone at some distance from his encampment.Rûz. and its duration. this being eonsidered a good omen. etc. and make fun. The name of this day is Tir or Mercury. On Tîr-Rôz people break their cooHng-vessels and fire-gratea.

who is aaid to have for the first time appeared to the world on this day that therefore this day was called Mibr. falls the Spco)~ Allt1t1l1l1.222. and is a custom of theu-s based on the tact that about this time the season altered and winter set in. or Mihr-Bôz. there is feast of great importance. and diseaso. Ehnrshfd Âdhar-cashn was the first day of this month. On the Ist of it.e.U thi&) their pt'ocecdmg was that of a man who marches out p. called Mihrajân. On the 7th.Ued JfaM/iy(?!)~m-GM/ Mihr-Mah. !. Z&da.Ithough it was used in their months."MnrdAdh is theangct appointcd to gnard the world and to product) vegetable food and drugs that are remédies against hunger. Mihr-Rôz. and m consequence all the world and its 10 inhaMtants. and that thé spreading of the warmth would keep off thé attaeks of all that whieh is obnoxious to the plants in the world. God knows best 1 Shahrewar-Mah. 207 Kff'M tct'~oM< <7mt//t ttH~f~es/f'KC~'oH. so called on account of tho identity of the name of thc month and the day. misery. In this our time the people of Khur&sân have made it the beginning of autumn. therefore people used to ma~e gréât fires in their houses. They maintained that this was done for the pnrpose of hanishing the cold and dryness that arises in winter-time. It is ea. and were deeply engaged m the worship and praise of God also they used to assemble for eating and merriment." According to others. a feast for the common people. is thé first day of the nfth (Mianbar. and the other metals. For it is one of the feast-days of the people of Tukh&ristan. agreeably with what bas been before mentioned. and on!y a feast for the nobility. a.ted by the custom of the Eisras of crowning themselves on this day with a 40 crown on which was worked an image of the sun and of the wheel on whieh he rotates. The name of the day is identical with that of the month it means the love of the ~. or Shahrewar-Bôz. gold. 20 to fight his enemy with a large annY. According to the Maubadh. On the Mth.OX THE FESTIVALS IN THE MOXTHS Ot' THE PEBSIAKS.y is held is to be traced to the joy of mankind when they heard of Frêd&n's . or Hurmuzd-Rôz. Dnring this Gahamb&r God created the 30 cattle. not belong to the feast-days of thc Persians.M. on which rests all handieraft. This is indica. the last of which is Bahritm-Boz. It was thc hcginning of ninter. It is thé angel who is appointed to watch over the seven substances. silver. << thé feast of the fires that are found in the human dwellhtg-places. This day. however. Shahrêwar means sperma and love. On this day the Persians hold a fair.waHurelates that this feast was called -ffMaf-c'as~M. is the feast Shahrcwaragan. Mihr is the name of the sun. It does. In a. Feople maintain that the spécial veneration in which this da.

and the luckiest hours of the day are those of the moon. that at the time of dawn a.ids on Mihrajân. the mountain ShaMn appears always black during the whole length of summer. Then the soûls die within thé bodies. certain hour of this day the sphère of Ifranjawî brea. beca.208 AMÎB~Ni. after He had created her as a black ball without any light.ur6z and Mihrajân. of that of a lion.t which grows reaches 40 its perfection and bas no more material for further growth. in any weather 30 whatsoever.y of Mihrajân the sun rises in Hamîn.utûz a sigu for thé beginning of the world.thes for the purpose of rearing the bodiea. on MIhrajan the moon stands higher than the sun. it waa eatled ~M'~t-t-~aM~K. In a. whilst on the morning of Mihrajam it appears white as if covered with smow.d b. expeHed him and caJted upon people to do bornage to Frêdûn.ts on the day of Mihrajân a piece of pomegranate and smells rose-water. Sa. K&b! is the same whose standard the Persian kings adopted. who called at the higheat pitch of hia voice: 10 0 ye angele. On the sajne day God is said to have clad the moon in her splendeur and to have illuminated her with her light.doers and expet them f"om the world. In consequence it bas Lecome a custom in the houses of the kings. The cha.823.nn-mongere say He who ea.tiona from these days. strike the Dows and evil.wî relates :–1 heard the Maubadh of AlmutawatM say On the da. considering it a good omen it was made of the sHn of a bear.use the contrary of aU these things happens on Naurôz. Therefore these two days excel all other days in the same way as these two jewels excel all other jewels. and was in later times adorned with jewds and gold. whether the sky be clear or clouded.y. Alfa~I used to say Persian scholars relate. that the top of p. of rubies on Na.urôz. they say.hr! says: God bas made the trea. 20 SaJman AIfâris! bas said In Persian times we used to say that God ha~ created an omament for his slaves. The Persian theologians have derived various symbolic imterpreta. So they consider Mihrajân as a.ty between Light and Dajkness on Na. of emera. Aleransha. will be free from much mishap.uae at Mihrajân tha. AIMsra. and because <mima1«cease from sexual intercourse. On the same day the angels are said to have come down to help Frêdûn. God spread out the earth and created the bodies as mamaions for the soûls. In the Mme way they make Na. sign of resurrection and the end of the world. Therefore. in the midst between light and darkness. valiant warrior was posted in thé court of the palace.Ma'o~<Mt. coming forward. therefore the Persians called this day . or. they say. after KâM ha~ attacked Aldahhak Bëvaraap. Some people have given the preference to Mihrajân by as much as . come down to the world. as others say." On the same da. beca.

Each class celebrated its feast for nve days. they celebrated both days as feast-days. as a tribute of thanks to God for made them their own masters with regard to their whole having again behaviour and to the times of their eating and drinking. as he had done with the two Naurôz. according to whieh the one wishes the other to live as long as 1. 209 they prêter autumn to spring. People say..ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MOXTHS 0F TitE PERS1AXS. ~cornes down from that time. held in equal veneration. until Hurmuz b. This hM come down to posterity as a rule and custom on the day of Mihrajan. beeause they thought it was allowed and possible (that a man should live 1. Afterwards the kings and 40 the people of Ër&nshahr celebrated as all the days from feast-days Mihrajân till thirty days afterwards.000 yeara are only the time of his rule and tyranny. although some of them say that he lived longer and that the 1. when to neglect interpeople began calatMn. 1 shall punish you for an ox. Frêdûn ordered them to gird themselves with to use the & ~m~m<t (speaking in a whispering tone) and to abstain from speaking loud during dinner.ty. refusing his entrea.t they had seen of AI-DaJihak God knows best Zarâdusht bas ordered that both Mihrajân and Bam-Bëz should be P. In their argumenta they chiefly rely upon what Aristotle said in reply to Alexander.000 years-I mean the words ". 14 . "Do you want to be considered as equal to Jam b. after they had been living in fear so long as 1.ja. they 20 feast. and raised to feast-days all the days between them. From this point of view autumn is préférable. AJI the Persians agree that Bêv~rnsp lived 1. Afterwards it advanced. W. Therefore it is atill in our time tho cnstom of the kings of Khurâsân. On the 21st.or B&m-B~. that when he WM brought before Frêdûn he spobe: "Do not kill me in retaliation for thy ancestor." This day used in former times to coincide with the beginning of winter. the Hero. Shâpûr." Thereupon he put him in fetters and impriaoned him in the mountain Dubâwand. that on this day they dress their warriors in autumn-and 10 winter-dresses. Thereby people were freed from his wickedness. in spring the reptiles begin growing.000 years. when he was asked by him regarding them: "0 king.000 years.n mode of 30 salutation. and celebrated this event as a. is the in commemoration of C~jf~ Frêdûn's subduing and binding AJ-pahhak.hân in the way of retaliation ? f By no meana." Upon which Fredûn answered.000 years) from wha.224. in autumn they begin to die away. In consequence. connected the two days with each other. distributing them over the several dassesof the population in the same way as we have hereto~ explained regarding Naurôz. People think that the Persia. that was in the house of my ancestor.H~?.

are called I~rwardaj&n. Tahmâap Mcended the throne. believing that the apirits of their dead during these daya come ont from the places of their 20 reward or their punishment. and relationa. KadhHmdâdom together with the people.e. that the dead may enjoy its amell.46<!t!<~tht. t. deaerted state. and the aoni remained in him for ten days. and Dêws and ye6e&had alternately been haunting their houses. is more important than the former. 40 The reaaom of the Farwardajân la said to be this-that when Cain had MUed Abel. ~Mn-Jtf~. Abel was sitting erect and . bliah the matter on a firm baaia.BiMtM~K~xM&~o~t. that they go to the dishes laid ont for them. ehiidren. and 10 whilst before that. imbibe their atrength and suck their taste. They fumigate their houses with jnniper. their familles and children. the five ~pa~oBMtMB which are added between Abâm and Âdh&r-M&h. and because they wished to be earefnl. According to some they are the last five days of the month Âb&n. as this is one of the chief institutes of their religion. On thia day Zau b. During thia time people put food in the halla of the dead and drink on the roofs of the houaes. that he had ordered people to take possession of their houses. in the time of hia empire with supreme authority Bêvarasp. The first day of these ~po~oMeKœ ia the first day of the sirth Gahanb&r. the nrat of which ia Aaht&dh.y Aahttdh of Âbân-M&h. they had been in a. t. although inviaible tothem. and the parents were lost in grief. however. without their being able to keep them off. according to others they are the Andergâh. and to call themselves Kadhkhudd. and the following five days the second Farwardaj&n. since they were nnable to aacertain the real tacts of the case. When the controveray 30 and dispute increased. they implored God to reatore his aoul to him. God did so on the da.so called on aooount of the identity of the name of the month and the day. Regarding these daya there haa been among the Persians a controveray. The last five daya of thia month. So they called the j6rst five daya the first Farwardajân.e.nd oceupy themaelvea with their affaira. the latter. The spirits of the pious men dweU among their familiea. his children. It is called .t. they adopted all (ten) days in order to esta. master of thif house that he ruled over hia family. he ordered the chamneia to be dug and to be kept in good préservation. or Âb&n-Bôz. On the same day thé news reaehed aU the seven )t~MtTa of the world that Fredûn had put in fetters B~varaap that he had aasnmed the royal dignity. Thia inatitute (that of a Kadhkhudâ) has been abolighed who made again the feteb partake of the by ji!<m' ~~n~. in whioh God created man. a. there is a feast .210 AMtRÛt. On the lOth.

<te end of ~Mtt-Ma&). always adapting them. and from the fact whether they were clear or dark. is most biting and thé frost is most intense. quince and smells an orange in the morning of this day before speaking wiU be happy during that same year.BctMt--c<MA<t. The first day of it ia called j!~<tn~m.Fo. between the Interior and the Exterior country.] Its most lucky hours are those during which Aries is the horoscope. and to drink water if it atood in a watery station.. Then a thin. t. This da.e. On the 9th. 211 looking at his parents. Besides they say that he who tastea a.225. Tâhir. is a feast called ~<&<trc<M~K. selves to the character of the stations of the moon.e-<&ty there appears on the highest mountain. the Persians.nt to warm themselves by the fire. to suspend for a time the duties of the ohamberlains and all the pomp of royalty. Then hia p. fertile or barren.temples.] ] the feaat of the Riding of ~Ehm~.bearded (Ea. when the cold.ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MOXTHS 0F THE PERSIANS. at the end of the season. also called 'Kitur-Mah. On the morning of thé JRM-<&M~ thé Persiana thought it to be a goo~ omen to look at the clouds. and is called by the name of the genius who bas to watch over a!l the fires. 10 People consider the hour of morning as of good omen-I mean the chM-m-inongem–and they maintain that everything that ia mentioned during this hour exista absolutely. gifted with a creative mind.~oz. for this is the end of the winter months. so called 80 on account of the identity of the name of the day and the month. [~(M&JtMA. Aler&nshahr! says 1 heard a. On this day the long used to descend from the throne of the empire.e. According to Tâhir b. fanning himself with a. but it was not allowed to him to apea~. Now the inhabitants of that country infer that thé year will be prosperous if the ram Meata that it wiU be sterile if he does not bleat. they drew conclusions as to whether the year would be prosperous or not. the day of Âdhar.y and the month 40 are both oalled by the name of God. This cuatom is in Perais atill kept up for fun. parents eolleoted–(JMt'ssm~.fan to express his rejoicing at the end of thé cold season and the coming of the warm season. 14 . This day was [1. It is the feast of the fire. the beginning of spring at thé time of the Kisr&s. Dai-Mah. number of Armenian learned men relate 20 tha. to ait on white carpets in the plain. On that day people wa. a wise king. thin or dense. Zarâdusht haa given the law that on this day people should visit the fire. i. to dresa in white dresses.usaj) man used to ride about. a white ram that is not seen at any other time of the year except about this time of thia day.t on the morning of the . used to drink honey on this day if the moon happened to stand in a fiery station. (Hormuzd). and that they should there offer offeringa and deliberate on the a~Mrs of the world. in old times.

or Dai-ba-Mihr. we are like twin brothers.MMMM-. which the enemy had driven away. 1 am your brother. eating and drinking with them. The lith. 16th.mes of these days with that of thé month. Besides. there is a feast called Sîr-s~w:t.ven. and cxoluMvply to give himself up to the eonsidemtinii of tho affaira of the realm and its inhabitants. people celebrated a feast in hope of his gifts and presents. when they used to make a human. and then he used to say: To-day 1 am like one of you. At present this 30 custom bas been abolished on account of its resemblance to idolatry and heathendom. or Mihr-Rôz. The night of the 16th. The 8th. When Frêdûn had freed his property. was not practised in the houses of the kings. or Dai-ba-M~hr-Bôz. and that they drove their cows. is caJIed. On the 14th. as we have heretofore explained. that ËrAnshahr wM separated and liberated from the country of the Turk. This being the case. The original purpose of the thing was to rid themselves of their aBliction when they were oppressed in consequence of JamsMd's being killed. from Hôshang and Waikard. however. Further: when FredAn had put Bêvarasp out of the way. and 23rd days of this month are feast-days on account of the identity of thé na. or Gôsh-Baz. the one cannot exist withont the other. feast. he held a meeting with thé Dihkans and agriculturiats. for the existence of the world depends upon that culture which ia wrought by your hands. wanted to speak to him in any matter. On the same day the weaning of Frêdûn took place. went into his présence and addressed him. By that dish they cure themselyes of the diseases which they attribute to the influence of the evil spirits. is the nrat da. (~U~ and alao J~. back to their houses. is called ~M~. because there are 90 days between this day and Naurôz. This GahaNbar is called Maidhyôzaremaya-gâh. more particularly as this (royalty and agriculture) proceeds 10 from twin brotheM. During it God created hea.212 AU'h~Nt.y of the (first?) Gahajibâr its last day is the ISth. when people 20 ea. and is celebrated M a p. he let out the cows of A~a~ (Âthwyûna) that had been hidden in some place during the siege." This day is also called .tthe gateways.like figure of paste or clay and posted it a. or Ehur-Bôz. and cook the vegetables with pieces of méat. by which they intend to protect themselves against the devil.t garlic and drink wine. Its origin is this.B& (90 <&~). 40 busying himself wiih the affaire of the poor and taking care of them. and liberal towards ail who applied to him. and were in sorrow and swore that they would never touch any fat. Now they returned to his house. This bas remained aa an usage among them. Athnyan was a man of high standing and noble character. This. nobody preventing him from doing so. whilst AthËvân defended them. a benefactor of the poor. Whosoever. and thé existence of this culture dependa upon government.226. The 16th. It was the 1irst day when ht) rudo on the ox in a night when the ox appears which drags . high or low.

[23. The wish of him who looks at the ox when it is visible will be fulfilled in the aame hour. mixing them with the bra. and to send the birds flying through the names.ge ff the moon. The people of &u-f<) ca. When Frëdùn had conquered Bêvarasp. and Azmâ' 40 ordered those whom he had set free to light nrea on the roofs of their houses. This ha.rm After the Persians had neglected intercalation in their months. and as the end the lOth of B&hmam-MaIi. 10. M they maintain.dof that prisoner whom he had set free. and on.ins of the other victim who was killed. the spectre of a white ox. ~-< the biting night.ppcued in the lOth night of Bammam. thiti man always used to set free one of the two. So the king did. and to drink and amuse themselves round the &res.te]y after his arrival a man caJIed 30 Azm&l to attend to this.he might show them to him. messenger with him that. Thcrcfore the mcsiicugei- . they hoped th~t the cold would cease at this time.nd and there to build himself aome aort of house. wMch is visible for an hour and then disappea. The Night of Alsadhak. DM.~e (if the year is to be barren). to drive wild beasts into them. and ordering him to settle in the western part of mount Dunbawa. ao that ItmaUy it has become one of the customs of the kings to light fires on this night and to make them blaze. Thereupon AzmA' told hhn the tale of those whom he had set free. in order that their number might be seen. or Nausadhak. speaking the truth. FeMt of the third day.ON THE FESTIVALS )N THE MONTHS 0F THE PEBsIA~S. 5.lled this day i. whilat he fed the two serpenta with the brains of a ra.J They fumigate their houses to keep off miah&p..227. gifted with sensation and. with two golden horns and sHver feet.m InatHa. that he might feed his two serpenta with their brains. [2. beginning of winter the 5th of AbitN-M&h. May God take vengeance on aJt who enjoy causing pain to another 20 being. amd asked the king to send out a.nja. BaJuna. Another report accounts for the lighting of the fires during this night in the following way When Bêvaraap had ordered people to provide him every day with two men.c. that bellows twice if the year is to be fertile. Barsadhak.] 10 B~oM~-M~. he commissioned immedia. giving hhn food. It is an ox of light.rs. on aceount of its being so cold. (Here ~oHoM<a !<tCKtt<t). 213 the carria. Now. In the Mune night there appears on the highest mountain. he ordered Azmâ'îl to be fetched and puuiahed in revenge for thoae whom he had killed.doing no ha. as they reckoned as the p.

that had out . . peepa out of thé womb of ita mother people to eat gra~s and then to return. hoping to get relief from them. made him ait on a golden throne. M caUed by this name (!<M«~). whilst say according to another view. even if the mother should run after it. AIjaiban} relates that in the Indian Ocean there are thé roota of a tree which spread along the sea-coast in the sand. licks it eontmuaUy. Regarding the two serpents of BêvMMp. they were two painful wounds which he besmeared with brains. Thé :Mnd. Thereupon he conferred great honour upon Azma' he gave him Dumbâwand sa a fief.bahn. whilst clay. 10 The two serpents are acmething wonderful-possible. like that one of which relate that it. living in India. that it does not leavethe womb of its mother entirely until it bas grown strong and thinks itaelf a. then it jumps out and runs away. For the mother. 20 if she&tds the young one. capable of propagating thoir species. We ourselves have observed many animals. indeed.) formation. and the formation of other animais out of other matenals has also been witnessed. feeding upon brains. And out of the hair of the head that bas been tom out together with ite white root which originally is Sxed in thé flesh. that the leaf is rolled up and geta separated from the tree. The formation of scorpions out of <igs and mountain.fplants and other magnats by a clear process oforiginally grown 4. one half of which was a part of the body of a field-mouse. and that it then a king. whieh is the roughest thing imaginable.y that the Mlimal fears the tongue young of its mother. but For worms are produced out of flesh. there are other ajlimaJs that do not entirely leave their birthplace. that of wa~ps from the flesh of horses. 1 have 80 heard this aloo from a number of people in Jurjan who had observed something similar in that country. Further. Frêdûn exceedingly rejoiced at the matter. bee and flies away. Aoû-'Uthman AJjahiz relates. people that they came out of his shoulders. growing within thé time of three weeks or place less This fact cannot be denied. until the flesh is severed from the bones. that he saw at 'Utbarâ a piece of p.228. the other half was stiU a common and unchanged piece of clay.2] 4 AMÎRÛNÎ. and caUed him Jf<MM<~M!t. snakes grow. and other Mimais are living. is well known to all naturaliste. that of bées from the flesh of oxen. and who afterwards continued their species by sexual intercourse. in case the hair Ms into water or some wet in the midst of summer. or Badh-Bûz.ble to run faster than ite mother. People sa. said toAzm&'ît: "What a number of them thou hast setfree! May God give thee a good reward' Ho returned to Frêdûn and brought him his report. and in flesh lice hMdJy likely. amd set ont himself for DunMwand to see the thing himaelf. since it hM been witnessed.

and gave all to the Lihabitants of Ër&nsha. 215 10 20 80 ~0 On that da. he praised ~od. whole week. Then he startfu from the to~n Âdharkhûrâ in the direction of the town DârA. held assemblies. simila. opened the doors of his storehouses. but did not hurt him.nt as well as the other ones. They. At Ispahnn people call it How. left the cupola. the royal t<. 0 my Lord. and give them copious rain.r to a throne. He gave alms.~c which . The king hpoke to them What bas hardened ycur hearts. that you did not greet me before f They replied: "Because we were standing before another king more sublime than you. as one friend does with another when asking after each other's health the name reached his beard. for any fault of mine. what bas offended you and made you suspicious. the grandfather of Anôshirwân. pj-:l{slANS. Then he went near the fire.' pra'-tispd in ~nmm and noghbourhnod that have a likeness to those festive customa of drinking and making fun which are practised a. reveal it to me that 1 may divest myself of my dignity if something else is the cause. and wa~full of joy. The 30th. the rain waa kept back. and sat dowu on the \~J made of gold." Then he descended from the altar. parent does for his children and the consequence was that during those years nobody died of hunger. is called ~~a~tt at Ispahân. Therefore Fërôz remitted them thé taxes of these years." The king bdieved them and made them présents." Its origin is this that once in the time of Fêrôz.ter.t Ispah&n in thé days of Naurôz.Eoz is only otte day. Fêrôz went to the famous fire-temple in ~<!&<n-&/ttM in Fars there he said prayers. and people in Ërânsha. did not greet him as is due to kings. and pressed it thrice to his bosom. B&dh. turned his hand and arms round the flame.ON THE FESTIVALS THE MO\THS ut- i'H)!.r. Then he went up to the altar and found there the ministers and priests standing before it. wHch means pouring out the wa.229 standing before him. till the water ran into all the tents. remove it.muusvi)). We were not allowed to greet you whilst p. taking ca. and make it known to me and te the people of the world. and oi-Aetfd that on that spot his tents shonid be pitcht'd. Fêrôz tecognized that God had granted his prayer. but smaller. when people hold a.ainusités a. fair and celebrate a. feast. borrowed money from the properties of the fire-temples. thy names be blessed if the rain Thereupon Fêrôz spoke is held back for my sake.re of his fmhjects as a. But having corne as far as the place where is now thé village caUed Kam-Ferëz in F&rs–it was at that time an uncultivated plain–a cloud rose and brought such copious rain M had nover been witnessed before. and asked God to remove that trial from the inhabitant8 of the world.br suffered from barrenness. So he felt that there was something the matter with the priests. whilst lasts a.y cei-t. It was a custom for a famous fire-temple to have a golden ~-3 for the purpose that the king should sit upon it when he came to the temple. ever. made libemi présents.hr. Now the ministers and priests came near him and greeted him as is due to kings. however. or Anêran. Now. prostrated himself. He did not Ica-VL' this place bfi'ure he htul built thé ÏM.

Fcrôz. Rai. In past times th~ was . InccMe~ queMethis has become a custom in Erânshahr ever since. but pulverized. The word meana "intelligence" and "ripeness of mind. as. ~tt!(MMK<JMt. God alone is Bâclent unto me! Three such paper pieces they & on this day on three w~s of the whilst they leave unmarked the wall opposite to the front of the house. ca-using instantaneous death. they poured the water over each other. In Persiau it is eaned Muzhaghtll. This day is famous for the inscribing of pieces of paper. and Mm mM. F. c~Ied had obtained his joy which everybody felt over this event.BÎBÛN!. Now. also on this fourth wall the house. In every town they celebrate this feast on that day when they got the ~m. Somethnes you find places 30 influenced by some cbarm where scorpions do not bite. called the °' Cemetery of 40 ~~=r= man when s~r~ that they huruedly retwn to their former places. when the men used to make them hber~ p~ent. preparing to leave the house. he Xam. ~t: there you find under every stone a number of large black scorpions. her husband. In the district of Tûs there is said to be a village where the scorpions of Zanjân there are scorpions only in one pla. and in the other districts of Fahla.M M it ~& ~e.. and beneficent wife who levé. people touch and play with.roz is tua name. and. chaste.B.rM~d&rm~h. eg. they are . then they bite. as regards these pieces of paper we somewhere mentioned.rm~dhmah and I. which ~r"' off than a bowshot. For on this day common people ~t s~ and the kemds of pomegranates un. and raise their heads t<~ the window. This custom is still ficuriahing at Ispahân. they write in the time between dawnrise and sunrise upon square pieces of paper 20 the following T~ <Mthegr~u~hemer. are they taken away and brought over the frontier of that district. believing that if they ~ethmg reptiles get bewildered and do not find an outlet.f~darm~hrôz-1 have bound (by the the going and coming-below and charm) above-except the cows-in the name of the Yazatae and in the n~e of Jam and Frêdûn-in the name of ~d-(I swear) by Ad~m and Eve.~ ~d. believing that to be an antidote against the bite of the scorpions. OntheSth there is a feast on account of the .pecM feaat of the women. identity of the names of the month and the day. moistened and not kneaded with water. Dînâr. and the people of Ispahân got the rain on this day.z." 10 Maudam~dh is charged with the care of the earth and with that of the good.2] 6 At.ce. besides..

we cannot &x them. The Persiana divide aU the daya of the year into preferable and lucky days and into unlucky and detested ones. ia called JtfM~-t-MNt (freah musk). the day when he commenced 30 building that same town. 20 and must. and talismans in the J~oot of physical and tecttH'ca! MOtt~f~ and cttt'M)s:<t'M. if God willmercifully poatpone the end of my life and by His grace remove mental oalamities. He whofasts commits a sin. because the planetary cycles do mot agree with the Persian year. and which he had called Xard-i-Fan&Htnsra. rose-water. Further. bearing names which are common to them in every month. into them. it being impossible to count them. A. thé to do power 10 The lith. On both days people hold fairs of seven days duration. is the first day of the second Gahanbâr. The one is the day Serôsh in FarwardînM&h. which he had built one farsakh below the citadel of Shîrâz. charms.Kard-i-Fanâkhusrau. as little as we can the watercourses of a torrent. and they assemble for merriment and drinking. 'Adud-aldaula has founded two feast-days. when the water of the aqueduct coming from a distance of four farsakh reached the town. and because the conditions of talismans are not fulfilled in them. 217 evidently useless. It is called Jtfa!MAetK<tDuring this Gahanbar God created the water. but as they differ in different places. He has so. They have fairs in the days of the months we have mentioned. The next following day. or Khûr. the last of which is Dai-ba-mihr-Bôz. The Zoroaatriana have no fasting at all. when people throw perfumes.0\ THE FESTIVALS !X THE MONTHS OF THE PERSIANS. or Mihr-Rôz. The other is the day Hormuz in Âban-M&h. 333.L thé différent days of the month. though its influence be strong. by way of expiation. or Farwardîn-Bôz. Besides they have other days. The 19th. &p.t'on. which we unite in the following J<t&M~<tK&M~<M< (Table of Sélections) . give food to a number of poor people. because the power of thé incantation cannot affect thé object of incantation. ia called ~atoM of tlte t-tt~fs and of all }~!t!:Mty w<tte)'s. which are festival days for one class of the people to the exclusion of the other. thé 16th. each of which is called 6ashn-i. giving such explanations as will plant certain persuasions in the minds of intelligent men and remove doubt from the minds of those who seek for infonna. Perhaps we shall sppak of the incantations. they have certain rules regarding the appearance of snakes o.Rôz. Yazd.

ëil "!j 'k.§ s sis ~i~I'§ ë §~'5'8'g.ë a J .218 8S$.1..9 C ô~ ~d .~ . 1l' 11.s .w.t' :a ."ô.t''à!i ~·o~'ro~ ° A"Ç~¡g4)+JPclII ·é~2p 1 ~Eo. III s~ .i~ il ~B i tt ¡¡¡:il tg'E~' sg ::i.t'.rop. ~ij ~i~ ~â . A"Q.gm am s~ra.1 a~cu~a aë m Bspa6a<j '¡¡ :¡¡. 11.~ "'FY = . 1.n'8c.1f !Õ.ey. ~J! 1~ lm 'a !J1tfi~~Fj h = ¡.a .¡ B 10"1.ë~].. .t' . ~U¡¡ !¡¡. â e.t' Sp n.J~ ¡¡ Ii a il! n~ ¡. .S g g.1 < · .s 11 ¡¡ 1 ~¡¡: d g. 6 ".6's's~~ !t~~ s's~ -J"s MS~jJ'a~ S ~ag. m~ é 'if ISli'I :g" "g :g' "a p m '8 'g:1" ro ..B if.5 j °s .¡¡.5 m tIO a '8 F' g a ë a il F" = a_ a ~·ô gp m ~t' aâ .®.œ1 ALBÎR~Ni.~ ~'9 "'S° a~ ~j.ij.t'a.a _· il III ~â~ m~I .sh· S' $~ «.1. ô t ~¡ t' .S'S. ro J ~aâ~N ~â I ..a 1-dï .!Iii ¡¡:Ii ..a3~a~a ']' Õ" iei ·.tt.J (!j~ "'Si ." -1 Sos 'j 1 a~ ~BSo:n d.o¡.> g a-¡¡ m 210 ~yc: tro m ..s 1-9? eg!. ~1I.t' 2 m m bD m à ¡ 12.i~ a.¡¡ ~.La.a°.a m .ta' .~ ~a m 'vp.ËI m Il g.1.j3 gB~M~j g g~~ o~ ~6 -<~ _o . ii 8 a tic n-t' ~â n n . .ëi .

ntly. is plajited on this day will produce worm-eaten fruits a. scamty fruit. that is planted will only produce be replaced oniv spa.ne. the Ghûls and sorcerers feel lu couse<)uen''e there is much the lust to mix with impure spirits.ON THE FESTIVALS !X THE UOXTHS OF THE PEBStAXS. At the time of opposition. more particularly is detested because then the light of the Al-Kind! sa. thé Démons and Sa~tans feel the lust of On the da. Therefure the waters buting what is good and agreeable over increase.rsely everything so if there bu an eclipse on the same day. from epilepsy. who is the guide of all bodies 20 struction and ruin for them. p. the and begin brought 10 epilepsy are suNerm:. 219 The day Mnh they consider to be a y)V~<< day from its heing called which God created for the purpose of distriby the name of the moon.ys: Full-moon 80 moon requires help from the light of the sun. to increase thf she-turtleThe seas to the waters flow. and onposition they hold to be tu~KC~ The two days of conjunction days. The sperma which settles in thé utérus doves are becoming epileptical. who is the guide of the Therefore people fear lest the spirits should leave the bodies.233. .?s CbnjuBCtion 's fM''<M7 bernuse then thé moon is beiue a. more particularly If a hen sits hatching her eggs at new-moon. Al-Eind! sa. The hair which is torn ont will he replaced a.Y of conjunction in thc wor!d. and animals. the male turtle-doves settles in the utérus M born as a child which on this day sperma hair which is toru out of thé body will of imperfect structure. trees. the eggs will be bad at new-moon a Dtrcissus is sure to wither. The to decrea. begiu epilepsy. people say.ts grow from new-moon till the time when the moon begins to wa. the world.se.tid therefore people dread debumed. impure.nd will he very so if there be an eciipse on the same day. spirits. Then madnesa intermingling viciously with thé things The seas to waters are about. on the day of opposition is born as a child of more than common strucAU that ture. and ptar.bunda.

In consequence. and then they found that the summer-solstice preceded by five days the beginning of the year.aa we have herctofore explained. kept the old System and disregarded the state of thatsame year (t. they gave up their former system and adopta wha.e.tion. whilst the kings prefen~d as new-yca. that they honoured their kings to such a degree tha.1observations. But a-ftersatds when Zoroaster appeared amd introduced the religion of the Magi. ing the place of the five ~a~oMte~MB. but there was a difference regard. and it was their universal practice to reckon these 6 hours ~M the 1 p.t they would not do the same things which the 10 kings did. whilst the people of Transoxiana. when the kings transferred their residence from BaJkh to 20 Persis and Babel and occupied themsalves with the affaira of their reli. .t moment when Jam started (set out). And they did ao for no other reason but this.220 Am)R~NÎ.t moment when Jam retumed successfui. The first day of the Sughdian month Nausard was the nrst day of summer.rd the 1 minute in reckoning).r tha. to disrega. minute as a unit (t.t was discovered in the a~tronomica. Some people maintain that these two different new-years were to be traced to a difference tha. which wa~ the third year after intercaJa. ON THE FESTIVALStN THE MONTHS 0F THE SUMDIANS. CHAPTER X. For the ancient Persians used a solar year of 365 days 6 hours 1 minute. they ordered new observations to be made. There was no difference between them and the Persians regarding the beginning of the year and the beginnings of MMteof the months. were likewise distributed over the four quarters of the year.t astronomical observation had taught them.234. its deviation from real time).e. THE months of thé mhabitants of Sogdiana. gion. They preferred to use as new-year tha.

j-~ Âgham.235. when they eat leavened bread after abstaining from eating and drinking &ndfrom everything that is touched by the nre except fruits and vegetables. Nothing mentioned. Mazhikhandâ. The 12th is the second Mâkhiraj. Other people maintain that originally both the Persian and Sughdian years had the same beginning. The 25th is the first day of Karm-Khwara.e. The Ist day is their Naurôz. caUed ~tMMA-Jy/tf!)):. whilst thé Persians. The 2nd is a feast called (~* Khwâra. The 3rd is the feast Kishmîn..e. of butter and sugar. assembling in the house of each ehieftain. the Sughdians left them in their original place and did not transfer them. as we have before mentioued. until the time when Zoroaster appeared. Henee the diSerence of the beginnings of the Persian and Snghdian years. :. drinking the good.HN THE FESTIVALS M THE MONTHS 0F THE SUGHDÏANS. which is the C)-cat ~Ki~. These Âgh&ma are the most important of their festivals. fire-temples and eat a certain dish whieh they prepare of the nour of millet. is the following Nausard. . where they assemble. 22t 10 20 30 40 on whieh their calendar was based. Nîsanaj. whieh they celebm. Some people put ~:M-s([t-t?<tnve days earlier.j. Jirjin. to make it agree with the Persian calendar. on the Ist of Mihr-Mah. Bas&kana. The 15th is the feast (~e ~itc(:)-o. But when after Zoroaster the Persians began to transffr thc five ~<t~o. pure must. The 18th is the feast Bâba-Khwara. when they hold a fair in the viUage M~ On the 15th they hold a fair in AJ-tawaw!s. during whieh they assemble in a nre-tem)']e in the village Ramush. So they kept them at the end of the months of their year. a feast of theirs at Baikand.& Âghâm. The 28th is a feast for the Magians of BuHmra. The 26th is E:arm-Khw&r&. after they began to ueglect intercalation. Faghakân. Ashnâkhanda. The Ist is called JVt'm-MfAt. also called BâmîEiwara. The 7th is the . There the merchants of ai) countries gather and hold a fair of seven days duration. What we bave leamed of them. eating and drinking. God knows best The Sughdians hâve ma. in fact. the middle of the year ought to be celebrated when a~ter its beginning 6 months and 2~ days have paased.te alternately in each village. The 9th is the feast . regarding this subject. i. when they assemble in their p. :. retained them at the end of ÂMn-Mah. whilst. the half of thc vear.e.ny festivals and famous memorial days in the same way as thé Persians. meMCB to each of the leap-months. The 12th is the first M&khîraj.

Nothing mentioned. they 10 ~r~~ fia at the end of this month. they lament over them and eut their faces. the 8th. Fûgh. Beaidea. They out for them dishes lay and drinks. ~Mmadanaj. which are called Dast).AMÎB~. On the last day of this month the Sughdiana cry over thoae who died in past timM. . After that the Muhammadans hold a fair of seven days in Alahargh. From the 5th tiM the 15th of thia month ~âfûgh. 23rd. which are the to thé Sughdiana. they hold faire in the villages in the districts of BakMr& and have only one name in every month (. they have a feast. EMiùm. as we have mentioned before. The24thistheBitdh-Amgham. iSth. as the PeMims do in mrwMd&~ For the five days. Thé 9th ia the last day of Karm-Khw&m.

signi. The beginning of their summer was the lat of Nâusârjî. ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MONTHS OF THE KHW~BIZMIANS.223 CHAPTER XI. In amte-Muhammadan times this day WMthé time of extrême heat. fymg that it was the time for baring and undressing themselves.ts. they say. In consequence. Har&dâdh. Ardiwisht. Those. and they disagree with the Persians in the same subjects. They had festivals in their months which they celebrated before the time of M&m. now. as we 20 have a. not according to their real places which they occupy in the single months. who do not particularly care for their religion they know nothing of it except its outward forms. therefore. . and they do not inquire into ita spirit and real meaning. of their days and festivals that <N'enot connected with their religion are the following Nâusarjî. THE Ehw&rizmians agree with the Sughdians regarding the beginnings of the year and the months. The Ist day is called Q~ ~t. The cause of thia is the same which we have described when speaking of the Sughdians. it was originally called Q~ u*~<~ which means the dreM Mt!! be put off. they regulate their festivals by the knowledge of their distances from each other. They maintain that God Almighty 10 ordered them to celebrate those festiva. Their usages in their months are sinular to those of the Sughdians. But at thé present time there are only very few of the Magians among the Ehwârizmiams left.236. Besides they celebrate other days in commemoration of the deeds of their ancestors. p. The lat day is the &ast of new-year. Nothing mentioned. the new-day.iready mentioned.

. Now.~M6. the day of eating ~e &M~ prepared with fat. beeause the air WM changmg in autumn. ïa~&~MM. So people have come to use it as an epoch. the &et<tMof the ~Mt.224 AMtBÛNt. and then commence sowing the autumn wheat. some of them maintain that JCna was one of their 30 queens or chieftains.da. Hajndâdh. Now people were astonished that thé cold had killed a human being abont this time in spring. which the Ehw&rMmia. ~S* Thé lat day is the feast Aa~ X<ttt~ ~~MM< i. extraordinary.ys people consider it as the middle of winter. On this day and about this time the people of Khwârizm 40 and incense. Nothing mentioned. The 13th is the feast Ctt-t-Bo. This proceeding M necessary. Nothing mentioned. In our time it coincides with the middle of anmmer. The Slat is likewise a feast. she fell asleep. at spring time. She fell down outside the castle and lost all self-control. and died. which means: the ~rewoof! and the ~«Me.t wM them decreasing and the cold drawing near. ly is called ~*t it waa called J't6s~. that does not happen at its proper time. that now-a. called Bâm-Rôj. if some . bec&uae the hea. and assembled forthe purpose of eatmg the breadprepared 20 with fat. then they went into wintorquarters outaide their residence. The lat but originally. On that day they sought protection from the coJd. thing miraculons. they say. The lith M eaUed y<mi!~<!&.ns hold in the same veneration aa the Persians their Mihrajân.237.e. The 16th is called ~Mi-. was smitten by the cold of thd night. which was then wrongly altered for the sake of casier pronunciation. This day haa been advancing beyond its proper time to such a degree. B!mMhd. From this day they count 70 days. CM. dressed in a silk dress. and they make the smells rise up from the useperfumes dishes which they lay out for the purpose of keeping off all the injuries of the demons and evil spirits. p. Nothing mentioned in this month. driving away thé Ghuzz-Turks from their frontiers and defending the limita of their empire against their inroads. People say that it was originaUy called afHt<M'. i. as it was freqnently used. In bygone times it was the beginning of that season when people felt the need of warming themselves at the are. For about this time the kings of Khwârizm used to march out. In our time this day coincides with the time of the sowing of sesme and what ia sown together with it. by way of careful precauëon. So they used it M an epoch for some.e. around the burning nre-grat~a. It means the M~&< o~~ftMt. Adù. 10 IkhahMëwaj!. that she left her castle intoxicated.

on the let of C:r:. 225 spiritual matters are connect~d with it. WaHish is the name of the ange] who has to watch over the water and especially over the river Oxus. i.P<M-<!<e[ and the TeBtpoM&~c<<t.tes in his books.g. The fifth is called (lacuna) on the Ist of Rîmazhd.mman~ Nothing mentioned in thia month. The fourth is called on the 16th of Ûmrî. ni. and 10 aneera..<&tBnma. Besides they have other festivals whioh they want for the anajrs of their religion they are the following six 30 I. after having wituessed their effects. because they did not find the hlowledge of the truth. ~±-y.ON THK FESTIVALS IN THE MONTES 0F TitË KHWABIZMIANS. These precautions are likewise to be recommended if people in doing so derive some help from astronomicat occurrences. The second is called (~. ledged and allowed. It is also called <a~M. Something similar to this is what. Akha. incantations. M&n! indica. afterthey have been separated from their bodies. 1 mean charms.KM~. ie.e.g. ~s!~ and ~AorM~ so called from the month Ajghâr. The third is caUed on the 16th of Hamdâdh. derision. eg. Common people call it JM!M(:f[Mm?&by the month in which it occurs. although his indica20 tiona are expressed in subtle words and phrases. It is also called ~MM). Ispajtd&rmaj:. also called p. The existence of jinns and demons bas been acknowledged the most famous philosophera and scholars. The sixth M called on the Ist of Akhamman. We cannot help taking notice of thoae who try to prove that all such precaution is futile and false by no other arguments but by mockery. The first is called -t) on the lith of Nâusarjî. when by ha describes them as beings of air and fire and calls them "~tM~K &e<)~ Likewise Ya. thé TeMipo-ft. 40 V. The 20th is called which means: houses that are built close together. e.238. but were living in confusion and stupéfaction. and othera like him. by Aristotle. which the most distinguished philosophers have ucknow. also called M~~j (~<. and prayers.hy& Grammaticus and others have acknowledged them. The lOth M a feast called WaNM~m. who (the souls) are prevented from reaching their primat origin. because it faUs 15 days before that feast (on the 15th of CM). with the constellations that are mentioned for such purposea. also called tdt<A~. e. the rising. IV. VI. describing them as the impure parts of the erring souls. 15 . as. though they are few. The 4th is caUed . n. Galenus.

looking to -10 the lunar <<a<!<MM.e. They used to distribute these stations over the twelve signa of the Zodiftc. 1 do not know whether he waa reaNy ignorant. If you. the 80 figure of Léo extends over the signa Cancer. they consider as his two loins. ~tw~ tMo~wes.–They were in the habit of using the stations of the moon and deriving from them the mies of astrology. In consequence. the Arabs represent the figure of Léo as composed of a number of figures. the hand of Virgo. They knew them (thé signa of Zodiac) even better than the Arabs. amd they reposent thèse signa as quite différent figures.e. 1 mean ~:M&<t. likewise. although 'Ab&. Virgo. have died out.means a station of the moon. The people of 20 Khwârizm call this sign (Gemini) jl(~!tp<M&tn-&. and of knowledge of the proper times for similar . inquire into the names of the Arabs for the fixed stars. The breast of Virgo. 1 mean ~<n<w~.uza among the number of the Zodiacal signa inateadof Gemini.e.4&M<M'-tfe'ma! i. and a number of constellations both of the northem and southem hemispheres.i. ~ft'z~ as one of his shanks and AIr&mih as his other shank. The names of thé stations in their language they have preserved.Muhamnmd 'AMaIlâh b. According to thûir opinion. you wiU see that they were very far from an acourate Imowledge of the Zodiacal signe and the star-figures. they lay out food in the temples for the spirits of the dead. for which they also had apecial names in their language. of what the agriculturists and pensants in every place and district have got in the way of knowledge regarding the beginning of the agricultural worka and other things. who knew how to observe them and how to draw conclusions from them. but those who made use of them. In the five last days of Iapandârmaji and the following five J~xt~oM<at<B they do thé same which thé Persians do in Farwarda. mot to mention its extension in latitude. Léo extends in longitude over something more than three signa. as you learn by the fact that their nomenclature of them agrees with the names given to them by the original designer of their figures. as his nose. for ~Mfn. For instance. maintauling that the Arabs were the best-informed nation regarding the atars and 40 the times of their rising and setting. whilst Aljauzâ is the figure Orion. or only pretended to be ignotMtt. t. Mus!im b. 1 mean ~M!K~. Further. and specially in hia bock on the superiority of the Arabs over the Persians. For they consider thé two heads of Gemini as his outstretched forefoot. in the foremost part of which is Cancer. and the nebula. which means the same as Gemini.226 ALBÎBÛNt. Their using the lunar stations is clearly proved by the fact that in the Khwârizmî dialect an astronomer is called . Léo.j&n. amd part of Libra. (The Lunar Stations with the ChorMmians). whilst in reality the matter is not what they assume. ~utaiba AIjabaIî used to make a great to-do and to be very verbose in ail his books. whilst the names of the Arabs do mot agree. they count Alja.

For he whose roof is heaven. p.bha. right or wrong. ~M~tTt6<t (Sûra ix. Ab~ra. 227 subjects. p. and not free from Jabalî (t. These things one generation inherited from the other. so as to remmn among them and after them. however. AltMf ~Jja. praise or blame.t the end of of wMch we have S<<tM.tisned &t exalting the Araba at. The man (i. and most degraded of all nations.d no particular knowledge on this subject beyond that whieh is familiar to the peasants of every country. Afterwards we shall 80 describe the constellations in wMch they appear. If you atudy those traditions in the 'Anwâ books. one advantage in which othera did not share.ted to the reader a. by Ra. 98). the expense of the Persians. over whom the stars continually rise and set in one a. 6. but 20 he must needs make the Persians the meanest vilest. In thé following we give the names of the lunar stations in the dialect both of the Sughdiana and the Ehwarizmiams. a~d T&eScience of the Appearance of the 10 specially hia book which he called communica. ThairNames in Arabio. moreover. For ho is not sa. attribute to them even more ~~nt of belief and obstinacy against Isl&m than God attributes to the Alab Bedouins in the SÛM. and heap upon them all that is abominablc. ma."part thM book. <w u~ --Mt <~e~u~ 16 .AldMr&' AIna. is extravagant in the subject into wMch he plunges. he would have given the lie to himself in most of what he says about both parties from aheer want of moderation and equity. and by compositions in rhymed prose.e. this is the perpetuation of what they knew or believed. who has no other cover. Musiim Aijaba~!).nd tha same eMu'M. you will find that the Arabs ha. ~M ju~ In Chorasmian. If he had only taken a moment's considération and had called to mind thé first period of those whom he preferred to the Persians. 'AbdaUah b. l.jaz poems.s).thra.ON THE FESTIVALS IN THE MOXTHS 0F THE EHWABIZMIAXS.240. when we speak of the Marnesof their rising ajid setting. AIhaj!a.kes the heginnings of Ma aNairs amd his knowledge of time depend upon them. But the Arabs had.yy& AIda-bM&n In SogcHan.e. as far as obstinacy of opinion is concemed. TABLE OF TKE LUNAR STATIONS. by means of their poetry (~aîda. 40 Alham'a. The style of his book wMoh we have mentioned shows that there must have been enmities and grudges between him and the Persians. mountaineer) character.239.Althnra.

~ . 10.228 AMht~NÎ.Al'iH!! Allait) Alaha.'dalsu'&d Sa.t J~ ~jj~ ~M~ ~Lj) u!H e~~ ~f~ ~)–~)-..AMMghfdmu'~h]:lM~r B&tna!]. 'j~ jj~JS.At9ajfa.'dbula. In Sog~Ifm.' Sa.t M.uLt AlM.'&'im Alt)~lda. 20. "~S ~t~ ~L.wwâ Atsimâk AlgiMtfr Alzuba.niy&n IS. Sa'd &ldh&bih Sa. Al'a. Their Nttmattin AtaMo. AKM'ghaJmukaddajn 25.'dal'aJiLhbiya. j~ <y~ . In Ohoraamian.ût AMMu-atan Albutium M. t 10 M j~J~ ~~u~J u~ M~ 20 .t~ J.

mmad b. This date he kept in memory. Further. And this is ono of the rea.t the same time of the year he again came to think of it.229 CHAPTER XII.r&j! and Alhamdakî and other tMtronomcra of hia time to be brought before him.t Jj'yMf is a-twa-ysthe middie of summer.e. Thereupon he said: and forgotten.r tha. 20 ~Mf.since they believe that they never change their places in the yea.241.mmuz it corre10 sponded. and when seven yea. FEST~L BEFOBMOF THE XHWABIZMIAN ON KBWANZM-SHAH'S CALENDAR.ged their This is a System whieh haa become confused year. Then ho ordorod Alkha. and this aho they told him. ~tmH<t& the middie of winter certain distances from these days they use as thé proper timea for sowing and ploughing. He was not as yet acquainted with the intercalations and all matters connected with them. Something likethis (i.t 60 days after A]gh&r is the proper time for sowing the wheat. he asked with what day of Ta.e. etc.sons why they disa. whereupon they pointed out to him its place in the calendar. 'Irak followed the exemple of Ahnu't&did-bUl&h regarding the intercalation of the QioM. The people rely upon these days (t. certain feast-days. For on having been freed from his fettem &t BukhârA.ns a.). he rejected thia aort of calculation.thema.sona. the deviation of the Chorasmia. Muha.t hie court regarding the feast AjgMr. whilst others put this time carlier or later.n yea-r from proper time) is not perceived except in the course of many yeare. amd thereby they find the cardinal points oî thé four sea.SA'm 'AnMAD b. and having returned to his residence.greo among each other regarding thé fixing of those distftnces.smiama had ma-na. and asked them as to what was the reality of the case.tieia. p.smiam montha. The proper thing would be that we should find some means to fix thoae things uniformly and to . 'ABu. so that some maintain tha. Thèse scholars then gave him a minute explanation and told him how the Persians and Chora. he asked the ma. JftmMMt6.ra later a.

We shall describe in ita proper place as much as we have learned about both kinds. <. although it is likely that they had similar onea with the other nations. which is Christianity. thé time of gathering 10 grapes for the purpose of making raisins M 40-50 days after ~M)'} the time of gathering grapes for the purpose of hanging them up.248. Regarding the festivals in the mom-intercala. p. Some mattera. except this. M that the proper times for thèse things should never differ. the ajr. beeause Egypt lies in the midst between them and because they all use the sajne kind of year. and the time of gathering peMa.ted months whieh they use now-a-days.ted months of the Egyp. the scholars told him that the test way in this matter would be to &xthe beginnings of the Chorasmian months on certain days of the Greek and Syna. we have not received any information. that people say that new-year of the Egyptians M the Ist of Thôth. for cartain aerial appearances.n they carried out A. and they arranged that the Ist of Nâusarj: should f&U on the third of the Syrien Nîaan. we should have added it to the other eraa which we have before mentioned. Likewise we have no information regarding their festivals in the intereaJa. however. is 55-65 days after ~Mf.n months-in the s&me way as Abmu'tadid ha. one for the aitMm of any sort of secular life. the rain. If people had made thia reform of Khw&rizm. and another kind for thé matters of their religion." Now. bas certain peculiarities. in which no other country shajea– appeajamces of -the water. the ~p~omeMB at the end of Ispamdârmajî are six days. If the Greek year is a tea.830 ALBÎBONÎ. if God permits . so that ~'gM<would always fall in the middie of TMmnûz. for the impregnation of the pahn-trees. In the same way they fixed all the times for sowing. their country. as we have already mentioned. a~ording to another report on thé 20th of Fa. for planting and binding together. The famous days of the Greeks and Syrians are of two Hnda.y.d dôme– and after that to intercalate them as the Gréera and Syrians do. and as bas been reported to us.Shah the epoch of an era. This pla. etc. invariable timea of the year. 1270. etc. It is likely that they would celebrate the same festivals as the Greeks and Syriams. amd that the water of the Nile begins to aweU and to increase on the 16th of Payni. are quite peculiar to the Egyptians.. ~0 Egypt.p-year. 20 tians. og. Atex.ted the times of agricultural works. etc. And accordingly they regula.yni.

which are caNed'~lm<0t! and . . Tt~y sa. to correspond paraJIel with the latter. the nature of the season of winter is cold.B<M«tMA. again. derive them front the days themselves.231 CHAPTER XIII. for instance: The nature of the season of summer is heat. except by that quantity of time (the Portio which.1 and other qualities of the single days that expérience bas taught them in the long run of time. at least. BOTHAMONO THE AS KNOWN ON THE DAYS0F THB GREER CALENDAR SBEEKS ANDOTHEBNATIONS. amd ajso the meteorologica. that such is their nature. consecutive occurrencea. Others.t~jn. they cautit~. Therefore the Greeks amd Syriajis and all who follow their exampie fix and arrange by this kind of year all annual. sometimes less.ë. they are good-for-nothing people like the ~(tKa<-y(t' and setting do not bring rain. diminished other increased or and that besides are by average. Who do not bring rain like the other stars.243. maintaining that on an they are peculiaritiea of them. and its single parts never cease with ILoM of the latter.ys) Those are my people (a bad set) like the Ban&t-Na'sh. (Some poet sa. THE Greek year agrées with the solar year its seasons retain their it revolves proper places like the natural aeMons of the solar year. Some derive thcm from the rising and setting of the fiaed stars.y. sometimes in a higher degree. is appended to the jM<e)-<Kt!e<tOttM) and added tn it as one whole day (in every fourth year) by meana year of intercaJa. among them the Arabs. The excellent Chdenua says: To decide between p. before it becomes perceptible. whose rising t. Regarding the cause of these '~M<c< scholars do not agree among each other.

on which the correctness of the depends. . To each of these theories.ntheSthofîlM. viz. M~~ rises in .. Mserhon by conditions and do not underatand it in that generality in which he eertain has proclaimed it. For the rising and setting of the stars differ greatly and evidently in different countries. only what he considers as a truth. the month. those of Ptolemy for Greece Egyptians and the neighbourmgmo~tams. whichever you may hold to correct. Whichever of the two theories may be correct. thèse parties is only possible <mthé basis of experiment and Maminat'on But to examine this différence of opinion is n. &nân relates of his father. they occur on one and the same day which p~ (every~here) that the stars and their rising snd setting have to do with this matter.tBagh~d.tter stands between these two theories.Ir&k about 30 thirty yeara with the view of finding certain with wMch to principles of other countries. 20 <î~y for AUujaz and the correct neighbourhood." Now.~e~~ earlier than at Wasit. whether the are to be traced back to the days of thé year or to the rising and setting of the 2~~ S~oM. those of the for Egypt and the coasts of the sea. whether it wiU answer to the expectations of 40 people or not. something different will occur Thue the ma. certain conditions attach. !tun-awith surprise on thé?L'~ which hc composed for the Khalif 1 do not know how Menus came to make such Ahnu~d. But fate overtook him compare the before he could accompliah his plan.~B~r. that the rising and setting of thé stars are not to be con. though it correct what he said. they are true and will be fulfilled in their entire extent. the season. a mistake. resting on certain and keeps aloof from everything that is beset ~ith doubt and arguments. On the contrary.t possible except in a long of space time.tWMttwcd~y~ter.g. E.' But that is not the case. he would find correct what Galenus says regarding the d~culty of an examination of thé '<~ in & short space of time" In thM respect he (Sinân) is Galenus mentions and believes right. of which the astronomical books on meteorology are full. if they do not agree. this opinion has filled Sinan b. because the motion of the nxed stars is very little known and because in a short space of time we find very little difference in their and rising setting.232 AMÎBÛN). to prognosticate the character of the year. whether it will be dry or moist. If anybody would go to one of those countries and examine them there.. skilled as he was in a~-onomy. that he exammed thé obscurity 'Anwâ in . in any case there is no room for a third theory." nothing Afterwards he h~ given the lie to himself. sidered sa forming one of the causes of the if you limit his 'Anwa. For if the agree with those signa and proofs. People say: the differ in different countries. to prognosticate it by means of the signs and proofs. Thabit b.

thunder. Bain and Episemasia (Dositheus). Nothing mentioned.ON THE DAY8 OF THE &NEEK CALEKDAB. according to Sinân. (October. 4. 14. 5. People expect rain (Euctemon and Philippus) turbid air (Egyptians and Callippus). God lends support and he]p TM/tnn J. Nothing mentioned. Nothing mentioned. changing winds (Egyptians). Nothing mentioned. · 11. Egyptians. 7. 8.dy. 16.ns). Thâbit prescribes that weshould take into regard whether the Arabs and Persians agree on a ~tM'. its probability ia strengthened and it is sure to take place. Bain and Episemasia (Dositheus) west wind or south wind ~0 (Egyptians). 12. Nothing mentioned. Winterly air. 15. the contrary is the case. Winterly air (Democritus) 20 beginning of the time of sowing. 6. Of the rising and settinfi of the Lunar Stations 1 shall speak in a special chapter at the end of this book. 2. is frequently true.) 1. Episemasia (Eudoxus and Dositheus). in order to unite them and prevent p. It is no longer time for drinjdng medicine and for . they ha. Change of the winds (Eudoxus). Turbid winterly air (Callippus. 19. 13. 233 Sman b. west wind cr south wind (Egyptia. them from getting into confusion. 20. 21. South wind (Hipparchus). On this day the waves of the sea are sure to be in great commotion. Wearing wind (Eudoxus) winterly air (Egyptians). (Eudoxus and Metrodoms). If they do agree. Nothing mentioned. 3. Episemasia. and rain (Callippus) north Sinân attests that this 30 wind or south wind (Eudoxus and Dositheus). Episemasia and north wind (Eudoxus). 10. For since the astronomers have found that their rising and setting proceed 10 a~cording to one and the same uniform order in these months. and Euctemon) rain. Unstea. 1 shall mention in this book thé comprehensive apcount of Sinan iu his book on thé *<M and the proper timcs for secular affairs occurring in the Greek months. Bain (the Egyptians). Unsteady wind.Ye assigned them to their proper days. 22. 'ETrto~~mtfft(Eudoxus) east wind (Hipp:n\'hus) wpst wind Œgyptians). 9. On this day thé air begins to get cold. 17.244. 18. North wind (Egyptians). if they do not agree.

you use it as soon M possible. For the ~H. and the swaUows migrate to the lowlands.u. Philippus.) change in the air (Callippus and Euc~. Nothing mentioned. never passed ten consécutive d~ys during which thé sky was clear and . 5. T have been dw~Hing in Jurjàn during the myscif but there aummer montha. 6.Uippus and Egyptiana) 25. (November. Astrologers take the horoscope of thia time and derive there.kyorunlu. p. 10 26. preserve the heatth of the body. that this is and setting. Episemasia (Budoxus). and the ants go into their nest. South or west wind (Egyptians). Nothing mentioned. Episemasia (Euctemon) rain (Philippus). 'Abû-a&âmn frequently aUah b.foralu. Herein they rely upon the condition of Venus at the times of her rising 1 believe.234 AMÎBÛNÎ. J' eontinual south wind (Hipparehus).forheat. when you intend thereby t. only peculiar to thé climate of Syria.tyday the oontrary. Sinân ao aa. 27. and part of îlûl. mon). before the evilt~ root. nothing that M salt or bitter. 28. Episemasia (Oa. north wind or south wind (CesM-) 24. 4. It is a favoumble day for taking a warm bath and for eating things that are of a sharp. Clear air with cold north wind and south wind.ne).r~d. walmamâlik that in 40 ~hjazMd Yaman it rain. for very it rama with us in Eh~nzmeven before this time. Ehurdadhb~h relates in bis Kitâb-almasâlik 'Ubaid-AIlah b. cold wind This ia (Hipp~us). Epiaemaaia (Metrodoru. however. rain (Euctemon. Heavy wind (Euctemon and The kites. Winterly air and rain (Egyptians). carrion-vnltures (vultur percnoptems).ysthatthM is borne out by practical expérience. 30.rd. For if you are oompelled t.y. south wind (Egyptia. 2. winterly air (Dositheus). K~ for . and Hipparchus). phlebotomy excepta caseof need. not to other countries. 23. you cannot On ~fora~ght. whirlwind (Meton). Clear (lit.) 1. 20 J~ wind and winterly air Euctemon) (Metrodorus and C. biting taste. unmixed) winds (Eudoxus and Conon).h thmgs M~~ then. west wind (Egyptians) north or south wind (Eudoxua).). 'Abd. tempMtaNdwmterIyajr(Egypti&na). when it would be dimcult to eradicate it. Winterly air (Egyptiana). God knows bJt rM~!t{ II. the firet day of the rainy seaeon. during ~azirân.B~). from Mmdication as to whether the year will have much rain or little. T~nmAz.24)!. the white PhiMppu. use auch means. when the sun entera the 21st degree of Cancer.

in consequence of which rain follows. If. and contrive to defend themselves thereby against all e\il coming from the enemy. then it regaina its nice smell. Granted. Thèse things are natural peculiarities of the created beings. hea. It is a rainy country. 235 1 1 10 20 30 40 free from clouds. garlic spreads among these vapours.harisTan. There are other districts of quite another character from that of the mountains of Ta.vy rain immediately follows. and dces not cease until you pour out the water of the fountain and clean it. rain is sure to set in. an individual that is impure through pollution or menstruation touches the watcr. people wrap their feet in wool to prevent their touching the rock of the mountain. where you hear a clear murmur and a deep sound as soon as it is defiled by human excrements or urine. People relate that one of the khalifs. mentions this. it dissolves the vapours by its sharpness and compresses the density of the air. for . Of a similar character is a fountain called the pure one in Egypt in the lowest part of a mountain which adjoins a church. e.246. the vice-judge. the causes of which are to be traced back to the simple elements and to the beginning of all composition and creation. splashing country The nearer a district is to Tabanstan. in a sandy country." in the cave called Ispahbadh&n in the mountain of T&~ in Ta. there is a mountain between Her&t and Sijistân.g. where heaven becomes cloudy as soon as you dénie it by nith or by mi&. 1 think it was Alma'mun. now. where it begins to rain as soon aa you P throw something dirty into this well ? the And how do you account for the place called the shop of <SMo!)t<M' Bon of David. somewhat distant from the road. For if they touch it. and where it rains until you clean it again P And how do you account for the mountain in the country of the Turks? For if the sheep pass over it.M)'< country is moist and dense with stagnant vapours.ON THE DAYS 0F THE OBEEK CAI.the smell of p.EXBAB. nicely-smelling water is nowing out of a source in the bottom of the mountain. that this he the cause of this appearance produced by the pounding of garlic. andthe adjacent parts. Further. that the air of the the author of the X. Fustât in Egypt. And there is no possibility that our knowledge should ever penetrate to subjects of this description. If. then. the more rainy it is. The air of thé mountains of Tabaristan M ao moist that if people break and pound garlic on the tops of thé mountains. and when it did not rain. the more its air is moist. account for the famous well in the mountains of Farghâna. now. At&muU. now.baristân. how do you. As the cause of this subject.H6. Pieces of this rock the Turka carry about. So he said Lead us out of this pissing. Now. Into this fountain sweet. stayed there during forty days whiist it rained without any interruption. if they are surrounded by them. those who are not aware of these tacts consider this as a bit of sorcery on thé part of the Turks. it begins at once to stink.

ie. south-east wind (Egyptians). Bain and winterly air (Euctemon) winterly air and whirlwinds (Metrodoras) south wind or <ot. such climatica1 différences) depend upon the nature of the place and its situation. and that the white ant does not attack it. Such things (t. Therefore navigation is impracticable. and thick darkness lies over it. 19. Ships that are at sea on this day put in to shore. This peculiarity perhaps stands in connection with the nature of the mixture of the air on this spécial day. there it rains very seldom. if they do not go on land nor sit down there. Every saHor recognizes this by certain marks in his special sea. For instance. ~o 17. beeomes pestilential and hurta both animais and plants. say that at 20 this time there arises the wind at the bottom of the People sea that puts the sea in motion. Winterly air (Eudoxus and Dositheus). Bain (Eudoxus) winterly air (Cœsar) north wind during night and day (Cœsar). EpMemasM(Eudoïns). Further. the air is infeoted. People say . Frequently. Episemasia (Callippus. south-east wind (Buctemon) east wind (Egyptians). North wind (Eudoxus) j severe winterly air (EgyptitUts). 18. Winterly air (CeMar). Winterly air (Ctesar) south wind or Eurus. showing thereby that thia storm is blowing at the bottom. the waves roll. people maintain that any wood which is cut on this day does not get worm-eaten. Winterly memtioned. 15. 8. Sharp winterly air (Eudoxus). people say. they conclude that the sea bottom is quiet if a certain bird sits hatching her eggs-for they hatch in a bundle of 30 chips and wood on the sea. They lay their eggs only at that time when the sea is quiet. upon the degree of northern or southern latitude of the place.BhtÛNt. 14. winKrJyairon}and)&dsea(DemocritM). and navigation to Persia and Alexandriais auspended. in the Chinese sea this submarine storm ia by the nshing. thia is borne ont by expérience.247. whether it is a place of great élévation or a low country. air and whiriwimds (Euctemoi and Philippus). This they conclude from the appearance of a certain sort of nshes which then swim in the upper ragions of the sea and on its surface. And if it rains. 16.. 11. north wind.236 AÏ. M. Nothing 10. or cold south wind and rain (Hipparehas). 13. when the air is turbid. whethor it lies in the moulins or on the sea. 12. Nothingregistered. further. On the contrary. Conon. it is in uproar. For the sea bas certain days when p. 9. and Sinân saya that Metrodorus).e.nets rising of themselves from the bottom ofrecognized thé sea to its surface. Nothingmentioned. 20. this submarine storm rises a day earlier.

winterly air (Metrodorus). sharp. e.e. 3.rchus). On thia day falls the feast of 10 gathering the olivea. Winterly air (Eudoxus) vehement north wind (Hippa.ns). oold water during the night. In moat cases a disturbance of the air on land and sea (Democritus) Episemasia (Doaitheus) south wind and rain (Egyptians). . On thia day people forbid to drink 22. mor by p. 9. 25. ~Ntt~ L (December. J~M. Nothing mentioned. 8. Winterly air (Eudoxus and Conon) west or south wind and rain (Egyptiacs). and the fresh olive-oil is presaed. in the beginning of winter. as. Very winterly a. People say that on this day the waves of the sea roll heavily and that there is very little fishing.ON THE DAYS OF THE GREEK CALEXDAB. According to Sinân this is borne out by praetical expérience. South wind and Episemasia (Callippus).r) light rain (Egyptians). 30. wind and rain (Democritus). 28. 2. in Jurjân. 26.) hitherto quoted. 29. and at the times of epidemie diaease on the contra~y.e. Sharp winterly air (Callippus. Nothing mentioned.): <t!~ttett<a<T<t. Winterly air (Callippus. 6. ia different in different countriea. animals without boues. 27. Winterly air (Conon and Cœsa. Winterly air (Democritue and Dositheua). Euctemon. winterly air and rain (Eudoxus and Egyptians). 237 that on this day aît animal that have no bonea perish. On this day people hold a fair in Damascus. âge. Eudoxus. whilat the aun waa moving in the sign of Capricom. which is called "the fair of the cutting of the ben-nut. and Eudoxus). Pure wimds (lit." i. (Missing. Continued sexual intercourse on this day is objected For sexual intercourse ia not apto. The same is confirmed 30 by Sinân. Light ra. Nothing mentioned. and Ca'Bar). t. 11. for fear of the Yellow ÏPi~e)-. however.) 6. For 1 used to be molested by the gnats. 21. not mixed) (Euctemon and Philippus). 4. at auch times it is most noxious and pernicious to the body. Winterly air and rain (Callippus.in (Egyptians).248. whioh 1 do not quite understand. 1. 40 proved of in autumn. Euctemon and Metrodorus) thunder and lightning. Although we muet say that thc conditions of sexual intercourse depend upon a great many other things. Winterly air and rain (Euctemon and Dositheus). 24. 10. This. 83.ir (Eudoxus). Bain (Philippus) winterly air (Eudoxua and Conon) continual south wind (Hipparchus and Egyptia. Nothing mentioned by the authorities 20 others.

rda on being released he indulged in ha]lncinationaamd lying reports. Winterly air (Cœaar). 'A3!.the moistnesa of the season. and to fnmigate with frankincense in the mommg before BpeaHng. 14. Thé chann-mongem say that it ia a good omen on thie day to riae from sleeping on thé right aide. the female genitals. This day people call the e~t J?tr& meaning thé ~nmter. 12. Meaaes. and to bleed anybody except him whose blood is feverish. M. Winterly air (Endoxua) rain and wind 15. place. 17. nourishment. 80 similar Something frequently happens on faat. It wM the je!icf of thta ~nMi tlM. Aijahm aaid in a aleepleaa night. (Egyptiana). Nothing mentioned. People forbid on thie day to take of thé Neah of cows. time. the deaire. and mountain balm.t. when thé sky or part of it deara np. we muet remark that those who are beset by eaLunity find ita dnration to be very long and think that the moment of libération ta very a]ow in ooming. thé aun appeara atiU atanding above the horizon. regarding the prince of 20 the belierera. of oranges. People say that on this day the light leaves those Jimita within whieh it deoreMes. oppressed by wounda and fatigue p. to drink water after yon lie down to sleep.daya. 'AIÎ b. 'Abî T&Hb.~S ALBÎB~t. The reason of aJl this ia the cold and. that he 40 rtaea from the very midat of paradiae that on thia day the sages lay the foundattona of thé aJta~. when he had gone ont to war against the ûreeka. this story hâve amy foundation or not. So. and entera those limita within which it in. the Christian wnterof'Anb&r. the Mnesa or emp~neaa of thé atomaah. the ria~g.solatice. etc. The same etory ia told by the aimpletoma among the SM'a.place of the aun at the time of the wnter-aolatice aayathat ia thé true eaat. Whether. Or bas another night been added to the night ? Afterwa. But he had no knowledge of the . that human bemga begin growing md mcMMing. having not yet set. Véhément south w&d ornorth wind (HippaMhwa). cuatom. Winterly air (Egyptitma). Ea'b the Rabbi relates that on thia day thé sun was kept back for YoaNa the son of Nûmduring three houra on a clouded day. to amern-the camels with JMm (a depN&toty ungnent 10 made of Msemo and quick-lime). It ie aho conaidered deairable to watk twelve consecutive stepa towarda thé eaat at thé moment of sunrise. whilat thé demoma begin withering and periehing.249. e. 'AU b. 13. chMacter. now. whilst ahortty afterwarda. Ta~yA b. Cold north wind or south wind and rain (Egyptiane). if heaven dnring the latter part of them be clouded and dark then people break their &at.paradiae M situated in the southern regiona. HMa etream awept away the morning.

and Egyptians). 21.250. corresponding to the days of the year. however. People forbid p. 26. Winterly air (Euctemon). . 22. 24. A similar idea hovered in thé mind of 'Abù-at'aMtas AlamuM when he saMt in bis book On the Proofs for <7teKibla that the sun bas 177 rising and aetting places. Winterly air (Csesar and Egyptia~s) Episemaaia. in the south acxording to his theory). Episema. Therefore the Christians turn to no other rising-place but to that one of the equator. 2. 29. Dositheus. incurs Those crotcheta of hM are brought into connection with ignominy.8ia. He. the dogma of his own religion proves his theory to be erroneous. South wind (Eudoxus. (Missing.e. Episemasia (Dositheus). that during the 5 days which are the complement of the year thé sun is neither ascending nor descending. Besides.(CalIipptH. (January.EucteTnon.) 27. Episemasia (Egyptians). 25. 23. 18. Nothing mentioned. on this day the drinking cold water after rising from sleep. who undertakes what he does not understand. 19. for their law orders them to turn in praying towards the eaat (t. This serves as a warning to people against that which they dread most. For he maintains that the degrees through which the aun ascends and descends are 360 in number. Nothing mentioned. They say that the demons vomit into thé water. Nothing mentioned. Winterly air (Eudoxus).0~ TM DAYS OF THB ttRRB~ OAt-ENDAH. 30.z!rân and 2~ days of K&n&nI. and rain (Hipparchus and Meton). Nothing mentioned by the Pf!y(!pfgm<t<t'<<t. Winterly air on the sea (Egyptians).) 1. and they fix the direction of their churches accordingly. the rising-place of the su]~). Some people say that wood which is eut on this day will not aoon get dry. 28. 31. 20. Middling winterly air (Democritus). the argument regarding the 5 supernumerary days of the solar year and the 6 deficient days of the lunar year. The cause of all this is the coldness and moistnre of the air. thinking evidently that the solar year has got 354 days. Winterly air (Dositheua).e. of which we have already spoken. 239 10 20 80 40 diSerence of the zéniths.whilsthe told them that the sun rises in paradise (t. and that therefore he who drinks of it is affected by stupidity and phlegm. Those are 2' days of Ha.aNdDemocntU8). ~Kmt!m II. Nothing mentiored. Thia theory is not more curioua than his view of the sun.

Epiaemaaia (Egyptians) south wind (Democritus). Winterly air (Eudoxus and Hipparchus). 7. Changeable air (Egyptians).at the time of the setting of the Tortoise. between the 9th and the 16th of the month. 9. Winterly air (Euctemon and Philippus) change of the air (Metrodorus). This has been mentioned bythe expenmenters. and place it among the vines as a sort of offering . Euctemon. whiist at the other seasons it is salt. An example of this process is afforded the lake of Tinnrs. Philippus.251. so that the mouth of the vase emerges above the water. (Cfesar and Egyptians). East wind (Hipparchus). Nothing mentioned. 14.20 power its nature. People say that on thé 6th there is an hour during which all sait water of the earth is getting sweet. Nay. all salt watera would beoome sweet). possibly the saltishness of the waterwouiddiminish. Violent south wind and rain (Eudoxus and Egyptians). . South wind (Eudoxus andDositheus) mixed winds (Hipparchus). & Nothing mentioned. Those qualities are of a stable nature. 8. 18. If all salt water were mixed with so much sweet water as would over. if it be running.240 ALBÎBÛN!. not to be altered except by a process of transformation from degree to degree by means of certain media. 6. 80 The authors of talismans say that if you draw the BguMS of grapes on a table. the water of which is sweet in autumn and winter by in conséquence of the great admixture of the water of the Nile. Continuât and JeMureIy expérimentation will show to any one the futility of this assertion. 11. AU the qualities occurring in the water depend exclusively upon the nature of that soil by which the water is enclosed. which observation ie confirmed by Sinân. because there is very little admixture of Nile water. ie. and Metrodorus) south wind and west wind and winterly air on the sea (Egyptians).e. or over which thé water nows. jl!tt<Mf the fruit will not be injured by anything. Violent wind (CtBsar). 16. if you would place–in this hour or any other-in a well of salt water some pounds of pure dry wax. South wind (Callippus. Winterly air (Hipparchus) a north wind or a south wind blows (Ptolemy). those drops of water which splash over into the vase become sweet. 13. 10. Nothing mentioned. For if the water were sweet it would remain sweet for some space of time. Nothing mentioned. who go so far as to maintain that if you make a thin vase of wax and place it in sea water. Violent south wind and Episemasia p. 3. 40 15. 4. if it be standing. 17. Therefore this statement of the 10 waters getting sweet in this one hour ia entirely unfounded. 12. in that case their theory would be realized (i.

Winterty Mr(Eudoxus and CœsM).e.me reason it waa necessary that in the Greek year two months of more than 30 days should follow each other. Middling winterly air (Eudoxus). nor bleed anybody except in cases of specia. 24. South wind (Hipparthus). Rain (Eudoxus and Metrodorus) winterly air (Dositheus). But the most important subject of their deliberation WM to add them in the places which would be the most suitable to them. 26. Episemasia (Hipparchus) rain (Egyptians). whether the year be a leap-year or not. middling winterly air (Demo10 critus).r the cMneIs with Nilra (a depilatory unguent of arsenie and quicHime). ïl. Clear sky (Euctemon and Democritus) north wind (Hippa. which they had to distribute over 11 months. and why it hM not had assigned to it 29 or 30 or 31 days: If it were assigned 29 days amd were then to be increased by the leap-day.y 2 from Shubât.wa. Now.gomenee and the 2 days of Shubât). It appears to me that the following is the reason –but God knows best !-why people have shortened this month in pajticular so that it haa only 28 days. Severe winter (Egyptians). On this day people do not smea. 22. South wind blows and Episemasia (Ptolemy). The saine would be the case if it had 30 days. Nothing mentioned. it would have 30 days and would no longer be distinguish&ble from the other months in a lea.ns).1 need. 29.<HJ THE DAYS 0F THE GREEK CALENDAR.p-yeaj'.n the sum of the days of 20 16 . For at the beginning they intentionally gave to each month 30 days and took a. Clear sky (Callippus a. 28.) It is thé leap-month.tter (i. S&ttt~.p-month has been assigned 28 days. Likewise if it had 31 days. the months of 31 Therefore it was necessary days) are more in number than the former. 241 19. suNoca.e.ys. Nothing mentioned. 40 to let several months of more than 30 days follow each otber.nd Euctemon). So they got 7 supernumerary days (i. so that the sum of the days of both spring and summer is more tha. Besides.262 distribute the complete months of 30 days so a~ to fall each of them between two months of 31 da. 25.rchus) winterly air and rain (Egyptians). the rule of the preceding day as regards the use of Nûra and phlebotomy refers also to this day. beca. for the la. 31. For the sa.use Shubât had to bo left out. 23. 20. that it might he distinguished from the other months 30 both in leap and common years. Nothing mentioned. it wa~ not possible to p. For this reason the lea. the same similarity with the other months in all sorta of years woldd exist. East wind (Hipparchus). 30. 27.tiug air (E~yptta. the 6 Epa. (February.

And ten days and ten days and Eve complete days. North and east wind (Hipparchus) east wind alone (EgypHams).10. This could not have been otherwise. further. As the poet says When Christmas bas passed and Epiphany after it. which is nearly equal to the time of the sun'a mean motion through two signs of the zodiac. On the 14th falls the second Coal. was necessary. Bain (Eudoxus). Rain (Ca'saj-) winds (Egyptians). the sum of their days is 62. that Adhâr I. called the minor one. Metrodoms. 2. the sum of the days of Âb and Shubât is 59 days. 9. 5.rds The cold romains only a few nights. That M the titrn of the falling of thc two Co~b a. for the reason we have mentioned for Shub&t. 6. the middle one. And five days amd six and four of Shubât. the greatest cold vanishes. Then. Sinân 20 says that this is frequently the case. On this day the firat Coft! Mis. and Hipparchus) rain (Eudoxus and Egyptians). 11. severe winterly air. falls on Shubât and near it. Wherever the supernumerary day is plaeed thé eireumstameea are always the same. And.p-month.. and people would have thought that this in particular waa the 10 tea. Nothing mentioned. the west wind begins blowing (Democritus). Clear sky and frequently thé west wind blows (Budoxus). I mean to say thf sum of each month and of the seventh following one ia 61 days.. This is connrmed by Sinân as borne out by his observations. The thne of the blowing of the west wind (Ca. 14. People say that the fuur winds are in uproar. 8. which is the leap-month in the Jewish leap-year. This. because the number of the n. West wind or south wind intermixed with hail (Egyptians). The cold decreases a little. g0 8. Further. 7. 12. Clear sky and frequently the westwind blows (Dositheus).st. again. called p. Beginning of the blowing of the west wind. no doubt. a fact which isthe result of both ancient and modern observations.263.242 AH~RÛNÎ. Winterly air (Fhilippas and Metrodorus) west wind (Eudoxus and Egyptiams). 1. 4. 'ntha of more than 30 days is greater tham that of the months of 30 days. 13. it would have been different from all the other months. For if Âb had been assigned more than 31 days.fterwa." . rain and unmixed winds (Egyptians). their months Me proportional to each other in most cases. Nothing mentioned. intercalation has been applied to Shubât to the exclusion of the other months only for this reaaon.Uippus. autumn and winter. As for Tammûz and E&nûn the La. However. Nothing mentioned. frequently the air is winterly (Eudoxus and Egyptiams).

Zakariyyâ Alr&z! and 'Abu-Balo. With this subject also the question is connected why the earthen jars or pipes of which subterranean chamnels are formed. Winds (Egyptians). 20. for the body of the sun and the near approach of a column of rays are the first cause of the heat. and the trees on the 3rd. they say that on the Coc~days vapeurs are rising p. Nothing mentioned. According to another view. 18. Its phajmaco~ogicaJ trea.tment ia mentioned in most of the médical compilations in the chapter of preparing poisons from these materials. and hail falls. the water on the 2nd. The Persians say put hie hamds into the watar. Nothing mentioned. Between 'Abù-Bakr b. as people maintain. fixed on certain days of) the Greek montha which keepalways their are proper places. 243 10 20 30 40 15. for it is not are deadly poison. 19. and thcsc days no longer fell at their proper times. and Dositheus) changing south wind (Hipparchus). On the first day." On this day the moisture of the wood M nowing from the lowest parts of the trees to the highest. In Syria the mushrooms are coming forth those which stand near the root of the olive-tree This may be true. 21. A change in the winds and rain (Egyptians). or some special parts of them whilst other subtle people 16 . West wind. On this day the third Coa! falls.e. called the great one. Winterly air (Euetemon.Husain Altammâr several questions and answers. People say that on this day the interior of the earth is getting warm. as wc have mentioncd. according to those who hold this theory.264 from the earth which warm the earth on the Ist Coal-day. 17. on the third the remaining K~naïa. expostulations and refutations have been exchanged that will satisfy the euriosity of the reader and inform him of the truth. 16. Further. people say. Philippus. or Kun (Egyptiens). and the frogs begin croaking. on the second the 8rd and 4th. Between the falling of each of the two Coala there is an interval of one complete week. Cold north wind (Hipparchus). According to those who hold the opposite view. The Arabs used these three days (the so-called Cotth) in their months until thcy got into confusion. nor of that which approved is prepared from them. they are days noticeable for the rising of Lunar Stations. and thé water of wells. are warm in the winter and cold in the aummer. They were called Co<th because they are days characterised by the spreading of the heat from the interior of the earth to the surface. the Ist and 2nd KÂt'/jMtïtt getting warm. Thereupon they were transferred into (t. of to take much of the muahroom and fungus. this change is brought about by the tur's receiving heat instead of cold from the body of the sun.ON THE DAYS OF THE GREEK OALENDAR. wind (Egyptians) Thé Summerhas during which the coal is kindled. This day is cold (Arabs).

27. he bas an impuiM of doing harm to mankind. .e. 26. and the third two weeks after the second one. t. And a burning (wind) comes to thee from the of thé next beginning tnonth. if it is a common year. seven comecutive days beginning with the 26th. and Wabr. Some poet has connected these names in a oefMM memoyt<t!M in this way The winter is closed by seven dusty (days). A cold north-east wind begins blowing and thé swallows appear (Euctemon and Hipparchus). t. when the coals used to be It is also called extinguished.e. They Me called by the Arabs by special names. three f&U 20 into ShubAt and four into Adhâr. The Nûn in this word is not radical. Conon.e. Then the cold retires.e. i.255. Some inconsidera. a man who leaves things as &!t&a~.e." . people to beware of him.~<M6f. the same as in . and Jtf)t~mr. 22. SO The 7th is J~p:M!(the extinguisher of coals).~tt tc~~a.~ M<Mt:e. four days fan into ShuMt and three into Adhâr. Cold north wind (HippMchiM). the lat is called ~MMt. month. so called from the verb J~. 24. the second a week later. 10 north. and the Egyptians) rain at the time of the appearance of the swallows. Cold north wind and west wind (Hipparchus) north-east wind with other winds (Egyptians) daya with ehangcaMe air (Democritus).e. t. In this month fall the Days of the Old Woman. so that thé first fell on thé 21st of Shubât. The 4th is called jlMo:!tbeeause he coMm<tm<& (e<'wm<m~My). Winds are blowing and the awatlowa appear (Callippus. the severity of the eold.te and over-zealous people of onr aneestors have introduced these Coal. the plur~ of u. he ~Bo~ trace of t~e &t~. he diverts people by some relief whieh he abords.M~-t~). t. Our Old ïPbMMUt't Uctye of the month When her days cf. passing away with the end of the P. ~'<t!M.244 AMtBÛNh maintain that thoy are thé ~moit of the cold in winter. NMt:t. Nothing mentioned. the 2nd is called ~tt<t6y. 23. The third is their brother ~<M~. and Philippua). (who turns the kettle upside down) in consequence of the cold wind of this day.east wind during four d~ys (Endoxus. if the year M a leap-year. ~mt}-.e. Philippus.days into Khwârizm. Callippus. 28. The 6th is i. and his brother Mu'tamir. the most severe of them.me to an end. Winterly air (Ceesar and Dositheus). !. as something that is coame and thick. The Pth is Al-mu'tamir. 25. and serve to dénote thé diSerences in the beginning of heat and cold as known in the différent countries.

it bums with an intense light. and that the sun'a influence upon the atmosphere is greater than that of anything else.ant) Me scarcely ever free from cold and winds. the sky being dark and varioualy ooloured. in Bukhârâ. their whiriwinds.rtcrof the sun i!! which the effect tt'c')! place. These days Theothdavisalsocalled. 24. tecett Kty/t~euM!e~M days. and that this effect should on an average continue as long as the moon stands in that quarter (of her own course) in whic~ the effect commenced. and in thatqua. «M~fC~y ones. Of all of them ouly ~0 one old woman remained. 20 Ris whole argument comea to this. like the Siek people fnrnish another example. quivering (of human limbs). People say that the wind wbicb destroyed them was a west wind. Nobody need be astonished at the fact that the cold towards its end. for thé prophet says 1 have been assisted by the east wind-viz. Therefore they were called the Days of the OH Woman of '~6~c[K. 1 have seen a treatise of Ya'~&b b. the mathematiciau. lamenting the fate of her nation.e. or the disease of the belly. Mostly during theso days the cold is most vehement.S'/tff~'M. the ancients relate the following They are the days which God mentions in his Book (Sùra lxix. Quite the Similar same is the case with the heat. J [Z~cKMtt. as we shall mention hereafter. transferred these days into the calendar of his people in conformity with the amount of the progression of the apogee. which is the place of all changes. whiist those who know them from expérience despair. 10 observations you may make in quite eommon physical appeMances. Therefore these days are said to have been called the Days of the OH M~omaM. because there is no more oil. because its setting occurs about thia Station ~<t time. then those who are not familiar with these things gain new hope. of the vehemence of the cold during them). 'Al!. specially those who perish by hectic fever or consumption.M. that the sun then reaches the quadrature of hia apogee.5 the 7th JJtM~x. if the lamp in near the moment of extinction.J the reason these Regarding why days were called the Days o/' ~p Old Woman. In that case it would be necessary that that change which the sun effects in its own aphere should be proportional to that one which it effects in the atmosphere. to cease). when it in about to cease. and the other terron which happened during them. 7).ON THE DAYS or 'iUUi UKKtiR UALj~UAtt." and the people of 'Ad perished by their cold wind. is the most severe and vehement. And hence the Lunar has got its name. ot similar diseases. Her story is well known. For they regain power when they are near death.e. 'Ish&k Alkindî on the cause of this appearance in these days (i. because it is about <o<«)-? <MM~ (t. I have been told that 'AMaHahb. on the . 30 on having become acquainted with this treatise of Atkindi. Eg. and flickers repeatedly.

its inerease and spreading. the biting and licking one. or the 14th. People say that on this day the locusts and aUcreeping animala come forth." Further." ~~Mr. cutting the nail).e. one who strikes day. ~onpupsidedowm). the 4th. And ~H~. of the Old ~m<tw (~<M&) were given this name because they are the i. For the heat is nothing but the rays of the sun detached from .246 TiM'M-aH~ftH~–jmd'Âd poet says: AMtÎBÛNÎ. There is no aixth name after it. para postica.ctHM~.BMMM~ an excessive After him comes Hinzabr. thinking that it wM warm. each set of four of them. or the 24th from beginning or end of the month. with a day of the month in the date of whioh there M a 4. for they mean that the wind is so to cut the nail thé 5th is called sharp as Jft~S~ (whirling about the dung). Some people maintain that the j)~ of the Old ~tMtt received their name from thM. with the fore-foot. and that the heat of heaven and the heat of earth meet each otker. And j~oM-a~f is justty called thus. StnMng till he cornes who exercises justice. viz.256. turning the bmying. p. both words meaning the injury from cold the 3rd is caJIed ~M. who evidently euts And splits the rocks by the cold. that an old woman. Somebody bas brought them into a verso in this way The first of them is . haa been destroyed by the west wind. Nothing mentioned by the Parapegmatists. so that the vehemence of the wind carries it to human habitations. through the vehemence of the wind the 4th." A The west wind hM destroyed thé sandy tracts of 'Ad So they perished.e. After them thé last of them.6.e. JM~e~a'f. threw 10 off herj~~<t' (a sort of garment) and perished in the cold of these days.a~r (i. 1. people say that the «mM~ days mentioned m the Coran (S&ra ïh. The IstM called Bt~~r. i. 15) coincide. the 2nd Himabr. 20 (<. in the plains. thrown down like thé trunks of pahn-trees. We find that the Arabs have names for the five J~between Aban-Mah and Adhâr-Mâh like those of the Days of the OM Woman. This is a somewhat hyperbohcj expression for the beginning of the heat. Some Arabs maintain that the ~y<.TM!. the fifth. of the winter. and for the air's preparing itself for the reception of the 40 heat.

i. going out from his body.ON THE DAYS 0F THE GREEK CAMXDAB. and that its shape is like body p. however. that none of the existing bodies ia in its natural place. and element like earth. This. or–according to another-by to the earth from outaide. i. not the case. The heat of the &re (i. which is so rapid as to seem timeless. and hia body.e. people is aasign the acuteness of the angles of their reNexion. there is nothing more rapid in existence by which you might measure the B. its chord. without time that the nature of (" Mtt!M "). that. Some say this motion is (t'm~M. therefore the former ha. rays. say that the a. and that is a simple peoplemamta. the warmth of the air ia the result of the friction and violent contact between the a sphere. Smâ. On this subject 1 have spoken in a more suitaMe place thau this book is. and that force must of necessity hâve had a beginning. for the motion of thé vapeurs in the air causes them to get warm. Others. This theory getting warm by being opposite who maintain that the sun is a hot. apeci&Uy in my correspondence with the youth 'Abû-'Al! Alhusain b. The heat of or of the vapeurs that are from its surface. water. Both sorts of heat are brought to bear upon the earth in an equal mauner thé earth consista either of the during thé four seasons. the heat exists in the rays (is inherent in them). that are reflected solar raya 40 the heat of the interior of the to one theory-by produced-a. fiery substance.e. again. in the same way M the air those is the of to the fire.s been compared with the latter. which ia called Fire. the body touching the inside of the sphere) . however.257. As the reason of the heat which exists in the rays of the sun. According to my opinion. and thereby its time (i. Others say that the air is getting warm is by its being situated opposite to the sun.ir is getting warm by the rapid motion of 10 the rays in the air. This is the theory of those who maintain the sun has nothing in common with the natures of the four elements.ccording that heat which accidentally cornes eajth. the motion of the sound in the air is not so degree of its rapidity. there is a difference of opinion regarding thé motion of the since the rays are not bodies. the fire. Regarding the body that touches the inside of the sphère. fast as thé motion of the rays. moving rapidly.e. forEegarding the raya of the sun many theories hâve been brought ward. viz. 'Abdallah b. air. the degree of its rapidity) bas 20 been determined. On the contrary. 2477 the body of the aun towards the earth or from the warm l'ody which touches thé inaide of the Lunar sphere. consisting of discussions on this subjpct. Further. revolve around a crescent-like T 'lich figure 30 you get by making This explaN&tion is in conformity with the theory. Others say this motion proceeds in very short time.e. that all of them are where they are only in consequence of some force beiug employed.in that it is of a globular form. Some say that they are fiery particles similar to the essence of tbe sun.

Sinân says that there is frequently winterly air. they gather in the 40 interior of the earth and roll themselves up ono round the other ao that the greatest part of them ia viaible. bécause the rotation of the celestial sphère proceeda always at the same rate. North wind (CaUippua). 'L'heauthor of thie theory. dorus) awaHowa and Htea appear (Eudoxua). This Sinân connnna from hie experience. 10 2. North wind (Euctemon and Metrodorus) violent south wind (Hip. 8. if there M any. People say that on this day the traces of the winter disappear. 10. 14. The ancients do not mention an apparent change on this day. begin blowing. 6. In thia condition they remftm during the wintcr until this time. 17. Episemasia and cold north wind (Euctemon. and on the 18th in a common year.Ho. Nothing mentioned. takes place the equinox. Nothing mentioned. 20 8. Beginning of the X<A~. (Otasar) they blow during ten days. Nothing mentioned. Nothing mentioned. Some people say that a change of the violent winde takes place. 12. is always of the same degree).348 ALBÎBÛNÎ. Troubled air (Egyptiane). is a theory. t. This. one muet aocept it. and the vapoura reach only to a certain limit whieh they do not go beyond. 16. 15. must believe that within the earth heat is contained which proce<ds from the interior to the outside.258.tee<each other. Moderato north wind (Callippus). 5. whioh Mow during nine days (Democntus).c. It is the first day .son. Cold north wind (Euctemon and Egyptians). at all éventa. the kite appears (Euctemon and Philippus). Beginning of the cold ~t6«u. Cold north wind (Hipparchna) south wind and taU of bail (Egyptiana). parchus). Winterly air (Egyptians). Cold north wind (Euctemon). On the same day is the feast of the Small Lake of Alexandna.c. And the reflected rays are not to be referred to the earth (i. Cold north wind (Euctemon and Hipparchns) west or south wind (Egyptians) o~M~Mn begin blowing (Eudoxua). and they look like a bail. On thia day (the 17th) in a leap-year. for dnring the oold sea. People say that on this day it is agreeable to go out on the aea. 13. 1 think. and that 80 phlebotomy is adviaable. 11. The anakes open their eyea. 4. Philippus. '0~ p. remains always at the same distance (from us. Sin&n aaya that this is mostly true. 9. whilst the air hM become warm through thé raya of the sun. and Métro. 7. light rain (Egyptians) the kites appear (Dosithens). !Ï%M the two Mf<N of tea< t. the earth is not to be conaidered as their source). ae 1 have found them myself in Khwârizm. called the first equinox.

the sun's greater and lésa distance from the earth. because the sun. equal to heat and cold. just as day and night there are equal. Some people have been beguiled by the expressions "~t«t<o*. and still that part of So the matter is (and will be).259 and the epicycle. someone maintains that it is not 20 inhabitable. 249 of the Persian spring and of the Chinese autumn. There the water of the sea is dense. as we have mentioned. render a country uninhabitable. ia impossible. because the sun so intensely vaporises the small particles of the water. The day of the equinox.–is their Naurôz. of the does not lie but north few of latitude.Diei so as to think that there the air is equal and "Linea ~E~M<e[<M. whilst ail the other C<motMare derived therefrom. In the first hour of the day they worship the sun and pray fur happiness and bliss to thc spirits (of the deceased). however. notwithstanding the difference of its rotation. because the apogee and 80 not inhabited. in which the sun's distance from the earth. places except in countriea north or south of the equator.OX THE DAYS OF THE GREEK CAI-EXt'AR. 40 C<MM)tt. for spring Mid autumn or winter and aummer cannot at one and the same time altemately exchange their And China. Thereby he each other in gets two régions. In thé middle of the day they worship the sun again. So they have made the equator the basis of their fictions.–of without beginning and end. describing it as a sort of paradise and as being inhabited by creatures like angels. a great feast among them. As to the country beyond the Line. is always identical. ascalculated by the Hindûsaccording to their which they are impudent enough to pretend that it is eternal. all the countries 65 degrees of southern latitude have the climate of the middle zone of the north. are necessitated exclusively by the difference in the aun's rotation. when reaching the perigee of his eccentric burns sphère. a northern and a southern one. and then of whiist all the countries over whieh he culminâtes. perigee of the eccentric sphère. From that degree of latitude to the pole the world is again inhabitable. equator. world do not reach nearer the equator than to a distance of several days' 10 journey. This. that fiahes and other animaJs keep away from it." (moderate). stands nearly in its utmost southern declination. Neither we nor any of those who care for those things have ever heard that any one has reached the Lino or even passed the Line to the south. south. But the author of this theory must not represent this as excessive heat and cold are not alone the causes which because necessary. 'Abû-Ja'far bas designed a figure different from the eecentric sphère p. degrees having only the east. At the . for they do not exist in the second the world is quarter of the two northern quarters. and pray for the resurrection and the other world. for the equatorial part of Parts of the inhabited the earth is too much burned to be inhabitable. in the farthest end of thé inhabited world towarda The country south of the Une is not known.

18. On the contrary. Aronnd thie taliaman the crocodile could not do any harm. winds. 25. Coï m. It ia an 30 obnoxious animal peculiar to thé Nile. North wind (Eudoxua).250 AÏ.Euetemon. after noon. they aay. consisting of precious objecta and domestio animala. on looking to the atar ~&<M in the night of this day and then having intercourse with Ma wife. People say that a man who has no children. Bain and anow. The crocodile ia said to be the water-lizard when it has grown up. Thia. 22. And the people in heaven and hell look at eaoh other affeetionately. (M. North wind (Cmaar) rain (Hipparohua). On the same day they make présenta to eMh other.BÎBÛNÎ. 24. 27. Mi~yar maintaina that in the hburwhea thia day begina to decline. however. People say that in the mountaina of Fnstât there waa a taliaman made for that diatrict. Bamandmizzle(CaUippua. end of the day they worahip the aun again. it turned round and lay on ita back. has been broken and loat ita power. and pmy for heaith and happmeaa for their bodies. North wind (Hipparehua). 21. 19. Epiaemaaia thunder and Episemasia (Egyptiana). The fecundating vinda are said to blow. wiU get children. 23. North wind (Ceaar).260. The omina of thia day are the following. But on reaching the frontier of the diatrict it got up again and carried all it could get hold of away to the water. Winterly air and cold winda (Democritus and the Egyptiana). to riae from a!eep lying on the back. On thia day the crocodile in Egypt ia thought to bo dangerous. ao that the children could play with it. when it came within ita limita.) the ahadow of everything ia haït ita aize. and the 40 p. But this tatiaman. and cold in the morning «n (Egyptaama). not in general It ia tme only for auch placea of which the latitude is about 27 degrees. For he who performs thia will be free from all aorta of 10 pain. (Hipparehua) On thia day people like to purify the children by circumcision. Bain (Callippus.atonn (Cailippua) wind (EgyptNms).andPhiHppua). 80. They maintain that the winds blowing on thia day are apiritual beinga of gréât uee for mankind. Egyptiana). viz. Epiaemaaia (Meton. Muhanunad b. North wind (Eudoxua). the tree &tK)! ~~p<M and to fumigate with ita wood before speaking. and Meton). 26. Of the rest of the month nothing ia mentioned. and light and darkneaa are equal to eaoh other. Nothing mentioned. as the theaHng ia peculiar to other rivera. God knowa béat says . Eudoxus. ia only partially thé case. Sinân that the 30th frequently bringa an Epiaemaaia. In the hour of the equinox they light mrea in sacred placea.

4. Episemasia 24. Nothing mentioned. south wind or another one. Euotemon. West wind (Enctemon and Philippus) 17. fear for the ships at sea. Sinân maintains that this is 21. Bain (Hippajohus) rain (Hipparchus and 10. hail falling (Metrodorus).held altemately bas been p.r) hail falling (Conon amd Egyptians). 'Abù-Tahya the rays of thé sun during 40 da. 85~ JMM.261. bail falla. Wind (Eadoxua). West wind or south wind. to both huyers and sellers. frequently the case. and The Euphrates begins to rise. that are. and Metrodorus). rain. Xun&sa. South wind amd changing winds (Eipparchus). Egyptians). 10 20 30 ~0 . Through these fairs. Unmixed winds (Euctemon and Philippus) The raining is confirmed by the expérience of Sinân. 9. Episemasia (Hipparchus and Dositheus). Bain amd hail (Euctemon and Eudoxus) (Egyptians). because they are in a hurry to settle their affairs. Frequently bail falls (Callippus and Metrodorus) rain (Egyptians). rain (Egyptians and Conon).ON THE DAYS 0F THE GREEK CALEXDAB. Bam (César and Dositheus). Wind. thunder. the air unmixed (Ptolemy). 7. This ia confirmed by 6. 16. Nothing mentioned. People 22. and mizzle (Egyptia. Bain (CaDippua. Sinân. or a wind akin to it. that says 'Ayyiâb. 18. West wind and mizzle (Eudoxua). the Pleiades disappear under b. unmixed winds 15. Then they count 70 days until the fair of Buerâ. The water begina to increase.'omoted and their of tho of these countries merce poople wealth been increased. 13. 19. Nothing mentioned. Sinân says that this is frequently the case. Winds and mizzle (Egyptians). Bain (Eudoïus) unmixed winds (Egyptians). the com. This fair lasts 7 days. South wind.ys. Cold south wind (Hippajchus). south wind (Egyptians). 2. 14. Bain (Eudoxus) winterly air (Cœsar and Egyptians). 11. in certain places. 3. 1. Meton. West wind and rain (Eudoxus and Cmsa. People hold a fair at Dair23. and this fair is held when the Pléiades appear. 20. 8. south wind. (Democritue). South wind amd rain (Egyptians).p. Nothing mentioned. They have proved profitable to the people. 5. So the Syrians make them rise 15 days earlier than in reality they rise. Sinân says that this is frequently the case. 12.ns).

because the dew that falls nowa into thé rivera. Infréquent the countries far up to the north. 27. have more water in aummer and lésa in winter. sources of which are aituated in cold places. again. beyond the Abyasinian city Asauan in the southern region. however. a matter of doubt. in creatins thé moun~ams. For the greateat part of thé ordinary volume of their water ia gathered from springs. as we have before mentioned. they greatly differ from each other in this respect. As to the question why the aprings have the most p. it is far diatant from the zenith of thèse placea whence the Nile originates. The fact is this. Therefore they have high water in winter and spring. 26.as haa been said. because the equatorial zone is not inhabited. their sources are not so high up in the north. that those rivera theTigris. Mizzle and rain (Eudoxua and Egyptiana). the Oxus bas high water when there ia little water in the Euphrates. where the cold ia intense. this dew-water freezea at those seasons. it is evident that thé dew doea not stay where it bas fallen. coming either exaetty from the eq~ator or from countries aouth of the equator 30 This is. As for the water of the Tigris and Euphrates. ~urra in bis book on the reaaon why the mountains were created. It is evident that in those régions there is no freezing of moist anbstancea at all. This increase of the water. the south wind blows. bas high water when there is low water m both Tigris and Euphrates. they say. 25. 28. the high water of thé Nile ia caused by falling dew. for when the aun is near us and our zénith. It is the same cause which . because ita source liea in the JfMM J~!MB. therefore. however. and whioh in consequence have winter. Dew and moisture (Oeeaar) winda (Egyptians). destined them for various purposea and uses. and that portion of water that may have instantaneoualy been frozen melta away in the beginning of spring. But if the high water is caused by the apringa. If.a62 copious water in winter. these have the most abundant water in spring. and an increase and decrease of them exclusively depend upon the faU of dew in those mountains where the rivera originate or through which they flow thereupon the apringe pour their volumes into the rivers. Therefore the Nile bas high water in aummer. Sin&n connrms the rain from his own observations. 10 and other rivera. Bain and frequently hail (CaIIippuaandEuotemon): Episemasia and west wind (Egyptians). Wind (Egyptiana) rain (Eudoxus). But when the air is getting warm and the snow melta. at that 20 time the Oxus rises.252 ALBtBÛKÎ. does not apply to all streams and rivera uniformiy on the contrary. JF. Now it is well known that dew-fall ia more in winter and beginning of apnng than at any other season. we must observe thé all-wise and almighty Creator. but that it directty nowa oS to the Nile. On this. Thé Nile. Some of them have been mentioned by Thâbit b. amd then the streama and rivera begin to me.

until it rises to an enormous flow height above thé water of the river. and learn thatthe water moves towards the centre of the earth and to any place which is nearest to the centre. and there it M stored up. (then it commences to strongly). There is no doubt that the water may rise to any place where you want to hâve it. When. thèse mouct~in caves 10 are clean amd pure.–or unlesa they study physical sciences. for this M the only reason why water rises upward. Afterwards it begins to now out through thé holes. thé water flowa out just as it is. as is the case with artificial well-springs. i. 80 at first the water flows only very little. not know of Many people who attribute to God's wisdom ail they do ~a~ M physical sciences (t.e.vearguedwithme and rise in rivers have observed the water 20 view they relate that they other watercourses. a man who bas no training in these things believes that the natural direction of the river ia to flow in a horizontal line or with a MafJl inclination (upwarda). who excuse their ignorance by saying their In of on this support subject. If. that the water the more it flows away (from its of source) the more it risea. if previously it descends to a place which is lower than its maximum of ascent (which it . that they observed water at flowing in mountain streamiets. the wet falls and part of it flowa the channels in away in the torrents. sweet.ha. that their reservoirs lie higher tham they themselves. It is impossible to free their mind from this illusion unless they acquaint themaelves with the instruments by which pièces of soil are weighed amd determined. 253 renders complete the intention (of the Creator) which he had in mailing thé sea-water salt. The matter is this. and is rising). excavated–for 40 the reverse of what they believe becomes evident to them . the bed of which waa goingdownward the rate of 50-100 yards and more for the distance of one mile. and by which divers are dug and if they weigh thé earth through which the water flows. he must of necessity imagine that the river is rising in height. because thé substance by which they are nourished is then most copious. <tB-<cMe. The bubbling of thé fountains and the rising of the water to a certain height are to he explained in this way.e. If that ia not the case. now. Therefore the springs hâve thé most copious water in winter. If the this channel 1s peasants dig a channel somewhere in this terrain.e. Evidently more wet falls in winter than in summer. even if it were to the tops of the mountains. the remaining part sinks down into the mountain caves. if the channel made to incline a little towards the country (i.). If. called springs. the causes of which are not known to us. This they assert in complete ignorance the physical causes and because they do not su&ciently distinguish between the higher and lower situations (of the springs of rivers and of the rivera themselves). the water acquires different qualities and peculiajthes. now. further.0~ THE DAYS OF THE GREEK CAt.ENDAB. in the mountains more than in the plains.

in that case the water may rise up to the castles.g. Sometimes even the water rises in artinciat fountains out of wells. but if ita reservoir be lower. and that is the air. For the one vessel is mot nearer (to the water) than the other. it keeps back the water and or if does not let it now off. . does not rise at all it is taken from neighbouring masses of water. theMc«~ cannot exist.MtaowmgoS into either of the two vessels. stands still even for a l<mgtime. as othera believe. nltunately reaches). the water 20 flows immediately oS into that direction. e. On this principle people hâve proceeded in the mountaina. So the question returns to its original condition. the water dues not succeed in rising to the earth. it hM come nearer to the centre of thé place earth. until the level of the water in the vessel where it B. put both its ends into two p.wn. Now.operation of something forcible which actsiike an instrument. whence the water is is finished. and it is impossible that the water should flow off equally into both vessels. the water rises springing. emptiness is either a non-ens. If. if it M connned (to a narrow bed or channel). and if you keep away from it any substance which might occupy the place instead of the water when it finds the place empty. or drawn. in both cf which the water reaches to the same level.water. then the 10 water in the ~~Sp. for in that case the instrument would get empty. Frequently the reaervoir ia higher by thousands of yards in the moantama. gathered from droppings from the sides.ws ia equal to thé level of the water in thé veasel whence it is dja. Now. the water in its natural function is assisted by only the co. and. On the other hand there is one kind of water whieh bubbles (springs) aireadyat the bottom.26S.254 AMÎRÛXÎ. it is something which attrMts bodies. suppose. It flows so long until thé water of that vessel. But if you then place the one end of the K~ a little lower (thm thé other). This bas frequently been carried out in in the midst of which there were mountains which it was canals to impossible perforate. except its place be occupied by some other body.. now.. For if its bas once become lower. the matter is impossible. nowmg continually in consequence of the adhesion and connection of the water-atoms amongst each other. Of this water people hope that it may rise to the earth and flow on over its surface This latter hnd of water is mostly found in countri. An illustration of this principle is the instrument called Ï~Mf For if you mi it with water and K~p. For one sort of which is well. in 30 case they have got springing water. vessels. as most philosophers or it is am etMwhich a.~ near to mountains in the midst of which there are no lakes or rivers with deep water' If the source of such water is a reservoir much above thé level of the 40 earth. and so it ttows towards it.ttracts bodies. to the tops of the minarets. and thé level of thé water which is gathered in this way is parallel to thé level of those waters by which it is nourished.

The surface of its water is always on a level with its margin. the condition of Its sources in some way resembles that of the water of the instrument called ~~<Ay'. and of the hoofs of an ass. Similar to this little lake is a sweet-water well in the district of the IBm&k in a mounta. caJIed S&bzaj6d. quietly standing. Close to this well there are the traces of the foot.e. on the top of the mountain. and by tho sound of tho knocking they ascertain the quantity of the water. Or its material is derived from a reservoir which lies on the same level with thé lake. they let the water bubble out and flow where it likes. p. and the sey~dt~ lamp. Then they bore a small hole and examine it if it is all right. In this way both oil and water keep the same level. 255 10 20 30 40 1 bave been told that people in Yaman often dig until they come to a. and two knees of a man who had been worshipping there. two handa with the fingera. Then both water and oil flow out through the splits. When. then. 2. and you bore a narrow hole in it deeper tha.n\ THR DATS f) TFTE GREER fAMNDA)!.264. Therefore the water of the lake remains in thj same condition.rsajig in eircumference. and therefore thé water of the lake does not rise above that or the reservoir. then cornes forth that which lies next to the hole. one of the following three things must be the case 1. . similar to this is a small Iake in the mountains of Bâmiyân. Or. Thereupon you tum the jug upside down in the cup and the vase in the lamp. they hasten to stop it up with gypsum and quicklime and to close it over ropeatcdly. although it may be far distant. the hole is to represent the line to whieh pcople wish tho water or uil to risc). so much bas been consumed as the hole allows to pass. Either its material is derived from a reservoir much higher than the lake itself. and still it does not decrease as much as the breadth of a finger. as large as a great shield. and the water nows into it in such a quantity as corresponds to that which the sun a.bsorba and vaporises.in ca-UedMtmk&r. Moreover. The case is this You take a water-jug. lastly. a small lake of one fa. Frequently a whole army drinks out of this well. The water of the village whieh lies on the alope of the mountain comes down from that lake but they are through a small hole in such a quantity as they require not able to make it flow more copiously. or an oil-vase in several places of the edge or lip of the vase you make fine splits. But if they have some fear about the hole. As to thé water on the top of the mountain between Abrashahr and Tûs. 3. certain rock under which they know that there is water. The Ghuzzî Turks worship those traces when they see them. Then they knock upon this rock. until they reach thé level of the hole.n thé mouth by so much as you wish thé water to remain in the jug and the oil in the vase (i. For frequently they fear that from such a bole a spring similar to the 'o)Te<t< of ~'<ntnt might originate. also the traces of the foot of a child. one mile square.

where there M a hill that was perforated by diggers for hidden treasures. but the water never increased whilst reason would demand that it should always remain in the same condition if it does not increase. you may well wonder at a place caUed Ftlawan (Faihwan) in the neighbourhood of This place is 10 Ahniiujan. t~e water begins at once to spring (rise). AIjaihânî has mentioned a village between Bukhâra and AHcarya Alhaditha. 3. week-day in general. hangs down in long icicles. Winterly air (César) winds.266. He said It is better for the Musiims to utilize their than to have prize two stones in the mosque. This is no doubt a got-up piece of artifice. and it bas been flowing ever since till this day. It is curions that thM should take place just If it occurred on any onaFriday. saying: "We shall not let them pass out of the house of God into that of the devil. 80. moisture. 2. We retum to our subject.reaching This. Mizzle (Egyptians). If the rising powor of the water wore kept down by an obstacle. and tHs you can no longer take away if thé column again stands erect. moisture and mizzle 40 (Callippus and Euctemon). Suddenly they hit upon water which they were unable to keep back. the water freezes and always dropping. Wind. if glass is put undemeath. People main." 80 Still more marvellous than this ia thé self-movimg column in Aïkaira. Bpisemasia. w&n." But the people of iKairawAn refused. People put something underneath when it inclines. however. and say 29.K~BMm<~ <M<-M<M~te of the two eolumns in the grand mosque of ~airawan. as also the place where the column sM. . (Egyptians) winds and dew. the material of which people do not know.BÎBÛN}. For it inclines towards one side.256 AÏ. and then this obstacle is removed. and that in consequence the spot which they knock becomea dry. from the roof of which water ia If the air geta cold. More wonderful even than this is what AIjaihanî relates in bis . mizzle. it would be combined with thé moon's such and such a place of the sun's orbit. dew.nds seems to indicate. If you are inclined to wonder. and thunder (Egyptians). Frequently thé springing (rising of water) occurs also in a plain country whieh geta its water from a reservoir in a high situation. like a portico dug out in thé mountain. or with the like of it. 20 tain that on every Friday before sunrise they drop water. since Friday is a conditio aine non of this occurrence.p. and rain (Egyptians). 1 have heard the people of Ahmhrjam maintain that they frequently knock the place with pickaxes. Nothing mentioned. ~y~<!< 1. The Greek king is said to have sent to buy them. you hearthe sound of breaking and crushing. or moisture of the ground. is not admissible.

Nothing mentioned. 9. South wind or ea~t wind aud rain (Hipparchus and Egyptians). 24. rainy appearance. only apply to one particular place it cannot be meant in general. 5. Gushes of rain (Eudoxus and Dositheus). and Egyptians). 17. west wind (Egyptians). Dew and moisture (Callippus and Euctemon) episemasia.P-266. Metrodorus. 257 4. Rain (Cmseo-). South wind (Ctesa~-). 7. South wind or west wind (Hipparchus). Vind(Egyptians). People say that on this and the following day there is no fear of frost doing harm to the fruits. Episemasia (Callippus and Euctemon) cold north wind (Egyptians). 19. Sinân says that this is frequently the case. Sinân says tha.rain(Eudoxus). 16. Euctemon.. rain (Egyptians). south wind (Dositheus). mizxlH (Egyptiens). Episemasia (Ceesaj-). 8.nd Egyptians). 18. 30 20. and Philippus) winds (Egyp. 25. 17 . Episemasia. It is the time when the sun passes the (first) 20 degrees of Léo. 28. 22. 11. when the sun moves in Cancer. Euctemon. Bain (Eudoxus) north wind and hail (Egyptians). People say that on this day the first &mt!!M is blowing. Episemasia and mizzle (Hippajchus and Egyptians).mizzleandepisem!Mia.t this is frequently the case and that it brings a strong episemasia. Episemasia (Dositheus). 27. 10 more particularly so if on the preceding day heaven has a. and Hipparchus). 12. (Callippus. 15.ON THE DAYS OF THE GREEK C&LE~DAB. Episemasia and wind (Callippua and Euctemon). Episemasia (Cesar). rain (Egyptiens). Winds (Egyptians). Episemasia (Eudoxus) rain and thunder (Egyptiams). Bain (Egyptiens). 21.) Some people extend the rainy season as far as this day. Episemasia (Euctemon. This 20 remark can. 10. In this respect the matter stands as we have explained it at the beginning of the rainy season. tiajia). Bain (Dositheus). 13. (Lacuna. and Hipparchus) rain (Ceesaj-). 29. 14. 26. however. 23. Episemasia (Callippus. Bain (Metrodorus a. Episemasia (Eudoxus. Sinân says that it is true. 40 (Egyptians). 6. SO. Philippus. 31. Rain (Eudoxus). Nothing mentioned. west-wind (Egyptians). Nothing mentioned.

the sun culminâtes. and on the 17th in a common year. 14. 10. heat (Egyptians). therefore. Sinân aays that frequently a change of the weather takes place. 9. enlightens hia constitution and hia j~M. Wind and mizzle (Egyptians). 10 20 30 40 . Nothing mentioned.11. The light of the sun is falling into the wells. The lith ia the NaurSz of the EhaUf. People eat pomegranates before having eaten anything eise. 5. West wind and heat (Egyptiama). strew about d~t.ught that he who eats a pomegranate on this day before having eaten anything else. over which. when people in Baghdâd splash in the water.267. IS. Mizzle (Egyptians).258 AM<<~t ~MiMÎtt. 16.a pomegramate cures a man of bad diaeaae and makes him safe from the demona. is pure during forty morninge. 17. SMtt'a~e«t<t~~tB. Bain (Cœaar). People say that on this day the water sinka into the earth. Bpi6emasia(DoaithetM). On this day light subdues dar~ness. whiist the Nile begins to rise. that Eisra Parwîz has said Sleeping in the shadow of.12. M is well known. On this day in a. the They call it J(fn'& which means summer-solstice. and to fumigate with aaSTon before apeaking. People relate. and thunder. t. 6. 19. It is considered as a good omen to look into the intense heat. West wind and mizzle (Egyptiana). and play other games. 7. p. the f!e<tt<«(!o Maxima takes place. Dew and moisture (Eudoxus and Dositheus) weat wind (Egyptians). 12. the epirita recognise each other in the greatest heat. Mizzle (Egyptifms). the difference of their sources and of other circnmstances. Nothing mentMned. 18. as we have mentioned before. S. Nothing mentioned. West wind (Egyptians). 2. wMch is celebrated by Arabs and Persians.e. 1. on the authority of Hanna the Hindi. leap-year. MityAr menions j but this is only possible in countries the latitude of which is like the greatest declination. as Mu~ammad b. 13." It belongs to the o-minaof thia day to riae in the morning & ~m sleep on the left aide. 4. those of the Nile standing in direct opposition to those of all other rivera. West wind and thunder (Egyptians). Bain (Egyptians). The reason of thie ia. The ~<[y<Mfx!!Myy<t-sect maintains that on this day thé sun takes breath in the midst of heaven that. Con&nned by Sin&n. and Hippocrates is said to have ta. Nothing mentioned. therefoie. 8.

Nothing mentioned by our authorities. Dew (Euctemon and Philippus) west-by-west wind (Egyptians). 4. and thuuJer (Egyptians). West wind (Democritua and Egyptia. 5. 20 3. 81. Nothing mentioned. and they get a barren year. Mptrodorus. South wind and heat (Cœsar and Egyptians). 23. Episemasia (Eudoxns) west wind and south wind and rain (Democritus) then thé north wind t'pgins to blow during seven days. Bad air (Egyptians). and Hipparchus) west wind and thunder (Egyptians). 11. 6.ON THE UAYS OF THE CKEEK CAf.the Nile nses if it is not copions. Heavy wind (Ctesar). Nothing mentioned. 29. On this day they begin to hold the fair of Bu?râ during 25 da. in his countrv. South wind or west wind (Hipparchus). according to Meton. rain and whirl40 p. 26. 30. 25. Nothing mentioned. West wind. Nothing mentioned. 24. 13.ys in thc time uf the Banù-'Umavya this fair used to last 30-40 days.t. winds (Egyptians). winds (Democritus) heavy wind (Egyptians). Nothing mentioned.268. According to the general consent of seamen and peasants. T<M)tt)tM. South wind (Callippus and Metrodorus) west wind and thunder (Egyptians). Thc Oxus rises and frequenUy injures the shores and their inhabitants. Dew and heat (Dositheus and Egyptians). According to Sinân the weather frequently changes. the Nile does not riae. South wind (Callippus. 8. and all those who 17 . Winds (Egyptiana) and unmixed air. 14. West wind and heat (Egyptians). the north wind begins to blow (Hipparchus) heat (Egyptians).\ttAtt. 16. 12. 10 28. Episemasia (Ptolemy). According to SiuAn the weather frequently changes. Dew and moisture. The Etesian winds (~<rmt) begin to blow (Hipparchus). Unmixed winds (Hipparehus). rain. s. 27. 1. 17. 18. Wind (Egyptians) frequently it rains in their country. People say that on this day the SamKHM begin blowing during fifty-one days. People s~T that prarth-a! obvervem examine on this day thé dew if it is copioos. Nothing mentioned 22. Frequently it rains in rainy countries (Ptoleny). 2. 15. 259 20. 7. 9.ns). West wind (Metrodorus). 30 10. Episomasia (Democritns). Nothing mentioned. 31.

e. in consequence of which tho' who countthe nights before the days think that the night of the 18th is the 19th therefore they consider the 19th as the firat of the dog-days and the 25th as the last of them. Practical observera prescribe the following Take a plate some time before the dog-days. Or whether it be that the moon revolves from one certain point of her cycle back to the 20 same. the 7th. the changes of the sky in the night are more evident. or from the sun to that point. people expect cold and rain at the beginning of Tishrîn I. viz. So the flow is the etrongest in the Srst half of the lunar month. thé last of which is the ~4. because the o'~tca~ state of a aick person resembles the motion of the sea. her cycles and phases. ~<jpa). ntioned in the beginning of this book. the weakest in the second half. in consequence of which people conceive either hope or fear as to the end in which they will issue.260 AMiRC~t. called ebb and flow. thé cold and rain will come in the middle of Tishrîn I. the same will come in the end of that month. etc. for the flow sets in when the moon reaches the western and eastern point of the horizon. and lastly. sow upon it all sorts of seeds and plants. According to another view. decreases at the rate of about 5-6 farsang in one hour and then it ebbs. seven consécutive days. 30 and if it is the case towards morning. that then the sea. that there is flow from the side of Andalusia always at sunset. The lat of thèse seven days serves to prognosticate the character of Tishrîn I. And this appearance takes place always precisely at this tune. the same. Besides. as it ia in the case of the flow. too. this is thf first day of tbc dog. It is curious what people relate of the WM<e)'K Sea. i. &K~t'<!tt is derived from bahr (the Arabie for aea). when their o'i'~i'if! appear. K/)M~t. are the cause. This derivation is very likely correct. for it sets in when the moon reaches the sphère of the meridian of noon and midnight. if you observe a cloud on the horizon during (~a~ttme. the sun bas an influence upon this. that of Nîsan. If the same is the case at midnigbt. Herein the nights are counted after the days. whether the moon revolves in a Great Cirele. however. because of both appearances the motions of the moon.. these changes mostly occur in thé evening and morning.. the 3rd that of Eânûn L. and ~urt~o. also. People maintain that these days are to the year what the critical days are to acute diseases.da. as we ha.ys. and let it .th of this month. the 2nd that of Tishrîn H. If on the evening of the 18th there is a eloud on the horizon. On each of these daya they draw conclusions from certain changes of the weather regarding the months of the autumn and winter and part of spring. The same is the case with the ebb.. etc. havo expérience in this subject. The matter is the same. will occur in Tishrîn I. And if you observe tbose changes on all foursides of the compass. Both words &<?~M<and 6!fA)'uK in the Greek and Syriac languages are derived from a word which means the decision of the 10 rulers (v.

26t etand until the 85th night of Tammûz. the month whic~ was written upon it will be rainless. All seed~. The same opinion is indicated by the verse of 'Abn-Nu'as 40 ÎJN has gone and the hot nigbt-wind passed away. you will find that. then you take two yards of a. you cannot be sure whether the natural warmth may not be entirely cx:in<r)nahcd. hecause it is the hottest time of summer and thé heat reaches its maximum. Then you spread it over that place and leave it there during 20 the first four hours of the night." For this reason 'AI! b. in thé night we have mentioned. thin'. FrMtical observers have produced many contrivancfa for the purpose of prognosticating the character of thé year by help of these (the dog) have even as far as to use incantations and charms.?M~-< ~[P(t&)-). Sn days they gone 10 some people maintain that if you take the leaves of twelve different olivetrees. that the influence we have mentioned must be attributcd to the body of this star. wind. maintains that the &rst of the dog-days is the 22nd of Tammûz. and expose it uncovered to the open air. you weigh it and keep in mind its weight. you learn whether the year wil: have much rain or little. around which there is nothing that might keep off the dew. then put the plate somewhere outside at the time whon the stars riae and set. when autumn comes with its cold and drvness.ON THE DAYS OF THE (j):EEK CALEXOAB. in his book of the seasons. if a leaf bas dried up in this night. and tabès away ail moist substances. suggesting that the dog- . dissolves. and aU whose This experiment the growth will mot prosper will remain green. by this method You look out for a level place. that will grow in the year will be yellow in the morning. And Sirius bas extinguished his fire. Th<:se dog-days are the time of the rising of Sirins (~<t?6-n~'f<6Mr or ~Mt'fa ~~f!Hi.e. and hccause sumnx'r time bv itself warms. the last night of the dogp. Egyptiens used to make. However. Thereupon vou it a second thn'WL-igh then each MfY/i~ which it weighs more the second time than the first time signifies one rainy day in that month which stands in relation with this particular dog-day of which we have heretofore spoken. Hippocrates SO does not forbid those things if you take but very little of tht'm. and write upon each leaf the name of some Syrian mouth. Afterwards. days. forbids taking hot drugs and bleeding twenty days before and after the rising of this star. 'Alî. Some people who hâve no pNctice in physical sciences and no knowledge of the ~trempa. thcn. cotton dress. and light rain. Hippocrates. somewhere in a wet place. therefore. it is neeessary to indieate and to explain its proper place and to détermine t!'e time of its rising. to its risiu~ aud r'volutiuu.269. if vou then put them. According to others. i. They go even as far as to make people imagim' that the air is warmed bv its great mass that. the Christian secretary.

tntowing that no sfientinc man coutd misunder." The weather of these days is always different from. Hippocrates. until they find Cycles. The water ~oys are getting strong and do much damage. the time during which he forbids taking drugs would not therefore advance in the same way. and muut date from such an epoch bymeans of their knowledge of the Fe)TK<t<<t<t()tMS. were such as are indicated in the following ngure.262 ALBÎRÛK!. 22. beginning with the Ist of Tammûz. This was A. J~t)t?M)''<t. drawing from them conclusions regarding the single winter months. West wind or a similar one (Egyptians). The Etesian winds are blowing (Euctemon). days have changed their place along with the star itself. that part which is called on the western side of the Tigns in the present Ba~hd&d. For if Sirius changed its place so as to advance 10 even as far as the beginning of Capricom or Aries. that of thé time immediately preceding and following. and Metrodorus). and DiMectionea.270. Euctemon. the heat begins (CaUippua. Therefore he has only said in general at the tinte «'~t NH-MM t-Mfa. Tet-mMmMMM')!. winds (Philippus andMetrodoras) beginning of the blowing of the Etesian winds On this day 'Abu. and the stations of the planets which appeared on heaven. whilst he at the same time begin~ in his eccentrie sphere to descend from the apogee of his orbit. Alexandri. Winterly air on sea. West wind or heat (Egyptians). The constellation which heaven showed at the time. the horoscopes of those people who were bom at those times. Bad air (Euctemon) beginning of the heat west (Hipparchus~ wind and heat (Egyptians). 20. whiist 1 maintain that Sirius always revolves during the whole year in one and the same orbit parallel to the equator. It was Naubakht who determined the time (for the commencement of building). 1074. 20 19. 23. They are known as <Ae <?o~<tya of the eA~erfb. . Sin&n says in his ~Mt-<traK:<f: that the shepherds have seven specia] days of their own. meant by this time tho central portion of the summer. Ja'far AImansûr began to build Baghdâd. 30 (Egyptians). Practical observers say that on this day frequent cases of inflammation nf the eyes oecnr. which they use like the dog-days. the period when the heat is greatest p. stand the tmth.<<MC!t. however. in consequence of the sun's being near to our zénith. And this event was in the time of Hippocrates contemporaueous with the rising of Sirius. During aU or at least some of them heaven is never free from a speck of clouds. Astrologers are obliged to know dates like this. 21.

then blowing of winds (DoBitl)fUfi . Heat. reaching from the top of one mountain to that of another on the road tha. to the region beyond that bridge which. South wind (Cœsa.ON THE PATS OF TJIE RBEEK ~ALEXDAR. too. 263 C~~« ~±~ jMp~ ~c~. ~&. Sexual intercourse and a. 1.r). Dew iaUs (Eudoxus and Dositheus). e. and oppressive air (Euctemon and Dositheus). Winds (Philippus and Metrodorua) thé Etesian winds blow (BSppajchus). 26. and Hipparchus).Uexertion are forbidden. Heat (Hippa. The Tihetans call it the "~ot«Mtmem~am. Nothing mentioned. still and oppreMirc air. This oppressive air mostly oceurs when hea.t (Philippus. But often. Democritus. PpiMn~MM. Meton. whilst others are saved. Nothing mentioneu. 4.t leads from Xhota~ to the region of the residence of the KhaMn. 2.t (Egyptians). 3.y. 5. 31." 2§.s~ O'MMXT- s 24. in conséquence of which many travellers perish there. For those who pasa this bridge coine into an air which makes brea. South wind (Eudoxui) and Cœaa.<. this is peculiar to a place where this cause does not exist. Beginning of the Etesian winds (Dositheus) heat (Egvptiajis). (UfeaM'). 27. They hold the fair of Busrâ for a whole month. 20 29.thing difficult a. Dew and wet. The Etesian winds blow (Eudoxua): west wind aud hea.r) west or south wind (Egyptians). Metrodorus.nd the tongue heavy. 25. Great heat (Eudoxua). The iiver Oxus begins to rise.rchua). South wind and hea. and that of S&Iamivya for two weeks. according to AtjaiMn!. 30.ven is covered and the air is in 10 perfect repose. wM in old times built by the Chinese. becMise it is the time of the greatest heat. ~< ?? _§_ ~~<' J~=~ _2}MM'<M Oemu~ 0 .

change. West wind (Bgyptiams) The heat relaxes a. &p~ 26. Epiaemaaia. 17. say: If in a rare year that which. Hea. though it may only be short. air (Euctemon and <). 15. J. On this day there observations.~ (Hipp~~). J~ and thunder and Egyptians). Nothing mentioned. whilst at other times it is only slightly perceptible. B. of ~'(~ air (EgYP~a). They hold a fair It 'Adhri«ât during Ílfteen days. ~pS.lmost alwaya a change of the weather for the better. rain.264 and Egyptiana). 19. we have described does not take on this dav it is not p1acè to take place on the 1Sth or 14th. also 6. Some of the ancienta Mmsider this 20 day M the beginning . 18. and wind (Democritus) ¡ West wind (Egyptians). p. (c~ 23.BÎRCNÎ. B~n day of .273. 16.). l and all those who make meteorologica1 eorreet in describing a are day like this. But that the day ehould be free from such a almost noyer occurs. It is the first of Allirfik begina to be day when the air agreeable. Episemasia (CtesM-). S:=S~S: Nothing mentioned.likely If it takcs place of the month.. Nothing mentioned. 8. is o. ~p~ tiane). and intense heat tjI the air. 21. He says l do not know whether we.3dle of Ab.f of the . The air is atiu and oppressive (Callippua) wind. day an 80 14.=~ j heavy wind Philippus) At thia time the heat is very intense.t (Euctemon and Egypt~M) 13. Sometimes this change is most evident. 12. At.u~ Sinân says: Thâbit used to day. 7. 10 (Eudoxus) j different winda blow together S~L~ is always a change of the weather on this day. but rather in the y. south wind and turbid epiaemasia (Democritus). Episemasia and still air Sinân says that on thia (Omur). ~e. The S~mi~ are ~d t. Episemasia (Endoxus).little &t the time when the sun passes the first 6 degrees of Virgo. Nothing mentioned.S.

Wind. It is a time of seven days. and for taking drugs during forty days. winds. as does also the cotd at the time when it is about to disappear.r). the lOth LuBa. A fair is he]d at Manbij (Mabbug) 2. Philippus. 29. The heat of thèse days is more But after this time the 10 imteMe tham at any time before or afterwards. On this day the heat. 9. 31. On this day people begin to light tbeir fires in cold countries. mghts begin to be agreeable. Muhammad b. Conon says that on this day the Etesian winds cease. 4. returne once more with renewed force. West wind and episemasia. which scarcely ever fails. West wind (Egyptians). the last of which M the lat of ÏIM. M. and thunder (Cœsa. rain. Episemasia (Philippus). On thia day midsummer ends. 30. thunder. It is the time of the winda that Meompamy thé riaing of ~l~/Mt (J''roM Leonis. eaat wind (Hipparchus). Density in tbe air (Philippua) episemasia (Dositheus). at the time when it is atout to disappear. . 5. 10. it bas become the prevailing use te call the time by jM<tt! and mot by Aljabha. 26& the Daye of the OM ïfbNMM (!. (Egyptians). the burning of Suhail). Dense and changing air (Cauipp~. 8. and the Etesian winds are getting quiet (César) rains and winceriy air at sea. 30 3. Nothing mentioned.e.r Station). called by the Arabs Wt~<-NMt< (t. Euctemon. Episemasia and thé Etesian winds are getting quiet (Callippus). This is an occurrence genemUy known among people. and <'h~." 27. 40 7. and south wind ~Egyptians). Density in the air (Metrodorus).ON THE DAYS OF THE Q&EEK CALENDAR.nging wind (Eudoxus). and a time comes which Is good for bleeding p.274. 1. Episemasia (Hipparchua). The air M not troubled (mixed) (Dotitheus). and thunder (Egyptians). Changing winds and rain. 'Abd-almauk Alzayy&t says The water had become cold and the night long. 26 Shubât) lies one half of a complète year. and denaity in the air (Budoxus) wet and dew (Hipparchus) fog. Bain and thunder the Etesian winds are about to ceaae (Eudoxus 20 and Hipparchus). West wind (Egyptians). thunder. heat. The Etesian winds are about to cease (Ptolemmus) changing winds (BndoMs). 6. rain. 28.e. but as Suhail rises in its neighbourhood. and Metrodorus) rain. And thé wine was found to be sweet ~azîr&n had left you. and Tammûz and Âb.

People make eaeh other presents of aU sorts of valuable objecta and of precious stones. 23. and there they assemble in parties. 17. Bain at sea and density in the air (Metrodorus). 14. mizzle. Nothing mentioned. They aasemble in their temples and plaMS of worship until noon. The north winds are ceasing (Ceesar). Then they go out to their pleasure-grounds. The north winds are ceasing (Eudoxus). she is sure to 20 conceive. episemasia (Democritus and Metrodorus). 18.tes the body and affects the soûl with disease. (Missing. After thia time no swallow is seen. Thia day they called the TtOtK~ of the t~Kt~.y that people mark on this day what wind is con. On this day the fair of Thu'âlibaisheld. South wind (Eudoxus). Further. But we have already explained 10 that thia is impossible. 12. To look towards the clouds that riae on thia day emacia. blowing on this day are said to be of a psychical nature.y that if a woman who is sterile looks on this day at the star ~bttM and then bas intercourse with her husbamd. The white-a~dblack crows appear on this day in most countries. like the Mihrjân with the Fersiams. 21. Bain (Eudoxus) west wind or south wind (Hipparchus). 16. . and rain (Egyptians). 15. Density in the air. 20. This second equinox is. 24.y. The winds. I think the reaaon of this is that people conceive fear on account of the cold and the disappearance of the agreeable time of the year. Episemasia (Callippus and Conon). then caat wind (Egyptians). stantly blowing -intil night or until the time when the sun begins to desline. they aa. We have already heretofore shown the impossibility of such a thing. a great festival with the Hindûs. as people maintain. showing their devotion to the (Deity of) Time and 30 humbling themselves before God Almighty. which ia the first day of the Persiau autumn and the Chinese apring. It is one of the omina of this day to rise from sloep in a worshipping attitude. People sa. 40 Practical observera sa. 19. and rain at sea (Hipparchua).) 22. that in the night of this day the wa. On the l6th in a common year and on the 17th in a leap-year occurs the second equinox. On this day the water retum from the upper parts of the treea to the roota. now. Wet and dew (Dositheus) rains and episemasia (Egyptians). according to the Canon Sindhind.ters are getting sweet. for this will be the moat constant of all the winds of the year. 11. Nothing mentioned. 13. and to fumigate with tamarisks before apeaking. Wet and dew (Eudoxus) west wind.266 AI-BinÛNt. West.

etc. (Missing. (Egyptians). is the calendar uscd by the Greeks.e. This is the concise we have 10 summary of hM book. now. 30.use serves the same they are generally known among people.ON THE PAYS 0F THE GREEK CALEXDAR.) only.275. 27.) 29. Kanan. We the of thé by the quote leamed regarding days names of the Syrians (i. This. Nothing mentioned by the ancients.rchus). Next we shall speak of the memorable days in the montha of the Jews.nd Eudoxus) west wind or south wind p. beca. if God Almighty pemuta . M the Ist of Tishrîn.s if we were to call them by the Greek names). and because thie purpose (a. 28. Episemasia (Euctemon and Eudoxua) west wind or south wind (Hippa. Episemasia (Hipparchus a. 267 25. either about the air or anything elae. We have not kept back ~nything which them calendar. to whieh we hace added all that Sinân has mentioned iu his J?!'Mt-a!'HH!<M. 26.

~(t!-s<~< (Sûra xxxvii. ~shB.DtM Zicita. but then Isaac was ransomed by means of a ram. According to Jews and ChristianB. And.y is either the fe'lowing day. 99113). Or THE FESTJTAMAND FAST-DAYS tN THE MONTESOF THE JEWS.st of New-Year. or the preceding day. in case the following one is not a . Wednesda.e. showing that it wa~ Ishmael. Almuttalib and IshniMl Ho~cTcr.c.–we hold it now to be necessary to explam their festivals and memorable days. which a.t the same time learn the reaBon why they. if it is a.re ra." m<~nmg 'AbdaJMh b. This proceeding of theirs they caJI ~n~. in the first part of this book. On this day. When. aud New-Year's Da. the Prophet is repoited to have said "I am the son of the two sacrificed ones. are not allowed to fall on certain days of the week. and its character. the person offered was Isaa. or Friday nM.ya.ms-homs. CHAPTER XIV. the discussion of this question is a subject of great extent. the) maintain.–after having shown the arrangement of the months according to their beginnings and to the number of their da. according to tradition.y itself. it ought to fall on one of thèse days. even New-Year's Da. We begin M with the first month. it is disregarded. As we have explained before. For getting acquainted with them we shall a. whilst there is a passage in the Coran in the Sûra. AU work they ceases on this day as on Sabbath. The Ist is the fea. AFTEB having explajned thé method how to learn the beginning of the year of the Jews. the Ist Tishrî cannot fall on a Sunday.268 AÏ.y. It ha~ 30 days amd only one ~o<&(!es&.BÎBÛNÎ. according to calculation. i. God knows best 30 80 . Abraham offered his son Isaac.-after having solved this problem by the help both of computation and tables. when blow 20 the trumpcts and trombones.Meo licita according to the conditions that have been laid down in the Tabula TetWMtO!-tM'.

was buried in the bottom of the Nile and the water flowed over him. together with eighty-two p. But it happened that the women gave up their ornaments most speedily.thed upon it. wrote something upon it. when Mnaps disa. the physician) told me in Jurjân the following Moses wanted to leave Egypt together with the Israélites. Mûsâ Alnikrisi (i. but Joseph the prophet had ordered that they should take his coffin along with them.276. so he sa. hurry to part with their ornaments. and people themselves were puffed up on account of their great number. the governor of Nebucadnezar over Jerusalem. recited over it. and so it is related in the Thora. People wacted to compel him to worship the idol. he. and sent the prophet Nathan to David and the assembly of the tribes to threaten them with the sword. wrote upon it. but nothing So Moses took another piece of paper and eut it into the appeared. Fasting of 'Akîbhâ. and sudden death. however. Afterwards. 269 10 20 30 40 S. His threa.. figure of a ca. Therefore God became angry with them. following the course of the river.id Bringme all the precious ornaments of your women. In consequence the Israelites were stricken with sorrow. and have ever since fasted on this day. 'Atn~&m. did not know what to do. Moses could not get him away. The Jew Ya.. with famine. They fetched Aaron and he melted the orIiaments and poured them into a mould. On the sajne day the Israelites killed each other on account of the worahip of the calf. but it was taken up by one of the bystanders. As he. but then. breathed upon it.t calf (whieh Moses had eut out of paper). knowing that the women would not be in a. people. Possibly Moses might retum before that. and when the Israelites became anxious at his staying there so long. but the result was nothing but broken pitres uf Ingut.t'ESTtVAM AXD FASTS OF THE JRWS. So they were stricken with fright. The same work he repeated in a hurry. and threw it into the Nile. Moses took a piece of a paper and eut it into the figure of a Rsh over this he recited some sentence. Fasting of CtedaJyâ b. 5.!). in a cistern in which the watcr colleetcd until it rose a. Now he ha. Waating for the result he stayed there. they pressed Aaron and demanded of him that he should give them a.e. hoping for the retum of Moses and for news of him.d done the first time. so as to go astray." So he spoke in order to gain time. viceregent instead of Muses. Aaron. They say that it was Aaron who made the calf.FcMHny of ~MH'<A))MK<. no doubt. So he threw away the figure of the calf which he just held in his hand.sfnl&lled. On this day he was killed.bove their heads. surrounded by twenty fellow prisoners. So . rejoiced in their number.'k~b b.the coffin appeared. counted the Israelites. did not suhmit So they put him into a cagn where he died of hunger.ppcarpd OT' thé mountitin to speak with the Lord. that David. however.lf.ppened to have with himself the figure of tha. when he was just about to throw it into the water. brea. as he ha.tening wa. Now. Its origin is this. on having 7. and have ever since fasted on the day of his death.

ia called '~if~6M. peculiarity only of thia fast-day. Fasting of Kippûr. The /etM< of Benediction. Thereby the people were at that time seduced from the tme belief without Aaron's having intended it. On the same day is the feast of ?< Cottg~a~MMt. On this dav the clouds stood over the heads of the Israelites in the desert Altîh. carrying around in procession the ~) Ark of the Covenant. that your (future) generations should know that it was 1 who made the Israelites dwell in tabernacles. however. ait the voluntary 10 fast-days are held. it was formed into a calf which roared. On these days all work ceases.st of Ta. 15. let me see what the figure of the calf will He took the figure and tbrew it into the molten gold.dow of willows and reeds and other branches on the roofs of their houses. which in their synagogues is like the pulpit (~fnt5<t!-)in a mosque. the same length of time) that the Musiims do. which is not the custom on the other festivals. as God says in the third book of the Thora (Levit.cles. days should immediately follow each other. when produce then the liquid mass was pound into a mould. during seven 30 days. They maintain that on this day the communication of the Thora wa~ finished. laeting seven consécutive days.e. Now.277. This is obligatory only for him who dwells a. The Jewish Ia. The feast of Tabernacles.'k&b. whem the Jews assemble in B<ï)-&<M-<~ of Jerusalem. 22. by which this fea~t-time is completed. AU work ce&aes. obligatery. he said to himself By the figure of the fish once a wonderful miracle has been wrought. aleo called ~M<-o.270 ALBÎRÛNt. tains that this is a. Therefore it is impossible that two of their fast. 10. On thia day God addressed Moses the son of Amram. during which they rest under the sha. The I)tst or aeventh day of the [ea." This feast is celebra. They recite five prayers on this day. proatrating themselves upon thé earth. whiist in the case of aJl the other fast-days it is allowed to fast in the sajne way (t. whiist all otber ones are voluntary. Ta.w orders everybody to be killed who doea not ast on thia 20 day.t home. This fast-day M p. You shall celebrate a feast before God a-nd you shall sit in the tenta. and that thé Thora waa handed over to their .bema. the 21st of the month. main. 34-43) "And on the fifteenth of the seventh month is the feast of Tabernacles. bécasse one hour would belong to both of them in common. the whole house of Israel.ted by the whole Jewish nation. Then yon shall not work during seven days. In tbis way. whiist 'Abu-'îsâ Alwarrâk says in his &'M6-f~m<tjt<!M< of the Samaritans that they do not celebrate it. X~pMf-fMting begins half an hour before aunset of the 9th and laats until half an hour after sunset of the lOth during 25 houra. The faatmg of this day is an atonement for aJl sins that are eommitted by nuBta&e. not for the traveller. xxiii. and because there would be no possibility of breaking the faat between them. too. when 1 led them out of Egypt.

e. and finally eight lamps on the eighth night. This. Its origin ia this.khn burned the papers. Now. and it has 30 days in a Perfect year and 29 days in an Intermediate year or in an Imperfect one. whiist he stood before them. ca~led f)*Ù''p i. and have ever since fasted on this day. and.n to express that they increase their thankf) towards God from day to day by the~)tH't/M<t</(~aud SMictISca. the father of his . Other people Ex this fasting on the Thursday falling between the 19th and the 25th of this month. 10 not T oeping nor manifesting any sign of despair. on the second night two lamps.FER'n?ALS AND FASTS OF THE Jt:WS. there was an Israélite who had eight sons.. when he had done with her. It lasts eight 30 days. but Ychoyakim threw it into the fire. 6. they Mess themselvea by it. On this day they take the Thora out of ita shrine. ajtd therefore there arose manifold lamentations. Marheshw&n.tion of Jerusalem. 25. during which they light lamps at the door of the hall on the first night one lamp for each inhabitant of the house. other peoplefix this fast-day on the Monday falling between the 8th and the 13th of this month. Din'enng herefrom. etc.. i. by which they mea. patient and enduring. From this vault two cords led outside. had subdued and maltreated them during a long period. and one d~ughter whom another Israelite had demanded in marriage. however. The generality of Jews fix their fast-days on certain dates in the months.try to derive auguries from unfolding and reaiing it. They contained a promise of God. It has 30 da.ys in a 20 Perfect and Intermediate year 29 in an Imperfect year. and were brought by the prophet Jeremia. in the third three. that Nebukadnezar killed the children of Zedekia. in a subterranean vault. Its origin is this. It has ouly one Roah-Hodesh in a Perfeet year. and the woman entered. When. It bas aiways two JBoeA-~f~Mt. the king of the Greeks. where two bells were fixed at their ends. 8. wanting to marry her. Eislew. now.e. Further. It was his custom to violate the women. the J/ameata~oM.278. A fast-day. They treated of the condition of the Israelites in future times and of the calamities that would befall them. not on week-days. bcfore they were led to their spouses. he wanted a woman. ~Mr~cnh'OK. he rung 40 the right beH. Jeremia sent the book through Barukh b. etc. Fasting of Zedekia. it is rather like Christian theories. is not like a method suitable to Jewish ways. Neriyya. that Yehoya. Then both his eyes p. 271 ohiefs to be deposited in their synagogues. On these two Bosh-E[odesh there is no feast. The origin is this Antiochus. Beginning of the feast //<t!t!t<:M. Therefore the Israelites were stricken with sorrow. were put out. he rung the left bel! and dismissed her.

th of the samts in the time of 80 Josua b. Ptolemy. Now. 8. hid a.BÎEÛNÎ. the day on wMch Nebukadnezar arrived before Jerusalem and laid siège to it. But thé youngest of them jum~d up. he killed him and out off hie head then ho rang the left beU and was let out. Now. bride said: "Give me time. 23. compeUedthom to translate it into Greek. and went to the gate of the king. being alone with him. It bas only one Bosh-Hodeah and 30 da.ys. Now. and she then ia no longer a lawful wife for you. sho will be dishououred by the oursed tyrant. had asked them for thé Thora. he will make me perish. who beeame greatly excited and angry. dressed like a womfm. demanding bis guest for their lust.~odesh in an Imperfeet year. Its origin is this The tribe of Benjamin were a. A fast-day wbiehthey are ordered to keep. but Wedo not 40 they said: want her. If we lea. 9. Nùn. And if sho does not submit to him. Other people fix this fast-day on the Monday between the lOth and ISth of this month.t and thé following days (t. the tyrant rang the right heU. so called for the reason just mentioned.te a. the king of the Greeks. 10. 5. Therefore the Israelites celebra. there came a. Fasting of ?<! BeteNtoM.279. In conséquence darkness spread over the world during 20 three days and nights. making his pilgrimage to Jerusalem. man who wanted to pass through their country with his wife and maid-servant. behaving like thé whores. the origin of wMch they are ignorant of. A fast-day. and deposited it in bis treMury. for 1 stand between two things.e. tebeth" It has one Eosh. The girl expired tow.feast on tha. God knows best ) p. 'da dawn. 5. Then her master eut her into pièces (12) according to thé number of the .d my daughter to you. Sheb&t. and then they ra. dagger in his garments. A fast-day. It has 29 days. J'M-~ appearance of dcn-~teM. They maintain that this is the version of the Seventy. the laat of the three D<t<-& daya.ped her the whole night. but scarcely had darkness faJIen wheu the people of thé place surrounded the door of his house." Then he gave up to them the servamt-gM of his guest. and stuck up the 10 head (somewhere). seven days). and he was ushered into his présence there. who behaved like the people of Lot. Some coumtryman of his received him in his house." For this state of things he blamed and reviled his sons. the master of the house offered to them his own daughter. two in a Perfect and Intermediate year. corresponding te the number of the brothera of this youth. A fast-day on acconnt of the dea.272 AI. godiess and !a.wleas set of people.

13. t. he demanded something from the bearers. It has two Rosh-~odesh 10 and 30 days. But then he was not content with his first demamd. and 1 shall give you with the greatest pleaaure so and so many ten 18 .e. There cannot be any ambiguity a. But on the way thither he met with an obstacle which prevented him from reaching the end of his journey. It does not exist in common years. FinaUy He gave them victory over Benjamin forty thousand mon of this tribe were killed and seventy thousand of the others. Adhar n. because on this day Moses b. A ast-day. and this happened on the identical day on which the oBices (in Tustar) were bestowed. but thoy could not conqner them. Now. travelled to Tustar in order to undertake some o&ee. until they yielded and were willing to pay him what he asked for. and is not counted among their months. a man of no importance. and because with his death the manna and the quails ceased to appear. Amram died. When people came with her daughter of King Ahashwerosh died.apea. place. 273 tribes of Israol and to each tribe he sent one of hcr limbs.280. till at last it reached an enormoua sum. There is not fast or feast day in this month. and asked him Whoinvested 40 you with such an omce ? But Haman simply answered this: "And who forbade me to do so ? When the king repeated hif) question. and he ordered them to grant him his desire. 9. Its origin is this Once a man called Haman. and they paid him more and more. and 29 ('i.FESTIVALS A~D FASTS OF THE JEWS. and on being refused he did not allow them to pass. casting lots. Thefasting of ~1!6:M (Pûrim). 7. Adh&r I. body. or II. in which twenty-eight thousand men were killed. This is thé original Adhâr. It is the leap-month in the leap-year. he asked for more and more. Haman said: If 1 am now forbidden to do so.Hngof another Adhar precediRg this It has two Eosh-Htodesh one (because this only relates to leap-years). But after a week he ordered him into his présence. 80 Now. So he missed this opportunity and fell into utter distress.) in common years.ys. The king was informed of the matter. Thereupon they fasted on this day and humiliated themselves before God. 1 shaH cease and give it up. he took his seat near the temples and demanded for every dead This went on until the body (that was to be buried) 3~ dirhams. they a. in order to rouse their wrath. Others fix this fast-day on the Monday between the lOth and 16th of this month.=sembled and made war upon that tribe. which ia called so in general (without the addition of I.bout what wejustmentioned. A fast-day which the Israelites established for themselves at the 20 time when the war between the people of Shammâi and of Hillel took p.

" So he entrusted him with all his affairs. He asked the Haruspices and ~~M)-œ which was the most ~~nIuc~ytime for the Jews. the Hng's wife. Fasting over thé death of Maryam. on the 14th. as the manna. brother of Ester. the sor.s of Aaron. Some people fix this day on Monday between the 5th and the lOth of the month. enter. imitating the burning of H&man. and Abihu. And then she asked him to Bpare her life and that of her brother. so he turned towards him and said: "Hast tbou in thy im. It bas only one Eosh-Hodesh and 30 1. So they were killed on the same day on whieh he had intended to kill tho Jews. On thé fourth day she asked the king permission to lay before him her w~shes. and over the sinking and disappearing of thé water. snm of money whieh he mentioned. For on this day they make ngures which they beat and then burn. The same they précise on thé ISth. and the quails ceased to appear in consequence of the death of Moses b. So the king did. the Mordekhai. beca. and Ester asked him to have him crucified on the same tree which he had prepared for her brother. but she pushed him batk. the daughter of Amram. The king said "And who dares toa. Therefore there is great joy over the death of Haman on <t0 this day. Amram. This feast is called the Feast of and further ~M~~< ao. Nîsan. FassoYer-feast. thousands of denMs. pudenee come so far as to raise thy desire to her? So the king ordered him to be killed. p. prostrating himself before her." Now Haman wrote to all parts of the empire. crossing their hands upon their breasts. and then kissing her head. taining them during three days.gamstyouboth?" Now 20 ShepointedtoHaman. the king rose from his seat in great wrath Haman dashed towards the queen. Now she reccived (in her palace) the king and his wazîr. They s~d "Im Adh&r their master Musft died. 10 ordering people on that day to seize upon the Jews and to kill them. except one man.281. is worthy to bo made wazîr and couneillor. and the most uniucty time of this month is the 14th and t5th. Fasting over the death of Nadab days.274 AMÎE~X}. 10.e. of which we have already treated at such length ." The king was astonishxd ai thf grpat. and planned her destruction on that day but the Mng's wife understood him. and ~ppeared before him. i. and ordered his subjects to obey him. a miracle which occurred 40 on account of her death. The Jewa of the empire proatrated themselves before him. 15. Haman hated her. So he said Aman who gathered so much money from thé rule over the dead. who died because they introduced foreign nre into the temple of God.ttemptanythinga. Now the king got the impression that he wanted to seduce her. This Haman was an enemy of the Jews. and wrote to all parts of the empire to kill the partisans of Haman.use he with all his suprême power had nothing hke it.

Siwam. and you shall not work during them. and when thirty men of them were killed.F<!M< of the CoK~)-ey<t~om. 40 ten tribes to worship two golden calves. when the Thora was sent down.: "And you shall make a pilgrimage to me thrice in every year nrst. On this day God drowned Pharao it is also called )~M<. It haa only one Bosh-Hodesh and 30 days. The . 1<XFasting over </M~)-&. 6). where they heard the voice of God from thé mountain ttpeaidng to Moses. Others fix this fasting on the Thursday between the 6th and lith of the month. ordering and forbidding. Fasting. during which they are not allowed to eat leavened bread. This day is the nr.he celebrated weeks during which they received their commamdments. 20 Q'n On this day their elders were present at Mount Sinai. 275 that there is no necessity for a repetition. and he fell dead from his sea. and the third time. when you bring in your fruit 30 from thé fields. promising and threatening. until Salmân 18 . because on thia day the prophet Samuel died. The priest E!i then managed their affairs. ~ar: 10 It has two Bosh-Hodesh and 29 days. Between the first of the Days of the Unleavened &-e<~ and the J-'<-<M/ of the Congregation there are nfty days." On this day they oBer the Ërst-fruita. this is the pilgrimage of theFeast of Congregation. Then you shall eat unleavened bread dm-ing seven days. xxiii. secondly. Fasting on the Monday between the 9th and 14th.t. IIie children ruled over them about twohundred and fifty years. 23. of the Days of Unleavened Bre-t~. and one of the of the Israelites. when he heajd the newa. at the time of thé unleavened bread. Fasting. For such is the command of God in thé thit d book of the Thora (Levit. where He says On thé fifteenth of this month ia the feast of the unleavened bread unto God.282. Your feaating and your devotion to God shall be in sacred houses. and their crops from thunder. God says in the second book of the Thora. His gall-bladder split. They were ordered to celebrate a feast &n thia day as a thanksgiving to God for having preserved them from all mishap in their country. at the end of the year. Nebat ordered the p. and that they obeyed him.FESTIVALS AXD FASTS 0F THE JEWS. They say that on this day Jerobeam b. when their law was completed. a great festival. It is the day when the Israélites were deprived of the ark. Then they read prayers over them and invobe the bleasing of God upon them. and rain. These are t. and they were tanght all knowtedge relating to God. 28. cold." These days end witl sunset of the ~lat. 6.

It has no feast. did not yield. 2<. and the Israélites made him their king. Blu!* It has two Eosh-Hodesh and 29 days. Fasting over the death of Simeon. Fasting. Therefore the king ordered a Thora to be wrapped round him. the son of David he fled from his master. knowing that if they weD. Then he kept them from making pilgrimages to Jerusalem by the worship of these two calves. Fasting. Fasting. miracle in his hono'jr. to Jernsalem they would come to consider why they had made him their they would learn the reality of his case. but no feast. Al'a'shar. who destroyed 30 it by Sre. and the fortifications of Jenisalem began to be destroyed at the time when Nehubdnezar besieged them. 28. 1. conquered them and led them into captivity. . for on this day Moses broke the tables. and its soi! ploughed over. Further. because the lamp of the temple was extinguished in the days of the prophet Ahas. Taunnuz. 25. Then they were united with the other tribes in the time of HtzHe~ Ye~beam b. and 10 Hananyâ. ~bE It has only one Bosh-~odesh and 30 da. the king of J~~su!.27u Am!t{<~î. Fasting.ys. on this day they put up an idol for worship in 20 Jerusalem. 9. 25. Fasting. and the sacrifices ceased to be practised. On this day Nebukadnezar left Jerusalem. Fasting. and he etrove to abolish the Sabbath. On this day Jerusalem was conquered and entered by Nebukadnezar. from sheer insolence and rebellion against God. because on this day they were told in the desert that they should not enter Jerusalem. and the cloud was raised as a. and him to be burned in it. and would depose and Mil king him. 17. Neb&t was one of the slaves of Solomon. Samuel. however. Teradhyon to worship the idol he. which was a sign of God's wrath against them. It has two Rosh-Hodesh and 29 days. On this day it was destroyed the second time. because the Sre was -tinguished in the temple. and the conBagration of its storehouses and temples w~ put an end to. On this day the Thora waa burned. because on this day Aaron b. and forbade people to foUo'T him. and placed it in the altar-place of tho temple. Besides he put in prison EabM 'Akîhâ. for this reason one of the Greek wanted to force kinga Babha ~ananya b. Amram died. and were sorry in consequence.

this day follows a Sabbath. nor the preceding Passover on a Friday. (II. they did not allow it to beNew-Tear's Day. p)acc this fast-day on the Monday or Thursday which falls within the last seven days before the beginning of the next year.FESTJVALS AND FAKTS OF T)!H JE~s." Therefore all work is suspended on Kippûr (the lOth. and they put him in Kill him. xv. 24-25) Onthe~t-~ day of the seventh month you shall have rest. As for Sunday. . On this day the spies retumed to Moses. V. becauM God says in the third book (Levit. I" this case. but Josua b. that they wanted to prevent a day for any work falling on a. 30 Then you shall not work on that day. could not be carried out.). III. (On the n~m of the Jowish Calendar. xxxv.FM<M. Nun rufmcd them. Therefo'e tho Israt'Utes were For this re~sou thé fast-day was sorry. because if thia were the case the Ist of Tishrî would faU on a Sunday. VII. For God says in the second book (Exod. On this day you shall not do the least wor]i:from the evening of the ninth of the month till the (next) evening.. was this.).). and he is brought to a condition in which it is dimcutt for him to make good thé denciency. estabUshed. the Jew gets two consecutive days of rest thé means of his maintenance are retting scanty. 32-36) it is related that they found a 20 man of the Israelites in the desert working on a Sabbath and gathering wood. 2) "He who works on a Sabbath shall be killed. and brought him thé report of the giants. IV.jf of Me Spics. Other Jews.h. xxiii. VI. (III. He was brought before Moses and Aaron.). however.r cou!d not fall on a Tues-lay. sipne they are not allowed to work on a Sabbath. and the other jrks prescribed for this day. For the same reason ~p~)'.)–The reason why they did not allow that10 Thefirst of Tishr should ever be Xippur be Porim or HamaD Sîir Passover 'A~ereth n~ tj~ ~-a -)-Q tnj (I. nor the preceding '~so-~ on a Sabbath. days of the week). and a memorial of blowing of trumpets." and so he was stoned to prison. IV. (I." If. is that God says in the third book (Levit. A second reason (why they did not allow the feasts to fall on the daya mentioned) was this. 277 7. VI. death. But God said to Moses. '~)-(!M~ falls on a Sabba!. Sabbath for in that case they would not have been able to celebrate it. 27-32) On the tenth day of theseventh month shall be remission. (11. but yon shall offer sacrifices. and almsgiving. IV. VII." And in tbe fôurth book (Num. that they wished to prevent a Sabbath and another day on which ail work ceases following each other. now. VI. The reason why they do not allow Ncw-Teaj's Day to be aWednesday 40 (t). xxiii.

but on a day on which they . nor the preceding Passover on a mnday.bb~b~i. because on this day they must give and must make a pilgrimage around the pulpit. nor the on a Tuesday. M on any other day except on Wed~y~~ obligations and rites prescribed for Passover they do n. The Ananites fix the beginning of the months by the observation of the appearance of new moon.t bring their seeds and their ËTst-fruits. and thé j~ of Benediction would a Friday preceding S.For ~th~c~e they postpone thé feasts to the following Sunday.not touch any~S~ even the circumcision of the children theypostpone till thé ioiiowmg 40 following w day. and other 20 things that are prescribed for this day. are counted.r in such a way ~~r~ two days following each and 'Arâbhâ falling other. in this case and thé following Sabbath is likewise a ~~y)' day of FSon~ a Friday.hb. For the ~e~nXippûr cannot fall on S~y nor the preceding P~over on a Wednesday. and because in that case &ppûrw. and to the prescriptions of the Thora. preceding 'r~ The ~~hy~y do not allow New-Year's Day to faU on a Friday (1) is ~y followed by Sabbath. who maintain that the fe~ are not legal unless the moon rises in Paleatine as fuU moon in the night of Wedneaday. on a Sabbath.y~dn. <~d~i~~ apeaks in his ~f Jewish sect called the M~hnbi8. at the time cf aun~t. S~& because all this would New-YeMs Day being Fnd&y. For God created the two great lights on~Wednesda. And had topant ~they falling on fs. Likewisethevdon~ allow Passover t.M.278 AMÎEÛNt. This postponement they call On a Sabbath they d. Such is their New-Year's the days and month. except for those who dwell in the of the Israelites.th. and here begins the rotation point of the annual festivals. In the first in the Coran (Sura vii. They do not mind on what days of the week the feasts fall.tMd~be . except as regarda Sabbath..Id M a Sunday.n necessary.fter the day of Tuesday.bb~ which would them from keep burning HM~n and uttering their joy thereat.~ .10 sequences which we have mentioned. Therefore people endeavoured t. which they call 'Ârôn. tication which we have mentioned. y~Mejews. or rto prevent EXe~~ falling on S. following upon a Sabbath.th. and thence would result those con. fclkw. nor the P-284. and settle intercalation by that sort of prognos. in opposition to the practice of the Babbanites With the suspension of work on a Sabbath certain curious aSairs are connected.y.. eonstruct the c<dend. an order of days whieh is forbidden by the law. country AU this stands in opposition to the custom of the majority of the Jews. 163)" ? ~~PPeMmg on the surface of the water come to them on the day when they celebrate Sabbath.

or all of them. as we have mentioned before. 279 do not celebrate Sabbath the nshes do not come to them. howevfr.~HeKa)-~). because the water disappears beneath the earth until the end of Sabbath. From this rule. For this occurrence ï am unable to find a physical exis based upon the days of planation. and shows that New-Year's Day cannot fall on the days mentioned. under the influence of the reflected solar rays which were concentrated on a certain spot of the atta etc. and vice <?)'<< This table shows clearly why some of the (three) kinds of Jewish years can follow each other. The red ink indicates a Dies illicita. we must except the Jtttper~ect years (n). The term means that if New-Year's Day falls on a Dies licita. maintain that they cannot be learned except through a prophet. the altar in Greece 10 whieh ofitaelf burned the sacrifices on one certain day of the year. as e. the days of the sun. that stand still on a Sabbath and do not work. 'Abu-'îaâ Aiwarrat: relates in his ~tM~m~aMt the Alfâniyya (." and ". those days ar Dies !7Hc</<B they are Dies Kct/œ in a leap-year of the same quality.si*). illustrâtes what we have stated before regarding the feasts. of Mereury 20 and Venus. that a Jewish sect. whilst others cannot. monthly occurrence" by the moon and her light.g. There the river drives mills. now. the transversal line of numbers which correspond to the feasts mentioned at the tops of the single columns is black from beginning to end. and that they keep no other feast-day but Sabbath. :. and p. in any other case they cannot follow each other. but some of ~)o<M6!e the numbers indicating the single feast-days in the transversal line are in common years. If. whilst 30 written in red ink. some of those numbers. Tiberias lies the city of Balinas (Apollonia. where the Jordan bas ita source. all these numbers signify Dies ~cf<<E if. Annuel occurrences are accounted for by the sun and his rays." Further.285. because thé fact that two years cannot follow each other rests on another ground. The following table. the black ink a Dies licita. are written in red ink.e.FESTIVALS AND FASTS OF THE JËWS. however. because its repetition and révolution the week. Opposite the numbers we have placed a special column ~or the term Possible. that eastward of Aljaihânî relates in Ma Liber ~no)-!M: e< ~Mn-MM." The ~ecesM~ terms necessary and impossible do not need an explanation. . For if Bosh-hashsMnA of a year following after a year of a certain quality (3 or <C) is such as could not be the beginning of a year of another quality. these two kinds may follow each other. these some or all of them are Dies illicitee. hereof we have 40 already apoken in the preceding part. the Tabula ~t'yMtMeH~oNis. reject the whole of the Jewish feasts.Zm~oMtHe.

5 VI. 2 3 IV. 5 6 VU.n Jf-S~! n. 9. 10 'E jS_" s m Impetfect H M j m.& 's. s IV.nJnL IILVU.'V. 5 4 VL 7 L 2 1 2 3 1 H.VL'VIL 6 g ? y 30 5 Vn. 2 3 IV. 5 VL 7 m *s t °~ g m .JI.886 3. 3 4 IV.280 ALBÎBÛN~. 4 V.g I. VI g) g 7 L l 2 g IV. 3 2 3 IV. in the Arabie ~2=' written in Latin Dumerals.~1-' . 3 § 3 IV.iVIL 7 1 i 6Vn. g IV. 5 6 j~ ILrv. 5 VI y 7 I. VL m. are here vÈtten . 7 1 g i 2 4 V. 2 3 rv. 4 5 VI. 1 2 5 6 1 VI. VIL Vil. 1 g 4 13 The Diea Licitie. î j o Impossible Neeeasajy Impossible Impossible Possible M Impossible Neoessa. VU.7. 7 I. ori¡rinal written ink. g IH.IV.â & y& s . 4 6 S 6 VI. ? L 2 in. 5 ia re . 7 L g 3 5 VL 7 I. 5 VI. TABULAAB&UMENTATÏONIS I.. 4 5 VL 7 ? L 2 in black I 1 2 3 4 3 IV.* S.ry Intermediate H n Impossible Impossible Neceseary Impossible Possible Impossible Impossible Ferfect M Impossible NecessMy Possible M M Impossible NecessiHy Impossible Necessuy si!~ m o-ss'c: .

1 IV.'ni. 55 6 7 1 n.s ~~B~s~~g~g. 3 4 5 6 VI.ry Impossible Impossible Impossible Possible Impossible j~S I. P'3. 3 iv.ty! 7 7' VI.é z e i: 0 c s &5.-§~~3~ëS~. L 7 2 4 1 8S 1 4 l 5 H. ) S Vn. 4. "g: -s "s j~.' 1 2 V. 3 5 1 2. 7 L 2 !S 1-1'in.A AR.m d'~ e f-4 q P. VU. 4 2 3 IV. j NecessaryNecessiMy Impossible) !Neces6a.3 's 's-~gâ 8. VI.OBÙi&NTATIONI9 5. 1 2 3 8 2 IV. Impossible 6 5 3 vu. 2 3 IV S 5 VI 7 j IV. 7 1 H.' 'j 11.~V. TABULAAMUMENTATÏONN TàBBI. '=3–s 0"1Ô t' M a . IV.ai A'3 s II. -j VI. 4 5 VL 7j L 2 !lH. 'V.-3~.'6 4 4i 1 1.5 1 f2 .FESTIVALS AXD FASTS OF THE JEWS. H. 5 6 1 IL 3J IV. 5 6 7 1 4 VU..1. 6 3' 5 . 6. 4~ V. I. 2 3 IV.s~ ~.' 4. 1 2 III. 7. 4 6 10 NecessMy) Intermediate Impossible Impossible. 4 4.g 1. VU. 5 VI.Ë~ . 6 1 2 III. 6 1 2~ 20 20 Possible Posaiblo . 7 L 2 3 IV.VII. 5 vi. 5 7 I.' 3! 5' VL 7 I. 9. 281 1. 77 I. a t. t-s -s a~ë~ ~. 5 VI. 8.1! IV..2 E. S Imperfect Imperfect Impossible Necessa. f. VLVn. 1 2 m. 10.~p -5. VTI. 2 3 IV. Necessary Impossible Possible Impossible "1 Perfect Impossible j Impossible ~NecessMy! IV.S W 2. 5 5 6 1 n.

(n~t in Christ). CHAPTERXV. They differ among ea.ch other on the 10 dogmas of their faith. the A-MMt. There is another sect of them. 'Irâk and Xhurasân are Nestorians. but this is not the place to enumerate them. P-288. Thé Jacobites mostly live in Egypt and around it. t. on the divine nature. the human nature. The first of them are thé MeUdtea (~o~M<s). CBLEBBATED BY THE MBLKITBCHBISTIANS. Certain days of the Syrian months are celebrated among them. ~. THE FESTIVALS AND MEMOBABIE DAYSOF THE SYRIANCAMNDAB. Alex. Besides there are other sects. In Greece there is no other Christian sect beside them. The reason of their agreeing is this. The third sect are the Jacobites.BÎB~Î. 20 The most numerous of them are the Melkites and Nestorians. on others they differ.e. The reason of the difference ia this. These are their principal seets. whiist it is most different from that of the generality of Christians. that some days belong ta one sect and to one province in particular. THE Christians are divided into various sects. 30 . that those days were spread through the Christian world before the schism in their doctrines was brought about. and whieh at the same time refute those sects.ted and followed up into its moat recondite details in the books treating of philosopbical and religious categories and doctrines. whose theory regarding Christ comes more near that of the Muslims. This many subjeet bas been exhaustively trea.). on some of them they agree.so called because the Greek king M of their persuasion.282 At. on thé persons (ï. the Gh-eeks.use Greece and the adjacent countries are all inhabited by Melkites. Thé second sect are the Nestoriana. as e. M called after Nestorius. whiist the majority of the inhabitants of Syria. 720 and 730. and their union (&'m<r<. beca. who brought forward their doctrine between A.

and he receives them as his guests. 283 Besidea they have other days depending upon their Great Fast. Dionysius. Frequently. and gives them a repast. whilst generally on all others they differ.ted they pray to Ctod for him. Being accused of fornication with a woman. Paul.28P. Mary the nun. Only regarding the greatest and most famous feasts they agree. Paul. metropolita of thé MeUdtes in KhorasAn is Marw. When they. 6. 4. the pupil of St.tient)y. 3. 2. if God pennits Tishrîn I. Commemoration (jtn~n~) of the bishop and martyr Ananias. in Arabie ~(Me. partly disagree.THE t'ESTIVAf-S. too. etc. 1 shall now enumerate the calendar days of the Melkites in Khwârizm according to the Syrian calendar. 20 until the next commemoration day. and her sex did not become known before her death. the pupil of St. 4. they give each other the names of two commemorations. 2. Beader. of which they in their religion have nine 1.Bishop. Cantor. they partty agree. Tho résidence of the cathoticus of 1 r . ETC. He stands under the ox~t'opoMa. as on thé former. and humble themselves before God in his name. On this category of days. OF THE SYRIAN OALEXDAR. Cathr'lieus.) indicate clerical degrees. so as to say X. people assemble in his house. Diaconus.ys connected with it. Prcsbyter. they found out the reality of the case. ~oÀT))!. the bishop and astronomer. La. in Arabie fS'&<tt)tWu<. they give the name of the saint of the day. The résidence of the 7. 30 and saw the genitals. Jtfe<)'opoH<<t. 1 shaH treat of the feasts and memorable days of the Nestorians. It ia a Christian custom on these commemoration days to celebrate the memory of the saint to whom the day is dedica. You find very rarely that the Christians. she bore thia wrong pa. ~0~0 3. then. and pra. I shall apeak of their fasting. who wore man's dress she lived like a monk. and p. When this commemoration comes. Arethas (H&rith) of Najrân.stly. in Arabie JiMM~. and Zoroastrians in different countries agree among each other in the use of festivals and memorial days.ise him. also called N from the commemoration of the saint N. Hypodiaconus. Jews. t0 6. and-her innocence. To every child which is born on this day or later. on which the various sects agree. wanted to wash her body. and weeks depending upon thé most famous days. and aJl the da. martyr with the other martyrs. 8. concealed her sex before the monks.inArabic't~h~ who stands under the c~/to~cw~. These titles (like bishop. 10 Secondly. 1.

thing hku chief-coMmandt-r. Cœsar. napaxot/Mi~o. not t. usages. t. AtMo~ot.e. Vil. not among the Nestorians. bishop.both being of the ~merank. m. IV. His report is this I. There are always four patriarchs in Chnstendom as soon as one dies. the third in Alexandria. To each degree attach certain rules. highly revered by them. M~pMroÀtD~. Tin.284 AMtROKÎ. na~o:. AIhusa. His degree comes near to that of thé Hegoumenos. Ap~~(p~ (!').n(nra9. the head of the MïptMM. M~her in Borne. king of the Gtreeks.tri:trehs. t. highest Chureh dignitary. of the cantor. suprême authoritythroughout 20 the empire. thearmy 40 VI. 9. 'Hyo~o!.t.. These towns are called CpoMt. the c~/MMc:.e. the governor [or ruler]. One patriarcli resides in by Constantinople.. Patriarch. p. catholicus M appointed by thé KhaJif on the présentation of the Nestorian community. the first of the chamt erhins. A~~(?). who. KttÂoy~ot. VI. X. The Nestorian BaghdAd. ). Patriarch. prefect of a monastery. V. the secretary. V. IV. in Arabie .(i') the prefect of the greatest monastery. 'ErwKmra:. II. 10 There is no degree beyond that of the and none below th't patriarch. However. and do not reckon the Hngers and altar-servants among the oSciaJs of thé Church. the more trustworthy account of thé matter is the one given above. being ehosen by the remaining pa.. reports in his Book of the &te?tCM the of Ct-ee~. Frequently they count only from the diaconus upwards. B(nrt\m:. although important personages. Ao~Kn-txo. and conditions. AoyoOÉT'7Jç. his vazîr and dragoman. ~~1. on which this is not the proper place to eularge.e. but then his description does not fit. at once successor is created. in Arabie 6~ Thèse batd)<.s M'e in the army some. Becanse 'Abû-Athusain bas mixed up with the men of the official 30 degrees other people. and the fourth in Antiochia.commMder of thé army. are not exactly dtgnttanes of such and such degree or pcrhaps they belong to one of those degrees. 'Abû-AIhusain 'Ahmad b. and the other digMtiu-lea of the Church. in Arabie B~y?A.c confoundpd with the .~<Mo.amanintheHng's spécial confidence in Mnularto the ~MM<!CM. thé Melkites in Muhammadan eountries is He stands under the Patriarch of Antiochia. III. The laie degrees cf the Stato service are the following I.in Al'ahwaz}. H.-)w~. in Arabie SAo'MMa<. what he himself has learned in Constantinople of the degrees of the service both of Chureh and State. Thia dignity exists only among thé Melkites.290.

The KhaJif Almutasim had sent along with hia 20 a. 10 XH.nd bct~ccmbonc:! and skin only very little Ncsh romains. And in this hall there is a number of scpamte compartments.NDAIt. that some 40 monks have been addcd who died there iu thé sa-me spot.e.~y «. opL'n hall in the niouatj.r:. a couutmnder of 40. whom thé IIarpucto! consults in every affair.ries. Thcre. and moro tlian eight. an officer over 1.a commander of 10. maltcs the rea. dressed in woollen co~ts and uther wooHcn ~fu'mcnts. 'ExaTo~-aptos. He tuuched &111eha.. 'PoyaTm/). 'E~op~o!. We must.rdiess youth. subterraneau chimnet which goes into the interior of in the ca. Muhammad b. MKyÂa.THE FESTJVAi. XTTT. ETC. however.ted columns.tidentic<ttpt!Me. net~KotTopu)!.SM.a commander of 100 men. in boots an(l shoes. is pcrh~ps to he exphuned in this way. Now we return to our subject. he 6~. he says. IX..lf that of a ILtr~Kto?. relates that on returning from his expedition. he entered tha.in.mmitda. For the eorpses of monks last particularly long. 'Alî b.who has to review thé army and to pay the stipends of the soldiers.H mountain. VUU. A«(ap~o!. Commemoration of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesua. Ta. which is the Christian tradition. i.en pcopte.u-s on the forehea. eyes.nk is ha.rth for a distance 30 the mountain. XVII. the diameter of which at the bottom ia a litttc Icss than one thousand yards. ShitMr himself. because they torture themselYes to such a degree that Sna.]) thf))' moist substances perish.d of une of them. a comma.nder of 30.the officer of the royal whip (P)'ce/ec<!M Ke~or«. XVI. son:" sort of déception. At thé outside you see a.hya.nds.nip when it has no mure oil Frequently they remain . XV. npmrcfrfra~mpto!.mbass:tdor another pel'Eon who saw thé place of the Seven Sle*:pers with his own. a. and tried to flatten them.-in fact. XI. Mnong them a bea. Musft b.sma.n.commander of 50. 285 ¡ batrîks whom we have mentioned as clerical dignita. 0F TUE SYM1ANeALE.S. and passes through a dccp CM.)t). 'EtKotrm~Koî. but they did not yield. XViil. Tf<rcr<tpaxofTapK). 5. thé roof being supported by perfora. XIV.a.der rather doubt whether they arc really the corpses of those seven youths or other people. a man in the king's confidence in the army of the n<tTp'*<fto!. and touched them with his own ha.TM of three hundred pMes. the astronomer. a commander of 20.a. This report Is known to everybody. STpmT~yo. wbo Me mentioned m the Cora. Those who fear the ambiguity of the words call the clerical dignitary &<<!A. That their number is more than scven. TpMUTnjMO!. Then the cimmicl runs out into a sort of half. X. And therctore thcir life is extinguished like ia.wthirt4-. lus ra.000 men. which is *he Muha. observe that he who touched them.

25.e. leaning on their sticks. we explain them as thoae nine years which you must add if you change the three hundred solar yeara into lunar yeara. martyr. Anastasia. 18. On this My the angels 20 announeed to him the birth of his son John. the martyr. As for thé addition of speciaUytreats nine xviii.). Cyprianus. 15. author of the third Gospel. 26. 17. who waa eut to pièces. the martyrs. this addition would be 10 9 years. Andréas. martyr. ~o 27. (as 2 months or year) are neglected in a historicat aceount. Cornutus. Commemoration of Sergius and Bacchus. 24: "And they remained in their cave three hundred yeara (Sûra years and nine yeara more "). Commemoration of the sepulture of the head of John the son of Zacharias. Coamas and Damianus. martyr. ` 10. and in greater detail in the (Gospel. and his pupil Abraham. Such factions. Beginning of the fasting for the nativity of Jesus. 30 1. Jacob. Sûraxviii. TiahrmII. p. thé martyr. Messiah. 16. dred and seventy.). apaoe of time was 110 according to anyone of the Of<!t~ jMe!-<:<tM«M:M which they may have applied to the reat of thé (15) years. the martyr. 18. Bomanus. To speak accurately. bishop in Alexandria. they counted the 300 years as 15 Cycles (of 19 yeara) plus 15 yeara of the Mth cycle. 75 days. as God says in the Coran in the which chapter of their history (!. according to the way in which people reckoned at that time. Samonas. however. People faat forty consécutive days before Chriatmas (16 Nov. for generations in the same posture. Lucas. 14. the biahop. the martyra. Such a thing you may witness in regions where monks live. 11. the martyrs.-25 Dec. 23. and Andreas the apostle. 30. aa it is mentioned in the Coran. However. Gregory of Nysaa. Petrua. And 110 months amount to 9 years and 2 montha. Gurias.291.286 ALBÎB~NÎ. 16~ hours. and Abibos. Gregorius Thaumaturgos.). the bishop. 17. 11. Isaac. . Commemoration of the prophet Zacharias. Menas (M~fS. the son of Mary. The number of months that were to be intercatated for mch a. the phyaiciana. 7.two years according to us (Muslims) three hundred solar years. According to the Christims these youths siept in their cave three hun. 20.

Christians. the highest mark of vénération. Johannes. because thereupon (upon the veneration towards their sp'ntual fathers?) their df-gmas are based. 23.. People say that the king does not allow the Greeks to visit the grave. but that is a mistake it 30 was the 26th. Gelasius. Btost people believe that this Thursday was tho 25th. the like of which we never heard nor read in any history or chronicle. as is related towards the end of aU four Gospels. 1. which took place on a Thursday night.e. For thé lst of Kânùn I. not at all endeavouring by f . The five martyrs. and Jacob. 0F THE SYRIAX CALEXDAB. 5. 3. and hoping to HII Him among the others. who buried the body of the 22. the first Msbop of ~lia. Jacob. If anybody wants to make the calculation for this year by means of the methods mentioned in the preceding part. Herodes killed the chilren and infants of Bethlehem. third patriarch of Antiochia. 287 Kanun I. the martyrs. the prophet. Sîsîn.292. 25. A]ma. Ahmad AIsalam! 20 Alharawî maintains that he bas seen it in the Church of the Résurrection in Jerusalem. In the night after the 25th of this month. 18. 28. in a vault as a. Messiah in a grave whieh he had prep'red for himself. as is related in the beginning of the Gospel. 20. To this grave attaches a curious story. David. martyr. searching for the Messiah. 6. the bu-th of the Messiah. the cathoucus of Ehurasâm. is the feast of the Nativity (t~*). which we shall mention when speaking of the Christian Lent. 17. o jSooÂcm-)}!. manby the title of ~t//te). in that year was a Sunday. He left Islâm. They teU a long and miraculous t~Ie about him. Stephanus. Christians believo him to be identical with '. however. There is no their laws are derived and developed original législation in Christianity by their most venerated men from the canonicat sayings of Messiah and the apostles.<1M-JM~. 29.thia. in the night of the 25th according to the Greek system.'m&n b. grave eut into the rock in a gibbous form. martyr. Joseph of Arima. patriarch of Autiochia. patriarch of ~!Iia. So they represent the matter themselves.is with them Christianity. ETC. 26. more particularly if they relate to their creeds. the Faiher. 10 4. head of the deacons. the cousin of Hârûn AIrasMd.THE FESTIVALS. who collected in a book the rites and laws of To address a. and inlaid with gold. wherefore Hârun crucified him. Ignatius. t. on the 1" whole are vcry mueh inclined to accept and to give credit to such things. 27. abbot of the monastery in Jerusalem. Modestus. Antonius. Barbara and Juliana. SAM. Nicolaus. p. 13.. and became a 40 convert to the Christian Church. the bishop of ~!Iia. he may do so.

. but the people of that church protested against it. early and late on the seventh day it is undressed. through whom the people of Constantinople became christianized. and made him dive under the baptismal water of the river Jordan. but it . E&nûn H. but then it. the metropolitan. This being d. with oil in the figure of a cross. the day of baptism. Epiphany (~:) itself. of age.39'! ~theotherpMty. out the truth of bygone times.t came over him in the form of a thirty years of age. . they did. Then the priest takes a handful of water from one . when John. took possession of one of the Chrif. and its whole body anointed with oil." Therefore they receive in every house something t. 5. As the reason this custom some people assert that this M the Greek New-Year's Day. This is what our Prophet says Every child M born in the state of original purity. Arius. its feet are placed so as completely to cover the dot in the middle. four dots and one in the middle. For their bishops and preabytera 611a vessel with water and read over it. when the Messiah was The Holy Gh. may it be (~ On this day the Christian children plus?). would open of legal owner. Christians practise with their ehildren when they are 30 three or four year. or Christian. or Magian" 'Abù-AIhusain Al'ahw&z! describes in his book of the Sciences of the Greeks thé process of chriatening. and having found adherents. this agreement That they would shut the door of the church for three they would prooeed together to the church. and then they make the child dive into it. 2. The same. Basilius. That party. and read beforedays it alternately. Then they pour warm water ~0 a marble vessel which stands in thé middle of the church. crying with the highest voice and some sort of melody Calendas. and came t.e. dove that descended from heaven. ako feast of thé CM~ Calendas means (C<). assemble and go round through the houses. Therefore their children do ~htheyr~ivedatt~ 20 time. The church door did not open of itself t. eat.~ the child is chri. and to find the means at o~r:~ criticise historical traditions. On 40 the surface of the water the priest makes five dot.288 ALBÎBÛNÎ.. tian churches.tened. 6. parents makeit a Jew. Others relate 10 as its reason the following story: Arius on having comefor~rdwith his theory.. 1. First they read prayere for the child in the church during seven days. the son ofZ~h~. Then the child is raised.ne week after Mary had given birth to Christ.. and a cup of wine t. driuk. and it is put into the water. Silvester. baptized Messiah. S. now. Finally they arranged with each other. Sotheysay. Fasting for the feast of Epiphany. according to the relation of the Gospel.

20 20. 21. whilst the whole church cries seven times: m~tf ~t~aof. is the Greek form for John.' Then the child is completely dressed. Johannes and Cyrus. the tt-acher. whcn hc was forty days of age. Theodosius. OF THE SÏHJAN (ALE\UAti. of which we shaU speak hereafter. the son of Zacharias. This is a Jacobite feast. Shubât. the bishop. 22. except those that fall on a Sabbath those and only those a:& celebrated. 15. /MWMte~'c~ «~o~ Ms. PoJycarpus. the monk. called Chrysostomus.thoMcus. whofirst bj'oughtChristiMtity down to B3iurasan. Euthymius. killed by the Magians. This he does four times. and poura it over the hefd of the child. 40 5. Cosmas. ing the ground. the anchorite. and loaded himself with chains. 10 always being borne in the arms. t. the first of the monks. ETC. Between the 2nd Shubat and the 8th Adh~r the beginning of their Lent varies. and carried away to prevent its feet from tonch.ry's bringing Jésus to the temple of 30 Jerusalem. 3. but this time without uil. John. Petrus. it is in Shebat (the Jewish fonn of thé name) not in Shubât (the Syrian form). 11. Thereafter either it remains in the church. who was burned with nre. since thé Jews do not use the Svrian names. ty< Feast. :. Johannes. or it goes there again and again during seven days. who tortured himself.tion-daya we mention. Patriarch of Damascus. taHng the water auccessively from all four sides corresponding to the four sides of the cross. thcn it is put down. Antonius. the teacher. the martyrs. while the whole congrégation of the church is praying. If this is the case. 2. Commemoration in recollection of the finding of the head of the Baptist. and their head.e. and make tliem read the Thora.e. martyr. in recollection of Ma. When fasting they never celebrate the commemora. Ephraem. On the seventh day the priest washes it again. and not iu the baptismal vessel. 'Imat~. People say that on this day the Jews introduce their children into the temples. End of tho feast of Epiphany.THE FESTIVALS. D 304 25. author of Christian canons and laws. 0 Lord. 31. the martyr. 17. is adorned with a shirt. On this day the noble saints on Mount Sinai were killed. 289 side. S!s Ca. Then it is definitively taken out of thé water. Then the priest washes it. 14. held in great vénération among them. thé same who bas placed it there. Then the priest ateps baekward. Belesys. Maximus. 13. the monk. and that person cornes who wants to take the child out of the water. 19 . 25. 1.

knowing so much about the moon's place on the day of the Annunciation. Now. Jesus. 11. for the time when she stands under the earth at thé distance of circumference. however. However. and if He by His mercy delivers me from the remainder of pain and illness. because those who relate the birth of Christ relate that it occurred at night. which is the natural space of time for a child's sojoum in the mother'a womb. 303. The above-mentioned time of Christ's sojourning in His mother's womb (9 months 5 days) is. according to their theory. The forty martyrs who were tortured to death by nre. Both calculations. Gabriel came to Marv announcing to her the Messiah.290 ALBÎB~XÎ. (that of the astrologers and AlMrunî's own) are worthless. when the moon is standing under the earth at a distance of circumference from the degree of the horoscope. a certain method of investigation for the purpose of finding the ascendena or horoscope under which a child is born) the theory of Hermes the Egyptian. though he had no human father.e.20 time. whilst our calculations would lead to the assumption that it oecurred in the day. 9. who follow in the matter of the ~MBtMdMr (:. And so It is only proper that 10 also His sojourn in the womb of His mother should have been in agreement with nature. This is one of the considérations which clearly show thé worthlessness of the .N~u~ro. now. Monday the 25th Adhâr A. was in Hia earthly life subject to the laws of nature. .wheM we shall exhaust the subject and not conceal the truth. because the mean place of the sun for Jerusalem for noon of Thuraday following after the night in which Christ was born. is about 2 degrees and 20 minutes of Capricorn. Alex. we find the horoscope to have been nearly 20 degrees in Aries. We shall dedicate a special book to the genera and apecies of the N~tttHHMM. ~KHMtt<a<!o&[Kc<tM!NMB 2)e!p<!)fB. 25. Adhâr. was about 50 minutes in the first degree of Taurus. From this day until the day of His birth M a little more than 9 months and 5 days. Patriarch of Jerusalem. Aries and Taurus were <MCMn!tt~ at the time Christ was born. The mean place of the moon at noon of this day. a conditio si'tM g<t<!)t0): for every child that is born in the night of Christmas. for Jerusalem. Those. and frost. and though supported by the Holy Ghost. Sophronius. oold. we find that the horoscope (of the hour of Christ's birth) was near 24 degrees of Pisces. during the day. if God permits 40 me to live so long as that. And if we compute the mean place of the moon 30 for the 25th of Kânûn I. must assume the last part of Alies and the beginning of Taurus as the ascetK~M of the Messiah.

A. Friday being a conditio sute }!«! non. it falls on the Ist of N!san only four times in a Solar Cycle.296.n'] for somc'thing like cursing each other. 680. and other chur~h dirait tru-s.tus) the Believer. p. A. for there had come forward some people proposing to break the fast on the 14th of the Jewish Passover month (Tf<r<rape<rKfttS<KanTa[. ETC. people keep its date in memory and frequently celebrate the da. because he opposed the Catholic Church in the description of the Holy Ghost.them').). OF THE SYRIAX CALEXDAB. The first of the six synods was that of the 318 bishops at Nicfea. Such synods are not convoked cXMpt at long intervals. convoked for the purpose of condemning the bishops of Mopsuestia.D. and if one takes place. 381. Mary the Egyptian. 21. A.tiziugsome innovation. under the king Theodosius. afterwards only of one nature. this commemoration-day ia celebrated on the Srat terruption. 431. lOth. bishops. 19 . under the king Marcianus. who opposed thum in the question of the Persons. orfor the considera.r.. 2. Synod under Justinian L. Synod of the 150 bishops in Constantinople. of two natures. and 21st years. A. who 40 opposed the Church in its fundamental dogmas.D. 6. The 160 martyrs. A. convoked on account of Nestorius. therefore. Synod of the 630 at ChaJcedon. and for the purpose of perpetua. in the 4th.D. convoked on account of Arius. 553. beginning of the ~r<t ~!&M[)tf!)'t. 15th. and wanting to show thfir devotion. on account of Eutyches. and others. of Edessa.325. As a rula. under Constantine (Pogona.451.D.ting their dogma regarding this T/)'(! Person. 15. man called cnem~ of the Spirit (?ryttytaro~a~o. under the king Constantine. The six synods. the founder of Nestorian Christianity.y. 291 ~sa?. and for thé purpose of per. who fasted 40 consécutive days without any in.the Patriarch of Constantinople. before the &'m<rt. Sy. because he opposed the Catholic Church regarding the Person of the Son. hoping to obtain a blessing thereby. of 10 their priests. Synod of 187 bishops in Cuttatantuiople. convoked on account of Cyrus and Simon Magus. 5.D. and their agreement regarding thia should always fall on Sunday after the résubject that J'o~-&)'eoi!. for the purpose of &na. 30 3. convoked on aceount of a. if you count tho cycles from the the current year included. 1. A.D. or QMaWo~fCtMMttt).tion of some important religious subject. son of Arcadius the Etdt. viz... R~day after breaking fast. becanse he taught that the body of the Lord Jésus consisted. 1.)~ means a im~tin~ of their wise men.)'My surrection of the Messiah. petuating the dogma which they all agrced upon regarding the two 20 Persons of the Father and the Son.THE FESTIVALS. under the king Theodosius Junior. 4. a. Synod of the 200 at Ephesus.

God ordered the Israelites to make a serpent of brass and to hang it on a beam. 23. . 30 camel). one generation inheriting from the p. of course." He followed their advice.e. Now people said to the king Constantine. the reason of which ia this. Christophorus.~ya)-. tortured repeatediy and by various tortures. 24. which the Arabs call j~<t'. and thereby you will conquer the kings who surround you. killed in Ehûzist&n. SabbM Catholieus. author of the second Gospel. Now they were uncertain. Hia mother Helena he sent to Jerusalem to search for the wood of the Cross. Other Christians. Thereby. Catholicus of Ehur&san. together with other Christians. 6.297. which wa. the dead man became alive again. as it M celebrated in Khw&rizm. She found it. 25.6to be erected. four stars close to . Athanasius.292 AMÎEÛKÎ. t. y/te Feaat of Roses according to the ancient rite. 7. but together with the two crosses on which. the patriarch. 1. thé prophet. Marcus. Jeremia. Helena. 30. This Christian sect indulges in <<M-eM Crucig ~M-Mtm in ail sorts of tricks and hallucinations. 2. by their ancestors who cared for Euch things. Now. 27. Elias. it is very strange that those people should not rellect a little and find out that there are nations in the world who consider it as their business to observe the stars and to examine everything connected with the stars for ages and ages. till he died. 10 3. that Mary presented on this day the first roses to Elizabeth. it was touched by the wood of the Cross of Christ. the martyr. he 20 conquered. On this day they bring Jur!-roses to the churches. Mâr Georgioa. knew that this cross was the right one. the prophet. other at least this knowledge. eg. the mother of John. Finally they placed each cross upon a dead body: when. Christian seholars Miate:–In the time of ConstantinetheVictorious there appeared in heaven the likeness of a cross of Sre or light. for the purpose of keeping off the injury done by the . Simeon b. then. who are not learned people. and did not know how to find out which was the wood of the Cross of Christ. as they maintain. speak of the cross in the constellation of the Dolphin. They say that at that time this cross in the Dolphin appeared opposite that place where Messiah had been cmcined. Feast of the Apparition of the Cross in Heaven. "Make this sign your emblem. the two robbers had been crucified. And more than this. that the stars of the Dolphin are ~ee~ which in this quality of theirs had long ago been recognized t&M-o. Hiob.~MMOthe situation of which is ~l~a~ like the angles of a quadrangle.M (riding. and therefore became a Christian.

Further they say that thé se~ of Moses ()'.io). This is certainly the same sort of hallucination frequently occurring among those Muslims who try to derive mystical wisdom from the comparison of the name of Muhammad (A*) with the human figure. if they compare the mea' sure of the head and the belly (both expressed by the same letter M!m) 20 and the quantity of the limbs which project out of the ma. and the D&t like his two feet. from whatever side you like. however. They go even so far as to maintain that thia fact originated at the tin:" when Christ was crucified. unless th"re be a reason whieh ~operly connects that which is . the H& like his body. and how widely soever discordant their théories may be. the matter would simply become ridiculous and ludicrous.ss of the body. being considered as a symbol of the resurrection of the dead. Now when Christ came.THE FESTIVALS. He threw His staff over sueh a line. and that their firat sentence resembles that at whieh they aim. forgetting at the same time the means for the perpetuation of our race. excellent Galenus gives the descripauthority tion of this wood. that a pièce of it is attached to a man who suffers from epilepsy. These people seem to be completely ignorant of lineaments. if you eut this wood. But 1 should think that that which is perfect in itself does not admit of any inerease or decrease. 293 serpents when they had become very numerous among them in the desert. and others. OF THE STRtA~ CALENDAR. 1 should like to know what they would say of such names as in their outward form. which you 10 might prove in this wa. the second Mun like his belly. whieh means Koincrease and Modecrease. in the 30 matter of thé Cross and its verification. Tho'tf who use the works of soul and nature as 40 arguments regarding physical appearanees. Now from this fact they infer and maintain that it was a prophecy and a hint indicative of thé Cross (of Christ). More curious still than this is the tact that this Christian sect. For. the divine gift bv which he wrought miracles) was his staff. and a staff is a longitudinal line. that if you threw a third staff over the cross. However. resemble the form of the name of Muhammad. Now. This wood is frequently used in this way. If you would compare some of them aooordin~ to their method.e. which is to be indicative of the fact that the law of Moses was completed (finished) by Christ. Perhaps. will always manage to find that the starting-point of their argument agrées with that which they maintain. you observe in the plane of the eut lineaments which resemble a cross. not of the masculine aex. you get the iiues of the word X (. for instance. sueh arguments can never be accepted. they meant individuals of the feminine. ETC. Accorduig to them the Mîm iN like his head. ~tr or ~e~* (77<MttM or JKa/M). and a cross was formed. from whatever theory they start. but for the addition or otrission of one letter. 1 should like to know whether they never study medical books and never hear of those authors who lived long before and on whose the Christ.y. refers to the wood of .P«KMtt<t.

there is material enough for doing P so). the Prince of the Believers. viz. Now. their bells and veins. is in most cases conformable to the laws of geometry. To this category. oM~ God be M~ct/M! <o Mm And behind the Kibla there is another white stone with this obliterated inscription: "In the name of God the clement. Mack and white. quintuplications in the belle of the Bowers and in the leaves of most of their blossoms. and occur also in beep. belong certain forgeries. and then he proclaimed that thèse stones were formations of nature and had come from such and such a place. This ink you drop upon an agate and write with it if you then hold the stone near the nre the writing upon the stone becomes apparent in white 30 colour. In most cases they agree with the chords that have been found by the laws of geometry. Hamza is his help. in this manner he wrote (upon stones) thé names Muhammad. too. This is a matter of frequent oceufence.294 AMÎEONÎ.e. 'AI!. etc. or one may find among the species hitherto . the tops of which form a circle when they begin to open. stones for rings. but who will believe him ? AIso in minerais you find sometimea wonderful physical peculiarities. because the figure of the name '-4H is frequently found in the veins of mountains. &c. that in the Jftt~Mnt (alta. even without doing the thing very carefully or understanding it particularly well. e. if anybody wants to support his theory by referring to one of these specips. the proof with that which is to be proved. You scarcely 40 ever find a flower of 7 or 9 leaves. So a. The number of their leaves is always 3 or 4 or S or 6 or 18. not with conic sections. cg.r-pla.4M. with the name '. Now. with a nearly-obliterated inscription to this eSect: "Muhammad M the prop~ of God.).y. and in their veina sextuplications are a naturaJ form of cycles. So I produced to him from the ~!<o&-<ta<t~t~ of AUondî the recipe of (an information how to make) an ink composed of various pungent materiats.11numbers are found in physical appear.ce) of the Mosque in Jerusalem there is a white stone. show in their 10 formation certain numbers (numerical relations) peculiar to each species of them. for you cannot construct them according to the laws of geometry in a circle as isoscele (triangles). Possibly one may find one day some species of flowers with 7 or 9 leaves. the merciful 20 Muhammad is the prophet of God. For the leaves of each blosaom. e. the Among peculiarities of the flowers there is one really astonishing fact. triple formations in many leaves of plants and in their kernels. some Shî'a preacher once asked me to t~ach him something which he might utilize." Further. ancea of theworks of sou! and life.g. are of frequent occurrence.298. the number of their leaves.. quadruplications in the motions of the stars and in the fever days. People relate. hives and Htow-na~es. There exist. he can do ao (t. And for sueh forgeries he got much money from the SM'a people. double formations or correlations in things opposite to each other (eg. and specially in flowers and blossoms. measured with that by which you measure.

and of Arsenius. in his commentary on the Gospel. Dionysius. 20. on the whole. and John. Cyriacus. God knows best (which is the right form). not on the original date.y commemoration of John the son of Zakaria.E<M-< when people bring ears of the wheat of their fields. and invoke the blessing of God for them. ETC. author of the fourth Gospel. 8. Commemoration of Nebukadnezar's btirning the ch'idren. too. Of THË SïlfJAN t'ALEXDAR. On the aame da. 8. 10 M mnnitely sublime beyond everything which we poor sinners may conctive and predicate of Him. martyr. the prophet. Cyrillus. caUs him te«'. and fMommuiuea. Athanasius. 30 1. Aiso commemoration of the renovation of the temple. read prayers over them. count the number of seeds of one of the (many) pomegranates of a tree. 3. This feast they celebrate instead of the Jewish 'Asefe~/t. 16. 12. the patriarch. you find in the functions (actions) of nature which it is her office to fulfil.E FJSS'~VALS. the bishop. Epiphanius. For if you would. Julianus. 22. but. Commemoration of John. 5. ~azîr&n. Luke. 'Azaj'yâ. aome fault (some irregularity). Feast o~&xes aceording to the new rite. you would find that all the other pomegranates contain the same number of seeds as that one the seeds of which you have counted first. 12. the author of 40 Nestorianism out of the Church. the monk. DâdMshu'. the anchorite. the prophet. The town was after him called Cjnstantinople it is the résidence of his successors. 24. through which they purpose gaining the favour of God for their wheat. the monk. He was the first king who resided in Byzantium and surrounded it with walls. the patriarch. the four evangeliste. martyr. (postponed to this date) because on the 4th the roses are still very scarce. On the same date it is celebrated in Ehurâs&n. Leontius. ~<M< of . 295 known sueh a number of leaves. Frequently. 10.te<l him. Matthew. Now we return to our subject.TB. Simeon. however. ~ajM~ys. one must say nature preserves its genera and speeeeesuch as they are. Zacharias. . Iesaia. the archbishop. Constantine the Victorious. but this oniy serves to show that the Creator who had designed something deviating from the gênerai tenor of things. 9. So. who wrought a great miracle. 18. who drove Nestorius. p. and Michael. Mark. 13. e.299. nature proceeds in all other mattem. 20 15.

the mother of Simeon Thaumaturgus. 25. untit he touched the ribs of His aide. Paphnutius. 1S.bean. On the same day. martyr.296 AI. Febronia. t'. 30. where the Jews had pierced Him. if they did not keep this commemoration. 11. the head of the messengers. Birth of John b. p. martyr. rich thriving and growing. Thuthael. martyr. with décisive arguments against some king. martyr. Simeon Kephas.BÎRÛJ. Dometius. and to pray God that He may give blessing and increase. Ib: 1. the presbyter. 1. martyr. Simeon Stylites. 26. Berekhy&. John of Marw.. 7. and Ma mother. apostles.300. ie.pms. when a child of three years. Phocas. the Mcbmgeitt. the pupils of Christ. The forty-five martyrs. the teacher. 5. who brought Christianity to Marw about two hundred yeM-aafter Chïist. the apostle. The 40 magians kiHed her Meveuchildren. 8.e. Panteleemon. Peter. 21. He is the same apostle through whom India was Christianized. the younger. Fasting on account of the illness of Mary. Death of Paul. the mother of Christ. t. 8 montha and 18 days. Through him fourteen thousand men were converted to Christianity. 26. 27. Gabriel and Michael. when they bring the first grapes. 14. They asaert that. and they ask God to protect the creation from any injury done by the heat. who was tortured to death. 30 20.FefM< of Me Grapes.psed 258 days. Cyricus M said to have argued. the martyr. who did not believe in Christ when he had returned after His crucifixion. 10. 2. 13. There he felt the trace of the wound. commemoration of Solo~ onis the M(ttka. they would suffer from the heat of Ta. Julitta. who WMkilled in our time. the apostle of Christianity. 29.e. . Commemoration of Nebukadnezar's burning the three children.mmùz. Procopius. the physician.. 1( 30. 20 9. Zachariah. the monk. it lasts fifteen days. and the last day is the day of her death. 22. Their commemoration they consider as a means to gain the favour of God. martyr. Between the annunciation of his birth and his birth itself there e!a. The seventy-two disciples of Christ. Martha. and roastef' them in roMting. Tammû~. Cyricus. 21. The twelve apo<!tles. Thomas.

martyr. Marnas. Samuel. and thé bcg!]))<n)~ nf thp new o'x' beonuRf with this month thé year reaches its end. the bishop. the prophet. 21. weak from age.301. Lucius. appeared to Christ on Mount Tabor. For Nebukadnezar l'allie to Jerusalem nearly four handred and forty-five years before the death of John and the second destruction was the work of the Greek kings. Vespasian and Titus. regarding which the Gospel relates that once the prophets.THE FESTIVALS. permit us to bui)d three tents.FeshttM corotM)' (tt!Mt. Simeon. Feast of Mount Tabor. and Elias.. 297 10 20 30 40 5. 29. When they awoke and saw this. 7. and John. one of the Ashkanian kings. Jacob. Alma'mnn b. and the other two for Moses and Elias. and 1 do not know what 1 a. called Gate of </te CohtMM they had been gathered so as to form something like hills and mountains. Moses. 0F THK STRIAX fALEXDAR. the prophet. when three of His disciples. Feast in commemoration of the death of Mary.m to say of it. Decapitation of John. Commemoration of all thé prophets. 10. Elias. 'Ahmad Alsalarnî Alharaw! relates that he saw in Jerusalem some heaps of stones at a gate. 9. they were frightcned. Shapur b. hiding hiniself from their eyes.e. i. Jeremia. Saba. whilst Elias was alive. martyr. the monk. Of this story there is nothing in the Gospel. ÎIuT 1. were with Him. p. whom we mentioned just now. 30. disciple of Elias. but siept. Babûla. 20. . one for Thee. the prophets. the son of Amram. Elisha. 8.y but hc does not show himself to manHud. and Hezekiel. This went on till Nebukadnezar killed the people. and is still living. Moses was dead already a long time before tliat. ETf." They had not yet finished speaking when three clouds standing high above them covered them with their shadow then Moses and Elias entered the cloud and disappeared. 6. 17. and made their blood now over it then it was quiet. Now people said that those were thrown over the blood of John the son of Zacharias. as they sa. boiling and bubbling. the son of Amram. and spoke May our Lord. for 1 have heard some historian say that in this case is meant Jùdarz I). The martyrs Seleucus and his bride Stratonice. Afkûrshuh. the ever-living. 15. lesaia. The Christians make a difference between CommcMMratto~ and Feast" the latter is an affair of more importance than the former. Zakaria. But it scems that thé people of Jerusalem call evt'rybody who destroycd tlieir town Nel)ukaduezar. 26. They pray and invoke God's blessing for the Rnd nf thé vear. Moses. but that the blood rose over them. 16. Messiah.

The martyra Eustathius. Paulus. with prayers. Gregorius. martyr. This. and Joyakim. the monk. 14~ Feast in recollection of Constantine and Helena. Chariton. martyr. the bishop.hia mother finding the Cross. 20. On the same day. but first weshall an explanation of 20 give Lent as something which lies in the midst between both sects. which they seized out of the banda of the Jews It was buried in Jerusalem. On thia day they renovate their churches. and Tatta. and mother 10 23.~9 ~h they agree with tbe Nestorians. EuphemM. now. 8. The martyrs Sabinianus. 28. the feast of the Church of <&< Church of Beaurreetion) in ~~ep~ Jerusalem. 16. Thecla. Of these we P. 13. 15. martyr.BÎBÛNÎ. but on this subject we have spokeu aiready.298 AI. being commonto both of them. 3. the father of Mary. is all we know of the commemorationa and feasts of the . Commemoration of the seven martyrs killed in NisMpur. feast of the renovation of the temple. the apostle of the Armenians. 25. Commemoration of the Six Synoda. hie wife. mother of Mary. who was burned to death. 29. 24.haU treat in a special chapter. Vitellius. ~anna. .

its conditions. We now présent auch information regarding Lent as corresponds to the purpose for whieh the practices of Lent are intended -by the help of God and Hia mercy. in Syriac &'j/o!. and more than that. we have already heretufoM mentioned.me as the Jewish jfo~o! the Teft)t)'!Mpeculiar to each nation.e. Christian Lent always laste forty-eight days.Miahed is this.ninth da. UPON TEAR. nor rcga. AND LENT ON THOSE AND FEASTS AND FESTIVE WITH DAYS IT REVOLVE WHICH ALL PAEALI. the mode in which it is ca. Now. the forty. beginning on a Monda.y after its beginning.nd Fast-breaking.299 CHAPTER XVI. last Sunday before the end of Lent (or Fast-breaking). Jijal.y. nor later than the last day of Lent. a. is that one which they call Sa.n Palm Sundn. Christian Lent is one of the 10 institutions dependent on Passover. or cycle.rding the beginning of the cycles ((7'~). Regarding these the Christians do not agree with The word them. and the reason on which this calculation rests. /))Jt'<ta (<tc) but as it is tronblesome to pronounce this word so .y).lm Sunday 20 a. It cannot fall earlier tha.'Hn!n (i.e. The limita within which the Jewish Passover revolves. HEBETOFomBwehave explained in such a manner as will sufice for every want. that PtUMover(Enstpr) must always fall in the time betwcen Pa.nd is in more than one way connected with it.EL CHRISTIAN REGARDING SECTS AGREEAMON9BACHOTHER. i. one of the conditions which they have esta. So they call the Great Cycle. ON THE WHICH THBO?(tH CHRISTIAN DEPEND THE LENT.ted. n eaning the But it is only proper that we should mention sa. Hosanna or Palm Snnda.rticula.lcula. all the pa. is an Arabized Syriac word.ting to the Passover of the Jews.y The and ending on a Sunday.rs rela. in thé hmt weel: of Lent.

and it was consolidated and estaMished by the Flight i. as not requiring you to subtract anything from the years of the era. Ita earliest date is the 21at Adhâr. 7.10. 16.300 AMÎRÛNÎ.303. in the following verses of EhaMd b.y. The majority uses the latter number. because in the year when Christ waa crucified it must have fallen on this date. at the beginning of the ~~M~W 12 years of the current Bnneadecateris had atraady elapsed. Yazîd b. 13. If you subtract thia from the Mundi. 30 In the first year of the cycle they fixed Passover on the 25th of Adhâr.-t is thé tenth According year of the Cycle whilst according to the Christians it is the 13th (~t~~ee~M).e. occurred A. The différence regarding the cycles has this origin to the Jews the first year of the ~M ~~aK<?. Mn'Swiy~ b. 'Abî-Sufyân. 18.e. people say even 10 that the source of his wisdom was that which Daniel had derived learning from the 'M)-<C'<M. frequently in our discourse. ~!RM~n just mentioned 6113 years of the 933.. year For some of them count the interval between Adam and Alexander as 5069 years.c.the same one where Adam the fatherof mankind had deposited his knowledge.~m. Great Cycle). you get as remainder 20 5180 years the mterval (as between Adam and Alexander). 2. and got as remainder 12 years. It occm-a <. shaH be deposed from his rank. "Whatever bishop or presbyter. Starting from this point they arranged the Passovers of all the other years. "When 10 years had elapsed besides other 3 complete years And further 100 single years.e. which were joined in right order to 6 times 1000. (Hijra) p. the 19th Adh&r) And thia is to serve as a help and precaution against that which ia mentioned in the 7th Canon of the C~ott~ ~o~o?o. or diaconus celebrates the feast of Passover before the 40 equinox together with the Jews. The Hijra. i. bccause this arrangement stands by itself. Islam. Now they converted this number of years into ~MH Cycla." . we shall ase the term Great JM (ie. Further they arranged thé years of the to the ~M~c~~according Ordo lntercalationis myt-Q ('. Therefore the earliest date of Passover falla always by two days later than the vernal equinox as observa by eye-sight (!. who wa.). Anno ~da~ 6113. 5. its latest date the 18th Nîsân.s the first philosopher in Islam. it is also well known among scholars (of other nations).e. manifested the religion of his lord. So the Terminus J'(McMM extends over 28 days. others as 5180 years.

In this case it would fall by one week later than Passover.use if one and the same da. Fast-breaHng also Mis on its latest possible date. therefore.RM/-&rMi!:M~ (Fitr) of the Christians were identical with their Passover. As we have mentioned already. whieh is th" nearest Monday 40 to this date. thé prt~editig one or the following. and so it is thé beginning of Lent. And this new moon has been made the basis of the whole cajculation in this way: You observe the new moon of Shub&t and consider which JtfoMf~tyis the nearest to it. i'. the latest the 8th Adhâr. the new moon by which you calculatc falls on the 4th Shli'bât and th« preo~ing Wnnday. however. a Sunday).e. 7 hoirs. If full moon falls on this day and it is a Sabbath. Fast-breaking can never précède Passover. if the year be a leap-year. but the 2nd Shubât if the year is a common year. beca. is an interval of 44 days. Passover may proeeed towards the beginning of the year as far as the 21st Adhâr. i. which is its earliest possible date. and you repeat the same considération with the following new moon. this Monday does not reach the rettKi~M Je/M)t< and lies in the time before it. the smallest interval 20 42 days.y should happen (to be 10 Fast-breaking and Passover. on the And 22nd Adhâr (the 21st Adhâr being the earliest date of Passover). of Adhâr Secundus in a leap-year. Fast'breaHng would fall on the next following Sunday. PassoYci' falls on its latest possible date (18th Nîsân). i. 6 minutes. it is the beginning of Lent.e. This date lies within the Terminus Jejunii.y )ater than the earliest possible date of Passover. And for the same reason the beginning of fasting varies parallel with Fastbreaking on the corresponding days. and therefore the beginning of the Terminus J~'MM! is the Ist Shubât. 301 If the . Between the full moon of Passover and the new moon of Adhâr in a common year. its earliest possible date falls by one da. the earliest being the 2nd Shubât. In this way you find the beginning of Lent. i. the latest date of Fast-breaking falls by o)Mweek later than the latest date of Passover. If this Monday lies 30 within the Te~M'KM Jf)KKt'i'. or parallel with each other on corresponding days. between the 2nd Shubât and the 8th Adhâr.UX THE PHBISTIAX LEXT. Since. . that new moon ia disregarded. and falls near the beginning of Lent. If. This new moon falls always between the beginning of the smallest interval and the greatest interval (between the beginning of Lent and Passover).e. If. Therefore the days within whieh Fast-breaMng varies are 35. on the 25th Nîsân. however.e. the year 1s a common year. Accordingly the greatest interval between the beginning of Lent and Passover is 49 days. or if it fell always at one and the same invariable distance from Passover. both would revolve through the years either on the same days.

In that case the preceding Monday would be nearest to it (the 2nd Shubât). thé new moon of Adhâr Nee<«. whieh is the beginning of the Terminus Jejunii. fore the beginning of Lent is the 8th Adhâr. the guided by enmity which exists between the two parties. many of the Christian mathematicians took the work in hand and made calculations with the various cycles and different methods. would be the lst Shubât.year. Now.. t. and then the preceding Monday. if it also corresponded to aU the other conditiona (but that is not the case) viz. told them p. And if the year were a leap. new moon would fall on the 4th Shubât. according to a dogma of theire.of which they maintain that it was calculated by 30 Eusebius. because in this case the lat of the Syrian Adhâr is a Monday.302 AMÎBÛKÎ. lies in order to lead them astray. thé eras of both parties differed. and this is not permitted. Bishop of Ceasarea. which ia a.805.y the beginning of Lent.And beaides. H full moon falls on this day. bat the Jews. .t the same time the latest possible date for the beginning of the To'muMS Je/Mtm. and the 8th of the same month ia that Monday which follows after this new moon and falls thé nearest to it. and this date does not lie within the rermMKMJejunii (2nd Shubâf–Sth Therefore we muât 20 Adhâr). whilst the lat Shubât 10 is a Sunday. If we were to go ha~k upon the new moon of Adhâr Primus. is the table called Xpayucof. Fast-breaking would fall about one month earlier than Passover. in order to derive thence the beginning of their Lent. Finally.e. if we make this da. being the nearest to it. the new moon by which you oalculate. Now. and asked them regarding this subject. So they consulted the Jews. disregard this new moon and fall back upon the following one. There. we ahould find that it &Ua on the 5th Shubât in a common year. the year ia a leap-year. The lateat possible date of Passover is the 18th of Niaaa. falls on the 5th of thé Syrian Adhâr. and it ia a Sunday. and the 318 bishops of the Synod of NiceBa. The followers of Christ wanted to know before-hand the Passover of the Jews. that method which they at last agreed to adopt. this day would be suitable to be the beginning of Lent.

<MJUMM 1111125118' silO 412511114125. 18 2 1N 721 1123 620 4!M 3!<'4 2~ 122 24 1M 82!!15t8'22'.306.MJSSN.29. ~I. 1 I 18 4h~U..122 8.4.2720 M U26M M 9 8 7 2 52612 M 32417 16 923 4'26!l2 3.12 519~5. U M M 14 M 4~MU'3'M.M~ia s!2619 .4'2S~U 18] 4..Ï i 3 ~.' 1 a 3 4 6 6 7 8 i 9 M U j 12 13 14 j 15 M 17 18 M pp.22: 8.6.U5M i ')!)) 1125 11.25 M 317. 2 17 M 2 17 2 17 M 24 17 8 1 15 8 22 15J 8.~27 J28 621'142821 5 19 12!26!l9'5!2612!c.o 3 TI ~!3!3 . 72814 6 27 13 627M 62720 62713i6.ON THE CHRISTIAN LENT.g -I-i )!u!!5M'4tM)l i.: 12 26 Mj 5. 303 THE C%f<'tt!CO)t OF THE CHBtSTMNS.26. 1 307. M 317fM24~17~3!24~M]3'24 9 2 M 16 2 23 9 2 16 2 23 7.=t.U~25M 10 3 24 17 2 j 24 M.JH ~2t !25 'M M 4. M 4 M M'3 SSll~ 3 MU M 2'MI62M 2 M 9JS3162M'9'2M!9!216 8'Mhs~lSS 8 11: 8'K!'M'8'S9!'8'1 N S~IK 72814 ?!!8'14~7~1 7~l!l4 M~M~~N'U 13 27 a) 627M'5~2013 5 20 62720.32417. M ~17 M 19 20 21 29 L.115 82215 8 23 15 8i 1 :iS 1518221 22..8 1»8m» M M 72814 9 2 ail ei» 7~ 92316 82!!l!i!l'N 822 là 728u!6'21 S~2612!5'19 M L.324 9 2 16 9 23 8 29 M.251I 4M.24~M 2~23'9 a 22 419122619 3 M M M M 16 M M 2 16 8122 IN S M 526M 3 M M 7'H 4M 2 23 722 L.ë ~-i 4~8 418 3:M 1!ES 123 ?H 6 M S M M 8 aS 16 e~M 7Z1M 6S7K 5'26 ~L~M 10 L. 7 M 7 M M M 728~14~7)21.}j I 0 J I~i 1 i a iI v :a. 8i 122.13. I~! § ¡.11: 3'M'M 4191111'25 3 17 M M M SM'SJMK 8°E3~ 9~ 1 2S 91 e 1 iMI6~ S' e!iM!e!N!i6!8iM9~iN s 9~2R~16~ 9~ l~l6'i 7 M M 4 7 M M 7!28!M'7'!I 14'28S1 t 6!!7S8 e~'M 6'20 13~27 M 62713 6 M M 11 9 3 M SZ~M~~M'M'SM S 26 19 3!?~!3~ c o !a)ë!ëë~ë. L.6'27.15.22 82i!~i5 1529S.8. 4 25 U 4M HMI8.627. 6 M 13 5 M M. 8.29.¡. .. 7 8 9 10 T.26~12.lSls.¡-1 .22.Q .19 42S11 U25M)4]25!ll.2013. HmmCyeK). !l6 M 20 L. 5 19.) 3 ~~aia ? ~jë f3~ a ~Jj~! 4 M 425 11 t.20 62720.15 27 M. 6 27 13 6~7J13.

For on this day the Apostles passed a lame man in Jerusalem. On this day Messie ascended to heaven from the Mount of Olives.] to give up iheir religion. asking them for alms. according to some scholars. 46 days after its beginning. Accordingto spirit the astrologers. Festivals depending AUitMOxî. who asked people for a gift. whieh they do not do between Fast-breaHng and this day. according to the Melkites. Fast. M called the CoM~ Friday.304 p. the first Sunday. The same (jjrostration) is proclaimed for all the (other) Sundays by the last Canon of the first Synod. as is said in the Thora. God rest< d un this day on having finished the creation. and eaeh party of them went to that country with the language of which were inspired and 30 they which they were able to speak.e. all in consequence of some biblical commandment to this effect. upon Lent. Sunday. On the evening of this day the Christians prostrate themselves upon the earth. always on a Sunday.-ths are celebrated by the Jews because. and as a date for commereial agreements and written contracta. 10 All Sundays are highly celebrated by thé Cluistians. This Friday they call also The Sma!: Bc~Ma. as it wore. Muslims celebrate their Friday because on that day the Creator finished the creation of the world and breathed His into Adam. always fa~g on a Thursday. They use it as the commencement of all kinds of work. because week-days thé horoscopes of their prophets and thé constellations indicative of their coming stood under the influence of the planets that reign over these respective days. ten days after It is broken always on a Whitsunday. The first Sunday after Fast-breaking M called the New ~M~. !. Then they began to speak different longues they separated from each other.breaMng is the feast of ~c~. on ~ch day Messiah dressed in white. because the one is preceding specially known by a more famous name. the Holy Ghost. [LaCMtM. They answered "Ve have neither gold nor ~ilver. The third day of this fasting. Then they fled one night and perished to the last of them. The beginning of the J~M~ of the 4po~.oM. for during this time they say their prayers standing erect. 20 Forty days after Fast. Ten days after Ascension is ~A~MM Day. because Hosanna and Résurrection faU on Sundays.308. For it is. is a Wednesday. a Friday. t. It is the day when the Paraclete came down and Messiah revealed Himself to His disciples. Likewise the Sabb.e. breaking. M. And. in all religions certain are celebrated. and He ordered His in that room where He disciples to had celebrated Passover in Jerusalem. He invoked the name of God. However . until stay He should send them the Paraclete. the Apostles.

ON THE CHRISTIAN LENT. Most of these festivals are mentioned in the Table which is of Fa~ If you find Fasting by this table. That is the best we can do for yon. carry i). carried away his bed. armuged m seven columns. and go to your business. 3U5 Mp. and went to his business.bed." The man rose. you find at the same time these festivals-if God permita t 20 . free from pain.way yom.

whioh are derived from the feast-times common to both sects (Lent. Besides.ns of logic. and to argue with them.ted a schism between them. ON THE FESTIVALS OF THE NESTORIAN THEIR MEMORIAL CHBMTIANS. whilst they disagree regarding others. sueh Nestorian festivals. there is a fourth c]ass of Nestorian feast-days. to give up the Jurare tmoertct ma~Mtn. are of two hinds 1. regarding which they differ. A. This was the method of Neatorius himself. not celebrated by the MeDdtes. For he instigated people to examine ajid to investigate for themselves. Nestorians and Melkites agree among each other regarding some memorial-days. ANDFA8TDAYS. pso9. Epiphany).rd a theory on the dogmas of Christianity which necemita. Days altogether abolished by the Nestorians. NESTOMC8. Those da. 10 He esta. Days not abolished by them. not need by the MeDdtes. Christmas. and analogy for the purpose of being prepared to oppose their adversaries. ayHogism. in fact. the beginning of the . the Feast of Wax. 2. differences to whieh he had been led by his investigation and unweaj'ying study.306 AMÎBÛN!. but celebrated at a time and in a 20 manner different from that of the Meikites. Now 1 shaJl proceed to propound all 1 have been able to lcarn regarding theil festivals and memorial-days.from whom this sect derives its origin and name. to use the mea. CHAPTER XVII. Epiphany. which are not derived from the (common) feaat-times also used by thc Melkites. opposed thé MelMtes and brought forwa.ys. Feasts regajdir-: which Nestorians and MeIMtes agree among each other Christmas.blished as lawa for his adhérents those things in which he differed from thé MeDdtes. Furiher.

Tuesda. Commemoration of Simeon b.THE FEASTS AND FASTS OF THE NESTORIAN CBEtSTlAXS.310. SfAM' i. in the year preceding the year of Cimat's birth. the Great Hosanna. Prida. 1 have been told that the Jacobites celebrate S~M~ on the Mth of the Jewish NM&n this day feU. on the 16th of the Syrian Adhâr. For on this day Helena found the Cross. Christians say Messiah differs from mankind in so far as He bas not originated throughan act of begetting.y. It ia celebrated on the~< Sunday of Tishrin II. Thursday..y.cteristic mark of the day. 2f .QO (Sanctification of the C%«)-c&). Me J'~(!~ of Our Lady Mary. In every case it ia the 5th Sunday after thé Sunda. the 14th. if the lat of this month f)~Uson Wedneada. or Thursda. or Sun. the Washing of the Feet of thé Apostles.. but if it falla on a Monday. the feast is celebrated on the last Sunday of Tishrîn U. 307 Fasting. Saturday. 4. Bon of the dyers.y. The annunciation (of the pregnancy) may already have oceurred a. the Nestorians adopting the day of the finding. The Nestorians celebrate it on the 24th of Âb. The Feast of the OroM. Feasts common to both sects. 2. The cha.day. the fasting of Our Lady Mary. The Decollation of John the Baptist.e.& ~. and some of the memorial-days which we have mentioned heretofore. His sojourning in the womb of His mother is contrary to the waya of human nature. is this. Feast of the annunciation to Mary that she was pregnant with the Messiah. but celebrated by the Nestorians at a time and in a manner different from that of the Melkites 1. celebrated on the . and the 5th of Tishrîn n. Wednesda. 20 da. and Whitsunday.t a time when the embryo (or growing child) was already 80 settled in the womb it may also have occurred earlier or later.y. ~t6Mr (~m)t«!:<M[<to). Sunday of jS'!tM<M-. in commemoration of the retuming of 10 the Israélites to Jerusalem. It is also ealled ~2.y. if the first of the month faJls on a Friday.y.. Therefore the Christians came to an agreement among each other. the feast is celebrated on the last Sunday of Tishrîn I. the others the day when it was shown to the people. Now. Between this day and that of His birth there are 25 days. Saturday. In the year when the Messiah was bom. the Passover of the Messiah. B.Mc6'<tMM (Jn~-MMM).celebrated by the Nestorians on the 13th Ilûl. the New Sunday. Ascension. On this feast they wander from thé naves of the churches up to their roofs. 40 6.ra. as 1 have heard John the Teacher say. likewise the period of p. It begins on Monday after the and it ends on Christmaa. was a Sunday. on the 17th Âb./u-o< Sunday in Eanûn I. that it is thé Sunday falling between the 30th of Tishrîn I. Fast-breaking. 5. Résurrection.y of Mtt'oMtn. the Ist of Kânûn I.y or Tuesday. and she showed it to thé people on the following day. the Friday of Crucifixion. 3. or Sunday but if it falla on a Monda.

Commemoration of Mâr on the 25th of Haz!rân. and fixed by them on certain dates of their own. 2. 20 3. whilst it occurs twice in the following year. there are three classes I. on the 12th Âb. 4. Feaat of M:M M&rî. 2. the 12th day after beginning of Lent i. depending on certain days.g. Of those feasts. on the 6th of Eanûn I. Feast of the Monastery of Altadisiyya. e. on the third Friday of Tishrln H. The Feast of Dair-Abî Ehalid. Those depending on Epiphany. on the following Sunday. Feast of Dair-Alkahhal. instance 1. 30 p. Those depending on Christmas. on the 3rd ÏIùI. commemoration of Mâr Cyri~ 40 Friday the 20th day after . Commémoration of Mâr Phetion. on the fourth Friday of Tishrîn II. on the 25th of Tishrm L 3. Commemoration of John of EMhbM-. Commemoration of the monk t~ûta or Mâr Sergius.the 7th Tishrîn L.311. on the first Friday in Tishrîn II. 8. and falls no longer in ÏluL In that cMe the feast does not at all occur in the year in question. this day. once at tho beginning and once at the end. 5. on the last Sunday of ÎI&1 7. E. Feast of Dair-AItha'&lib. 5. For week-days. Commemoration of CrispimM and Crispinianus. Beginning of the Feast of Revelation. ~~°~ of&sS~ the 24th day after Thursday. The end of the Feast of Revelation ia on the 16th Âb 7. which are common to both sects. th~FT~~ the Child whopreferred death to ~°' Fast. on the 7th of K&nûn II. 6. if the Ist of the month is a Sunday in any other case it is postponed to the Sunday following next after the 7th. The feast of the Mona~tery of John. eg.e. Fast-breaHng. on the last Sabbath of Ïlul but if the Ist of Tishrîn I. Commemoration of Solomonis. m. The feast of the Church of Mary in Jerusalem. Feasts celebrated by the Melkites only. of the next year be a the feast is postponed to Sunday. On the same day the feaat 10 of ~. 1. Feasts depending on the beginning or end of Lent are. o. 6.Mf-~Me.breaking. Those depending on the Lent or II. C. 4. The Friday of~M. on the 6th of Âb it is the last day on which Christ appeared to men. beginning of fasting. 1. I. on the Ist Tishrîn I. Feasta nxed by the Nestorians on certain regarding whieh the two sects have nothing in common. D. are.808 AMÎBÛxt. according to the pra<!tice of the Chris~jana of Baghd&d. Commemoration of U~ (Mar S&h&?).

the 19th day after the Fasting of Elias. and it is broken always on a Friday 6. Commemoration of Mar Abda. if the year be a teap-year. 309 4. 5. and it ends on a FMt-brea. The préférence we give to the first of these three opinions. the JSth day after the end of the Fasting of the Apostles.y the 14th day after the end of the Fasting of the Apostles. Fasting of Elias. which again dépends on the Grtut Fast-breaking.ble. one week after ~Mh&<. and after God had again released them and they were in safety.Hng Sunday of Fasting Ninive. according to others it is the Friday on which Christ was crucified. lasting three days. seven weeks after thc Great Fast-breaking following after Whitsunday. in the table of the feasts depending on Lent. the pupil of Mar Mai. 8. 30 whieh precedes Lent. Commémoration of Sûrîn andDuran the Armenians.year. Fasting of the Apost! according to the Nestorians. however. 20 rence. Tradition says that thé people of the pn. and also the date of the Fasting of Ninive. if the year be a common year.on Thursda. Friday in which-as people say-they seek Messiah.ys 10. a diffe. on Monda. The Night of (thé spy) is thé night of a. on Sunday the 29th d:ty after Fast-breaking. Here follows thé ta.tion. according to some it is the night of Friday.THE FEASTS AXD FASTS OF THE NESTORIAN CHRISTJANS. punishment had corne upou them. There is. fasted these three da. If. now. 21 weeks after the Great it la. 10 7. according to others it is thé Friday of thé Martyrs. compare the eolumn of the common year. .v. and opposite. 22 days before the beginning of Lent. or the column of the !eap. you know the beginning of Lent of a year in qu .sts during 48 days.phet after Jona. who were killed by the king Sh&pur. It lasts during 4C days. always a begiiining on Monday. called ~MhM. you will find the date of every feast in question. beginning on Monday. Commemoration of Mar MM on Friday.

a23 22 Y"Æ': 1 l'Y. VI.u. IL IL ~I.Ii I 11 13 14 .~eo x la 2 4 6 S i1S 142g 6.8 1 Ay. '`~ 1 J! ô 1 1.N !lr¡~u~1l o:¡. 28 10 1 1112 ~12 S 14 4ilS'28 il 8 12 '4. 17 14 729 30 8 al is lS 16 16 1B 17 117 t~ 18 19 jo 21 22 23 25 26 28 29 10 13 Ij24 251 ü9n. L 8 10 2 26 8 279 H~~i~r~.ii(. II. 19 21 28 26 1 24 25 28 28 22:22 24 24 2S 27 28 20 2 20 6 23 4 s 22 28 3031 311 bât 30 M ° 28 24 25 26 s 27 11 3 S 4 24 Iii6 6 19 21 22 23 '25 ~25 . 24 24 3 15 16 2913 26 17 18 28 25 4 4 26 IS 19 lAd26 5 6 5 27 14 !r 1e7 6 21 224 4 28 17 2929 7 8 18 19 1 lAd.¡t zu-. ~J~ . W 0 Î~:¡:¡ o:!z' t! !1~ o~ ¡¡¡:il 1~11. 3 4 6 7 7 10 10 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Il · 17 12' 19 I 6 13 7 20 14 21 j 8 21 8 16 23 10 17 24 il 18 25 20 s 28 23) 25 26 26 29 29' 1 27 s 29 30 DiU 2 1 17 19 2D 1 12 14 15 16 2S 27 28 28 w 31 li 14 15 6.310 ALBÎRÛNÎ. ¡c. ~1 j81~! . ~I~I~ TABLE OF THE F~MS DEPENDIS ON LENT.i al~l~ sT !I~ 20 22 23 .Ii <J J j â 4 12 14 15 16 1 la 20 2o 2 'ô 10 I 19 21 22 22 24 23 2g 27 28 29 30 1 IIn. ~18.I~.18 15 2¢ 25 Ig 8 919 204 la 25 20 17 10 20 .' u5ullSali. 2 3 12 14' 30 1 Áb. 8 6 5 7 10 16 12 13 6 g 4 8 13 Hi.16 t~t~th~lM 6 7 I17 12 29¡ 17.nL Iil13 a 15 S 10 31 2 2 7 9 1 23 27 29 1Tish.5 23 E3 19 1 Ha..16 1628 . 1~: 13 18 2~' 2S 24 15 7 14 19 g 8 . 813. 661629/11 j 1 N1.21 215 17 26 27 18 11 22 6 18 27 28 19 7 s~! 12 13 8 20 29 30 21 23 24 9 14 lS É~ 25 2610 :°~ .13 6 14 7 16 16 18 S 23 3 4 6 8 7 8 7 9 6 16 415231028 7 7 18 1B i 9 4 4 666 6 6 87 lÔ 8 8 40 40 I 9 9 10 14 lÔ 11 il 9101176121213 20 8 lb 18 18 8 19 l. zliân.!j~~i3~j~~ ~i~!jÉ~!i~JijjJLi . 257 2 1 S 1 1 10 10 il 12 13 14 16 18 18 S 19 20 20 11122 14 I 2. .

they fasted thre' days without any interruption. however.ngt-)ists. Jew.< of all mankind of ~(?<tMt. the Monday after Epipha. and Lent is nea.thers. The Commemoration of MAr AbbA Ca. and a. falls on its earliest date.nka~!r. The Commemoration of Stepha. In that case this day Is also the beginning of the Fast of Ninive. The Commemoration of Peter and Paul on the second Friday after Epiphany. on the eighth Frida. whcreupon he believed in Him. Fea. and Nestorius. tha. Diodorus. on the thit-d Fridav. The Commémoration of the Grcel: Fathers. For only the m~7tt of Thursday lies in the middle betwecn the day of Thursday and the day of Friday (not one complète day). on the fourth Friday. Then there are twenty-two days between this fast and Lent.ny is the Fast of the Virgins. on the sixth Friday. For if Lent Frequently this fast is connected with the Ninive-Fast. The Commemoration of the C%H)-<-)t '. who relate thia story Once the King of AI-hîra. this fast waf kept by the Christian virgins among the Arabs as a thanksgiving t<<God for the victory which thé Arabs gained over the Persians on thé day ûf Dhû Ksr. for this purpose.t Christmas and this Commemolation should not follow each other immediatelv. Christmas falls on Thursday. the bishops. who did not get into their power the virgin Al'a. before the time of Islam.ughter of Ainu'm~n.nnes on Friday after Epiphany. on the ûfth Friday. m. Now.He)' nobilis. 311 10 20 30 40 IL The feasts depending on Christmas are thèse :–Thé Feaat of the p. that have died up to that date. ma. Now. The Commemoration of thé Four Eva. Theodorus. Paulus was a. Some people place it on Thursday. Thereupon they celebrate the Commemoration of MurJoha.tholicua. they mainfain that Messiah worM a miracle in blinding his eyes and making them see again. one day earlier. It is also in use among the 'Ibadites and the Arab Christians.r.rtyr. So they were delivered from the Persians. domina-on Friday after Christmas. But if there are not enough Fridays.y. The Commemoration of the Syrian Fathers.ny:–T)io Fust of the Vir~rns on Monday after Epiphany it lasts three days. Then Messiah sent him as an apostle to the nations. and is broken on Thursday. According to another report.THE FEASTS AND FASTS OP THE KBSTOBIAN CHB~!TIAXS. on thé seventh Friday. Both faBts (Je/Mtmm TtfyiMMt et Jp/MKi'tfHt ~'M~tcMm) last threc days. whom he wanted to take for himself. Jtf(!r<Jtfa~am–Jtf'?i-< meaus !M!.314.te instead the Commemoration of Mar . and celebra. they drop the Commémoration of the Syrian Fa. ?.nus.e. Temple on Sunday after Christmas.t the end of them the long ~icd without having touched them. the Commemoration of Our Lady Mary.me as Simeon Koplias. i.sts depending on Epipha. it is postponed uctil thé second Friday. the da. that one whieh follows after the Commemoration of Mur Johajmes. chose a number of women from among the virgins of the 'IbAdites. Petrus is the sa. If.

man who belongeil to their sect or knew their dogmas. as we have explained those of the other Christians. During Lent they drop the Fndays. If we knew the System of the JacoMte Christians. ~~Mt! including the current year. However.312 ALBÎBÛNÎ.ys in question a table. There you find opposite the number each festival if in red ink.da.e. and change them into solar cycles. Here follows the table. and on the evening of every Friday they have a ~«MtM. With the remainder compare the Co~Mt in the table of of j~<tM6e)-e the Nestorian festivals. If you want to use it. Over the whole you find the weekday on which the feast always falls. the date in the month written in bhck ink at the top of the column. take the years of thé p. Abbâ Catholicus. and then they proceed according to the original order. we should explain it. we never met with a. worship. indicating their dates in the Syrian months.nd Epiphany and the week. its date in the month written in red ink at the 10 top of the column if in Mack ink. t. . They have constructed for the days depending on Christmas a.315.

iJ Û :J s ii..vi.vi.vt.vi.p FsgsMss'.29' t S. 4 43129 31 3 229 27 M 5 5' 4 2M 1'28 80 p7 M 30 M M 26 12 19 I 2G 40 7U18.s -= .1.29 '1913~3 20 U 1KS2 18 2510 20 3l! 7 14 12 4.1¡ s j ~p~ w 4 'ë Im ~Y~ ~r .¡.)118 17 2 29 IN 229~:12 31 M 26 M 24 50 ~")~2i~ H 10~31 22 9 90 9~30 11022 '23 8~5 1 MMr~8 2512j~2 20 11 ~l 25 ~2<* '2710!~ M 8~5 5 19 M 62027293027 4 3 M 7 21 °.~ . M'~SS ii~j i vi.24 9 16 71421 13 202731 M 30 29 i 23 431 3 1 N 30 2 ~I~ â ~s!i!j§ âi ~1=~I~r7saË==~~=gIE~=.M 8 26 31017 10 3 2. i.142t'S8M. M F~ F ~j~pp :1_ L ir ~!1 ~i5 .M~~l 7.2529 13 il1 10 M M 815 17~24 2'2 4 [. H S j vi.:4. s sssg "="È -= a y § d3 'j! i° 1.M 20 18 27 28 I 30 130 31 m 27 913~20~2731 13 20 9 M.vn'Pr-3~6.vj.in.sl':I~<¡~<I~ §_ L 1 ~21< 213~~3 '3 10 5 6 *7 '7 M j~ 2 ] 2 M ]5 7 !!1 6 4 M 18 N N M M M 2 1 30 M M 3 \1 M 29 2B 27 2 1 30 27293027 M 21 M M 27 3 2 1 27 29 ? 27 3 1 30 p0 5 130 29 M 3 1 M 31 s 2 1 N26 s 4 3 1 m 29 5 3 229 1 28 26 M 130 MM 3 2 1 30 28 3 2 31 30 SX 13 12 10 9 8 7 12 !~H1~M M]7. n.E5E-<-Er. ~M'~ '== a a a â s ~'s?.= .£ ¡~ "'1 W sot. 3J3 t.ë s a '?.vi.¡ .22 7)42t 22 4M 31 330 p 2 l!!ft 2 29 M 7~)4 6 5 13 12 28!!?~ 27 II20 1 31 8 6 3 27293027 M M M MM 51219262726' 4'I1 ]8St.9:16!23 3)3M!17)24 2 1 3) M 11 M 916J23 15 8 815. VI.S! .n.i.vt.]. 9 16 M 22J _J 3j43l!29!8'1219M30 L LJL~_ .7 ü ~:J £6 j U :S )).arB ~P ~j :.THE FEASTS AND FASTS 0F THE XESTOEIAN CHRISTIANS.0 19 18 18 17 23 M M 22 M p7 815N 7. -7.!MM. -100( i'¡ r-t H ¡.vLYi.ë'~ _a_ 7 ii~~i'i~Ji -?"È . S î S r= = & S 'Y~~ s's'.2! 27 410~31 9'~30 8~6 ?'*2i< 711421 4 28'4pl 18~25 317 MM M 5 16 7 21 1 6 M 23 M M M MM M 30 28 28 2 lu 31 M 12 M M M 26M 11 9 8 18 125 M M 15 M 21 3~1()172tj92!i!24 2 1~8 JM! 23 1 M 15 8 2 M 23'M39L29 22 29 30 IL21 812~2 20 9U* 10 M '11 12 13 30 10 10~31 1721 9'~30 ?"~4 M ~3 330~61320'272827 229 S 12 19~26 1 28 128 S 4 Il 411M!252625 25 18: 10 17 M< 2 15 14 22! 21 130 28 27 26 M 26 i 25 M 29! Si 5 19 2C 519262899 4M 21623 11522 72128 620 25 10 M 7 714'21 114 9132o!2731 711 13 M 10 9 M~N 17 M M 23 4 1:8 8 3l! 7 29 28 27 1412~2 'MU~l 16 17 18 33o!6132o!2728 229.21 M 26 25M25J M 2+ 3 25 24~32524 124 21~29t.51219'262726 1 11 9 8 81522 M 20 27 9~30 S "22~ 8la5 ~4 5 4 8 S 2 18 17 M 16 31 30 M 3!lojl7M'32524 2 I 9 2!a!l623 1G 23'.vi.S8 i 6 M M 27 M 26. 13 2 I'8M22 130 21 19 282928 20 27 21 M 2.

however. whom Nebukadnezar had transferred from Jerusalem to that country. Still. The same name is aiso applied to the ~aj-raniMM. These are the real Sabiana. So their religion became a mixture of Magian and Jewish elements like that of the so-called Samaritans who were transferred from 20 Ba. unmixed portion of them who do not pmetise the of religion Zoroaster.ttered'amd nowhere in places that belong exclusively to them alone. not the PN~Mt or Byzantine Greeks) adopted Chribtianity.e. Beaides. and having acclimatized themselves to the country. 10 Aa regarda the Sabians. the ancient Greeks. Genealogically they trace themselves back to Enos. i. they ha. the son of Seth. In fact. we have already explained that this name applies to the real Sabians. since the Ionian Greeks (t.e. they belong now either tothe Zoroastrians or to the Shamsiyya seet (sun.ve aome ancient traditions and institutes. THE ancient Magians existed already before thé time of Zoroaster. to Syria. Their religion wanted a certain solid foundation. p~8. very much sca. but now there :8 no pure. ON THE FEASTS OF THE ANCIENT MAGIANSAND ON THE PAST AND FEA8TDAYS0F THE SABIAN8.bylonia. separated (eut on) 30 from it. they found it inconvenient to return to Syria therefore they preferred to st&y in Babylonia. The greatest part of this sect is living in Sawad. who are the remMT. wanting a solid ground upon which to base their religion. such as a direct or indirect divine revelation or the hke. thev do not agree among themselves on any subject. and MtchKe<< towards some of them. After having freely moved about in Babylonia.314 AMÎBÛNÎ. They derive their system .worshippers). in consequence of which they listened to the doctrines of the Magians.al-Trâk. the son of Adam. CHAPTER XVIII. but in reality those things have been derived from the laws of the aun-worahippers and the ancient people of H~rrAn.< of the followers of the ancient religion of the West. They Jive. to the remuants of the captive Jews in Ba. which they trace back to their original creed.bylonia.

e. whilst all others. ~<7a! Tishrîn the Last.e7in<: J.H7M y.. thé Jews being the more ancient and having a greater daim to originality. whom they imitate. Their day begins with sunrise. so they say .THE FE \STS AXD FASTS OF THE MAGIANS AND SABIANS. lit. Feaat of the Lots (Fatum Sor<tt<m). Their luna. 'Abd-A!'az!z Aihnshim! bas given in his Canon called ~yMm! a short notice of the fcasta of the Sabians. and ~arr)mians. Their New Year is Hilâl EaBun tho Last. the 20 third following day is the beginning of the month. one month and some days have summed up. they add this time as one month to their months after Hil&l Shubat and call it Bt'M~~~i. Muhammad b. Beforc that time they were ealled heathens. 7. 1. simply relating the facts without investigating and criticising their origin and causes. Regarding the more externat part of this feast-calendar (i. adding thereto wha. conjunetion precedes sminse only by one minute. The Great Bakht (i. idolaters. 40 . But if conjunction coincides with sunrise or falls only a little tutcr. 6. only by way of induction. MaM. who use lunar months.!). 2. To the names of the mouths they add the word -H7M!(new moon). Thoy believe that these men and other sages like them were prophets. 315 from AghxdMmûn (Agathodtemon). 15.7.r month begins with the second day after conjunction (new moon). solely fur the purpose of being reckoned among those from whom the duties of ~)7. since 1 have not the aame means to investigate this subject which 1 had for the others. They call thé months by the Syrian names and use them in a similar 10 way to the Jewa. His report 1 have transferred into this chapter. and towarda (/«TotM'm) whom the laws of Dhimma. Thissect is mueh more known by the name of Sabians than the others. When in the course of three years. Sawur. MarShelam&. are observed. 228 under Abbaside ruie. p. but in ecunting the munth~ they begin with HiMl Tishrîn I. make it begin with sunset.f)MM<<t arc accepted. Beginning of the célébration of thé tcast. ~at Tishnn II. If. atthough they themselves did not adopt this name bcfore A. the second day after conjunction is the beginning of the month. now. Feast of Al-Dhahbana.e. the purely chronological part) 1 have made computations on my own aecoant. Feast of mtî Fud!. H. Hermes. etc. 14. WN!s.tever 30 I have learned from other sources. Feast of Fûdî H&M. F<t<:<m).319. God helps to what is right 1 HUat Tishrîn I.

During that time they do not taste any fat. Fast of it lasts three days. they celebrate the ~f<~ o/. Beginning of the first fast. 22. 18. Feast of consultation.r~<<t in this month. for the Sun. Feaat of Sarûg it is the day of the renewal of thé dresses. 29. 20 HUtU Kânùn IÏ. 9. 8. fast and feast days of thia month are sacred to the Demons. Feast of the addressing (~U~. 26.) to Q~ the idol of Venus. like the calendar of the Greeks. Venus. They pray to the Bel of Marran. 9. 10. 4. Feast of the nuptials (wedding) of the Atergatis). Beginning of the minor fast. Feast of ~j for the shaving of the head. According to 'Abû-alfamj AIzanj&n: they celebrate on the 24th of thia month the feast of the Nativity. Invocation of 20. ituN Kimûn I. and is broken on the 4th. 7. A. Feast of the House of the Bridegroom for the Sun. Feast of u~.. Feast of the Demons. . Saturn. Feast of the nuptiale of <<~tle. SO. ~-j*the idol of Venus. H~ Adhar. Fast of seven days it is broken on the 15th. According to 'Abu-aMarag Atzanj&nî.e. p. Feast of Hermes-Mereury. Feast of New. and the feast of Baltî. 24. Feast of the idola for Mars. 5. 10 20.320. 7. !. 21.f the feast-meals or what is taken from them. 1. 25. Feast of the Venerable OM ~f<Mt. Feast of U~ (Tarsa). year. 80 Hil&i Shubât. 1. i. Feast of the Pata for the Demons.316 ALBÎRÛNt. A~the invocations. beginning with the 4th and ending on the 18th. 12. 10.e. Peaat of the idol of TirrathA (Tir'ath&. it seven days and is broken on the ICth.Year's Day. During this time they are not aUowed to eat meat. Feast of D<M)--t~a&tt:. whieh is broken on the next following day of conjunction (new-moon's day). On the same day they go out of town to JHatnea. nor anything . 28. Feaat of the invocation of the Demons. 17. At the time when break their fast they are wont to practise ahnsgiving and charitable they work. 25.

Feast of the hutcher's house. Celebration of n\oSro!. On the same da. 20 15. when the suu stands in the sign of Aries. of BarMmrushya.). hoth standing in the s~ue degrp(-. that they hegin to lament on a day of this month. of thé vows. Feast 13. Feast the feast of On the same day Hilat Haz!ran. Tera. Weaning of the children. The breaking of the Great Fast faHs iM)nost cases on the 8th of this month. a blind idol. the idol of Venus.'uz. of DahdAk. 15. Its S~MtOH is this. the idol of the Moon. 7. Feast 7. FeMt of jt< and of the L)!))! Bct't~ of the Moon. 40 Huai Tammuz. 17. 4. Feast 4. Feast of Dnir-S!n!. . 24. the latter is its breaking. Feast 3. of pahdak and of~ otBarUlûshya. or feast of baptism.<.o). of Sa.tùghit. Feast 3.Kudh!. Feast of the youths. 2.THE FEASTS AXD FASTS 0F THE MAMANS AXD SANAXS.321. during which only mmt is forMddt-n. Feast of the Lords of thé Hours. of perfection for Dahdak. Feast 80 12. 8. 20. 27. Frequently this fast lasts only 29 days. 10. 10 BuSTN!?~ 2. Feast of Alkurmûs or fea~t of genuflection. Commemoration of Tmnmûzâ with lamentation and weeping. Feast 11. Feast of the mysteries of Atsimak (Spica. Feast of (. 3t7 8. when the sun stands in the sign of Pisees (and the moon P–?nfM). Feast 17. p. and thL' moon in the sign of Caneer. Beginning of the Great Fast. 28. when HiMt Adhar has tess than 30 days. of e~. On thé same day is the feast of the birth of the spirits. 6.!M6-oHt&M (the straw-gate). Feast of the assembly at Dair. of a Baghditdian house. prince of thé Satans.y is the feast of DMr-bMM. Feast 20. 9. Feast of Damis. 5. Feast of the Stibium. of . Feast 15.A. Feast of the nuptials of the elemente. They continue their lamentations until the Slst day. 3. The former day is the heginning of the fast. HthU Ayyur.

Feast of DailafatAn. whilst aun (quadrature) and moon stand in two double-bolied signe (pt~ and Ge~~ and because the end of the P~~S Nîsân. simply tranacribing the names as they were written. 26. Magians. HiMt tlûr &2nf~ end of 10 fasting. these thinp from the people themselves (the l. 30. FeMt of the etementa. FeMt of KephMmtsa. 24. 7. either it lasts 14 days of ea<-hmonth.322. 14. 18. whilst . that is to an av~ge. Feast of bathing in the Me.)-Be<~use their great fasting falls into the first phase of Hilâl Adhâr. S' Feastof the Lords of the forth of the New MC.MlstMe M the beginning of their year. I think. and to distinguish between the l.un and moon stand in certain two (A~s and Cancer). and not only once.is~th~tAIh~h~: and others have related. 1 c~nnot make eut thé truth One of those who record their doctrines says. For tUe Jewish Paasover demands that sun 40 E===~~ES5Eequinoxes-for they may stand in opposition. the reason of whieh is the oeginning 20 ~1~ of the equinoxes and aobticea are festiv~ with them.318 AÏ. Wehave collected these materials as we found them. ~re~P~r method which we have followed clsewhere. and that the wmter.BÎBÛN!. HiMFSE 3. and the ancient ~?. the idol of Venus.M. that on the 17th of each month they celebrate a feast. Alao feast of Dailafatân. p. 19. 28. Another feast. or it Mis on the 14th.Iarrânians. Thi. Fasting of Ubj. End of thé feaat of bathing in the Ty~t<. their months must of necessity ~ol~~e aol~ year in ~i~ way to the Jewish montha. And between the causes of each of these two things there is a Cl'unection. Feast of the camdie on the coming hill of Harrûn. AJso feast of the éléments. 25. if God permit81 80 BT~ information the regarding S~~he~ ~tem.Iarrânians). ln each of these months there a certain ~h~ obligatory for their priests. but & ~Q .

when we pass in review the (chronological) canons which they produce. we get a rough sort of computation. whilst they are utterly wrong. and that each of them falls so that sun and moon stand in opposition to each other in the manner prescribed the end of the terminus is to P-323. be the 13th NÎBttn. they. If we compute these elements for a cycle of 19 years. and wHhui this space the sun must once have stood in opposition to the moon. and that the conjunction which falla next to the autumnal equinox is the beginning of their year. although the aun may also after this terminus still stand in Aries without standing in opposition to the moon. we find that some of them précède the I. nians. in order to make the t-ruth clear to them. never falling beyond Ïtul. If we examine the oppositions according to the motions that have been found by récent observations.these latter oppositions theyadopt and rely upon them. In all of which we are guided by the wish that both parties should dismisa from their minds the suspicion that we are partial to any side or try to mystify them that their minds should not shrink back from our opposition.THH t'ËASTS AND t'AS'fs Ut THE MAUiA~S AND ~ABIA~s. The methods of both Jews and Christians for the computatiun c'f Passover are based upon sueh motions of the luminaries. disregard this precession. tioned. since it has been dur object hitherto to point out scientinc truth. Hence follows that thé phase (quadrature) next preceding the Jewish Passover ia the faat-breaking of the t[arr&. most of which we have already pointed out. for they themselves try to correct it by means of the time of the conjunction. And from our side we have proved that we candidly adopt their tradition and lean upon their theory. however.Mfet-iMnt according to both Jewish and Christian systems. Now we shall assume as the earliest date of the Te~t~MM Paschalis the Mth of Adhâr. we have put forward the methods of eaeh of the two sects according to their own theory as well as that of others. so as to show to each of them the prc and the coM~-a of the case. of which we have found out that they remain back behind real tuue. for thé real timo (or opposition) precedes that time already hy one month. but only a rough one. to mediate between the two parties (Jews and Christians). we shall let the day of opposition in reality faU into the two signa of the equinoxes upon this basis we shall arrange the Passovers of thé cycle that none of them precedes this terminus. and we find that others of them (the oppositions) fall near the end of the ~s~)-KBH'<. they are not free from confusion and mistakes. especially as regards the sun (the precession of thé equinoxes having been neglected). 319 10 20 80 40 twice-and the ~arr&nian fast-breaking demands that whieh we have mentioned (in HUM Adhâr). For if they are left such as they are. whilst it is really the case. . and to adjust their differences. Now. as we have men.

if you neglect the quotient and compare the remainder with the columa of the numbera in the Table of the C~veeM Cycla. AM this we have done and armnged in a table.ShuM. i.dhAr ?~ AdMr NMn Adhtr! NMn. T L.t°6 t 1 ~jT~! Sa S s s !I Ii a j_ 1 2 î 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 18 14 M 17 18 19 L. Adhâr Adhâr N!stn Adhâr Nisan NMm S 8 28 4 M 1 21 9 29 6 16 3 M 11 81 20 6 Adhâr AdMr ~t Adh. hence derived. L. Here follows the Table of the Cotrec~ Cycle.h. M ~Sh~ 4 iShnMt M Sh.t 27'KtmAnII. and thence the beginning of the year. thé mean fasting of the Christians. ~btt 6 ShnMt Shnbtt M ShnMt 2 Sh. L'in T L T L. N!a&n Adhtr ? Niein A.j 11111 Ab H& ît&l M îS hu Ab ÊA1 Ht! Ât. ~. the conjunc. and.e. 6 M .t lifting. whioh follows after the conjunetion of their New Year.bAt SMMt 10 ShnMt K&ntnII.Mt ?. From thèse corrected Passovers we shall then derive the fast-breaking of the Sabians. L. Now if you take the yeMa of the ~5-ct ~~Mttdt-t–the uMi-ent year mctuded–for the beginning of Tishrîn I..b&t ShnMt ijShnb&t s e 18 1? 7 26 14 S M 11 M 19 8 28 16 6 26 M 2 21 M 30 N 11111' ~. ttoninHil&lTiiihrmI. T L.n îlûl ÎKU Ab M 1 9 . the corrected 10 Passover.? 21 10 29 18 7 î 4 28 1 21 9 17 5 25 18 2 M 10 19 ? 16 4 M S t Ntsân Adhgr ?~ t~ AdMr ?~ Adhâr NMn NM. 'hûl îttt Âb ÈM Htl!~ . all nxed on the corresponding days of the Syrian months. 8h. and add thereto 16 or subtract therefrom 3 if you divide the sum by 19. Adhtr~ 9 jS 8hnbAt 8hnbfll EanJn. you find opposite their New Year. P' TABM Of THECOBBEOTBD CYCLE.320 AMÎR6NÎ. the end of their Qroa.

during which fighting was forbidden. that the signinca. Bajab.e.i. ON THE FMTtVAM OF THE A. they fell into the season of autumn. and three eoMfCMh'ce ones. which the amcient Ara.use about that time the she-camels Mrotc tt6<Kt< their tails. We have already given the theory of some etymologists and historians 10 of the Arabs regarding them. so called beca. Dhù-aJh~ijja.so called because then people <!)'epe)-ee(! went out in search of booty. because it was a. 21 p325 . the time when the cold morninga. one a separate one. Aecording to others.–thé seaaon of winter. wanting to be covered. ~!<tm<t~&t. Rajab. when they beca.e. others indicating what the people did during them. some of them indicating the corresponding times of the year.the water began to ~-eœe.the time when the heat commenced and the soil wa~ hot. and when .me ill and their colour became yelloiv. sacred ones. Therefore the Ambs did not like to marry their children in this month. WB have already mentioned that the Arabs had 12 months. abstain from fighting and warlike expeditions. break up. ~<t~tf. ie.use then people said /r/<t6M. i. and Almuharrani. that they used to iutercalate them so as to make them revolve with the solar year in one and the sa. i. i. Dhù-alka. so called because people immediately before it made haste.me order.321 CHAPTER XIX.so called because then people said <&<ttptctM. rime 20 and hoar frost appeared.tiona of the names of the months seem to indicate the reasons why they agreed among each other regarding this order.e. according to another view: beca. being afraid of it.e. 1 was afraid of him.'da. ~H~$<t!-)-<t0t. i.RABS tN THE TIME OF HEATHENDOM. sacred month. for you say )'a/t&<tt7t<t. so called because four of their months were ~tntM.e.bs called JM! JttttM<MPrima et J*os<)'eMMt. Bo6!' J'rmMMet PostretMM. Thia month was held in high veneration in heathendom 6<MHt!t~ 30 S&<nc«'N. so called on account of a contagious disease that used to befall them. to their camps and S&«'6a<t. we shall now add another theory.

DM-a~i~'ft. then spring. These theoriea in all their varieties are represented in thé following table. ~irgo.. months were dis.DM-<tN!<t'<!<bec:mse then people said. Such a division stands in direct opposition to common usage of mankind. Sinân. 10 20 30 40 . that the computa. pilgrima. however. This nomenclature. then summer. and is in no way to be harmonized with the significations of the names of the sea~ons.tiona in the Chaldean canons are baek behind the computations to which the observations and canons of the ancient Greeks have led.e.rAlkh&zin.B<tM* or autumn fell on the 3rd tlûl. Pisees). that they nx the beginnings of the seasons one whole sign before the four year-points.322 ALBÏBÛNÎ.BaM'. has altogether been droppod and forgotten. thenwinter. their seasons commence when the aun enters the middle of the signe that lie before the year-pointa. called Kaiz. both nearly to this effect. 16° Scorpio). enters the equinoctial and solstitial pointa. and the beginning of ~ajz or aummer on the 4th HMÎrân. In consequtnce. we know only so much that the beginning of . The radicaJs among physicsj scholars make them precede the year-pointa by one sign and a half.andintheBookof by Ibrahîm b. Arcitenena. the beginning of Saif or spring on the 5th Adhâr. the best and most appropriate explanation possible. ~:<<!owM so called because in this month they used to hold their . that the ameient Greeks fixed their beginnings on the moments when the sun p.ges. and those of them who more than all deviate from the truth nx them on the times when the sun stands towards the equator a. one half sign (t. But God knows best what they meant Thé explanation of this motion you find in the Z: thé Motions of the Sun <t!s<t/X'tAofAbu. whilst the ChaMeam are said to have commenced the seasons 8 degrees after the equinoxea and solstices. Thif) you learn by the way in which they distribute the risings and settings of the lunar stations over the seasons. in hia Introduction to the Spherica1 Art.Ja'&. beginning with autumn. phora. the greatest extent of which is 8 degreas. The reason of this is. Regarding the beginnings of these four seasona there has been a controversy. caDedNa~ or by others~at:' Secw~tM. Ptolemy says. and abstain from fighting. The Byzamtme Greeks and Syrians fixed the beginnings of the seasons ea.t the half of his total inclination (15° Am.)–Their tributed over the four seasons.rlier. IS" Léo. 15 degrees) before the equinoctial and solstitial points. (The seasons with diSëremt mations. as it seems to me. . whieh they catled. Sinan ben Th&bit relates two theories on this subject on the authority of the Egyptians and of Hippajchus. and that just 8 degrees were assumed as the measure of this difference because they toT~ndsuch a difference in the progressive amd retrograde motion of the sphere.326. Of the way in which they divided the se~~ms. 16" Taurue. Therefore these signa were called thé cofpofef~ ones (Ctemini. the beginning of winter on the 3rd Kanun I.

SJ! .6* !j 3 'B9))iQ! r-< t-< 9 jg a r-< i 21 .< i .e~q~ a -g <= "3 s a m ) 3 s t-< 3 1 ëj m 3 0 'aat<)([ f f-< t-< M S § _j â S M~ in~~ H )~i-j' 's~o~ -~a.on.i.K _M_ -. 2 i S 'g ~aj !'t<q)noj[ s s =S~ <a M ~ji -s S"9 '§ .-SS &§ c'"S'3 Io tq x· o-. N 323 6 s . v g .THE FESTIVALS --S S ~s~ ~~S-~ '° <c J~~o~~ E c~.~e g g § g g M S ë~S ë S < !J'~LJ_ ~. · J~ M C7 a g S S ) ~f << é ii~i ë ~S.p~ g -B3)BQ' M) ~f Ç '2 N =CS \g g m ct g!~ §?& 9.on' _J_ OF THE HEATHEN H ARABR. _q~ ë g~!s~ 'ë Â g ÀD . s « ~d 3 S a p .

He says: The fair of D&ma.4&n. The fama of AMbiya. . 20 TI .~ar commenced on the Ist of Jumâda II. in the middle of Sha'bân. people went to Dbu-almajaz. The fair of 'Adam. on the last of Rajab.)–The Ara. 'Aslam. The fair of Al.328.alhi. frequently several people that 10 gathered around the same article. chaffering). The fair of Dabâ.ma. Now. Ghataf&n.ba ~ae& to hold {MB in certain places and on certain dates of their months which were intercalated so as to agree with the solar year.IWM held from the lat of Rabi' I. Alm~talik.at. The fair was held from the middle of Dhu-alka'da till the end.m!Mfhc<M)M[ (!.abihr. he who liked to have it threw a ftone. Then they went up 30 toMina. the middle of The fair of TJMz was one of the moat important.e. Hawazin.t-aJjamda. There the mode of bargaining was . frequented by the tribes Km-ajsh. viz. Then they held there a fair until the day of AItarwiya (the 8th of DM. being Dhu-alka'da. if people gathered round an article of merchandise. the 'Ahabtsh. most of these customs have been abandoned. till the middle of the month.viz. which they did for fear of sweaxing and lying.e fair of ~an'a. a place in the neighbourhood of 'Ukaz. from the lOth till 16thof Rajab. 'Ukail. then the owner had to sell it to man who threw the atone. Some of them have been mentioned by AbA-Ja'far Muhammad ben ~aMb Albaghdâdî in the Xt<<!6. in Hadra. and by a motley crowd of other people. not &J' from 'Arafât. As soon as the new moon of Dhu-alhijja was observed. from the lst till lOth of Ea.ma. fell on the same day. The fair of Almusha. Since God has sent Islam.Iajr in Alyamâma were held from the lat till the lOth of Aimnharram.324 p. There the touching was the mode of bargaining.~1!)H~)'. The fair of Suhâr. and of 'UkM in thé highest part of Ainajd. There the mode of bargaining was the <&oic:<tyof a stone. viz. from the middle of Bama~an till the end.jja). only to hint and to whiaper. The fair of Nata in Khaibar and that of l. (On the Mrs of thé ancient Ar&bs. ALBÎRONÎ. There a bargain waa concluded by ~te &)-ow)M~ of a 8ione.

e. Therefore you shall not wrong yourselves in them. 10 193) Pilgrima." The months Shawwâl. The Ara.M' n. Dhû-aJka.) till the lOth of Ba. The let is celebrated because it is the beginning 80 yoM'.w). They dcclajed the four sacred months aa sa~ro-sa-nct m consequence of the divine word (S&ra.e. of which God says (Sûra il. the third of a month.) on the fair.use before this time the pilgrim is not allowed to enter the holy preuincts. ~!))t!t~CH')'C[Ht.use the fraction.'da. and opening of thé . for a rp~son which we have heretofore mentioned. ix.329. to the science of law." They were called the Months of Pilgrun&ge beca. nor commit any wrong.ge lasts for certain months.ba celebrate the following days of their calendar. 2) "Therefore ye shall go about on earth during four montiM. and would swell this book too much if p. These (two and one-third) months are named with the Fhtf~M Paucitatis (not dual). MusuMs use the months of thé Arabs without aNy intercalation. ix.828 CHAPTER XX. beca. ON THE FESTIVALS OF THE MUSLÏMS. Therefore those on whom He hM imposed the duty of pilgrimage shall not speak indecently. the lOth of Dhû-Alhijja.. however." are the time from the Day of &M:t'ce (the lOth of DIm-Alhijja. The jMoM</M o/ </MT<'at< whieh God describes in the following words (Sùra. i. 36) "Four of them are sacred ones (such is the right la. for the Prim-e of the Believers ('Al!) recited thia Sitra to the people (as a messenger of the Prophet) on the Dies m<te<(~tOtMa (i. is added to the other months as one complete 20 month.w-schools they belong. and the first ten days of DhûaJMjja.they call the Afo~/M of J~finMye. nor quarrel during pilgrimage. There are controversies regajding them between the lawyers of the four orthodox Ia. we were to propound them.

was killed.. mourning ~her~~T~ in public.thave you donc. Joseph 40 drawn out of the ditch. The Prophet M =0 reported t. Further. .Ak. the punishment w~eu away from the people of Jona. have ~d ye men. a most distmguished da. Abî-Tilib came forward and said Wha.t will you say." Ibrâhîm f~y~m~ helper of ~eFrophet. the &m& 'Um~yy~ dressed themselves on thia day in kinds of ornaments.u. and h.ay that on thia day God took on Adam. for it i~ a grand and blessed day. When the news of the murder of Alhusain reached Medîn~ thé daughter of . People . a word like 'M. on this day Jacob regained his eye-sight. Hiob~E from ~hi~' the prayer of Zacharias granted and John was given to him. should bring woe over those who had sprung from my loins.y. 'Alî b. do good ~As on this day. and they make a pilgrimage to thé blessed s. roasted.U (the tomb of Alhusain) in K~rb~ As this is their m. that the ark of Noah stood still ou the nionutak compassion Je.lled '~M~. commonpeople have an aversion renewing the utensils of the household on this day. if onue the Prophet speaks to you Wha.I b.A~ 'Abî-Tâlib oceurred on it.d~y. h~sten t. and Abraham (from tbe fire of Nebukadnezar). . that the fire around him (which to bum him) became cold. on which God had mercy on Adam. day On the contrary. Baghdâd and in 20 other cities and villages. fmily. consider this as an unlucky one. in playing the part of my aucceMOM. if I inquire for themiOne hait of them are pri~nerB and one half with It was not the proper reward for the advice 1 tinged Mood. lament and weep on this day. however. when ho and hiB adherents were treated in auch a way as never in the whole world the worat eninin~Is have been tremed. you.urnmg. They were killed by hunger and thirst.ts and vamous kinds of com~e< Such was the custom in the nation during the rule of the Banû after the downfall of this dynasty. the iMt of aJl nations. eating ° sweetmea. TheSiu~ people. That you. that Moses was ~ved (from Fh~). The MthM ca. Thé 9th is ca~ed y~M.326 ALtthtÛKt. Withmy next relations and my family.~bom." until the murder of Aihua~nb. and painted their eyes ~t~ they celebr~d a feast. It a day on which the devotees of the SM'a.~were made to 10 trample over their bodies. say pmyers. through the sword therrhe~. gave you. andgave banquets and parties. Therefore people came t. Solomon inveeted with the royal power.

e. for this reason thé arrivai of the Prophet in Medina (on Monday.fterwards issued the law regarding the fasting of Bama. according to others the 8th.THE FESTIVALS OF THE JtUSMMS.tTcd Mosea and the Israelites. we must st:ttethat all this rests ou). Therefore the fasting 'Âshûra fell on Tuesda.r~< month. Now. For the Ist of jM:uh:irraui in the year of the Hijra wa~ a Friday. or 20-30 years f~)' thé year of the flight. Therefore you could not maintain that thé Prophet fasted 'Âshûra on . who do not dr.mmuz. On inquiring of them. except at the time 3-10 years before the year of the flight. the 9th of Ka.nd had s. is this day 'Âshura.y on which God had drown(. corresponding to the 2!)th of Safar. thèse eveuts should hâve nceurred ou this day.dan. he was toM that this was the da. the lOth of thé Jewish month Tishr:.' authoritv of popu!ar story..' on th. 1 received my prophetiea~ mission and divine revelation.m. it was the 8th of Rabi' 1. But if we compute the Jewish New-Year's Da. to fast during the month of Ramadan. aceording to the generally-adoptcd view. as it with the Jews falla on the lOth of ~if.y.) falls one day before the Jewish 'ÂshûrK (on Tuesday.w upon Icamed sources n<'r upon the betwecn thé oiCM~ of (t ~t!)t<f<! <c<<(i.rra. which is the time for the p. rend??:Youaof thé sorcercrs of Pharao.330. it wasthe 2nd of Ra.b!' I.m. however. the 9th of Ra.u-.rcd with the months of the Arabs. and 'Âshûra did not fall in Muha.. cspccia!!y the time after noon. According to some. However. But when he a.that a. it is a question on tc/iic/t Monday the flight occurred. according to othera the 12th of Rabi' I. it was !t Sunday. because the lat of Ba. but neither did he t'urbid them.!ne yc.M' I.tcr in the year. aud thé flight of the Prophet occurred in the first half of Ea.saw the Jews fasting 'Âshûra." Further.nd ordered his followers to do the same.b:' I. Although it be pnssibh. the 8th of Ra.id Wehave a nea.o and his peuple a.ted by the other la.e. and on this day 1 ned. sinee thoy were not Mondays. and that it was fixed on the lOth day of their first month.w. since scientilic examination proves against it.M* I. This tradition. 327 10 20 80 40 Peopb maintain that the Di'es ot-M-~t'oKM. thé 12th of Elûl. that the date of this fasting was compa.d Pha. in whieh falls the fasting Kippûr. of this ycar was a Monday (in conséquence thé 2nd was a Tuesday and the 12th a Friday).). Then the Prophet sa.brog:). 'Âshûr.y for the sa.M'I. no longer ordered them to fast on 'Âshûra. The Prophet gave orders to fast on this day in the first y ew of the Hijm. but afterwards this law was a.). Both the 2nd and the 12th are excluded.b!' I. Jews and Christians). People relate that the Prophet of God on arriving in JMedina. Alex:mdri 933. whieh faJIs la. the 16th Ta. i.teHers.rer claim to Moses than they. viz. he said: On this day 1 wM born. is not correct. A." In consequence he fasted on that day a. agreement Some people say that 'ÂshûrA is an Artbized Hcbrew word. When the Prophet was asked regarding the fasting of Monday. lu.

0 that my chieftains in thé battle of Badr had witnessed The pain of Khazra. 16. The assertion of the Jews that on thia God drowned Pharao is day refuted by the Thora itself.the a8ndAdh6r.A. The head of A!hnstun was brought to Damascus. Then he (Yazîd b. AhasMd (the Abbaside Khatif) gtve up a. and both aere buried together. We have tried to take vengeance on him for Badr. Now.y on which God drowned Pharao was the 23rd EMnadan. (In the firat of the Night the Ist of Muharram was a Fnday. The 17th. when they entered the holy district after their return from Svna. M Tuesda. The 16th. after he had dressed in it during five and a haJf months.a. to make them faU together. untess transfer AshArà from the tirst of the Jewish months to the BrM of you the Arabian 60 as months.y the Imam Zaid b.inoidingwithth~l7thBamad.c.y the pilgrimage of the forty mon occnïred. Monday). Jernsalem was made the ~iUa of the MMlims. the beginning of the Jewiah Passover after the arrival of the Prophet in Medina was a. On this da. and with a stick in his hand he struck out the fore-teeth (the central four incisors).zîd. do not ask for anything more! We have killed the generation of their chieftains. account of its coinciding with the lOth in this year.y. 'AN was killed and emcined on the border of the Euphrates.' $1 On this da. and the ashes throwninto the water. 40 23. Ahmt'mûn b. the C'o<H?<!M'o!M of the ~!ept<t~ (Ethiopians from the south of Arabia) arrived before Mekka. Mu'&wiy&) placed it before MmBelf. The head of Alhusain waa again laid to thé body. AIso in the second year of the flight the Jewish 'Ashûrâ and the date of M~ammad'a arrival in Médina.gain the green dress. illuess in which he died. First appearance of the illness in the P This was the . 20. reciting these verses: 20 am D<)ta descendant of Ehindif. and therefore the year lOth or 'Aahura.328 àM!ttÛNt. if 1 do mot revenge On the sons of Ahmad what he has donc. For this took place on the 21st of NMn p.. and we have 30 got it.j. And then they would say '0 Ta.phet. ca.used by the hitting of the apeam. cannot have coincided.a31. and the da. They would have praised God. . Therefore this tradition is altogether unfounded. 933. the seventh of the days of unleavened bread. then his body was burned. ~<t~t! 1. and their faces would have beamed with joy.Atex.

was bttmeJ at the time whfN AIhajjaj besieged 'AMftUah h. 'AM and Mu'&wiya meet at SiS:n. 27. ~t(t'6t:K. according to them. 12.. 3. because this is. the middle of the dome of of the 30 heaven and its highest place. OF Tt:E MCSHHS. after they had become exfited against him. also called Zra:M-<t~(tH.tnJ Alzubair. 8.Bakr. 24. 2.. 10 3. 20 4. Birth of 'AU b. too. God made Muhammad His Prophet to all mankind. J!<)tt' 1. The 15. 329 He again adopted thé black colonrs. who M a Manicheean and one of their missionaries. and hf s~ems to indicate that a man who prays tu God dues not need any Kibla at all. 8. 1 find. J!<)/«&. 3. . Muhammad left Mekka and conuual~d himself iu a cave together with Abû-Batr. Birth of Athusadn b. Talha. 1 believe that the Manichœans. the Prophet's daughter. 15. With this he reproachcs them.ension and the night-journey to Jerusalem.THE FEKTtVAt. The Battle of the Camel in Ba~nt with'Â'isha. Death of Abû. turn towarda the north pole. F&tima. The Ka'ba was made the Kibla instead of Jerusalem. 26. ~«& JI. AM-Talib. Harramiana turn in praying towards the south pole. 1. besides other things. The Ka. that the author Book ot JfatTttt~e. 'AM. The Prophet is boru on a Monday in thé Year uf the ]'!tf)'hants. The death of the virgin FatiuMt. Death of the Prophet. the cotours of the Abbaside party. Zubair. however. j!OHf!fMl. jKtMH~f!JJT. 4. the Sabians towards the north pole. thé peuple uf thé three tfMgiuus with turuing to onc direction tHpf'~ftt:het< to the exclusion of another. Night of Ast.'ba. The Pruphot arrives in Mt'Jmit ou the Sight. The great Liberation-night.was boni of Khad!]~ bint Khuwailid. 15.

it occurred on the 19th. thé month of thé obligatory fasting. his death (that of 'AM. the Prince of Xhurasân. 'îaa b. Muhammad b. But this ia nut correct. in order to leam the truth of the matter. Therefore he waited tillthe months returned to their pruper places.333. Musiim first raised the standard of the 'Abbasides in Ehurasan. gave. My compliments. . 25.B<M!<(!tt. 26. Talib according to others.e. 'Abu-Musum 'Abd-ahahman b. very much like that which WaK-aIdaula 'Abû'AhmadEhaJaf b. 7. whereupon he received this answer Do you mind my business as much as 1 mind yours (i. Zaid b. 19. Muljim Ahnurad: struck 'A): b. AI~UMin. beoa. -Abd-alrah!m b. 'Ali AlsajjadZain-aI'&bidin b. 10. the Prince of Tabanatan. and forbade to use thé NtM)'. Muhammad b. AM-Tatib also death of 'AM-Atrida Ibn Musa AIMzim b.Iam!.330 ALBÎNt)NÎ. Death of Khadîja.uf.Ma<. Muhammad Alba~ir b. asking for his genealogy. Now carry out that with which you thrpaten tM. we find that it was a Saturday. AM. 'Abd-a~ais. 'Ahmad b." A wonderfully short and cutting answer. Birth of AJhusain b. The cursed 'Abd-atrahman b. the Prince of Sijistân. and then he performed the fareweU-pitgrimage. he waa 'AU b. if you are a true-speaking man. Aihumin b 'Al! b. e c 27. because there M an uninterrupted tradition saym~ that it occurred ou a Monday in the second year of the flight. Birth of 'AM b. AM-Talib. and the Monday in question falls upon the l7th. except Alsalâmt. son of the Prince of the Believers 'AI! b. he waa 'Al! b. 3) that it is better than a thousand months. Death of the Prince of the Believers. 'AM according to aU authorities p. 'Ahmad. when N&h b. had written to him threatening him with various things. The night of this day is called . There is a report saying that Atb~n b.TMib. of which God says (Sûra xcvii. 'Ali b. Ja'far Atsadik b. 10 20 30 10 . according to some. Revolt of Alburku': in Baara. 6. wrote to him at the time when he came forward in Ba?ra. according to A)sa. you have quarrelled with us a great deal.<t:A<t< (Night of Fate). AM.Atrid&) occurred on the 23rd According Dh&.ute thé Ist of Ramadan for this year. Mansûr. 22. as little). The Prophet did not perform thé pilgrimage. He answered 0 Nuh.Alka'da. Mekk& was conquered. 21. 17. On the morning of the 17th the battle of Badr oceurred Mcording to another report.use the Arabian months were back behind real time m conséquence of the 3~~?' (postponement of certain montha in the times of heathendom). Ab:Tâlib on the head so as to injure the brain. to othem. Ahna'm&n adopted the green colours. Zaid. 'Al! b. the protom&rtyr. If we co." L.

And this . on thé day when the two hosts met. the ~«!'M tu AbrahMn." communiontcd Peottte say that on the fottowing day:i the holy book: Wt-re 10 to the Propheton the let of R~nm~an. we have already mentioned that it was reveaM on the 6th of Siwa~t. the descending of thé M)g'')s as a help. OF THE MU"I-S. But why du they tm-ut.Iuu lu tl'eu ifpuft surh a thtttg with itU thui~It m)ty bc 4') suppoaed to indicate and that tuay bf inferred therefroni? i' They go evcn so far as to attributf to Him an ug]y anthrt'p~murphism–:)S to say that on this day He p)antfd th< trec Tuba with His own hand. xvi. nor composition. the 6<h the Thom to Moses. People maintain that <m this day Gcd crfatcd Paradise. But God knows best! Regarding the Thora. for it waa between thèse two uights that the batth) of Badr occurred. God knows best StfW)cu!. 181)." Thereby we leam that it was revealed in this month. thf eonquest of Mekka. Somc people quote besides the passage And that which we have sent down upou our servant (Sûra viii.n. because on this day thé two/too~ (that of Muhammad and his opponents) met at Badr. marked with certain badges (SAra iii. People say See. for God savs (Sura. at that time. nor arrangement. p. 30 regarding the Gospel is the saying of a man who does not know its character. Feast of fast-breaidng. because its rpat date is not known. thé 18th the Gospel to Jesus. There is freedom from eYerythms in tha~tuight l'y thé permission of their Lord. also called the day of tHO'cy. 181): "The month of Ramadan in which the Coran was sent do~n. If. and the 24th the FK)')! to MuhMnmMt. 70)." This may ho Thp angels descend and the correct. and the revelation of the other books is altogether unknown and cannot be found out. He inspired the bées and taught them how to make honey (Sûra." inferring from this passage thmt the Coran was revealed on the 17th of Bama~an. 331 The date of this night rests on universal agreement. was revealed is not known if it were known. But there is no possibility of settling this question. the matter is so us bas b~'en said.333.THE FESTIVAL. because thé year in which the Thora. As regards the Coran. 4. ïevii.) 8}'trit. the 12th the PsaJms to D~vid. God says (Sûra ii. on the feast of eoM~xj/a~'oH('Azereth). we should The report inquire into the subject by chronological computations. 1. this night is the night of tho l7th or the 19th. 42): 20 on the day of the dtfwOK (Alfurkan). God selected Gabritl as the bearer of His revehtior. Ramadan coincided with Siwc.

'AM. a third According to opinion. According to a fourth opinion.TMib he made his intimate friend.nt~ry. Beginning of a vohmtary fasting of six consécutive days. 20 29. 14. and the pilgrims drank from it a.. from sheer ignorance. to hiscousin. they say. complying with the order of God in th.n time of both heathendom and M&m. they are the time by which God 138) "And we have promised Moses thirtv nights-which are the mght.st~ he stayed only threed~ys.832 AMÎRÛNÎ. 1.two days.1~ view he muat h.d to it according othera. 5. This day is called AUarwiya. 8. they have . as bas been mentioned in the history of Moses. On this day. be full of water about this season in the holy . wives. because onthis day God revealed Himaelf to the mountain. 28. This day is called day of the great pilgrimage on 40 It called because on that day people ~gni.e. is mentioned in~ Gospel. quench his thirst. Acc~ding 1.t tned t~ explain in any way ou the . God took compassion on Adam.ve ~yed there twenty. c~ne forth from the belly of the nsh.d. M~hammad installed ~a~n and fusain in the right of s~ of hia. The Prophet of God married his daughter ~zotiand Dies aacri.ach. Death of Abu.e. DM. In this battle Hamaa was and lamented 10 over his loge. and Fâlima in the right of hi. Muhammad and the Christians of Najrân argued with each other. Battle of 'Uh. carry the water from Mekka view.ther at the time when they comble for thé performance of the rites of .ch are used to draw water from a well. and 'Alî b.. much as «.que of Mekka used t. wh.fr. they say. According to some. they believe it just as it stands. M. on i. of the ouraieig. whilst according ~Chr. was sent down. 9. Jonas. because God made spring forth for lehn~elthe well ~nz~.~NM'<!a. 4. Yonas was deTOttredby the &)h. Abraham and Ishmael raised the bases of the temple of Mekka. occurred m the middle of the month. 17. According to another it was called so because they used t. FâtÎnla..TMib. On this day.~Mch he drank so much as t. they say.d we have completed their number by ten wtueh are the Dtee sacri. DM. the tree K~t grew over Yonas. of Dh~. because the pilgriïn'8-weU in the m. The Ka'ba. 2.

'AI! gave away his seal-ring M alms. supported by the arm of 'Al! b. The day of yc!H~<t)Mty. 17." Then lie said To every man yourselves ? They answered. On this day Isaak was ratisonwd with the Mm.m'-)M/< It is also On this day God selected Abraham M a Mend (Mn~!). ii. in praying. 12. 18.ls. It is thé last dn. p. that had been brought to MeH~~ to be sacrificed. that we may break up). whose friend 1 am.HuA aMo'). Atuong the~heologians thero.THE FESTIVALS 0F THE MUSUMS. becquée on this day people go away from the holy district hurrying. the road-side where Muhammad alighted when returning from thé fareSO well pilgrimage.YemMtd said (Lacuna. )ïxri. 25. 'Uthm&n b. 12. 0 mountain ThaMr. Thename is also derived ft'omthes:). and said 0 men. becanse on 10.'raM they were so called because thé victiMM 20 (Aoeh'ff)were mot killed before the sun had t'Mctj.)'H~.E'/tKmM!. ïxxvni. and the limits of the prayer of TaMo' (!e.st)'aM)' ~<m'! <!M~)' (i'. According to Ibti-At'a. 199) And yo shall remember God on certain counted days.are. 23).e. Atkh~ah was killed. 'Um~r b. The days of !~t~)-)t. too. //tf JhMtf! is said to hâve hppn 0'eatcd. help him who helps 'AB. were siftughtered." Then he is said to have raised his head towards hea. It is caUed 6'7i<t<!< which was thé name of a station on . 11.y of the days of the pilgriiiiage. because on this day people sojourn m Mina.ddles and all the 1'idinginstruments into one heap this he ascended. . 0 God. 33:) pilgrimage. called the Jaj~ of /o)-gt').y ~lH<?/t < ~HwajEtcr e)ttrypra. Hegave o1'ders to colleet the sa. Shine forth.yt'r.ying. It M called the f!f~ o/Ac t'/e~'HM. t. also 'Al! is a friend. so called because on these days the meat of thé sacrificed &mma.))' this day the a.diftet'ecees regarding thé beginning.nima. thé end. am 1 not nearer to you than you Ycs. différences peculiar to their science.) 26.e./M)fMt 11.also Dt'M )Hoc<f</«). David wM inspired to M~ for pardon (Sûra. On this day. The day o/' ~o/oMt'Hf'M~. and desert him who déserts 'AU.) 40 24.'AS&ntheEhalifwasMUed.Iswas eut to pit'eM and pxpos?d to thé sun for drying. 10 (via ~t'afo) te ttp Last jM<?." Tn thé time hnmediately before and after these days pcople sa.3!!5. because Adam and Eve rccognised cach nther after they had been driven out of Paradisc in the place where people a&semMed. 13. amd oppose him who opposes 'AI!. or. 'AM-TaIib. befriend him who befriends 'Ali. Let truth go about with him wherever he goes. These are thé days which God means in His words (S&ra. anf) the SJHn Hc~ '~M (Sûra was revealed.

~Tr~ in whieh the ~"T' killed the people B~&Um~yy.~di~it. .vM were given ~p to thé enemies. and may He let us belong to those who ~~t~ ~Helper. tbanks are Hie due 1 .M.334 AMÎR~Nt. when the honour of the J)f~ (oompanione of the light of Muhammad) and of thé in Med~) was atiainea (hie partie and their w.f Med. of those who rebeM in Medina against the law of God. TherefoM may Q~ curse those whom ma Prophet cursed.

THNB RISINO AND SETTING.! usefulness for the purpose of prognosticating all me-teorological occurrences which revolve together with thé Lunar Stations. eg. lï is now time for us to finish. The description of these Astrotogoumena. the book of Abû-ÀIhusa. and from other books. The Hind&s divided the globe. and we sha. degrees of the ecliptic. from the book of Aikulthûm!. that of Ta. that of IbrâMm b. all of which may be found in. Alsarrî Alzajjâj.lî on the science of the configurations of the stars. in conformity with their 27 Lunar 20 Stations.yimgs relating to them. But above every knowing man there is God all-wise ? To complete the representation of this science. From the stars entering these Stations. ON THE LUNARSTATIONS. that of thé rising of the Lunar Stations in the days of the solar year.mmad Aija.AND ON THBIR IMAGES. into 27 parts. as beat we could.336.33& CHAPTER XXI. fulnUed our promise in explaining the science of that subject which our friends wanted to know.and learned from-the books on Astrologoumena. eaeh Station occupying nearly 13. Therefore we shall now proceed to explain this subject both at large and in détail. after we have. Eun&sa. TIteAra.ba. For 10 this science is practised on account of its gênera.. foreign to our purpose. which we gather from the literature of this kind. and in relating all we know regarding it. of Abti-Hanifa Aldtnewarî on thé 'H-n. only one more chapter is required.in on the fixed stars. . the book of 'Abû-Muha.hya b. which are called Jtt/Mf. they derived their astrological dogmas as required for every subject and circumstance in particular. so that pach Station p.bs divided the t'elcstial ~obe into 28 parts.U add some of the proverbial sa. would entail a long explication of things.

besides. Then the sun stands in the first part of A'tM.ran In thé 14th night of a month. the sun stands in the middie of Scorpio. stands in conjunction with) the Pleiades. These sayings and verses they use to indica. Some poet M." The Araba uaed the Lunar Stations in another way than the Hindûa. And the rising of thé fixed stars in the east early after thé rise of da. Twenty stars. and recorded therein the annual physic'J influences which. and a number 8 after them.1 changea in the seaaona of the year. visible to the p. and eaeh zodiacal aign contains 2~ Stations. Further When full-moon is complete and stands with the Pleiades. then the winter is gone. But the Araba. therefore. and so they could do.337.ys Their number M. and. so that theae things 20 could easily bo remembered by illiterate people. Which are the reMom that winter and aummer revolve." For thé Pleiades occupy the place from 10° of Taurus till about 15° of Taurus. the distance between son and moon is about 40 degrees. A peculiar system of computation belongs to them.336 ALBÎBÛNÎ. could not recognize the Lunar Stations except by certain marks. 10 M it wae their object to learn thereby fdl meteorologica. and that time is the beginning of the cold season. Therefore they marked the Stations by those fixed stars whieh lie within them. if you want to count them. Further: When full-moon joins AIdaba. being illiterate people. Then you get the beginning of the cold season. In a third night (of a month). occupies nearly 12~ degrees of the ecliptic.ch of the zodiacal aigna there are Two Stations and one complete third of a Station. telling people to warm themselves.variation. aceording to their observation and expérience. the moon joins the Pleiades in the 3rd night 30 of a month. Then winter encircles the whole earth. Further.e. When. 40 Being like riders who ride about.te certain cireumstances of *~heirs. they composed verses ajid rhymed poetry. In ea. "When the moon joins (!. the winter. eye. coincided with the rising of e&ch particular Station.wn they considered as a sign of the sun's entering some one of the Stations." For when the moon stands in opposition to the Pleiades. since the stars do not recede from their places except after the lapse of long spaces of time. and they have their holiacal risings and settings. e~. the Arabs were not educated enough to notice such a. .

with all that betongs to it." For at that time the sun stands in Scorpio close to (the 18th Lunar Station) it is thé time of cold and of morning frosts. thé sha~dowsnf :tn bodies disa. as thé table of thé Lunar Stations will show. Thé moon stands in some degrec of northcrn decliuation.n occurrence in my life which serves 40 to eonfirm the verses of Ahmad b.. aud frequpntiv *v she stands in such a latitude from the ecliptie towards thé direction of the deelination.338. in consequence of their ignorance of physical sciences. tliev believe a great many things similar to that which we have mentioned of thé Sirius JeBM)MCM. if 1 were to communicate to the reader all thé verses and sa." For at that 20 Further: time the mont h nrst a. In conséquence. Since the Arabs attribute all meteorologica. haa become cold.una.yings in rhymed prose which relate to thé rising of cach Lunar Station. however. standing in &'om every side.ds of thé 10 Arabs. sun stands Thé complete night. since it bas been sufficiently done by the authors of thé books of'~K)c<?. '.ppe.<Jon) tie.) changes to thé influence of Mie risiug and setting of thé stars.ppea. vernal equinox.r St.i.ud The HnportMMe of a man lies in Ma two smallpst things. whom 80 we mentioned above. during the rising of which Hippocrat's in hii) time forbade taking hot drugs and pMebotomizing. Then yon get cold winds And you find it agreeable round the head. 337 And full moon risea in heaven high overhead. Fans A wise ma.< at thé time of midnight.a. 90 that The shadow of thé tent-poles disappeara. a little before dawn to wrap a turban in the first part of Sagittarius. Further: When the new moon of a To thé eyes of people at ~~<t'<?:n).' 22 . and to explain the rare words that occur in thcm. However. we may omit.wwA ~hc ]:!t~ ]. This. 1 should also have to intei'pi'pt their meanings. not upon certain parts of the celestial globe and thé sun's marching thet'ciu. thinking that ail changes of thé kind depend upon the bodies of thé stars and their rising. When the night hM reached its middie And the air is free from dark clouds." For the stars of ~i'a. And this subject reminds me of a. And the sun stands in thé Station of ~l~o'-tf'?.t'ouud Jj)e P.r at the time whenshereaches thé mi'H)e of heaveu. that she culminates (stittids t'ight) ovcr the hca.u-f) thc beginning of a night.0~ THE IJ~AT! STA'rj(~\R.n uf ItY-gouc times lus s.

although the star (or stan. being very lengthy about the différence between us in weaith and poverty. tried (truubled) on all sides.' If he bas mot hie two dirhams with him.339. and never leave this place. when thé morning approached. In a similar way. He had studied the conjunctiona of the stam wMch form the Lunar Stations. amd treated me alightingly. at that timo aigns. 1 on my part aiso speak like a wise man. He told me my theory was a lie. bas risen and left him. whieh Ibn AIra~a' describes in the foUowing verses "The observerssaw Sinus distinctly. as the proportion stars change their places besides. they would be digèrent in different p. that the sun on entering one of them covers it and the preceding one too. all that is peculiar to Aries does not move away from the place of Aries. His bride does not care for him. and to prog. aceording to the inverted order of the zodiacal rises between thé rise of dawn and that of the sun. when my troubles had subsided (ceased) to some extent. if the science of meteorology were to depend upon thé rising of the bodies of the staM.838 AMÎBÛNÎ. amd he had commenced to coUect them in order to derive certain sentences (astrologoumena) from the Stations and their single parts. saying: Théimportance of a man lies only in his two dirhams. and waa bereft of the happinesa of the royal service. and we should require for them as well as for the appearing and disappearing of the planets various kinds of tiresome methods of calculations. fading away. countries. In consequenceof his poverty he is despised. are peculiar to the first part of Aries. and behaved very rudely to me. whilst pmyer the morning is becoming white. The night. As he turned away. and aU that which the Hindûs relate of the connection of this Station with others. whilst the third one. however. lation of Aries does move away. as observed the times by and seasonf of the Meteora would differ in the sameeye-sight. though he was inferior to very me in aU his tnowledge. afterwards. So that people's cats pisa at Mm." For when 1 was aepaMted from the court of Hia Highness. 1 met a man in Rai (Bhagm) who was counted among the learned astronomers. In reatity the rising of the Lunar Stations means tbis.bon~ may leave it. he chose to behave in a friendly way towards me. It is evident that. 1 recognize Sirius shining red. For at that time 1 was in a misérable glory condition. wMch form the Lunar Sta. although the constel. Now. 1 told him that thereby thé truth is the very reverse of his theory. that the nature and peculiarities whieh are attributed to the first Station. 10 20 80 40 . wMch changes subjects for into subjects for blâme. nosticate aU changes of the air. Butthen the man became haughty.

22 .rds describe.rdmg the '~MK'. and everything that oecurs in this time is n. a certain space of time is peculiar to thé rising aud setting of rach Lunar Station.ttribut<'d to the Station in question occurrences which fa. thé time of its itas gone by witliout there being any rajn. Sa'd b. since lie follows her. The interval between thé risings of two consécutive Lunar Stations M 13 da./oM)nights And tmte nights more. thé latter in the outer circle. which is 14 days.'fa.i.s of the Mowing of thé winds.zAr!..e..d Ju. that thert-fore the influence is a. you must kuow. although they diSer regarding the pla. (On the Winds. whilst." The rising of a Lunar Station they called its JVaM'.Uy one.mma. Sa.e of time are no longer attributed to it.ys. except thé interva. the influence of thé setting they called a.mura. thé pta. or heat. Both these opinions of the Ara. there :)). there are only four. 339 The night is not afraid to lose him. The last view is thé genera.r 1). aa Kh&Ud b. According to others.b. Some maintain that each inBuence (of a Lunar Station) is brought about betwecn the risings of two consecutive Stations.xt opinions. rising.bs are comprised in thé foDowing two 40 circics thé former view is represented mthe inner circle. relates. there are différences about the length of thèse spares of time. adopted Besides. And to the influence (No.end of this spax. directions of their plimes.t') of a star setting in the WL'st.?. And each fourth consists of sevenths. The innnence of tha rising they called BMA.340.fterwa.)-Regarding thé directions of thé winds.t thé directions of the wiud arc six. So the following verst's 10 All time. Sa~wan relates.y: thc star was f~ or: 80 the Station was e)M~y. Jundub Alfa.nd the p. on thé authority of 'Abû-Muha.toHows thé circle.ft<Ttin.ppopie sa.ON THR U'\Af! ~AT)0\-<. There you also find the names of the winds a. When thé influence of some Station has becn founj out and is known. But the night is not willing to acknowledge that he betonca to the night.11 a. and their numbpr. Hprt. and nothing happens at its time. or cold.li~t-f. accordiag to most others.gain ~Mt'.ttri20 bnted to the former of these twu Stations.m. thé lattcr is the opinion of most nations. Between the rising of eaeh star And that of thé foUowing star therc a-t-e. Some maintain tha. or wind. A complete seventh belongs to the rising of a star." There is a differeuce of opinion t-oga. as Ibn Kun~sa.e.l! a. consista of fo<u-ths. i. which we sha.nea over which they blow.1 betweeu the rising of ~'<t&4tt (the lOth Station) and nf thf fo])nwmg Station.

340 ALBÎBÛNÎ.a. blowing from thé aide of Syria. after the south wind hM d'-iven them on. whilst it is well known that Nakbâ is every wind. drivin~ The fine dust of Atmi'ft and of K:nrit)tir over the house. Dh&. full of rain. whilst it is well known that JK<t~M<t is the north wind. . because it e~t!t~fMAM (destroyf) the clouds when they are empty.lnHmna.vy ra.Iwinds. And a third wind. 10 Which drove the samd-ma. In the Brst theory the author (Ibn Xun&sa. the plane of which lies bptween the planes of any two other winda of the fonrcM-dina. mentions the winds.sses of the dusty-coloured mountMM away overthe house. in this wav Hea.) places the wind ~f<t~«M near the south wind.in-showers of some ~Mf~ and thé two Haif (south wind and west wind). In the aame theory he Msigns a separate plane to the wind jMM. And a fourth wind commg from thé rising-piMe of thé sun. ~<t5iM ineluded. a cold one. Blowing with whirlwinds along its road over the sand.

)–Thé following is a good method to find the times ot the . and aU physical sehoIaM their centres correspond to the 10 four directions. and call it by a Grcck name. thé wind coming from thé rising-place of thé sun is thé east wind.us M-ethe !ia. 34] The aide winds. The planes of the winds with thé Pprtiia. when thé throes ajc near.ON THE UJNAR STATIONS. They are represented iu the following circle: Any wind that lies between thu centres of the planes of two other winda is referred to that centre which is the nearest (aud receives its Other people refer au intermedia. is the north wind.tp wind to the rising namo therefrom). So that it frequently roared like the shc-citmets in thé tenth month of their pregnancy. and setting places of the sun at the time of thé solstices. (Nethod for finding the time of the Nau' and Barih of a Lunar Station." south wind and west wind the wind Mowing ThetwoBat/'ajethe from Syna. carrying along thé dust. oxeitcd it (the east wind) to still greater vehemence.me as with the ancient Greeks.

dividing them by 13 you get no remainder.e. Abù-Ma. the aum of daya we divided by 13. If. This statement must have been made about three thousamd and more years before Alexander. the Lunar Stations. thia is a. In enumerating the J~<ittt. If. the moon had turned away from the hexagon of Mars and atood in conjunction with Venus. you are pretty sure in your eatculation to come near the truth.d rain.says We have tried this method A. 279 in Sha. We counted the days from the lst ÏIûl till Thuraday the 13th of Kânûn I. and when the moon stood in her right quad. proceed in thia way If thé moon stands opposite thé sun or in one of her quadratm'es. since in their time they stood in the first part of AtM. he says: "We tried it also in the following year. the Arabs commenced with . the influence (of the LunM Station) will corne out very strong. 1 do not know whether they do this becanse the Pleiades are more easily and clearly visible withont any study or research than thé other Stations. you take to help'the mansions (the places of the Lunar Stations) of the Hindûs and their single parts. as 1 have found in some books of Hermès. inMucnces (~t<n~«Mna) of the rising and thé setting of the Lunar Stations: Take the time from the Ist of H&l till that day the nature of which you want to find out. aJso on that day we ha. with 10 20 <t0 AO . thé moon happens to be in one of her JbtM!~<t<<o!M. you get rain.341. People relate that among the Arabs the Banù. if it is the season for rain. the vernal equinox coincides with the rising of the Pleiades. They were 130 daya.e. At that very time we got rain. For if there is no remainder (as in this case). that it M the &rst of a month and the beginning of autumn. H. On the lat of Ïlul falla the B(M& (influence of tho rising) of ~t!~t (the 12th Station) and the Nau' (mBwence of the setting) of &t'<~<t!'cM&)'~ (the 25th Station). besides.M&riya b. it is the time of the rising of one Lunar Station and the setting of the opposite Station. showing that through this method you obtain correct résulta.. Shaibân had the most accurate knowledge of the configurations of the stars.4M<H'<~aM.t." Further. Ealb and thé Banù-Murra b. From this date you begin counting.ysfromthelstîlùltiUthia full moon. at the time of full moon. as they do. for this speeM reason. or hoat." Now.'ahaj. and there was no remainder thé distance between swn and moon was as mneb as hait a zodiacal aign (i.wwal p. or because. or cold. Hammam b. So we got rain on that day.<tP<![&&<&. Weco~mtedtheda. and the ~ce~t~M of the full moon (or opposition) waa jlotptoM. God Lnowt)best what they intended! 1 We shati adopt the Arabian system in enumerating the Lunar Stations. teetimony of Abû-Ma'shar. or some change of the air in conséquence of wind. and divide the sum of days by 13. and shall begin. 15 degreea).a48 ALB~KÎ. besides. Other nations begin with the Pleiades. If there ia no remainder. rature.

These stars have migrated from their originaJ place (in consequence of the precession of the equinoxes) and have in our time come to occupy a second position (différent from the former). It consista of two stars Lelonging to Ariea (~ and y). whieh is brought by their . or something else. ~Mot-afa)! (~S.~A)(plural instead of the dual Sham. horn). a. there is an interval of two yards according to eye-sight. since they mark themselves by some s~H. but that is wrong. Further. by the btack colour. According to the Arabs they form the c!wt:s of Aries. 40 maintain they were called so beca. a. or pretty nea. third star nettr them is added. it inereases in the direction from east to west.rlv in thé direction of one 20 of the cycles of altitude. which is the 28th Station.t&n). collection amd great number of something. also.whieh is originally identical with i.e.UXAR STATIONS. one of thcm belongs to thé northern half. 343 1. so as to mean the little Mom&. 2. The reason of this is that thé sphères decline from thé perpendicular direction which they have on thé equator.ON THE t.h other. for these distances ap~ear greater near tho horizon in conséquence of the intense refraction of the ray of light in thé watery vapours that surround the earth. The word is a diminutive of TttttWŒ.e.l configurations (of thé stars). forming an iaosedes triangle. The word is the diminutive of BMfM. original) position of Aries.y depend upon the stars from whieh the Station bas got its name. p.e.yArietis).e. when standing in the yn~ddie of heaven. cluster of grapea. Between the two stars. 3. very similar to a. Sometimes.Ktt~tMt (t.342. frequently. when the stars nmrch towards the horizon. 1r Arietis).nse thé two are placed on the root of thé two ~o-Msof Aries. It consists of three stars at the end of the womb of Aries. and then this Station is called ~P. 8.use the rain. beca. the distance between two stars increases in the direction from north towards the south. and in no wa. so called in comparison with ~a(<t-a~/tM< (the womb of the nsh). The meteoroSA<M-af iogie&l inBueuces of this Station are peculiar to thé first (i. They are called so for the samo reason that the soldiera of the body. AU meaaurea of distances between the stars according to eye-sight are to be understood only for that time when they stand in thé middte of heaven. This haa been expifuned in the books on the geomotric&.guard of a prince are called SAMi<t~. ~~myyŒ (Pleiades) SO consists of six staM close to ea<. the 10 other to the southem. The Station ~o~n-a{ is aleo called ~bmfA (i. because they stand on the hump of TMU-Hs. t. the two signa. too. Some people ï%<tn<M.

a she-camel giving birth to a young one of imperfect formation). the worst and most unhealthy of the whole year. a bright red star.of the N~). Other namea of it are Me.. Al'asad} says A)thuMyy&never rises nor sets nnteas bringing some harm. to wind and twine one thing round the other.Me~'tt)). so called because it~MM after the Pleiades.e. standing over the southem eye of Taurus.. According to others. . The one is called (button). !e. BftM'ftis derived from the verb ~a)M'n.me is to be understood of a third star. According to Alzajjâj. and ~Ht~M~ (ie." 4. They were so caJIed because they were compared with a circle of hairs on the side of thé horse at thc joint of the foot. abundatu-e.tM called ~t~H~. They are also c~Hed ~~(t.:!44 ALIiÎRÛ! A'«t'. ~M<!6amM (a Tauri). Gemmorum) consists of two bright stars in the Milky Way between Orion and the head of Gemini. It is a. beeause toeye-sight they Mem to lie quite close together.vs Warrant me the time between the disappearing and the rising of Aithurayya. ~/MtK'<t(y. and 10 1 ehaU warrant you all the remainder of thc vear." The Prophet is Miatcd to hâve said When the Star risps. and caUs them thé nebula on thé head of AIja. 5.e. and the middle-finger. sinee he had not observed more of them. The forty daya during which this Station disappcara under the raya of the Sim. are. producea yAniKYt.f. the other J~M. ~Aa~'a (À.Lecause in rising and setting it foUows 20 immédiate!? after the Pleiades. as if each of them were winding and twining round the other. all mishap is raised from every place./eMo!~). (walking along proudly) they stand on the foot of the second twin. looking like so many dots impressed upon thé earth by thé thumb. acoordingto the Arabs. because they call the stars around it ~t'M~." And one of their medical men sa. which gives 40 ë. Orionis) consists of three sma. nH harm (mishap) rises from thé earth and according to another tradition "When thé Star rises. this na.bMr t'e 30 Aljauzû (Orion). distant from each other as far as the length of a whip.Mj (i. standing behind their middle. the fingers being closely pressed together. young she-c~mels (serving for riding).U stars close to each other. thé fore-nnger.). << a great camel-stallion (not serving for riding). mentions Ptotemy only four stars of thé Pleiades. Ptolemy considers them as une cloudy star. . such a horse is caUed Jtfft/~M' They are also called ~Ha~ (or ~a~. i.

dies. they stand on thé mane of Leo.L'NAH STATtO~a. 9. f. une holongittg to Leo. hctwcen which there is a nebula. lu front of them there are stars called . The most southem star of them they call thé BmW </ tleeJ~oyo?. ~4. It is also called ~~<t/<. People say a man. there is an animât thé sight of The most curious which kills a man within forty days afterwards. with whidl Le shoots at tho p. Accordiu~ tu thf astrououcrs. aud Kousists uf tao stars. as they also relate that on the island of E:Un!n. the arm of Leo which is not Ktretcht'd out. tho whole bclonsi"ë to the S~ure of Cancer. and that of Sirius Yt-menicus ou tho 23rd Tammuz.1influence Nfch-fcn?.7K)-KS has caught it takes care not to touch it as long as it is in thé net still and keep living.). the other is Sirius '~<f or Sirius Yt'tM-'nims. 345 thom the appearance uf au t't~t'Kt neck. in consethat quence of which it has somcthing unsteady for thé eye. 8. a Leonis).e.'roducc varions futih. thé eyebrows of Leo.f' (the MeM'-eyed Sirius) in thé ycar 13ÙO of Alexander took place oM thé lOth Tammaz.teria. If you take a reed and t~uch the living fish with one end thé other end in yuur hand.3t3.?(the uvutu. ~<t~)-<t (Pitest-pc (<) et duo Aselli (y. Suhail is the 4-4. y. four stars.<):y. standing over its car. hehmgin~. regarding these stars and .Li'oM it rises when Suhail riscs in Alhijax. to C. not in a straight line. According to astronomers. thé outstretehcd arm of Leo. Hnd thc oth~'r arm b~ou~ to But ~oj. the front of Leo. For thé haud "f the n'<her)'M~ who is the nsh called S. lying athwart front t'orth to sonth in a curve.the other t'y thé length of a whip. according tu thf Arabs.-yi~. twu stars close to each other. Thc risiu~ of G/<KMi. if his eye falls on this star. 20 the eye of Leo.d tife aud its ma. one yard distant from eaeh otber. 7. j8 Geminomm) consista of two stars. Its latitude is 75 tlegrees in the southeru 80 half. . S) Cancri) if thé ptitcc bctween thé mcuth aud thf nostrils of the Lion.th star of Argo Navis. instance of the comnection between anim. thé hand becomes feeble and drops the reed. jtH~t'n!' (a.k dia't'r ~rcath 10 the stars of ~M'«n' ~yHi)~«~(!~t'Mt(Procyon). Therefore it does not rise very high ahove thé horizon. thé outstretched arm is the head of Geutini. Lion. '). ~{/(ttA« (~. The one is thé t~i'-cyeff Sirius or Sirius Syriacus. Thc Arahs rousidcr AUum'a and six other stars as thé bow of Orion. 10.<U'M/t/ i.tritditiuusaMdsturics in support of the uames which tliey givc th~-m. the other to the stars outside the Cgure of Cancer. each star distant from.UX t'Ht.

panther. ~a~!et: (. and is called so because the heat <M-tM when it rises. the water becomes bad and foul. They are alao called the Two . one of the districts of eastem For thore you find in certain places smaU worms. the worms in Raghad. if carrying he does not tread upon them. Suhail is seen in Al'ira~. man Mtten by a. i. hôtes. 20 It stands on the end of the Lion's tail. C Leonis). ie. and the cold <<{~M <HMty away when it disappeam. According 10 to Atz&jj&j. as if eaeh of them were penetrating into the interior of the Lion. piece of iron by which thé two shoulder-blades of tblion are imitated. field-mouse pisses at hitn' [Zfac«tt<t. . 13. 8. 12. the end of which is turned.346 AtBÎRÛÎtt. when a. said to be his lance. Further.J P-344H. Alzajjêj says: "I do not know of anybody else besides me who bas explained the word in this way. it ia thé place of the mane on his neck. This station consists of two stars.e. When they rise. the place where the neck begins. because whilat the other Sim&k Ah-âmih (the shooter) is accompanied by a star. 14. Aooording to Alnâ'ib Alâmuli. distant from each other by the length of a whip. and is therefore said to be 6(t!-eof weapons.e. The death of a. the water remains good and ~eepa its nice odour and sweet taste. this one bas no such accessory.3. because the Marne 6t-M<!M up when ho M in wrath. ~Mmœ<<t'M[!(Spica). This Simak is called '~l'M! (t. &<~)-<t M a. a bnght star near to some very dim ones. called the Chw < the Lion. ~ha)~ (j8 Leonis).M«W." They stand on the breast and wing of Virgo. the shoutderof the Lion. go It is aiso called the Ca~ of the Lion. one of them ou thé root of the tail. and ~MttM!. Those who say that these stars are dogs running behind the Lion and 6aTMtt9are wrong. water treads upon them. bare). ~&K6Mt (S. And theMfore the S~tion is called so because the verb '~MM means to <<tt~. y. EVirginis) consista of five stars in a line. if a man Jurjân. i& his other ~Mt)tt& catf. but in reality they stand upon thé aha~k of the Lion.

for. or. the moon enters it and frequently covers it (so as to make it disappear).use it stands behind Leo and before Scorpio.e. 10 much like the leaf of J~ so also caUed (i. the hair on the end of derived from the name is Ghafar. hekine.M:-a. This is a number of smaU stars behind the tail of the Great Bear. the evil of the Scorpion lies in its venom and the ating of its tail.e. i. Sim&k is caUod the moon does not enter this to others. to cover a tbing. Libre) of two briDiajit stars. ~?~a/i' 20 Thé best night for ever Lies between AIzuMnâ and Al'asad (Léo). from the It is called C~ verb Ghafara. The the report of the Jews–must have coincided with the rising of the p. and stam('ing in a place where the two claws derived from zabana The word is also to . The evil of the Lion lies in his teeth and claws. being (t.À Virginis) consista of three not very brilliant atam on the train and the left foot of the best of the Lunar Stations.345. tooth of Leo and the moon's entering the claws of Leo. that it consists j~ Ibn-Altuf! déclares this to be impossible. because it rises above the claws of of mail). hog'a bristle). &<Mt«!ft (the ear). yards. Ct-xtMf~t. consists separated from each other as far as five of Scorpio might be. 347 so on a~-connt of ita rising According to Sîbawaihi. People say tha. Virgo. But if that were the name of a Lunar Station. 17. hairs on the end of the smaU Lion'a of the tail.e. not other. ~PtM!! (~. from the (i. the birth of Moses–according to Prophet who I:eeps off aU mishap. or. and maintains 16. Allitelba (the hog's bristle) thé tail. which some people caU It is a brilliant star on tha left palm of Virgo. i. they belong.use high. K. S. w Scorpii) is the head of Scorpio. as if the one of them were being j)M&e~ away united with it. consisting of three stars which form one line. stands on thé end According to the Araba.ON THE un<AR STATIONS. beeause the light of its stars is imperfect.ya 15.e. the EM is because (Spica) is But this wrong. of course.tion. Spica). According to thé Arabs.e. beca. which Ptolemy eaHa~r(t. According Scorpio and becomes to it like a Miglifar (i. . the Lion's tail. Station.t thé horoscopes of all the prophets but this does not seem to be true except in the case of Messiah. 30 to Alzajjâj.e. however. very The whote zodiacal sign is i.e." lie in this Sta. <ojKM~). A Rajaz poet aa. Moording ~H'ft'M: would not deserve the ~?~t')Hf?t case.e. ~&t<a'tt (i. it is beca. coat i. ~~tMttt! (a.

HO 30 .wn. v Scorpii) the sting of called because it is always ~M!~ r~ed. fn~f~ n. ~M'<~ ~~ih'~ ~h ch are the M.. saying: "Thé two contending parties were content.. also in 0. ~a~fh stars. which are not connected ~e~:t~ ~th. It consists of two bright other on the top of the tail of Scorpio.~d ~~ch~ethe~ the water.ch other. S.th~e who consider the three bright . where the sheaves of the pulley and the bucketa are fixed (attached). the be~n. eyebrows do not run into ea. AHaIb (a Scorpii) is a red star behind (precordt~).uld the A~ view oftheAMbs-m opposition to that of three in one line ~~PM. as Almagest.v. 0~ descending to the water.t be anywhere but upon Cr. belonging to Sagittarius.e. S~gitt~n) of them lying in Milkv Way in a square.Uqr W. ï. at the ~ft~ the Horse. (y. According station wascompared to the interstice between the two eyebrows. The Arabs have a proverb applicable to this subject. The shM were çompared to ostriches. According t. Ibn-A~.(. ~cendi~~ret~~ rude the word i. 20. but the judge declined to give a judgment. placed above the -outh of a well.t~ in one Mn. outside Libra.] Al'im and between two at~ <~Ued Ainiy.t 10 19. ~&A<nt~ (A.848 of the AMÎRM.AritMI). 21." [18. <. which is the four of them lying outside the M~ Way. as if four of them were ~r~r~~donthe~ ~ou~ Ascending on his ahoulder and brnaat. as ~MM mistaken.

&(7-JM(t' (/t. and the . Tr. and one standing in the middle. threc forming an acute-angled trigone.346. . 24. God is aU-wise 26. the one to the north.hya b. separated from each other. which looks as if one of them had f7<'ooit)-~ it.Ft' T'x'o te~o 30 ttfx'c the Bwf~ t'Mthe ït~B (in ordpr to fit) it).S'<['aM&y(t (y. jSM-HM6~ (a. it was called 10 so because Sa'd is considered as he who Atjeto-e~ the midd)e star. . ~49 a8.UNAR sTATtONS.ON THE Ï. The two stars stand on thé hom of Ca~nf'x'M. 46). It is called so because people consider its rising as a ~Kfty omen. robt'ed it of its light and concealed it. It consists of two bright stars. According to others.ins sets in. 25. This ie a. Run~sa. j8 Pegasi). According to AM-Ya. hecause it rises when the cold decreases. ~Aquarii) consista of three stars.rather subtie derivation. 23. TheM stars stand on the right hand of AquMius. ~l~f~ ~r<tte!ca7 (a. The central star is Stt'ff. the other to the south. distant from eaoh other about one yard. < Aquaiii) consista of two stars with a third and hM'dty visiUe one between them. Aquarii) consista of four stars. Close to the northem one there is a p. These stam stand on the left hand of Aquarius or Amphora. considered as thé sheep which he (Sa'd) slaughtera. this Station waa called so because at the time when it rises all reptiles that had been &M~M in thé earth com< forth. this SM:OMwas caJIed so because it rose at thé time when God said 0 earth. so that it glided down from the throat to the breast. standing on the spine and shoulders of Pegaaus. Sa'<! ~~t')M (j8. as it were the centre of a circumscribed circle. According to others. ~M!t!' thy wa. one of which is m'H'e bright than the two othcrs. emau star. f. when the winter is paat and the season of the continnous ra. Capricorni) consista of two stars. aiso called the t~pef Handle (of the bueket). and the three surrounding stars are his teMfs. Two of these stars staod on tbe 20 left shoutder of Aquarius thé third one stands on the tail oî Capricom.ter (Sùra xi.

It coMMts of two stars similar to Alfargh ~P<nM< According to the Arabs AMpAc~ coMiata of thèse four stars. .Stations this we have in the form of am~nged a table. 88. These atam stand above Libra and belong to Andromeda. renderitsuperBuousto Hère foUow the two 20 tables.. atso called the j. If you look into thèse two tables you will find that the top of eaaîh column thesuperseriptions~t oonsnit anybody beforehand as to their ase. m< (of the bucket).B<tt~M/K (jS AndromedM).h(a star) caUed JBtM~. the chained wife who had 10 not seen a hMbamd). We have also noted the of the stars of the rising Stations for thé year 1300 of Alexander to mean ealeuh~on. and the ~<ef 2~ <MM Bncket in Me M~M(in oi-der to SU it).350 AMÎRÛNÎ. 27. (lit. The preceding notes we have condensed and have added thereto other notes relating toLumu. which muât not be confounded with the Two ~< one (the 18th) of the zodiac signs. also oaUed ~aM a bright star in the one half of thé womb of aa<. A~t~ ~MM)~ (y Pegaai amd a Andromode). this we have also deposited in a table of according the conditions of thé stars of the Lunar Stations. showing the nature of the Lunar Stations Mcording to the d~erent theories.

h{.p.n < # s d M g¡ è!.g] 7 ar.a:f'4po(CO\Of'I(Ot-. m!mt3q<!M<ntts!<i ~°~4 'S C)oe'e<e~<oe6M~c'e<c'c<6t-t*coco&<ao:c< ~Q'~ZI jpKmpO! 1 OOO.v'v.aR...tt<qs 'Smjds }omo!)W)R 'janmtns )omo.~M. lo a.c"'ININO')œco~c\QtC~co. a g 's~ocq-~it? ~U~ ~y~ip~ajCap~n~n~otï a 4) ¡: G _jg~ë~ppSas H =°' ~i~ E r B ° Cd w 'g e S ~Ë i .v )omo.p.()C)a~o g.: ~Ë.o = o ~g tGGltititi H -= <1 n H s5 n x gj Jo~~epo(~t-.m J tSOtn i i0D s -= :3 po Jt o Gd tEl (.. am a~ m a~ a~ oa ~L'~S~MM~meMm~w~MM~~M~m~ ~ïtB~tpaaR~~pAMM~OS 'a~ooq'p~ttV tson et n W.Ç.g~Ë~d 'm ~s s~a~~ e 9a1 â â n Ç~ ~·7'"Ô~. 1'< a .et: '3:SS' gg~ rd.pË"4~ ô .tM)~~p~asJCBp~mm~os SS~S~SS~S~S~S~~S~S~S" tf is FW1 ~a ~B 1-1 r.MM~W~ ~~S?.Q~E m... p J M m M CQ a~ "t* '~r' r G = `Ç "r'3 tÿ w = = <5 E-<E-<<fI1<o:¡.. –)CMMnqp~1~pMH t*' M 361 'Mtnn~ aa oo u~ a~m aa c~a.)X)S tN M N )~e<M'o<et-X)c:o'NM~'0(Ot-coo)OMe)e}~'o<o *-t'-<<<r-t'-t't-MMNMNMe< .1 .'S~J a~ .tO(.COCQI'l'COCQ~1'ICO'PO( .«.p.5~.9 'g eI.v~NvN~~v y.o a~uan8lil) '0) l'CI').~W~M~W..w g~.UXAB STATIONS.¡ p ) 'umn))..G.p+l -M 5 <Of t'a ~ëis ~j2'J~ ~S~!?~ë'~ë~5j?='~5 ë~~ëë~~a~~Jë~ _~ââ~t~ââ~ââât~â~ââ~~â~â~ ~'MMs°SSN~SS°SSa53!g°SSS?SS°S2B S~ D..I! c ~E5 '5 m.O~~O-O~h='N~~ '2g~S~2~S~~S-S~2S~?-s v.ON TtTE T. J p ~'&=' ?'-§g"§-~<~ë j. J â $ ? S o 0 -a~ëJ ~â SS mft seaapt ptM ~~S~S~~[~N°ë~SS~*°ë9S~°S95S5~~s9S 'cpiM~o OtBn~p.toa ?~[°3S~S°3S~S~~°3~5°SS~ !0~mnn)&)qet(t.O .p: j~ C> ~seâ .Ç'O _tg~tgtg~ m<m~ e)n tecpnm~p M aniM~S'~ m 'S~ e~ i 'M'P'V tOMOH~S 'Jetit~ !om<.)~s . ~M .

ts .a o g ë ¡.3:>~t(. ~g~-So~<MC"cgtj ~°-°° °~°°°°°S~S~° o '0~ '~S'~S'oeo~?~ m .0 ~a~ ~.a-.°'1$0 ad ~3 ê 3'§3 .g~ Se' i ~c~ ..6-f-.E-C-'E-'E-&<&<6-' S~~8NS~S-SSSS~S e 3_S~ cS ~S œ S S ë!~ 0 i~~ ~& j ~E-' <§ ~3~3~§ h i M M {0 .S52 ALBÏR~ ~J M~~ ~sj'-s <tOI 4> 1' . t-. pi ¡:I c~ cS .<.i:.<co)eir<Nm~mto j_ww~w~tw~ONONNNN .Ç~i7 C~ 1.1 111 f4 g 5 s ~) S Q 2 © .§ <)!<B'E-' i c d -= <-< s r s~ <!=! &~ ~œ c ~)~g Eÿ j é"~ s~s~ss~s~~sss~a~~sss~s~s~ 'MtttS ~SS~? ~M~~mMMMM~wM~M~NœONNM~ !j~j$îLJ !h N Nw ô a .ë~S~g..!i'" h~ Mi~&ë..¡ o .c~=~:ja~j=–jso~j= ~6-U~~HE-&<&E-E-E-.ë-~hlg:! 'g to '1: 'g § d M.S~ S wm môam gëg~° 'S s ..d 'ë~ io.g~S. 8 g 11 f ¡.c..S ë f f if.5~r!i f:ot 0).. 'S p g.¿~1~~fof'1'1 ~-I ~f C:"7~P:?. t0 a â œ N '-<Mm~'o<Ct'coo:o. '§.:1 Q 8 r. P :H~Ë h~ iô :I!~ r o m o ~g.6-.-s~Sg~ .1 C 0 o t$ ~s-ë. 'C d P o' 1 J~ ° ".o~ ~ë cw 6~ g's j~ oo j ~.sg~l! i . o ~g .6-.ê~'Ê:.j'a:¡ ~j.=~ZZ:rt~bt ~5~ë~S~ë~i§~ ~s&J~ëëë~'gii'g~jij~~sggë oogooe'oooooooooooomo~ooo ~=!c~a. ~J~ IIIL~mœoC~~ ~'S.n.)f-~i-. q0 M i~ "jO~ :?S. C ..e.7 ~ë ~~ë~ ë. ~1 mRaa'C.E -gS S J I. m ~-H J~J~S~ii~Jsj~~Js~JsJS~~ 6-'0~6-.g.¡!'cE¡¡.S~.s~ S'Son~. § 6 -j-i..g c.e)m~Mtet.mutt&t¡J.S§j ~:¡.<t< :¡ g S ¡:: 41 . . ~-&FS -tt-ct.

not reaching &t'(!-o~M'fM. thé interstice 10 between the Pleiades and Aldaba. stands in her throne of AlsimaJ:.ON THE hUXAR sTADt~S. ]2th. 5th.ba. 25th. the 23rd and 24th of the stars of Caprieornus. It is c~Ut'd P~~ff.e. According to some authors of 'Anwit-books D«. neither the one nor the other. the 5th aud 7th of the stars of the Great Horse (Pegasus). beeause it sets very rapidly. !e. not reaching Alfargh Alth&n!.)-The moon's p. at more dcgrccs) tham AlohMatan. not reaching ~Mc~'a stands in ~a~!y). for between thé degrec of thé setting of thé Pleiades and the degree of the setting of A. forAt'anîsa. not l'fa. which some Araba call thé J!actsMe of //te Li'OM. so that she is seen standing.rly seM): degrees on thé eqnn.bs ca. aceelemting her course.tor. this is caUed thé moon's PtM! and this phase is tiin'd :ts fureboding something good. the lst and 2nd of the stars of thé r)-i<M. Further.e. forch«ding evil.e. the 3rd.t:tn therefore hf uuuutains that the moon. But this is wrong. Sometimes. thé moon stands i.m ma. in an interstice between two Lunar Stations. where the string is fastened. or if her course is slackened and she bas not yet reached thé Station. i. However.ran is called Aldaika. and 26th of the stars of Gemini. Il th. 7th of the stars of jl~M't!& (Corvus). t. 14th. the moon stands in ~H-a)-at. the moon stands in ~ftfHAt (MonUe)./[(t cunsists of the 21st and 22nd stars of Taurus.Ii thé Do~ of ~H«tan?M. Sometimes the moon.stands in Al'auisMn. According to others Allawhilst others aga. e. but this is not correct. the 20 24th. i. tlae No'<e6i-<B of thé tail of Scorpius.the moon stands in &t'(!-j~/t. among tho ~e~?<.e.Ma.g. of the stars of Sagittarius. passes by (beyond) a Station.e. Sometimes.'mthere :n'e sx degrees on the ecliptic. 4th. ie.i.intain that it is $~!isidenticalwith~l!A<tA'e[. lOth. not reaching jlHMtHa.e. thé moon stands in the Balda of &e j'c.uhiu~Alaharutun. 40 Some one of the authors of 'AnwA-books thinks that ~H'aH/s-fM. not reaching ~Ih/MK~t (Aculeus Scorpii). as it were. Sometimes the moon. This interstice they consider as a bad otnen. where he saw them setting <<et'Alshai':). is called her ~fttbHotn it is disliked as foreboding evil. which thé Ara. stand between jStt~i-uM'~ and ~&&<n'<tff!)t. not reaching Alsimak (Spica). If the moon. Or (not reaching Alfargh AltMm).yMhim. the retardation of thé setting of AI'anîs&n 23 .r. an empty starless region between Alfargh Altuâni and Alsamaka (Pisces). 353 between thé Lunar Stations. Some people take thèse stars to be the bow. Sometimes.r<t. Some of these interstices are called by special na. alsoealled AT:tul9iyy(Nidlls Strnthiocameli) i. 30 13th.n stands in Aries morewestward (M.35] (On the interstices standing in conjunetion with a star or with stars which give the name to a Lunar Station and belong to it. the 9th.mes. whieh means the place where thé two cross-woods of the lmcket meet. and nea. but they are thé head of Sagittarius and his two locks.

1300.e. gressing towards the sun. (that they set after AIsharattn) WM caused by their northern latitude. and the six degrees of magnitude to which each star if belongs. and vice oeroo in the south. and according to their distances 20 from the ecliptic. with their longitudes 10 and latitudes. 24"). whilst it is nearly 16 days when she stands in eonjunetion with the sun in the sign of Virgo. and receding from the sun. whilst he is not at all seen in the evenings. The eastward and westward motions of tho Lunar Stations differ at the same rate as the latitudes of the countries.3S8. he must correct their places for his time according to the progression we have mentioned. whilst the interstice between them is as much as ~tha of a sign (t.e. The reverse of this takes plaHe when he 30 moves in the sign of Taurus. Now. when Venus stands in conjunetion with the sun in the sign of Pisces. further according to the six classes of magnitude to which the stars belong.you must add oue day to the days of their rising and setting in every 66 solar years. the reader wants to know the reality about the Lunar Stations. he uses the rules mentioned in the C~9M<M. Further.g. Mercury is observed in the sign of Scorpius in the momings as pro. In so doing he will arrive at certain facts when he haa to do with high degrees of latitude north astonishing of the ecliptic. Lunar Stations move on in one and the samo slow motion. as to their disappearing in the raya (of the sun) and their coming out of the rays.The demonstration of these things is found in the Almagest. . for then he is observed in the evenings progressing towarda the sun and reeeding from him. For it ia peculiar to the stars that those which have much northern lati. e.354 ALBÎBÛN}. the time of its being conceated under the raya is one day or nearly two days. whiist he is not seen in the mornings. Beoause. tude rise earlier than thjse that have less. We have represented in a table the places of the stars of the Lunar Stations for A. t. AU these particulam are explained and accounted for in Ptolemy's Almagest. Alex. the fixed stars which give the forma and names to the P. adding one degree for every 66 years. now. that in consequence the former set earlier than the latter. sinee in snch a period they move on one degree. Here follows the table of the places of the stars of the Lunar Stations. along with the names given to them by the astronomers.

j~g.s â 'r S ë G ~s 'i!"s~i's"?~ > mo ~Ntc°N ô °9~Fra aâ $N p~ a .<M~ S''aa'"°sis!i~"S2aj:S&'°S233=SS:: 'aoSts )pM!poz! -mo). j~ <~ <! a <.t[Ma ~S~~ )OttMq)!m)mf.t. ~< à « <) ~~<!<j i °.e.fXAK .jg ~~Mg~~t'w~~t)Ot)<uo)T:ct.g KTATIO~s. 355 ~M~MM~?)?T~ g ~~ss !~tua!N' 'saMN9(t ~V 8~SSS898° 5SS~S~2S~8329932SS.a.S~S9a 'M~a~a~?'). <j .t.ÿ.°-Ÿ ro~ÿ:~8°. 'm4 i i~B~ë~ j n~ë~E'BS~'Si'-S'3Tg~~E'Bgt'°'=' §Jl~ ~i~ ~'S~ M4~ i !ë~F6~ B~ ? ~ëigi~ NSSS~SSN~ _gë S S ~ggëg~s~sg. ~~ëëp~eôëë~ë~o~pëF~ëë~~g 1E M a.a .g . w -MM&.l! m S .S. q <.ô ~° â·ôom~ '_m. ~SS3BS X-'E:S"="°'Sas:="-SJ.a) j SS~SSN3 '='="M-<<..t~~oc~o'?c~?)~Mt~ !'MtnniK S33SS3"SS~a3!:3sS?S3E3~2''5S"=~=2-s -g.OX THE )t<)<tVmœn<t)B -~q~o~ao~io~ -MM~e~ f.g î o s .

s B `° i i H! j ~li~J-A~~J~ 8 ~w · ~ô~3 . ë § i& b ~§i~a. AMh~Nt.§.eM~~a'.p~ -auoH'Tte)s -nooa~tnaa~ }« N<))6 eqt )OBM<)nnmeq~ SS8'=°8S88S='SS8!9 <S OD~~«~<û~g~c?M~'t& a a 9SSSS"S8SSSS3 "~ns~~ssssssas §='='$SS§!9)9=8°S '=8§ ~«tOODQOO~'CO~OttOr~O N~N SS9S"SS"aS3Sa ss&8*"°S!!assa<" S9S sas SS3 -<sa-< 'o <at~t~t~~t<t-ooo&wn]ofoo&ao<]o ~~S~iSSSSSSSSN "<*as'°a'e'*s'a -'°' ~M~axmjom-swgM~ '<'< § ~J.856 'H~sïVn~n~pt '~VO~mpJfO ~M S~Zp e~tJ. 'é b '< . p.â.ÂO~C'p~ ·~i's~ S~g~~j~i~g g gigj s ~h~ ~°â~~â~g~â~â~â~ a.ÿo~ôô d 3 A ~q~ Q . M MMMMNNMMKKMK~ KM'MMMM~OM N00 ~2i j ~mn~ j'aaMjBaQ -MtHnnt~ -.

However. 357 have p357. and to point them out. Bt'sides. will excuse 20 The projection of great and sma. In consequence thé cones represent thcmselves as strmght lines and cireles. (On projection.tician. not knowing any s~echd treatise on this subject. Therefore. This is thé method of thé astrolabe (stereograph. and has placed them inside or outside thé globe in a straight line with the a. on an even ptane. un'crs many conYeniences in common to all classes of sehohrs.ON THE LUXAR STATION.s. that you make one of thé two pôles thé top of cones. <M' and the lines (of this cone) if they pass through points.e. as h~ (Abû-Hâmid) wanta to have them. for the human miud.xis.. cireles.it cireles and points on globes may be done in this way.tion of th. For thé pa~'ta (lines or points) which are common to this plane and the envelopes eommon to this plane of these cones if they pass through eircles.) Another kind of projection is what 1 have called ~eeyh'MA'tca~ro~<i<:<tu7t (utthugtTtphiu projection). once knowing at what digèrent times the différent stars rise. and not roferring the reader to other books until 1 had myselî nearly exhausted the subject. not everyone who requires thèse things knows thé positions of thé ecliptie. 1 must add to thé book another chaptor on the rcprcsenta. forms an idea as to the positions which they occupy in the ecHptic. Luna. (This is the central projecAO tion. Our remarka in thé pre10 ceding pages will enable thé student to recognise thé stars of thé Lunar Stations by eye-sight. and the plane which we want to find (the plane of projection) is one of thé planes pMfJlel with thé plane of thé equator. and 80 in the south the northern pole is made thé top of the cônes. and hypprbola. and eut a certain plane which is assumed. and what else there is on e:n'th. The reader. as ellipses. mentiuning whatcTt'r occurs to my mind.c polar projection). aro tlieir projections on this even plane.tions (on an evcu ptaUL').i S~tlun:) und of other constellations ott efett ~!<tMe~. or the général perspective projection. people have not becu in a hnrry to adopt such a curious plane. cities. So you get in the day-plane straight lines. 1 hope.)-l followed in this book a method which the student of this science will mot disapprove. Now. which 1 do not find mentioned by any You draw former matLema. However. for in the north the southern pole is made thé top of thé cones. Tho same appiies to the representation of countries. 1 snaU treat it myself.nsferred the tops of thé t-uuea frum the two poles. Tt is carried uut in this way lines and the circles and lines of thé planes parallcl to through globe the axis. the coner) represent themaelves as cireles and straight lines. 'Abu-H&mid Alsaghan! has tra. and the construction of star-maps. Then they (i. the envelopes of which pass through them (thé cireles and points). and ellipses . trehting in each ehapter the subject as fully as possible. the representation of the Lunar Stations as well as t)n' other stars comprehended by thé 48 constcHa. parabolas.

or to the of FM by 'Abû-AJhusain AIsuS. t. including the dieerenoe of time. from the same point in a straight line which extends to the centre. the purpose of the representation of the starn and countriea (onevenphnes)M this. but to let some of them revolve whilat the others are so that the reault of thM rest. points) M agreeing with eye-sight.e. In doing this we imagine the periphery of this first circle to be the to ecliptic. espeeially if some of them are near to the one pôle and others to the other pole. Wemust give an illustration to make the reader familiar with thèse methods. AU this is cïp~ined in mybook which gives a complete représentation of all possible méthode of the construc tton of thé astrolabe. J~ir AlbattSni. cireles. and connect each part of them and the centre by straight lines. These circles will he to each other. and count from this assumed point (the beginning of Aries). taking into account thé a of precession up to our time. always keeping in mind you that the straight lines are not lite the revolving (circular) lines. lines. so that in looking at them may form an idea of their situation. p. However. or to thé Canon of places Muhammad b. Divide the ch-cumference of the greatest circle into the (360) parts of a circle. and that thé apherM planes have no liteness to the even planes that are equal among eaeh other. Then the place you arrive at is the place of the body of the stars (i. proceeding from right to left. and its centre to he one of the poles of the ecliptic. Then we nx the of the stars according to AImagest.erbolas). Divide it into four parts by two diameters which eut each other at angles Divide one of the radii into 90 equal part<. cireles. (no parabole and hyl. as many degrees as the star is distant from Aries. But it ia not the purpose of the astrolabe to represent them (the lines. the corresponding number of the star's latitude in the 90 cudes. and describe round it circles with the distances of each of the 90 parts. Further count. make them correspond with their position in heaven and earth. Draw a circle aa you like it. p.308 ALBhiCM. the greater the better. and points do not represent themselves in the same way on a plane as on a globe for the distances which are equal on a globe differ greatly in a plane. Then we right make thé centre of the circle a new centre. the point determined by both the degrees of longitude and . patanei and will be at equal distances from each other. On the eehpuc we mark a point as the beginning of Aries. Take one of the stars of that half (of for which you heaven) have constructed this circle. That place where you arrive is the 40 degree of this star in h~t<M<~e. and changing accordingly the places of the stars as determined by our predecessors. process agrees with the 10 appeat-McM in heaven.358. One way serving for this purpose is the construction of the 20 flat astrolabe. On the other hand.

outside of it. thé class of magnitude and briUiancy to which in the six classes the star may belong. We draw a circle. paraHel to and distant from each other as far as in the former construction. We mark these circles with the bluo of lapis lazuli. west. straight on in their directions in infinitum. If you drew round the circle p. The same process you repeat with every star the latitude of whieh lies m the same direction. becanse the figures on the ecUptic cannot completely he represented. since some parts of them fall into thia hait. the distances between them which appear equal to thé eye are thé greater and wider in the figure. Next we try to find on thé line of the east and west the centres of e~h of which passes through onc of thc parts (dcgrccs) of the ciretfM). in order to distinguish them from the stars. which method is similar to thé astrolabic projection.'tprs cutting eaeh other at right angles). We continue the two d-ameters that divide th~-circle into fourthe. For the more southern thé stars are. divide it into four parts (by two diam. .ch other. Further.e. for then thé figures of the stars are in an undue manner compresscd towards the periphery. and they become too large about thé centre.359. in those points where the straight lines of their heighta touch thé plane (i. and the periphery into 360 parts. east). We shall now try to find another method. thé foot-pointa of thf ~t'rtieals). north. we do not like this method. Wheu these centres have been fixed. we get 180 arcs. as the places of the stars in heaven and those in the design (drawing) greatly differ from ea. In this way the object we had in view is reaHzed. according to latitude). This method. some into thé otlier half. and we draw all the possible circles round them within that first (and largest) circle. The same you continue to do with thé stars of another direction. south. which is free from thé inconvt'niences of the proccss just mentioned. the matter would evidently proceed in the same order. if its centre be thé north pole. and we draw round the stars of each constellation the image which the stars are beticvcd to rej'rcsent. till at last they assume quite intolérable dimensions. diameter and through both the north and south poles. we do not like.ON THE LPXAE STATJOX! 359 10 oo 30 ~0 There you make a dot of yellow or whito eolour. in the same way as is done with the Bat astrolabe. till you have finished all thé stars of this direction.e. a jd upon the points of the four parts (i. however. The same applies to thc method of him who wants to represent thé stars in thé plane of a circle which passes through the two pôles of the ecliptic. where thé diameters touch the periphery) we write thé names of the directions (ie. 90 circtes. after having fixed all thé stars in their propt'r positions. Each radius we divide into 90 equal part~. of the ecliptic. until you hâve fixed thé stars of the whole sphere in two circles.

passing through those points of the periphery whio]) are distant from the east and weat points 1 degree. the place on the circle of longitude. The same we do in the southern hait. 2 degrees. and then we connt thc degrees of latitude of p. Thereby we find the place of the star. whero we assume thé 20 west point to be the beginning of Libra In this way we can give a. in representing thc single star-groups or constellations. we draw those images which we have heretofore described. A is to be the west. The circles we get in this way are the circles of latitude. From the begiming of Ariea we count the distance of each star. we shall also have to show how we may find. 180in number. This is the technieal (graphie) me<. thé dia. D nortb. The same we continue to do with other places. we construet a similar figure M described in the preceding. so we find its degree (of longitudo). 2 degrees. the north and south points. On this Une we try to find the centre of a circle.hod for the solution of thia 30 problem. nntil 90 degrés. We draw thé cirdt! ABCD round the centre H. B south. C east. If we want to make a map of the earth. whieh divide each of the circles of longitude into 180 parta. and the distances of their centres from the centre of thé (great) circle. and the line fr~m east to west to be the ecliptie. and prefer them to technical (graphie) methods. As some people have a predilecticn for calculations. We make another figure similar to thé first one. moters of the circles of longitude and latitude. We count the assumed longitude of a place from the west point. Lastly. complete map of all the stars in thé two figures. So we find thé position of the place. Then we count the latitude of thé star in thé proper direction on the circle of longitude. and divide it into four parts by meana of the two diameters ABC and BHD. Further. until 90 degrees. These ciroles are the eircles of longitude.360. and which out each other at each of thé two points. on the line which rroceeds from 10 the south point as the straight continuation of the diameter. which divide the diameter into equal parts. ~n s . Thon we return to that Une whieh proceeds from the north point as the atraight continuation of the diameter. and through those pointa of the diameter which are distant from the centre 1 degree.360 ALBÎIfC~Î. And with that v shall finish our work. etc. by calculation. and like te arrange them in tables. etc. we assume the west point to be thé beginning of An"s.

Next we multiply DT by HK. of which thc radius HC M well as the nulii BH and HD hold 90. that point on the periphery of the circle where the line which connecta the two points B and K cuts the periphery. That is ZK. we change each side into that measnre. If you want to find the distance of the passage. J/o&-JtKKe. the arc AT. being determined by thé degroos. The multiplication of HZ. Thereby we get thé sum of HX+EZ.) This is the solution of the problem by means of calculation. after having found out so much. in the triangle BHE the sides are known according to the parts.):XARSTATJOX8. So it is changed into the sexage.e. it is evident that HZ is known. aimai system. e. draw thé vertical (t. the square of one of them We take the square of HB. i. Now. i. and the whole circle into 360 pana. (In the following the text is corrupt. according to whieh the radius counts 60 degrees. m<HM~ ZH. ie.p. which is one of the circles of longitude. thé radius of that circie to which BZD belongs. E. So 40 we get DS as quotient (changed into that measure.100.361. and divide the product by KB.e. To this we add ZH. So we get DT as the quotient. and divide it by ZH. 361 The radii we divide into 90 parts. and tbe product we divide by KB. ie. The latter point is the centre of the circle. Therefore we multiply KH by BD. which is known. we open the compassés to such an extent as thé new-found radius is long. and thé other leg we 20 place on the continuation of the line HA. and take the half of the whole sum. viz. Now. . The triangles BHE and BTD and BST are similar to each other. we multiply it by 60 and divide it by 90. In this way we can dispense with the knowledge of the distance between thé two centres. Now. to whatever point it reaches. is eqnal to the multiplication of HB by HD. of which the radius counts 90. according to whieh DT hoids 60 parts). by thé unknown sum of 10 HK+EZ. 8. the line which 30 représenta the height of a trapeza or cône) TS upon BD. which is thé diamoter we want to find. Because. now. which is known.e. and draw the UneTD. draw the line BK which cuts the periphery in T. we want to find thé radius of the circlo BZD. and the distance of ita centre (from tho centre H). which is known. one of the legs of the compasses we place on thé point Z.(MO i'UH i.e. i.

by whatever method we solve the problem. and the angle TBD in the second Bgtu-e. and n. know the side HE to this measure. If we. we take the corresponding arc from the tableaccording of sines. If we take the corresponding arc in the table of sines and sabtKMt the arc from 90.862 ALBÎBÛNt. So we get the are DT. the sides of which are known. M a chord determmea the distance between the two ends of an are. ia that which determines the whole distance of tha passage (from A). So we find what we wanted to find. we get AT M remainder. So. we multiply it by 60 and divide the product by BE. according to the measure of which the radius hoids 60 parts. . If we want to find the passage (T) by an casier method. we change the triangle BHX. and aiso the results. the end we aim at is the SMne. into that measure MCN-ding to which the radius of the cMe ABCD contama 60 parts. then. 10 I. Then the angle TDB in the amt figure. Here follow Figures I. If we want to change eaeh side of this triangle into the measnre according to whieh BK holde 60 parts.

qua. which ia Imown. We draw the vertical (Loth-Linie) MX. JO Let us again eonstruct the Mme figure to show the same thing for the circles of latitude. The circle of which wewant to find the radius h that one to which as well as HQ and CL are to correspond in number MQL belonga. Mid we dmw HX. the radius of the circle to . the ime of AM. and add QX to the product.re of MX. i. Then we aubtrMt HQ from HX. after we have changed it from the nonthgeaimat system into the sexagésimal system.e. AM number of parts).ON TRE LONAB STATIONS. which is also known. Of thia sum we take the haJf. By this we divide the t. to hold the same (i. The rt)m!tui<lt:r we get is QX. 363 II.e. which is the sine of DM. which is QE.

without the slightest dmerence. 1 have fulfilled my promise. if we change AH ioto thé moMUK according to which AK hoids 120 parts. which cata the periphery of the circle in T. whieh MQL belongs. aocordmg to thé meaaure of which the radius of the circle ABCD hoids 60 parts. and we take the arc from the taNes of wholo chords. r Thereby we get TC. LOtewise. This method applies in thé same way to the direction of C as to the direction of A. exerting myM]f the best of my cM~MI~ Every man acts according to his fashion. Here follows Figure TTT. and to lead him to .)-Now comprehended m my exposition aU the parts of this science. If we want to find the distance of the passage (T) from A.Myto the ~MhtS of my friemdd.e. Fnrther. 10 Multiply it by AS. we draw the line TO and draw the vertical (Loth-Linie) TS upon AC. and divide the product by AK. p. to that of B as to that of D. &greea. And here ends my work. Thon we multiply AC by HK and divide the product by AK. we get SC.362. and the value of a man lies in that which he underatands.& of the arc product AT). and 1 have (Condusion. 1 hope that the éléments which 1 have Md dowm are awmcient to train the mind of the otudent.364 AMÎBÛNÎ. t. which ia thé sine of thé arc of the passage (t. we draw the line AX. and the root of the is TS. the distance of thé passage (from A). we get the arc AT. If we multiply this divisor by HK.

S/MtuM-c~MM'~t–ma. after a clear proof (of the tftte religion) ha~ been presented to them. ido]a. he will be so kind as to correct my errors and to pardon whatever mistabes 1 may have ma. "Let those who want to perish (as infidels. Let us finish our book with thé praise of God.ters.) perish. the power of our lord. because he will either acquiesce in being led by me for thé purpose 10 of his instruction. vui. or. wherever 1 a. and on the strength of it. its brilliant light is the guide of my path his undisturbed happiness M my trust and my hope. nnd!<*t those who want to live (the life ef the <)-!te religion) live. and on the strength of it. after a clear proof (of the <)-:te religion) bas been presented to theiii.de. sufficient to lay open all that is doubtful in the eraa of prophets and Mngs. since my badge is.y God give long duration to his power Its firm column is my trust.ON THE LUNAB STATtONS." (Coran. and by continually praying to God that He may reward him according tu His mercy and grace. S.ctor. who aSorded me help amd guidance. thé benefa. May God teach me and aJI Muslims to be truly thankful for his benefits by fulfilling aJI the duties of obedience as prescribed by 20 the law. he will offer opposition to things which he has not the power of mind to handle successfully. If the reader be like me (in knowledge).m. the glorious and victorious. 365 a correct considération of the Of~'MM of mankind. But why should 1 mind-or be afraid of-the enmity of any adveraary. and upon his holy family . from the faet that it spreads secretly and openly 1 derive strength.44). the noble prince. he will thank me for the tMk 1 hâve carried out if he be superior to me (in knowledge). in case he opposes me. and who taught me to distinguish the path of truth from the path of blindness. and to give a Morrect idea of their own system to those of the Jews and Christian~ who are ted astray. he will not do me Miy harm. 30 The inercy and blessing of God be in all eternity upon the Prophet who was sent to the best of nations. If he be inferior to me in knowledge.

.

viz. p. L 14.). Ta. e. where he lived as an exile. day mea~is thc totality of day and night as well as thé light hidf .367 ANNOTATIONS. Kâbûs.1. L 27. The history of this prince is found in Sehir. who had received from the EhaJif the honorary name of SAfUM-~aa'a~ i.H. 5. .t the time of the S&Mb (i. pp. Although all three MS8.315-470. 25. Mard&w!j. 185-198. The words ~.ted to him according to all probability A.15.c j~ are very bad Arabie. have would have been more idiomatic to read The second form occurs n. 371-388.1.eddin's Cteschichte von Tabaristan. Sahib Ibn-'Abb&d the Vaxu. 94. belonged to the family of the Banû-Ziyâd. p.NycMAemefOK. ïf~tcA have co)M<!<Mcm from &em. 1000. SA<M)M-<t!m(''tM. Dom. 390 or 391 =A. A.7.of theBuyide prince) and when the family of Buwaihi held the country under their sway ").H.1. after having reigned A.g. 1 have ventured to adopt for the former meaning the word . It seema rather likely that between them a word bas fallen out.mily of Buwaihi A.e. &<? of the Heights. To this period the author aJludes.H.19.Joue. who ruled over Jurjân (HyKajua. P-. Kâbûs returned to the throne A.. next to impossible. 366-371.D. rv. 3.NycMA<MHe)'ott.H. 1 think it p.e. and was killed 403. Wading. 388. was driven away and Sed into the dominions of the S&mània.n dynasty.amd other countries south of the Caspian Sea during 155 years. ~)')~< or some synonym of To meet the inconvenience that the word p. whilst his country was occupied by a prince of the fa.baj-Ist&n. 2.l7. ed.H.. for which 1 t'eg the reader's pardon. 19 ("a. This prince. E&b&s ben Waahmg!r ben p. 1." etc. Thia book waa dedica.

a native of Ma~w." ad. was the famous composed matheinatician and astronomer. Prolégomènes des Tables Astronomiques d'Olough-Beg. 8. during which eating and drinking and women were allowed.39. Flugel.1. p. viii. and he ~logized to thé Prophet.368 ANNOTATIONS. 1847.M~ is not known to me. 23. there is a ~t-~&t~~ and a ~bMA. They were always the depositories of thé latest discoveries of Eastern astronomy. and the p. Sêdillot. For the éditions concerning° this subjoct vide BoUi&r! éd. 8. thé edipses and the diRerent length of the days is meant by the author in this passage. allowing his people to eat and drink and have intercourse with their women not only from sunset till the second night-prayer. i. 37.ted into Arabie by AItamum. except thé time from aunset till thé second or last night-prayer. and the annotations.1. with several other canens. PvA In my translation. (so I translate the word ~-) means a collection or handbook of astronomical tables of various kinds. (Table vérifiée. mt&b. variation wlcich«wn~ the etc. 6. We learn from the commentanes of Alzamakhshaj! and AlbMd&wî that the time of fast extended over the whole Nychthemeron. ff. ~mm once had intercouMe with one of his wivea after he had said the last night-prayer. thé Prophet abolished the old custom. 42. 7. p. read cc after the last night-p7uyer" instead of "ft/terM~M-pmyef. IL. However. was pronounced by Muhammad. Canon of <SM)-~<Mm ~&M&.e. A. The word Canon P. ie.AMhrist. I. The former waa of Persian origin. 241. I have not been able to aBcertain what relationship between eeKpMi). 6.m ~&. etc. nearly the whole night.) A Canon of S~t&t. and some too pious people mistook this day of fast for the astronomical day. vide "Hamzm Ispahamensis Annalium. Flugel. p. Habash by ('Ahmad ben Abd-AUAh). The second. by G. line 22." libri x D r.1. with either of which this Canon may he identical. p. and pronounced theThereupon verse in question. and was transla. For more information on thèse Canons 1 refer to the excellent work of L. end of the second and beginning of "I~Mg~ note 3. and notes. who lived in Bagdâd. ~!eep<ptMJf<MHM!cm~e! The foUowing discussion is of more interest to a MuhamnMdan theologian than to us. this brRach of the custom made him feel penitent. p. ~v. 183. p. This passage refera to a custom whioh existed among the Muslims in thé time before thé verse Sûra. or till a manfoll asleep." Paris. The canonieaJ time of fast was from the rise of dawn till sunset. Erehl. t&e!CMe& had 6e~ ~)r6tfMe!t. p. but also farther till thé rise of dawn. about raidnight. 244. etc." éd.and "Et&b-~nhrist." .

na.tediy as his m<M~t!ty prayer.uthM.fi relates that he lfM'M'1 the Sùra.~ ie. as that Muhammad represented the day. To a similaj. 9.tradition thé a. p. 3R9 etc. He ca. 1 have as Prof. into twelve divided equal parts. Atfar&n~a. 9. theseprayers are spoken with a clear audible voice.e.ANNOTATIONS. i. whilat they only work half the time. 36. rather. In auy case thia tradition must have proved. It seems however. This division does not ccmprehend thé mortiing-pra. before the bcgin)im~ uf the the rise of dawn. H!7H. tradition several times in AJboI~har! my attention to a tradition whieh occura A!S'ï'ra~tOM JfoXo)):~<ttMS. T~ j)~). m!t<e).~< So the MusUms receive two till sunset. Therefore they a. Thé Mthnr w!). etc.e.o/' the day M silerct (or.ntn tn pïnvR tha. whilst tbe morning prayer is not.H.uthor seems to refcr.e.g. In the Jfatco~ with the commentary of Alzarkam at Bulak.1. etc. KreU). i. Becttet! (" ii. the so. whether it be short or long. 149. The t~-o prE. 24 .t.yers are not voice or ~hisper thé lips move. . 46. p. prayer. Thé Jews work from sunrise to noon.yc~ of the day (j~!< aNd j~~ S~) m-e t. tiae to prnyer of the day holy tradition According day. and Muslims to workmen. Thé Christians work from noon work from the one The Musiuns and receive Kirtit. tom. the tradition name is deriT-ed from quoted by the mute ones.r to what p. L.t thc ~H i. changed Fleischer suggests.e. e.-YHSuf. 14. is not a day-prayM-.1. Christians.r.yer ~-t~!< ~< But it can be proved from tradition that this pruyer iE to be spoken with of MAIik bcn 'Anas (published an audible voice. according to the a. oare amd ~) The two pm. and Ku-xt.I~ the Mus<othe ~~)te o)t a J-'t-t~ thereby distinguiehing iims "&OM who &<M<e't them from Jewa and Christiajis. i. xii. which author. 9. It is not quite dca. in this Prof. Krehl MrnUy directed author refera the passage.t'en 'Um&irAlha. Tradition M/ttcAfeMM. and receive one tîll the MMrnoonK!r&t M wages. by hearing it from Oma.1. Sûra. What is he. but no sound with an audible spoken tlle ~ieo st7g)~ o)is produced. it M at because spoken is st~Mf (<r omie). A. The reading of the MSS. to read into preferable. afternoon-prayer receive twice thé wages of thé Jews. Hère Muhammad compares Jewa.yeM of thé night ('<~ i. p." publié pM L. these pra.called Sp(u tMMpum)'. 50.e called < :. who recited it rcpea.

e. 40. Nychthemeron are these or Jj~ Sj)L. The word ~:m<~œt! is supposed to be the Sanskrit St<MiMm<ct.U-«!< or ii~-M"tA~< Frayera of the night. J Proyers ~° The author'a argument is this.) of the da. of the The Svecamomoal payera p. Perhaps he meant by BetfeMt the ancient Jews. p.in the title of his book. the j~< would mot be the exact t)t~<Be in the way we have described.e. 12. a short treatise of A. 1. The quotation of Theon refers to the introduction of his npo~ctpot Km'oM!. L 22.M!e Chronologie der Aegypter.Bead~~instea. !7e6er f&MM-cMMc~e J<t&r. 30.~ ." ~\&A< ~j) ~t (. 165 ff.H. Flùgel's "Etab-aJnhrist. On the year of the Persians. 13. Paris. Lepsius. t. Samaritans.An astronomical hand-book of Indian origin. 12. A. whieh to us mean all the same. edited thé &rst time by AlfMâr!. Z<)~e!t<M. thé ." Berlin. notea. and because the ~< !)!L«is called thé middle prayer. e<~<!)L. is called the firat. that p~~ ~° or morning-prayer is not a prayer of the day. 274. Sachsis-'hen GeseUsohaft der Wissensehaften.y.jy.1. 12. and other Idndred nations by Je~. the first of the two day-prayers. the middie between the nrst day-prayer and the first If the e<~ night-prayer." 1862. v.. p. Jewa. 1849. 1. ie. p.1 July.370 ALBÎBÛN!. of the Egyptian year of 365 days.)<* Xt~ p. L 88. l'Abbé Hahna. and aU <&e explain what différences the author meant to express by these three words.ks of the Julian year of the people of Alexandria. LIS. Sitzungsberichte der Kgl. observe that Atber&ni writes thia word in thé more correct form of ~UMt. belonged to the da. 2%e/9M}'se<MOM. (}utsohmid.where he spea. p. for in that case the j~ !j~ as well as the ~<!< !)L. 1822. because the j~)< SjL.dof&~M. p. SjL. cf. 11.10." par M. B. NttM~MM!. and a second time by Albêrùnî's famous oountrymamMuhamma~ ben Mùs&AlHtwarizmt Afberûnî wrote a book (commectary ?) on the Sindhind with the title C*~ For the Uterature on this subject 1 refer to ~e<~< ~t ~!< jM~. 154.y-pmyers. and of the Sothis period of 1460 years vide Commentaire de Théon d'Alexandrie sur les tablea manuelles astronomiques de Ptolemée. Tte"a("j~e!etc. I mus! however. On the mathematical methode of the Bf~BMMA~Œtt&t. It is dimeult to p." p. On the Sothis period. 11. The He&yetce. would he in the midet betweem the mrat day-prayer amd the first night-prayer. <. 1.

t. 278). and it mcibus something ~< connected with the Lunar Stations.im.). death. p. and by all Me ~ftN?. it does not contMn a description of Fuka.e. 34. Wustenfeld. The genealogy of the Ka. And their MtMn)MtO)M. and cach of them is thought to refer to some special matter or event (life. xxxi.30. although it must be observed that this means "intercalary month.1). p!. in Ibn . L 15." as thé author maintains." iii. as ~<&tm&f[.BMMt)t. 13. 371 the totality monotheistie people in particular. p.H)tJ(t/'< otde Kit&b-alnhriat. 62. 1. road-side inus) of thé Lunar Stations. with Albép.d ~x-S). perhaaps certain sM&Jt<. 14. '~he text of this verse is incorrect." p. 338. 134. ~l)-a6~. <~y call ~1~/ti'maM. 1. aiso. and Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlimdischen GescIIschaft.Hng of the same subject mentions the Ribâtât and the Jtt/mf of the Lunar Stations side by side." éd. Our dictionaries do not explain thé meaning which the word .. and others./M/K)-. because the author saya that he will refrain from enumerating them. restimg-ptacca. JM/M! bas in this passage. The word oecurs in four other places in this book :–p. (as depending on p.e." not intercalaryyea." p.ANNOTATIONS.! (Eariter). 18. 15. p. and tom. etc. 352..d. both words oceur in the superscription of column 5. 1. Cf. the Jtt/'Kf of the Lunar Stations. travelling. According to the double construction of the verb the Indian word may either be It seems preferable to read & and to explain ~A*. 'Anauite. p. for 1 do not think that the Kct'!t<Mtjpoe<tc<t allowcd a poet to distort the word t–ds!~ into ~–<S\. p. secondly.15. 347. "Leben und Lehre des Mohammad. 530 ff. . 1. 16. according to the context.Js)'ft<'?. but with somc différences. Sprenger." tom. 1. etc. 39. but of 'Abu Thumâma. as thia would detain him too long from the subject of his book. On p. the mètre is disturbed. Their number must have been very great. The !e<!jo-yect)' p.t<or &3. Babbanites.1. 552. spea. These B&4<?< are called . xiii.)SMM~ (but this translation of mine is entirely conjectural).Mmis oecurs also. 17. It is a term peculiar to the Indian system of astrology ('Utârid ben Muhammad wrote a book On the 7M~. for. 9. 336. Ttt a similar «M~ the &M&eK rûni's theory.13. 7. the description of ancient Arabic chronology by A.r. i./f/). Reinaud. Lifo of Muhajunia. 42. and. of the Jewish sects. Mémoire sur l'Inde. Eea. victory. Vide a similar expression on p. defeat. The Indians derive their cMrrpoÀoyo~ct'afrom thé fact of the stars entering the J!t6t!< (i. Cf. pp. 341.14: The author.1. p. p. 16.

F. However. 1868. g. Refutation of the Jewish theory. 167 and p. ~i~!(!6 ~dM)))!<h(i. 5. p. the author of a J~tM&-<t~/iN)')-<t is mentioned four times. if we state. Instead of << ~)M<*(?. On the différence of thé Gospels. p.1.10. 17.n Gospels. 1.1. D. read ~M~ or 4J ë~ (FIeischer). i.1. p. etc. p. de Sa~y. As thé subject-matter seems to be of Indian origin. of Creation. The oldest Hebrew report concerning this man begins: n'r) iKXD ~-)U)-) 'û''ni'?xi 10~ nyNa an'?MQ~i n') iciK . 36. 32. v. An extract of the foUowing by AIma. p.1. i. F. Of these two psendo-Mes. but here the writing of the manuscript is such a bad scrawl that 1 do mot feel sure of having made out a correct text." 2nd edition.the order of the author's arguments.20. 16. By His&b-aJjunmiaJ the author undei-stamds the notation of the numerals by means of the letters of the Arabie alphabet. of BwM!e&Mc&.1. E. 235. 41. p.rit&ns. Bead inste:Ml of p. and Sama.r-nged according to the sequence of thé Hebrew alphabet. 1. 18.&M JM«AcNM)M<! Âmul in TiLbajistan or of Âmul or Am& on the Oxns).372 AMÎBÛNI. G.hs thé latter is well known. sia. 18. p. Cf. U. TAe Jews and Christian8 (!t~By. Notions of the Persians regarding the Era. 284. 19. A tradition ~bt. B. 9. ed.1. 2.1. a native either of p. Graetz.1. 34. 18. 5. C. 438. L 5.ria.thie Arabe.wMc~. 1. Justi.1. 8. p. t. 4).17. 344. H. 27. A. Geschichte der Juden. He is not known to me from other sources.1.e. 53. one may presume that the word also is derived from thé same source. 19. p. 17. p. For the -Pet'sMttM.1. etc. 19. p. p. p. Chriatians. p. ~M't. JL6~5M ~<~<Mtt.14.17. p. tom. vide H. 17. p. Notions of the Jewa on the same subject.~rizi has been published by S. fi<~ p. whom he catls Serene. 9. p. p. p. 17. 24. "Chrestoma.h (loc.1. 16. Of thé former name there is no pseudo-Messiah known in Jewish history. C<tM)M)< be ~MpctMed ??. 25. On secta. 6. For his history. Graetz reports of a pseudo-Messia. chapter xxxiv.1. with the following traditions. and Biblical prophecies relating to Muhammad. Refutation of the Christian theory. Notions of thé Chnstiams. etc. 1. 162). a. (Fleischer). 18. cit. 15." tom. p. Perhaps we shall facilitate the undergtanding of the following pages. 21. On the Thora of Jews. 8.

p. cil p. 1. 31. 434 ff. bas fallen out Perhaps in the Arabie text (p." xx. The Arabie translation of this passage is not quite correct. x. 1. v. p. and in all other passages (p.). ~of. p. etc. 19. 20.22 ~.ft.j~ Q~< j~: M~ iM although 1 am aware that this is bad and ungrauuMa. is also mentioned Ly Al. 17. in TiberiM.13. . &'Mce/e <)):<' tt'AeH. x. I9. 1.ANNOTATIONS. 1. aud the last word t)mn is writtcn for both of which rariations 1 am unable to account. 1. Je)'!M<t!e)it. 18. 4. 12. The author gives to this pro. And before this.ticat Arabie. 4M). 43.Eea~ (~e~ instead of (~ on p. 35. Dan.1." Accordingly 1 read the Arabie text J\-4i< ~L. impurity will be given to destruction. 18. It betrays a certain likeness to the translation of thé Syriac Bible (PesMtit). read~% with PL instead of~e<<. JB. Certainly a later Latin chromele calla him Serenus (Graetz. pheey of Daniel a wrong date. 19. 11) the word between the words and j~e–.e. II. etc.) the correct reading is ~~s~~ M~e!according to Yâk&t. Whether thu name has any connection with thé Arabie whether thé reading y~ is to be changed into students of Jowish history may décide.Jaubarî in "Zeitschrift der Deutschcn Morgctiliiudischcu Gp&'Uscha. 1. This is a blunder of the author's. p. 21. 1. where this passage is rendered by– ~<~M\ ~Zoa~ ~OL.." etc.1. 373 What you have asted regarding the deeeiver (or heretic) who bas risen in our exile. 1. :. p. 1'. not in the time some yecM <f ~e (tCceMtOK of Cyt'KS ~o<7M ~t'orne. 25. Rere. 8. 1 (" m the third year of Cyrus. 16.aû fmj? ~) ~o And from thé time when the sacrifice passes away. Bctwfen the words Q!TQ and Q'n the Arabie bas the signs i~).1. On p. and Dan. and ncxt to uiliitteDigiHe. 1.p. It falls into thé first year of Darius.tMu of the Jews of Galizia." etc. and whose name is y~ etc. 22. 20. JentM~M. It ought to be. ix. p. ~M<ft~te)'this. The authors tmnslitcration of Hebrew words i-esem~tes very much the present prouuncia.) A pseudo-Prophet. This latter date thé author has taken from Dan. etc. Pt'MHim. &tm of 1335.

read J~ got a servant to instead of (~ instead of ~t~.374 AMÎBOKÎ." And in the Arabie.f. ~~M~n. and Lane. Lexicon mnmee Gnecitatis. The idea of warnoN wearing certain t~dges (as o. 16. col. Bead <." iv. 86. p. well known to Biblical soho]Ms. p.y. 3. p. Arabie Dict.1. 22. 121. p. 25. cf. Anianus." and Btymologicum Magnum. de Sacy." ed. jtj!-J. ~<Aett<B!Mbut the well-known Athenœus cannot be meant here. L 28.1. Read "and ece~ one of <&emhad care of Mm. p.1. 17. 24. is known as a chronographer. 2. part i. s. 3. p. and now guneraJIy admitted to be apochryphal. etc. L 25.1.1. thé Greek name of a heretical seet. hitischen Einleitung.tt«MMM. 28. . pp. 342. For JM«~<tmm<K!. JB)t-<tBtMy~. in Sûra xx. 25. 18. 23. no. This name ia derived from the expression . 22. 344. 25." i. 5.1. iii.MM<M<M~a:.etc. he is quoted in the fragmentary chronology of Elias Nisibenus.had conguered.e. the cross of the Crusaders) occurs also in a tradition. 1 prefer to read ~~<. After yeMM~MM!. 339. In the foUowing line. Mt!s Kitâb-amhriat.20. contemporary of Panodorus. Read J~ instead of following tine read aci ~t instead of <et (~* (p.1. 2.h~ S instead of M<~S. and 1. 590. and formed up~n the pattem of Sùm iii. Schrader. This author. And each ooMp~. of the British Museum. and lived in the 9th century. 19. p. not ~~t ~<<. 30. Catalogue of thé Syriac MSS. te<<~ instead of < On the same page.j. 121. 276. p. Gaisford. The Arabie mamuscripts give the name u~< i. was a pupil of ~abaah. p. etc. H. 13). "Lehrbuch der Mstorisch. Geographisches Worterbuch. 26. vide De Wette. 1. p. It is identical with 'A6tyy~M. p." edited by E. 92. p. Bead At~t! instead of ~<~ on and m thé t. Forsha1l. etc. from whose Kitâb-al~iranât the author has taken the statement of Anianus." p.1. 5. J~otM of mm:~ tt-~o. au Egyptian monk. 24.~ S (" do mot toueh "). etc. vide Du Cange. 2. 6. p. read J~ instead of J~. But Mpm<t!echildren. Thia passage is of Eoranic origin. 40. The laat source of this tradition regarding the origin of the version of the Seventy is the letter of Aristeas. read instead of (Fleischer). Chrestomathie Arabe. 19. vide AIbM~aw! ad Sùra. 1. 97 vide S.

1. and died A. Least exposed. 23. t. and also Hamzee Ispahamensis jinalium. etc. 24.1. 240. (in Arabie 3~) the father of the Persians. The word )<jte in this report.eCatMMS (astronomical handcf. . In the middle-ages lie wa.H:h. 9. and 375 J~xo Joseph <M~ Mary. vide my Einleitung. etc. 16.ANNOTATIONS. and notes Otto Loth. on instead of ~b. "Alkindî ala Astrolog. p. 240. 28: "And he ordered a gréât quantlty of scientific books (S~ ~*)~)to be transported from his storehouses to that phce. 34." p. of the Origin and Frogress of Aatronomy. Narrien. into clearer words and more idiomatic Arabie. 11. Bead ~t instead of UU.uj. p." p. 272. p. one of the fathers of p. cf. The last source of this report is the Boo& on tlae D~et-eNCMof <7. p. f< is related that TaAoM~a~." p. 28. a native of Ba. etc. Tornberg.H." libri x. means so'eK~c books. many of which are still extant in the libraries of Europe. f. xL. 56).15 (Fleischer).tMr. Historioa. Wherever Albêrûnî quotes him. "Xitâb-alahrist. According to Reinaud. of Tasm and Amalek. 29. etc. 28. he w~ges war against him. 28.1. 28. the original inha. The Arabs have mistaken the Hebrew Q~H (~MM!.10. He lived in Bagdad. 4.on p. 1. 24. 56). 29. t." p. "Mémoire sur l'Inde. in the edition of the Arabie text. at Wâsit. it seema that the literaty work of Abu-Ma'sha. The same tradition occurs p. Hyrcanians. 1.r does not rest on scientine bases. ed. p. to judge by the quotations from his books ~fhich our author gives.1 account p." books). 265. Ibn-AJathîr. and for thé name of a man CAmîm ben Lud. toas not. and. 112.putting it. p. 28. Some genealogists make the Z)M of Geneais x. That <?tt~MtMM'& in the chfanicle of Ibn-Alathîr. Cf. astrology among the Arabs. and the latter would be thé Sanskiit ~«~tMft. i. Read instead of &M. 5. CtottwaMt. Days of ~'<t5&M and days of Arkand. 1833. On the star-cycles. p. 1. Kitâb-aMhrist. ed.bitants of the country of Moat)) for a ~ingular. ~tM-Ma'n'. t. (Ibn-AJa." p. was a contemporary of Aïkindt." London. etc. Albêrûnî made a new edition of the Da~ of ~f<ht?K!. and followed too closely the Sanskrit original. p. i. 27. p. 34." p. i. 5.1. Latin. 197. 322. 6. 18. 29. He wrote numerous books on all branches of aatrology. J. whilst modern philology bas hitherto scarcely taken any notice of him. the correct form of the former marnewould bc ~t!-yo6&<t«(t. 1.1. by Abn-Ma's. as also in the "Et&b-atnhrist. since the then existing translation was unintelligible. p.s well known aiso in and many of his works have been translated into Europe as ~~MOMMef.

" In the Arabic. "Kitab-aIShnst. 33. His history is rela.?.ting to the decrees of the stars (~< ~< ~t).~ <rMT<t~ book yii. n~o~~ot Kafox~.1. JM Hebrew.4. 283 Ibn-Al'a. 244. n~o~tpot Kafwes. p.PMHp the father of ~!e~<t?~)-.24P. J~t\. Histoire des Samanides. ~oroM~er." i. Nebukadnezar. 15. etc." ii. ed. p. HaJma~ p.p. 30. 32. are questions rela. and the methods by which these answers are found. ~M one of ~te tm~e). 1845. p. p. 1. Prolegomènps p. great ~n~ein the history of his time." p. Noeldeke). 3. He playd a. 32.tement regarding the era of Philippus ArridMus is Theon Alexandrinus. 34. H&bna. Muhammed ben Ish&k ben Ust&dh BundSdh AIsara~hs! and Abû-tJw&fa Muhammad ben Muhammad Albûzjan!. I. p. 28.tMr.H. Paris. 198-218). seems hopelessly corrupt. vili.1. ~oH6 ben B&W! MetropoK&tM of Mosul. 32 Ideler.33. Thé latter was born at B&zj&n in thé district of Nîsh&p~.376 AI. etc. 16. great landholder) in the district of Ma~w. 31. who belonged <o the sect. etc. 29.1. 348. 31. 7)~Mm (t." p. This is a mistake of the author's.ted bY IbnAlathîr.27. 30). etc. 33. 33. The books on this subject contain the astrological amwers to all sorts of questions. 134. A. Hamdbuch der nMbthema. Ptolemy corrected.1.H. 8.BÎBÛNÎ. The passage. My translation is entirely conjecturaJ (<JLt<(~ ~). A.'mûm (A. The source of this information M Ptolemy.1.1. This man of Sasamiam origin was a. 153ff. 86. Theon Alexa.H. tom. instead of~~ (De Goeje. ed. p. Defrémery. SediIIot. 1. 18. l. He ought to have s:ud Philip the brother of ~~MttM~t-.tischenund technischen Chronologie. ii. . 26 cf. ix. p. he settled in Irak. p. and died 387. 1. Hamdbuch der m&thema.. ch. The source of this sta. HaJm~. On the origin of the ~-<t jitt~t~t. cf. L. p. 4 (ed. 3. 33. Behind the wol-de t~ (~ there seems to lurk a gross blunder of the eopyists. Cf.e. ~0. Ideler. 44. j~t p.p. 1. Cf. 31.ndrinus. p.249. CM%pm. The former scholar is not known to me. '~OMK~ 6ett NttH. and was commander-in-chief to sevpraJ princes of the house of Sam&n. It was Augustus who. T%ejprosMo~tM. 328. ~Uy&X 2. 630. read p. 35. is known as one of those schohrs who translated Greek books into Arabie at the time of the Xh&]if Alma. p. 22. 58 Et&b-&Inhnst." par M.tischen und technischen Chronologie.

H. ~M~t. 'Ubaid-aN&h ben Ya. and died A. WM a.1. descended from a princely house of Hyrcania. 34.4M-B<ti!!r ~KK.t men of his time.t Ba~ra. 229. 36. vide Ibn-~utMba. He died A. 228.1. These verses of Albuhtur! form part of a larger poem in the poet's diwan which exista in the Impérial Court-Library a.tMr.. 338. moat famous as a chesg-player in his time. p. Jtf<MM)t te.n.335 or 336. vii. 36. 215). i. 37).mi was made governor of Al'irâ~ by the KhaJif Hisham ben 'Abd-almalik A. died A.1. 36. Eitâb-aJnhrist.phy of IbrAMm and the history of his family. p. 479.'M-if.H.'a. 10 (ed.t Jft'/tMK. a. The Barmak family were accused of adhering secretly to thé religion of Zoroaater.bbas. and gave a collection of their poema und those of other princes and great men. to 'AbdaJt&h benY&zîd. and Eit&b-aJnhrist. 34. amd died A. cit. amd held this office during 15 yea. Cf. p. was born in the second year of the reign of 'Uthm&n he was aecrot&ry to several grea. 'Âmir ben ShM&h!l ben 'AM AJsha. of eloquent and le:u'ned men.1.t Vienna (Mixt. nr." South-Arabian origin.e. A. 93). 294).1 of thé EhaJif in Surra. "Eit&b-alma. vide Ibn-KhalliMn. vide n&gel's Catalogue. p.H. Cf. vu. 6. 1.-ma. p. L 42.19. and as a friend of severaJ . 37. 36. p.waJddl.H.ANNOTATIONS.hya ben Kh&kan i~M made the YM!r ot the EhaJif Almuta. 243. nr.H. 275 at Snn'a-mam. 203. p. The family of SûM. 7. 1. for the Ehalif Ibn-alzubair.14). 263 (toc. Wùstenfeld. ben ~<t6M< ~4< an uncle of the father of p. a dealer in cloths and stuNs of tinen and cotton.'ârif" ed. 293. died A. ed. Ibn-KhaJIiMn. p.H.rs." p. For the biogra. Cf. (AIja. 160. 120. and died A. of p. Ibn-Kutaiba. 26.Uf Omar ben 'AbdaJ'MÏz. Wustenfeld.H. 14. 10.1. 325. 19. Ehalid ben 'AbdaUâh Al~a. v. 37. 669. 109. 9. vide Ibn-Kutaiba. p." p. 44. 6. the princes of Dahistân were called $ul. p.KhaJifs. (!oc.hy& ben'AbdaJlâh ben Al'a. 436.z!N.'b!.'ânf. 36. t. a most famous poet and high onicia. IbnKhallikân.H. 'AM ben T&hyA ~aa famous in his time as an astronomer and poet.1. cf.. 167). Ibn-Ata. p." p. cit. 377 p. p.EMy ~<MM'<<~M. 1. of whom severaJ acquired a great fame. JB!m Abu-Bah A~ûl} (on p.'â. the companion of several Khalifs. the governor of \lkufa.ra. 37. a family of poets. 236 (Ibn-Alathîr. He waa one of a whole family 25 . 117. e. 38. According to our author.1.t thé head of thé administration of tho taxes of Northern Meaopotamua.) under the Xha.H.14. 125 f. Muhammad ben Ta. In his jCt<< <tF<mf~ he related the history of thé EhaJifs. Reform of the calendar by tlae . 105 or 104. nr. till A. 105 (Ibn-Alathtr. "Kitâb-aJma.ra. 1. "Eit&b-alma. Wuatenfeld)." p.

On these mythological traditions. Sprenger. Die Religion der Vonstamischen Araber." Philosophisch-hiatoriache Classe. p. p. where once a battle took place. 46. and of A. il. 34. 44) aeems doubtful. p. On this iM.ted to thia subject. iv. iii. of wMch nearly one haJf of tom. The following fMnoua battle-da. 34. 39. 1863.433. 73 amd 96). p. Therefore it would perhaps be preferable to read t%e day of ~<t~ p. Kreht." p. For more detailed Moïma.'&nf. 85.thir. Eit&b-aMtuMt.r of Alnj&r. Et&ba. B. Band-Euraieh. 1 am melined to believe that the author had scafcely any other in. 351. formation but that of ~amz& AIia&tMm}(tramai. Their proper place would have been between thé SMMUMiaand the Khalifs (after p. p. "Arabum ed. :L 33. 34. According to the author. I~overtia. In the Arabie.1. p. achaft. 1. mentions ~~&< a place in the district of the Ba." Leipzig. i.nûEI&b. 39.!ma. 804. by GottwaJdt. vide my treatise (X)~ec<ttf <« TeM~Mf~ i. L. read J~ i]Mte&d of J~ (Fleischer). For the following report on the antiquities of Chotamnia 1 refer to my trea." i. 558ff. such as exhibited by the mamuacnpta. On the Dame p. 471 & 7. iii. &t<. 40. 39. cf. AInma'ùdi. p. Cf. L 39. 83.tMr." ed. The pronunciation of the word ~~<t~ (p. in "ZeitMhnft der Deutschen MorgenMndMchem GeaeU. p. Ibn-Ata. the last Sasanian king. instead of and p. reliable and clear text can be made out. te&d J~ p. ed. 143. 40. This passage proves that there is a hMMM in thé order of the chronologieaJ tables. 128)." p.tion 1 refer to the chronicle of Ibn-A!a. 26. 1873.378 AMÎBÛNÎ. de Meynard. 450. tom." p.QeecMcMeund 0&yMM~~e X~~y&M Z. Academie de Wissenacha. Me&<Mx! <Me~. also Ibn ~utaiba. 40. Freytag. 41.1." xxnii. but more manu. No<tM~M<K~.1. The manuscript of thé UmveMity Library of Leyden proves a coMidemMe help for the emendation of Btamza.1. ]ine 13. too. 12. Daa Let)pn und die Lehre des Mohammad. pnblished in the "Sitzungabenchte der Xaia. his work contaimed &bothe tables of the pnmcea of South-AKtMa.tiao. 320 &) is dedita.'a work. Tomberg. 1. pp.th!m~but no such tables are found in the mamuscripta. 293. Ta~ùt.ttem in Wien. "Prairie8 d'or. in which Mohammad took part.ys of the ancient Arabs are well hnowB to Arab Matonana. (p. 34. of dtatinguiahed poets and acho)aja who traced their origin back to Yazdagird. 39. cf. . of Affigh. etc. Cf. actipts will be wanted before a. 16.30. A. but the table of the JHifJita is lost.

380. Paris. 43. Müller.H. t. J&tt-46t!<lh'œs!<M~l~t. Spiegel. famoua as an eloquent writer in prose and verae. p. 45. was the secretary of the Buyide prince 'Izz-aldanla Bakhtiyâr. 3~. Xit&b. That Alexander waa originally a son of Darius. Ibn-Kutaiba. is the tradition of the Sh&hn&ma of Firdausi." ed. A man of this name. Wüstenfeld. 247 Tabari (Zoten. 197. 3. p. also p. 1. 152. 105. 35. bas a Sasanian name (T~aujushanas). nr. but something like it. by Ibn-at'atMr. lot. 24. 30 ff. Alexandersage bei den Orientalen. aldaula. 45. Bead instead of ~M (text. Piece by piece. Ibn p. according to another statement.ANNOTATIONS." ii. That Nebnkadnezar ia introduced into the tale. n.e. Didot).E. The murderer of Darius.1. 1. or. 396. 20). p. p. p. occura aiso eisewhere–Mas'ùd!. Tiii. 349. p. cit. Rujan und Mazandaran. whilat in the original there are two murderers. The passage p. The chief source of all information of eastern authors regarding Alexander ia the book of Pseudo-CaUiathenes (edited by C. Ibn. i. cf. 101. 41. vide aiso Tahar!. . On the pedigree of the family of Buwaihi. The title of his book (p. history of the Buyide princes. i. 'Abd-ah'azzak ia mentioned in the history of the Buyide prince Rukn. 1 prefer to read ~ziMit&toa)'instead of Azkajawâr. 33. before A. book ii." p. 379 p.1. For more information I refer to Fr. 512 Ibn.n the varioua Greek manuscripts of the book. He died A. 6) read ~IM~ instead of J. F. Dom. 516. ia not known to me. t. Cf. F. 10 and Register. 26. 1835.al6hnat. Prairies d'or. 77.1. 9. and the whole pedigree. 14. 44. 8. 175.1. Abù-Muhajnmad AJhasan ben 'Atî ben Nânâ. p. Kit&balma'ârif. i. Qenealogisehe Tabellen T. p. 22. 45. Abù-Ish&k IbrâMm ben Hilâl. 20. among the éventa of A.16 (Fleischer). 5. 384. 3). cf. Tiii. p. 1. 45. 36." Berim.1. p. p. 41. 43. Bessus and Artabarzanes (ii. The book bas been treated with the samo liberty both in east and west. 45." p. does not occur so in the Greek original. the Sâbian. 1846.Alathîr. 199. 1. and it seems that the eastern translations have not lésa diKered from eaeh other tha. 38. 134 Ibn-Xhallikan. 1851. berg). Wilken. Mircbo~d'a Qeachiohte der Sultane %us dem Geschlechte Bujeh. p.H." Leipzig. Dia Abth!r. Bead instead of (text. 41. mentioned a8 the author of a. 44. ch. p. Most of the names which oceur in this pedigree are alao found in Sehir-eddin's "Gt~schichte von Tabaristan.1.1. p.

B. 171-201 and 322. in occupying Tebajistân.ba. After ha.to governor of all the provinces which his sword had conquered. eddin's ehronielo. 39.ble to make out which form is the correct one. ~~f tadir (A. there seems to be a lacuna which 1 have no meams of is the reason why the following words do not filling up. 302. A.H. Dorn. Bead J<~ instead of J~!< (text." ed.ymg made himself thorougMy unpopular. 1. 11). 8. It is not clear who was the Bon of tt~MA who inatigatea MMd&w!j to free the people from the tyranny of Asfâr. A. He did not long enjoy the fruits of Ma labours.n. me. p. 38. by Dom. and adopted the black colour of the Abbaaides.clear meaming. on pp. Ta. p.tive of GMIAn (not na. who abandoned the party of the Alides. The latter. perhaps they have some sort of relation with the word JyaA:/<Mt. Between the words Mid~et (line 6). he was killed by his genemis. Soon.295-320) the party of theAMd' tiied to occupy the countries south of the Caspian Sea. L 11). This &M:wtMt offer a.1.bariatân. 38." il. were more snccessM than they themselves. Weil. 15) are unknown to p. The names of Lâhû amd Layâbaj (p. Vorwort. GMIAn and Jur]&n. In Sehir. 1850. Asfâr ben SMra. Rujan und Ma. p. the generals of the Alide princes.za. 47. The Brnt Alide whose efforts were crowned with aucœss was J~MM ben 'Alt called ~~n-~r~<~&. 5).1.H. MâMn ben KâM. . 46. na. He abandoned thé party of the Alides.H. p. 316. however.WNhi. Eead J<-J imstead of J*-t (p. and tried to extend his sway over thé neighbouring countries.tive of Aljabal or Media). The name of his father is written and and 1 have not been a.M. about A.10) and J-~ instead of J-~ (p.12. 23. read J~!< instead of J~. Geschichte der XhaJifen. the name is always written j\4). Dailam. 38. p. 1. and in rendering himself an independent ruler.1. Bueceeded.ra. "Sehir-eddm's Geschichte von Tabaj-iatân. 6%tM~.380 ALBÎBONÎ. In the text. Asfâr. at the head of whom was Mardâwij.nda. Mardâwîj was a J~. 1. 47. cf. Bead instead of J<\) (text. 46. 6. 11. 25. t. Cf. note 1. He was the founder of a dynasty who held the supreme power in those countries during one hundred tmd fifty years. O~t.te of Ahm~p. To the Ehalif he made himself so formidable that he was invested and proclaimed as the legitima." etc. Mardâwîj was now thé ruler of TatKu-istân and Juijân.rist&n. Lailâ ben AInu'mân.316. ben <S~~<t«xt& Under the Khali&.e. which ia the aame of one of the two capitals of Ghilam. A history of this man and of his descendants is found in Sehir-eddin's "Geschichte von Ta. fighting against thé troops of thé Samanian princes nf Ehurasan and those of the Eha. 613-621.

vii.1. a. In the text on p. ma." ii. 47. Dom. 47. instea~ of a~ ThenameJh~M~~tMM&ma.u~. -)~t tmd Dom. P.13 and ~<!< instead of ~<.garde. 381 p. Marzub&n ben Buatam. AM'Alî ben Niz&r. 506. 322.14. read (~~ instead of (~ Cf. 9 of J~.. in Sehir-eddin's ccChronik von Ta. 48.Tâlib. Ibu-Al'a. The Ispahbad . 221. 88. vlii. 30. Ibn. cf. TeaA J~ instea. 5.ba.19 (FIeischer). They are called <~. 1. etc. vlii.. etc. amd in the geogra." ii. founded the empire of tho F~inude dynasty in Htdra. I. 201-210.ms-aJma. A. Thttt pnnce of this dynMty who ruled at the timc of onr author..tMr. 16. Weil. ~utmb~ "Kitâb-aJma. 27." ed. 48." p. 47.sfirst colonized by Eisra. Shirw&n wa. Hamza Isfah&n!. 29.386-4. Geschiehte der Chalifen. Bead e)~ ft.'aMis also mentioned by Ibn-Al'a.nd ia botter known under the naine of Alhâldm. our author has dedicated one of bis books. 1. 8. Anôshirwan.1.14. amd 36. 698. 48. T%e NM~ of SMn~ ÂthârAccording to ~MwM. ed. Einleitung.1. 57. 24.H. a relative of his Verauch einer Geschichte der Shirwânahahe.d of t!!U~ 1. 48. vide my edition of the text.kes thé Shirwânshah of his time descend from Bahrâm.H. J~instead p. The history of the ancestors of the Ispahbad Bustajn is related in Sehir-eddin's Geschichte von Ta. 2.bM'iatam.ANNOTATIONS. Prames d'or. p. 344. ed. 1.11. 50 ff. Ibn-Al'athîr. 31. Dom." p. 19. nr.Gûr. 34 and 38. He pretended to bo a descendant of 'Al! bon AM. 12 family.witn and Egypt. 31) was EhaJif of Egypt. Cf. A. 270. de La.tM]-. pp. 4. 39. p. pp. II. 3. The Mnga of tLo country were called (~ Anôshirw&n is said to have mstatled the first governor and prince of SMrw&n.m. 283. Thé same pedigree of the house of Sâmân is also given by Ibn-al'a. 82." p. . 47. 345. 403. Geographisches Worterbuch./fMtM~ of ~<î<m~ In p." etc. PMf~!M&. the uncle of Sha. p. albil&d. ix. p. 296. xl.rista. p. pp.phy of Ibn-Ha. 7.1. X~MfM~. Gottwaldt." p. Cf. BeitrSge zur B&ktnschen Lexikographie. 192.n. To a son of this Buata. (p.BM~m. 42.'ârif. M:M'ùdi. Y&kût." iii. the Ispahbad of J!Ij!Iân.y possibly be identical with that name which AnosHrw&n ia said to have had as the govemo)* of tM~nat&n in thé lifetime of his father.1. 32. Cf.tMr. 4.

p. 41. 34. transi.1. "Etâb.1. XV. p. 294. v. 82. cit. n. 41). The spelling of the name ~&antt~ 1. i. The following reaeoning occurs alroady in Hamza. translated by Ûottwaldt. Some of the names of this pedigree exhibit rather suspieious forms. 49. p. "Eit&b-alnlu-ist. bc. Gottwa. de Mey. p. 49. Another name of the same root is e~' in Hamza. Gtenesis. 1. vide Ibn-Duraid. p. Bea~ inatead of J!a. acher).. "Prairies d'or. 310. His geographical work has been edited and ttamata-ted by B. p.4. Albe. is une-ertain. and wrote p. xxxvi. ed. M JW<Mw tive of 'ttm accordimg to Ibn-Dumid." ii. 1.aJiaht~â~ is the diminup. 244. JRsoM'." 1866. 200. vide p. 50. 486. i. Be&d m«<Mywcttef. On this famous juggler. "JoumaJ muj. therefore. loc.Ibn-Alathîr. If. I feel inctined to suppose that in this pedigree there is a ~M<MM between 'AJ~ and e~ that <& thé son oi Noah was originaNy the end of the Crst pedigree. It seems to be the diminutive of '~6t~ (Ibn.15 vide Ascoli. 41. 11. 7. 1. and Spiegel. TI.tique. p. 293.8). rûm!. For the spelling of the name T<Mt'MM. there is a &MM<M.. 49. and that the second commenced with Alexander ben Barka. 248.aJkamain. . p. 100. vide Mas'&di.14.~) perhaps ~<M ~(p<M ? POf.1. traMi. J~. wM postmaster in Média.1. and note.M(t<e)'. p. "S&darabische Sage. as 1 suppose. S) (Flei. 1 must atate that the pedigree-such as it is given by Alber&nî–also meurs in Maa'ùdi. 6.m~t instead of j~St (text.Duraid. Aeia. i. 6-9.tdt. p. Mas'ûd!. 84~ p. 26. vide ~amzn Mahânî. 48. On the supposed South-Ambian origin of Dh&. 41. 28. and Ibn-al'athîr have drawn. This opinion is supported by MM'Mî. 'p.bout the middle of the third century of tho Flight (befiween 240-260). 36. p. 8S. etc. "Alexandersage. 249 A." pp. However." ii. pamza. The name SM&<~ occuK also in J~m-. (text. L 37. ii. and muet have occurred already in the source whenee all. Kremer.HMMftt. The life of Muhammad. 41.1. Zeitschrift der Deutschen MorgenISndischen Geselischaft" xv. it is a blunder of older date. and Ibn-Al'atMr." p. Bead ~U Latinue. ~t is a corruption of ~B$.143. 60. ct<. p. 49." '~6<MM& ben jar&M. 70-75. 100. 200. Prairies d'or.B~M-<MaM& a. 60.882 ALBÏBÛHft p. 132.1. 50. The combination of Dhù-a~amMn with AhnuDdhir ben Inmu'alkais.1. p.

1. p. yfM<~w' jl!/MMft is also mentioned by TA~At. mentions an Ahma~ b. a. p. p. dated . The worda 1. ben S&o&<mxt&t. 44.jAhmadbenKha.n dialect. 1.1.)~ instead of ~~)~ (text. man worka into Arabie. 207. "Et&b. p. 5-27 do not in the IcMt harmonize with the thcre preceding. i. These days have aJso Arabie namea (!oc. cit.1. Geogra. L 39. 56.7. 55. As thèse namos. is continued in 28 ff.nation which ia cerniuencef) 'n U. Y&~&t may have drawn hie information from this book. 37. 31.Sa'id 'A~mad ben Muhammad.MAlza. 1. p. Bead j~ instead of j~ (text. 416.aj&m. p. 56. Elliot (now the property of the British Museum. p. 40 and p. 44.1. 22. is menp. SI. S4.1. which makes me believo that after thé word ~f(Mtat--J(f'?/t ie a gap. ~M(!<MMnM tioned in Etâb-al&hrist. 22). the Bcamty remna.atfara. 107. 245. 31. EhaJaf among those who made utronomical and other instruments. 383 This nation is mentioned by Byzantine authors p. p. 52. 246." p. add thé Mailings of the Canon Masudicus of Alb8rûnî according to two manu. 3. p. 63. 4. p. 1. EeaA (~ j~.native of Sijistâu. is mot known to me from any other source.S4. p." Ab&. Abû.11.16). 118. Mcordmg to Ma.alnhrist. 204. f.8'n<M. Thé same names occur in Ma~'M!.phisches Worterbuch. 202. a native of Isfahân. The expla. 6). and this book." iv. 416.1. 415. Abù-alhasan AdharHmr ben Yazdankhasts is not known to me from any other source vida p. 53. 4. p. 54. p.nia. He is atso mentioned on p.1.blished aequence of lucky and unlucky daya would have been disturbed.1. 1 sha.iii.1. 1. Bead ~M< instead of (text. are of considerable philological interest. and p. 284. aJthough the manuscripts do not indicate it. MS.nts of a long-lost Era. also mentioned p.ANNOTATIONS. L 16). that thereby thé esta. 970. 34. under the name of SojStpo~. as one of those who translated Per. p. ~S'<MC'M'. p.l. scripte. 54.1. 29.l. 14.1. p. Thé reason why thé Persians dLd not like to mcreMe thé number of days of the year was. iii. 43. 53. 24. 3.

The reader will eaaily reeognize the relationship between the Sogdia. (~~ . The name (name of the 8th. and 23rd days) is. 570. 110-113. which would he equal to DathueU. "TIeter die Monatsnamen einiger alter Volker. aco.< (p.~ (Tead u~) (." The form (~. 2) reminds one of the Cappadocian name O~. 14a.Mf& o~" fW ~t~ MS. and MS. the genitive of r< and would resemble the Cappadocian A. p.)." p. which ia perhaps. I am sorry to state that there are no tables of thèse Chorasmian names in the Canon Masudicas.B.M~Benfeynnd Stem. S7. like the Persian Dai. 2.~er. B&M' I. pp. 57.384 ALBÎBÛNÎ. or MSS.<tH~~ of our author.(MS. < 0–' t~M. 110). copy of thé "Et&b-aJtafMm" (MS. Elliot. (Ben. 17. Bagdad.j-< d)~ tJU~~t <-)~t/* t}m*t Whoever wants to expMn these namea will also have M consult the six mamuscript~ of the JEM6.) Cf. On.n MKt Cho~MmiaB names of thé days of thé month and the Persian names thia is more difficult in the case of some of the names of the months. . Berlin (the property of thé Roy~ Library. of the nodiemn Library) in the following form (p. nor in the "Eitah.~t t. 311. ib. f. aJta&!m. 165) ~A-~ u. 109. a metathesis for ~j. 79). p. Dula. E. to be retraced to 2)<o (Benfey and Stern. 1836. 8°.) c~u. 10." Berlin. Berlin.). me. "Recherches aur la chronologie Arménienne.~(readu~. pp. MS. 15th. montha of thé Armemma but MTe found them in a. A. The corresponding Sogdian name (p. 56) is written ~-J.6o~. fey und Stern. 275). and the moat ancient copy of the Canon Masudicus in the Bodleian Inthis book Albërnn! doea not mention the Library. t6.

ting kindly the word by Me t. Ahù-al'&hMs Al&mulî.1. 385 p. ct' pp. p. known only to schoIa. ia mentioned by Hâj! KhaJîfa. Bead ~ii~< inatead of (text. The mMH tnonth. amd notes.1. 51.1?). B. On the names of tho Egyptian months. Chronologie der Aegypter. 147. 1. On the Egyptian names of the 5 Epa~omensa." p. Twenty-four hours are = 86. 1.10. Dctt. The montha which this author ascribes to the People of the t!~< are our names of months in forma whioh can hardly be traced back to a Latin source (ancient Spanish ?). one must read this word h~. i. 272. ~62. 59. Stem Coptic word for leap-year is 't'A-Tro~T-) informed me. 259.ft~tMMCf!AM. "the small month. loc. their forma and meanings. 1. 271. A~ !~M. 21. I suppose that by the People he means the inhabitants of Spain. give a quotient of 118~. This book is not known tome. 1. p. 61. L 1C. 59. s~MOt. 33. was a learned name. 221 and died 288. etc. p. 'en65)'e<o9ttmt!ctH<~jMo<." p. vide note ad p. The Coptic name for the Epagomenm p. 59. the author of a book on the ~Sbb. B. of the T')7es< p. which.1. Muhammad died A. p. 236. called the single p. AM-'Ahm&d Alta. S8.EtM6-<)M'~M!&. 1. 13. vide Delambre. 134-142. p. since the t." p. 146.1. 73. Read t)~ instead of c)~ (text." p. p. It is not known that the Egyptians days of the month by spécial names. 58. "Histoire de l'astronomie du moyen age.1. 14). Thâbit ben ~Tirra.1. is p abot n kouji. 145 and thia book. divided hy 729. known as Ibn-aJ~ and he died A. S8. 22.n. p.H. Lepams. 137. 3. Hia full name is Abual'a. On the iamily of the Ba. "Chronologie der Aegypter. 48. 57. vide Kitâb-alfihrist.J6. It seems. Theword'JB)-~mt=Be6t-ew." pp. 22.. 17. vide R.M it meant that people of 26 . iii.1. 26. p. 25. 61.400 seconds. 60. 1.1. p. Lepsius. In that case the author WM wrong in trajisla.ANNOTATIONS. Lepsius. p. p. 'Emun~.e.bM! Atamul!. 335. cf. ht~.e.H.nA-Mu~ w~ Eitab-alËhrist. L. as Mr. 45." cf. 61. On his astronomica~ theories.bbSs 'Ahmad b. 59. was born A.

cit. tical tradition of both Jewa and Chriatia-ns. vide Ideler.467. Fa. The words in that month when the <eM MoMom are the rendering of the Hebrew y~n <]~T)T1.tement regarding the 4th cycle of 95 years there is a mistake we must read 1. from Exodus xiii. The month 'ÂMb bas tthmya been identified with Nisân by the whole exege. 1. p. oM!eIdeler. M (taken from Ahna~rîzî).c.1. is the lea.T:." p.=9. p.toa of Tenedos (about 500 B. p. 13 h. 605. 365 d.e. If we reckon 1. t. i. 12h. The cycle of 19 years ia the cycle of Meton. Thé cycle of 95 years (5 x 19) bas been used by Cyrillus for thé computation of Easter.c. Norria.remainder of 29 d. "Handbuch der mathematiachen und technischen Chronologie." cap. under thé law of Moses. we get ae the remainder 725 11.175 lunations. t. Asayrim Dictionary.thie Arabe. de Saey. 62. cf. 1. p. and a. loc. (Deut. 63. that Adh&r II.176 monthe. The synodical month or one lunation is=29 d.w of Moaea. h. 3.na. invented about 432 B. 1(!6 Pl~yQ ~!t). B.175 mom~ instead of 1. ~Mtem~e)..e..176 hma. SO.e. c!<. This view.C. we get as quotient 95 (years). 297 ff. This quotation is an extrait p. who no Ic~ger Mw in Syria. Mttiquity who spoke the Hebrew tongue and who lived in Syria.149. ChKsto<tia.190 H. The cycle of 532 (=19 x 28) was invented by the Egyptian monk Anianus.) vide Ideler. 1 lunation plus 725 1. 63. 277. 1). 451. t. 299. 1. <oc.386 ALBÎBONÎ. 40. 793 H. loc.15. In the fmthor's sta. 1.p-month. amd . by theEMMa.).1. cit. 528 N=900.of the following chapter has been edited by S. The names of the months of thé Jewa oecur also in Assyrian. but are seattered aD over thé world. one lunation too mueh. 63. Ideler. p. but 1 do not soe for what reason. waa heM p. If w divide this sum by the length of the solar year. 37. v.1. 62." i. On the invention of the Octaeterie by Cleostra.MCOTdingto Eliah ben Moae in Selden. p. The cycle of 76 6 yearsis thé improvement of the Metonian cycle by Callippus of Cyzicus (about 330 B.208 H. 31.727 d. 259. cit. vide Ideler. i."etc. 23 h. Jew ia a popular name whioh meams the descendants of that people. 438 H. xvi."Dissert&tio de civili amo JudMco.the <!<ty. but who atill live under the la.tn)M=84. who no longer apeak Hebrew." ii.. 344. pp. loe.18.

Cf. ~t~. = A minute. =2~ seconds. 1 = 9.oh.remainder= 5x19 5 x 235 5 x7 5 x 145 This remainder représenta the difference between the rota. III. = 12. Of thé atill amidierdivision of time. according to the Arabie. I give a comparison between the H~Ja~s and the other meMures of time: 1 honr = 1. 1 E[. I. 1R~ =. 64. 1"=AH. 1.. 'Adda bar 'Ahabâ. 1 minute= 18 H. beca. the JuUaN year (in the calculation of R.000 iv.1751unations 35 leap-months = 725 9. 6~~ h. = 95years = l. of the 0~~ (one Bëg~' =76 H&Ia.use it is five times the remainder of thé cycle of 19 years. 1 H:J&h = -r~ hour. 1 I°· iaouo 1 v. 387 this resnit is correct. whieh in ~he Canon MMudicus is sometimes rendered by (jt<a. 11[. of which th's cycle is a five timea multiplication. Hebrew word p7n. Regarding the origin of this year there cannot be any doubt. For the convenience of those who want to examine the following computations. = 200 m19. 5 h. which is the basia of the calculation of B. equal to 365 d. and a s~'ientiËc year derived from the researches of Hipparchus.h).080 M. h.1 have not found any trace in the works of AlbËr&nî. 32. ? a o o oo H. coMisting of 365 d. The year vhich Alberûnî mentions.ANKOTATtOKs. Lazarus Bendavid. as 1 have written. 19~%=.. J. 3.080 HaLAs= 1 hour.tions of the sun and the moon at thé end of the cycle. 19. is the p. "Zur Berechnung und Geschichte des Jüdischen B&Ienders. 997 H.000 vlt[. is the year of B. Samuel)." BerHn. = 720. Thé . 1817. 'Addâ. p. In Jewish chronology there occur two kinis of years. 48 Beg.

and the synodical month as 29 d. sta-acted their cycles.t!on. whieh is equal to the sum of75.867 H.). eomparisons between thé rotations of sun and moon could bo carried out with a much higher degree of Thereby the Jewish ehronologists were much better situatedaccuraey. p. This would be the diSetence between the rotations of the sun and moon at the end of the firat Octaeteris. t. When Meton and Callippus con.e. 16 h. than Meton and Callippus. 387 H. ie. The Jews countedthe solar year as 365 d.939 d. theae two measures had not yet been defined with a great degree of accuracy.e. 6. Jewieh chronologista found it by dividing by 19 the Enneadecateris of Meton.467. 12 h. 10. this difference H . mers and the . 12 h. H we divide this aum by the length of the solMyear. 783 H. 64. which consiste of 235 Hipparchicat aynodicat months (t. It will not be snperauoua for the valuation of the caku. Computation of the OctaeterM and Enneadecateris. Centuries later. and the following calculations prove that they availed themselvea of thia advantage.. 13 h. According to the caJcuMons of the Mêlent Greeks. Hence the deficiencies of their cycles. too long).923 d. 747 ~[.e.1. lations to point out the difference between thé ancient following Greek astrono. 365 d. Oef<e<e~. I. when the aun had still to mM-ch during 1 d.TewishRabbis who constructed the Jewish calendar. 12 h. 783 give the Mon oî– 2. S~~ h. (:. 13 h. The 99 lunations of the Octaeteris. 5~~ h. The elements for the comparison of thé rotations of aun and moon are two measures that of thé length of thé synodicat month and that of the length of the solar year. we get as quotient 8 (years) and a remainder of– 1 d.388 AMtÎRÛN!. and the synodical month as 29~ days (<.=9. 595 H. too short).777. when the aagacity of Hipparchus had defined these two measures in sach a way that modern astronomy bas found very little to correct.190 H.e. Thé ancient Greets connted the solar year as 366~ d~. 387 till he reached the end of his 8th rotation. each lunation at 29 d. thé moon reached the end of her 99th rota.

.755 H.the. It is not likely that the author shotdd introdnee a technioal foreign work (like Ma. This reform of the Metonic Enneadecateris enabled the Jews to dispense with the 76 years cycle of Callippus. p.. p.ys. according to Callippus. h.1. 6. a little more than d. 5~h. iv. 793 !.. 16~ If we divide this sum of Halaks by the lengthof thé solar year of365 d. In constructing his cycle of 19 years. = ~h.Ia~a do not correspond to matical accumcy (p.[.190 we got as quotient 19 (years). 8) there seems to be a !ac<MM.876. whieh he constructed of four-times the Enneadecateris with thé omission of o<te day.31. 64.. 1851. with matheAs the author sa.ANNOTATIONS. Ideler. or h. 389 Ha. an interesting p. .med what it me&ns (and this is not the caae). whilst.ter. h. Meton discovered that 235 synodica. edited by H.tion is more correct than that of Callipnns..1 months pretty nearly correspond to 19 solar years. ch.Ettt:Mt<~C<!<e)'M. The difference of the Ordines Mt<e!'ea!!(t<tomM accounted for by the difference of the beginning of the Jewish ~Ext Mundi. 1~ days. II. he reckoned the solar year at 365. or than y~ d. by d. 33.1.1. each = 29 d. There is a differeuce of yyg h-' for ~Bh. 64. and a remainder of oniy 145 H. 294 S. who reckoned the solar year too long. longer than it hiMihePn reckoned in the Octaeteris (a mistake which afterwards Callippus strove to retneve). London. Qa) ahl*'B~). 25). 12 h.hzôr) withont having previou:'y expla. =.d.. According to this computation. viz. is caused and p. (mnan At thé beginning of this exposition (p.e.~a. 64. und teehnisehen Chronologie. L. ~h.tischen was lésa. The Jewish calcula. 55. 11. 65. give thé sum ofh. 387 Ha.939 d. i. whilst = ~h. cf. ie.467.ndbuch der ma. 24. Filipowski. viz. = 179. Cf. text." i. = 9. More correct was the following Jewish calculation with Hipparchie measures 235 lunationa. On the meaning of the word IWM chapter in the 'YQ''yn 1BD of Abraham Bar Chyia.h. the difference between the rotations of sun amd moon at the end of the nrst Enneadecateris would not be more than 145 EL.~ d. this difference was grea. book ii.

t. The Ordo intercalationis XIB~ which reckons the second (complete) year of the creation M the first year of the nrat Enneadecateris.1. 66. and the lst Nîa&n always fall on the aame week-day. In conformity with this diSe. e. Some counted the year in the middle of which the creation took place as the first. 66. 23.36. p. that Passover shall never fall on a Monday.9y. is not mentioned by Albêr&BÎ. bas been answered in varioua ways. Thé mie IIM ia connected with the rule 1-Q ie. p. or Friday. 7. our anthor mentions only thé &rat one." etc. but at that of the autamnal equinox.I. othera with the first vernal equinox following after the creation of the world.BÎBÛN. ie. Cf. . If New-year'a-day were a Sunday. i. ~~n ~30 of Abraham bar Chyiah. The solar cycle (nan~ ~MN) of 28 years conaiata of Julian yeara of 365~ days. the question whenco to begin the nrat year of the J~-<t j~t~t. are conatructed upon thia principle: Of (thé seven intorvaJa between each two leap-years. viz.r of the ~)-<< Enneadecateris. ie. Bhmdbneh. and the 163rd day from the end would be a tM~ty. others counted the following year as the ~f<< yea.e. If Now-year'a-day were a Wednesday. The words <X<t< jP<M«wef by which the beginning of ~M~ M regulated 1 Tmderatamd in thia way. the 163rd day from the end would be a Monday. the 15th Nîsân.. The three O~ttea M<e)'M!<tttMne whieh the author baa nnited in the cilcutm' figure. ?2. in the following way Paesover must be the 16Srd day from the end of thé year. 1-tM. the Te%~t-N:aân. Cf. there are five intorvaJa each of 2 years. The world waa created at thé time of the vernal equinox. vide Abraham bar Chyiah. p. the rule that Newyear'a-day can never be a Sunday or a Wednesday or a Friday. Of the five D~t~& p. the last day of the preceding year would be a Saturday. a contemporary of the author. Some commence with the vernal equinox preceding the création of thé world. !. At the end of this cycle time returne to the aame day of the week. The Ordo Mt<e<-MtMtMtM NtTMtT)~ which has become canomc&l since and through Maimonides. occum atao in the vatuaNe Te~<!6A<! (Responsum) of B. 96. New-year's-day. L. to be transferred from one week-day to another. the Te~&fat-Tiahr!. But the year as reekoned by thé Jewiah ehronologista doea not commence at the time of the vomal equinox. Hâi Gâôn ben Sher!tâ. Ideler.y. Now. that Passover.390 AI. and two intervala each of 1 year. Wednesday. The division of 163 by 7 gives the remainder of 2.e.. of the Jewish calendar nM ? 11M fT TUM !BSpf)H3~ which are certain mlea ordering a date. renoe also the order of the leap-years within the Enne~decateria bas been Nxed diSerentIy. iii. L 7.

32. Schwarz. lived in Palestine in the second half of the 8th century. 59-61. 70. Abraham bar ChyiaJt ~')3yn 1BS' P. p.1. 15. vide Sclden. p. vide Graetz. p. The conservative tendency of this reform of the Jewish calendar is pointed Cf. 1 should prefer to read J~< iùstead of J<~J~ and (~. and J. 25. 60.16. § 36). but also upon certain other conditionf. p.eh. 46. *At< the founder of the great schism in the Jewish p.1. after . the <w: motion ''J~QM ~7!Ta. o~~).) Rabbanites tried in eYerything to aasimilate their calendar.35. 'Ân&n's reform of thé calendar.35. world. p. L 9). "Disserta.ANNOTATIONS. 18 and 21). Thé pedigree of 'Ân&n has been the subject of much discussion.1. they difEered from the BabbamitM in this. tl. the condition fT' (Lazarus Bendavid. 174. and Passover. based upon the aatronomieal détermination of conjunction. 69. 67. For his Geaehiohte dur Juden:" ii. 68.tio de anno civili Judaico. tb. 391 If New-year's-day were a Friday. Triglandii. On thé ca. also ont by A. LIT). 417. inst~bd of (text. ~U-e. ~nn Qh'Tp.tiomof the arc of vision !TM*~n f~C~p that part of the moon's rotation between conjunetion and the moment of her becoming visible at some place.P<M<~ c~ is a Biblical name." § 36." pp. 1714. 454. 1856.lcula. Zur Geschichte und Berechnung dea JudischenEalenders. 4. The Me<M motion of the moon is called in Hebrew 'SOM t7?TQ. v.1. 28. 4. § 127. cf.9. 36. for history." Hamburg. Read 1 instead of 3 (text. 5.1. "Notitia Earaeorum. U. 1. Read p. 68..g. to the more ancient calendar which had been based upon the observation of New Moon. "Der Jûdische Kalender. pp. 58. p. eg. Cf. p. 68. 21. 68.1. Th. p. p. p. 68. Abraham bar Chyiah. days (called Q''iy~ H~tK) ii.1. xiii. otde Qr&etz.~t instead of (j~e ~t~-m. p. ed.1. 6. If the M~ladites commenced the month with the moment of the conjunetion. p. 59. 418." cap. (~* (text. 17. M<!e Maunonidea. "Gesohichte und System des Judischen Eatenderwesens.. Lewisohn. § 92. Read instead of as plural of (text. the beginning of the first month or New-years-day) dépend not <t!ot:eupon conjunction.1. the 163rd day from the end would be a Wednesday. that thé latter made the beginning of the month (e. ib. 69. Lazarus Bendavid.69." Leipzig. p. . On the eorrespondence between the four days that <<!?be New-year's. tom. vide 1 Kinga iv. p. 1 xi. 57.

H. ix. 77. 586." pp. chap. 26. &?<?: ben '~M. p. probably he died between A. 74. tmd died A. 65." ed. 80. 24. G. p. Ch-NNma.) (text. Geschichte der Arabischen Aerzte und N~turforscher. The other traditions to which the author refers in the cottrae of hie discussion (p.H. 80. The~tMtoeBj)!M<~e ia described by A. p."L5nder. FI&geI. 72. The story shows that the . 80. 476 ff.'mûn." nr. 474. L 15). 1. L 4. 534 ff. 3. Muhammad was removed from his office A. t&. 1. who hved at the court of physician. a Christian p. p. p. a famous philologist of the achool of BiMra.H. Abulfedm Anmies Mes.14). The Mme man is quoted by AtMr&M M the S~t&.a.H. p. Sprenger. Cf. instead of ~< (p." iii.1.. Bead instead of (text. p.392 ALBÎBONÎ. thé ." p. 84. 101. He waa bom A. 6. 77. 78) are also mon. Curetom. p. 146. 155 (or 153).. p. (Pleischer. the governor of Kûfa. was VM!r to the Buyide prinoes Mn'&yyid-ald&tda. 25.a. On this title. séquence of his hiHmg 'Abd-aJhMÎm. 64. 94. 385. ed. Krehl. verwaltung unter dem Bmtifat.~ (Fleischer. Bead ~~t. vi. Ibn-Duraid. 63. p. 124. Bûlak. ed. 3). p. Geschichte der Arabischen Aerzte und Naturforscher. 76. "Leben und Lehre des Mohammad. L 36. This tradition ocenra in Bukhârî. L 17). 77.'mtm ben Ma.tische Schulen der Araber. ii. Bead j!~ instead of Sj. 65. 326. vde Shahristan!. Ab&Abd&Uah Ja'far ben Mnhammad AI~àdik is one of the twelve Imams of the SM'a.H. 74. 36. 22. 5. «~ HMnmer.1. 515 R. 84. p. WuBteYïfeld.1. p. i. .1. bom A. lemici. Cf. nr. i. and afterwards to Mdu-Jd!Ht]& He died A.7. Cf. IL 1.M. 118. 1. p. 321. tioned by BnHiâr!. 35. 74. 67. amd %l instead of J~ (text. 15." ii.j- p. p. also WuBtemfdd. In conp. p. died A. princes of Khwarizm. L.M!M<~<t' of Malik ben 'Anas. The same fact is related by Ibn-Al'athfr. 59. Ibn-Al'fttMr. etc. in Bagdad." p. ~). L 4. WM a contemporary of Albêrûnî. 75.19. CpT.) p. Cf. Abu-SaN 'Isa ben Yahyâ Ahnasih!. 400-403. Bead instead of (text. p. The year of Ma death is mot known. 'AM ben Ma. Beoueil des traditions Mahometames. On MohMnmad's prohibiting intercalation. p. On the sect who derived their name from him.'mûn and Ma.

ANXOTATMNR." tom vi. 394 Yâkilt. p.u~a. etc. Thé names of col. the Seventh Month. p. Ferha. the Eighth Month. the Third Month. 80 Mosea waa 80 yeara of age when he left Egypt Interval between the birth of Abraham and the Exodua 500 Fnrther Abraham waa 100 years of age when Isaak wM bom Isaak was 60 yeafa of age when Jacob WM bom Jacob entered Egypt when he was 130 yeara of age Interval . 4). p. 1.) p. Cf. 68. p. M.d of (text. Both columns are of particular interest in so far as they exhibit the most ancient spécimen of thé Turkish language. and (text. ASketch of thé TarM Language as spoken in Eastern Turkistan." etc. they mear." p. the Tenth Month.1." London. p. 10).1.and Yarkand). 1 are in use among the eastern Turka (of Ea. 68. the Ninth Month. 1650. vide Reynouard. Lexique Roman ou dictionnaire de la langue des troubadours. Read cut~ !<s ort~:K instead of and of ils o)'yMMP.which oceurs in Provençal beside Octobre.~a. the Fifth Month. The word ~) (~~) i'. the First Month. I ha. p. not far from ShâBh. 86. col. the Fourth Month.between the birth of Abraham Jacob's entering Egypt and 290 27 100 60 130 . col. Shaw. B. Oc<om6rMM.f. Ibn-*aM-al'auj&. a. the Second Month. 68. 82. I~uM wa~ the second largest townof FajghAna.9. 393 falsification of tradition haa at certain timea been practised wholesa.lso mentioned in "Eit&b-alnhrist. thé Siïth Month.1. 338.shghaj..: The Great Month. Bead <L~ inatea. L 13. 27. coll. Grave. 390. Sketch. Perhaps it would be better to read Oe<entM<«. p. 77. vide R.lo in the Muslim world. The names of col. 82. 82. Bu~hara. ~t! <t Read instead of ~~y (text. p. t. (FIeischer. 5." Lahore. 75. 8. p. The 210 years for the stay of the Jews in Egypt are found in this way: Interval between the birth of Abraham and that of Moaea 420yeara. 1875< Epocha) celebriores. 1. 80. in conformity with Oc<eBt6)'e. the Small Month.pa the word heara some relation to < p. 80. IL 9. 1. 6). J. 5. Shaw. 8 seem to he in disorder. It is described by Ibn. p. 24. as in thé majmscnpts. p. iv.L p.ve not been able to explain hitherto..

if at the moment of his birth the phmets occupy such places and stand in such relations to each other as are eonsidered the most favourable. 865. 909. p. bound to state that some of the numbers which Aiberûni quotes on the authority of this book are not found in-or do not agree with-the text as given in the edition of Meyer. 29. vide "Diction&ry o~Technical Terma. 1699. The last three nnmbers in the addition of the yeara of the Sêder'Ol&m ought to be 460. Chronicon Hebrmorum Majus et Minus. 88. and atl of whioh are of Greek origin. p.seems nearly to correspond to thé ~x~MM ateroMm are a heathenish sehool (" em<Bese <tme") of the Avastâ. 1862. 44 p. The I~ashwiyya. p. On Eûahân. Calcutta. 35. the différence between thé two numbers (500-290). (Fleiseher. 87.1080. For a detailed explication of the astrological terms whieh occur in the following. 75. pp. however. carrying it down as far aa 22 years after the destruction of the Temple by Titus. Meyer. The 2)<<t of philosophera who believe the ~~f (time) to be etemal. 89.1. The Neaef-'dMm. 89 the eleven iMt numbera of the addition ought to be: 781.e. 920. the Paterfamilias. 1.1 44. The JMe)~n)tt!MM (~~) is the tt~M~m eMyo~'o. or HaBha~ p. î. "Histoire de l'astronomie ancienne. Joh. In the following the author attacks 'Abù-Ma'shar. 480.e. In thèse tables there are three blunders in the addition. 90. Bead & instead of X~~ (text." i. 87. The word J)~). 500. 1." ii. p. It is the MT~ OTiy *tD to which our author refera. note ad p. p. !. 90. 503 (on p.1.1. 867. 90.394 ALBÎEÛNÎ. 1 am. the author of the book De <M<tw<<t<t5<M (p. 2. Cf. 2163. AmstelodMni. p.1. represents the time during which the Jews atayed in Egypt. 810. 91. 45). 88) and in the same cotumn on p. and consider Ctod as a bodily being.1.. L 1). is a well known Hebrew book on the Chronology of Jewiah history. 8. the question how long a man may live. Ordo JfM~t.D<MM (M<r<M~tm (vide Delajnbre. Now.P<MttM~t wiyya are a heterodox sect of Mualim philosophera who adhere to an exoteric interpretation of the divine revelation. p. . 92. 898. L 31 p. 96.18. not the 07iy 110Cf. and Dahriyya.4." i. The subject of the discussion is the .10. 1 refer to the J)M!<KMMry of <&eTechnical 2~ma we~ Sciences of the JKiM<t!m<ttM.) p. 396. 94.e. 990. 546). 13. and who trace everything to the Dahr as last cause. the indicium cuttMœ(p. iii. 1. vide Judges. vide "DIotionary of Technioal Terms." ed. 90. 1). 210 years.1563.1. i.11.

~<t&t. p.. that point which at thé sa. vide Delambre. the distance between them is 90 degrees.gest. Any other relation between two planets is called 8ukûl (t. or Cf[rt!o ~)t'M)MM.ry is the contrary of j~. Uhlemann. 25. and Jupiter. Moon. Have Mo <Mpec<. They are hardly to be considered as a gift of Saturn or Mars. east at the moment of the birth. Terme. Ctrundzûge der Astronomie und Astrologie der Alten.465. the distance botween them is 120 degreea. . M. "Histoire de l'astronomie ancienne. v. One may suppose that there Is somewhere a lacuna in the text. ie. in the aame zodiacal and degree. The word There are five aspects t. the planeta are distant from each other by 60 degrees. but under the earth. Ck~o oec<M!!< septimus. they are said to stand within point sign the Spot ~K~ttwrtKM Alma." vi. 5 Mnu'~ ec~t~tM. T<M<S<. Cf. p. or (&n-<~o TTT CtM'(&)coe!t ~ectmtM. <H<Mc<t!t!M J)t a c<Mtco)'d<t!tt quarter. Venus. Dictiona." 1392. T<ttMt&.i. the distance between them is 180 degrees. is that point of the eeliptie which a p. Tf[!-&t'.MtAM!. Cf.me moment aeta in the weat.e.DMtcoMM If sun and moon meet tbt this plmet cuts when moving northward. 66." pp. 8 and 12 years." i. The Caput .t equal distances from one of the two equinoctial points so as to or Muform with each other the constellations called Ta~M or '!MHt<& of Technical ii. thé <)'j/<MKM)t i'~MKm. falling out). .1. trigonum terreum." ii. etc. Dictionary of Technical Terms. since they a~'cunlucky stars perhaps they are tnMMd to the influence of Mercury. C<M'<!o <ef)'<B or Caf~o gtMn~tM. is the Mu~&bala.c. 91.e. of Sun and Moon. Cardo ~ofMcopt. 10.M~o6<t!<t. we get the sum of 195 ycars. or C!M'<&) n. By quarter 1 undeMtimd the division of the signa of the Zodiac into four trigones. IL. Cf.ie. Cf. Ms oM~Mtois thé 19th degree of ~rKS. pointa. 67. Dictionary of Technical Terme.e.kes place. and an éclipse ta. The term concordant is applied to any two places of the ecliptic which lie a. s. . thé point between the points I. 13." ii. 226). Cardines are four points of the ecUptic that point whieh rises in the I.' The elements of this sum (215 yeara) are not quite clear.16. 1. 1385.the point between the preceding two but above thé earth. If tho Sun gives 120 tmd 30 yeara. 91. s. Whence the astrologers derive the missing 20 years is not stated.1. Every eclipse is considered as unlueky. (Ptolemy.ANNOTATIONS. cap. and IV. 91. 395 The house of thé Sun is Léo. which are either masculine or feminine.

396

AI.BÎBÛNÎ. ~t&M.< instead of ~i, ,t

p. 91, 1. 31. Bead J~ ~t ~&M.< ~t J~ S,~< (text, p. 78,1.19).

p. 91, 1. 34. The middle eom~ttttc~ott of Saturn and Jupiter is 240 yeara, thé wtmof conjunction 20 yearo, thé major M junction 960 years. Cf. 0. Loth, "AI.Kindî aïs Astrolog in Morgenjandischo Forschungen," Leipzig, 1875, p. 268. p. 93, L 10. M~M was 'Annr.at'umara in Baghd&d A.H. 331-334, at the time of the Eh&Hf AImuttakî, whose eyes he put out. Ho was of Turkish origin, and commander of the Turkiah troops who held BaghdM and aome other parts of central Mésopotamie p. 93,1. 15. û~~y-ctMcut~. Bead'<tM<mh. Mu'izz-~lda.ula.died A.H. 356, amd Izz-aldaula, died A.n. 367, both princes of the family of Buwaihi. p. 93, L 23. ~M?t<<tHtKt!ce,prince of Mosul and the north of Meso. potamia, of the family of ~mnd&n, died A.H. 358. p. 93,1. 42. Bead (p. 81,1. 9), and ~j ~)~ inetead of instead of (text, p. 81,1. 7), J~~ (p. 81,1. 12). (FIeisdMr.)

The author means 'Isma'N bon 'AbMd, Vazîr of p. 94,1.19. ~6. the Bnyide prince Fakhr-aldaula, Vide note ad p. 72,1. 36. The time during which Fakhr-aldaula held the country of Jurjân under his sway was A.H. 372-388. p. 94, i. 40.M N<t'M SM<!Mm is not known to me from other sources. A man called Sh&dhân is mentioned by T&Mt, i p. 204, 1.20,Midï~.j}EhaJMa,v.p.l02. p. 95, 1. 2. According to Dictionary of Technical Terme," i. p. 568, retrograde motion is any motion whieh does not, like that of tho planeta, proceed conformably with the order of the zodiacal signs. Thé ecliptic is divided into twelve equal parts, caUed ~o<Me& Tho 12th, 2nd, 6th, and 8th ~oiMee are caUed Domua M<~?t<<a. p. 95, 1. 22. '~6<))Mt. A man of this name was general to tho Khalif AIhAd!, and was killed by Harûn AJrMhîd A.H. 170. Cf. IbnAI'a.th:r, vi. p. 74. The opithet ~t& ~(~f 1 cannot explain. p. 96, 1. 12. Read J~ mston.d of J~ instcad of (~p~' (p. 83,1.1). (text, p. 82, 1. 21), and

<t~

p. 96, 1. 25. J<tm<!M<M&)-<t, a town in India, is not known to mo, the word can be read in various ways.

ANNOTATIONS.

397

p. 96, 1. 43. Abû-'Abda.lt&h Alhusaiu, etc. Atn&tilî, a uativa of N&tua, a town in Tabarietân, is sometimes mentioned as the teacher of 'Abû-'AI! ben Stn&. He lived in Bukhârâ, and a.fterwa.rda at the court of thé prince Ma.'m&n bon MuhfHnmad of Khwârizm. CI. my edition of the text, Einloitung," p. xxxiv. p. 98,1. 13. (Fleischer.) C'<K)Mt~. BM~ inatead of j~ (text, p. 84, 1.10).

p. 98,1. 22. ln some book. Alberun! does not mention the author of the work whence he took the chronological tables of the kings of Assyria in any case it must have been derived from the Chronicon of Eusebius. Cf. A.. Schoene, "Eusebii Chronicorum libri duo, Berolini, 1866 vol. i. p. 63, and vol. ii. p. 11 S. and 1875 p. 100, 1. 24. Another table of successors of NunMd is given by Mas'ùd!, "Prfuriesd'or," pp. 96-100. A aimilar table is also found in Albêrûnî's Canon. Jf<M'K~tc<M (MS. Elliot, fol. 28a). Ye&rsof reign. Anni Adami. Nt)K.<-0< Interval after tho confusion of languages and the destruction ofthetower ~j~ ~j~ Interval 59 2951

43 85 72 42 18 7

2994 3079 3151 3193 3211 3218

Then follow the Asavrian kings, Belos, Ninos, etc. p. 101. TttMc of </MX's of <tc C/tftHectKS. It ia thé table of Ptnlemy. Cf. Chronologie de Ptolemée," par l'abbé Ha.lma., Paris, 1819, 2do Partie, pp. 3, 4, and Gcoi-gius Syncellus," ed. Dindurf, Bonn, 1839, p.890 S. p. 102. This table of kinge of Egypt begins with the 20th dynasty of Manetho. Cf. Eusebii Cbronicorum libri duo," vol. i. p. 145, vol. ii. p. 62. p. 103, 1. 13. ThM t&Uo of PtotcuiMiMis is based upon that of Chronologie do Ptolemée," par Halma, 2do Partie, p. 4. In Ptolemy. 1..82 rend: C!eope[<)'<t, till ~te <t))te «/<<;? Cf~'<MJ<th'<Mo!'<<mt<!f< MtpCewM (text, p. 92, 1. 1&). ~uMx;fMt~ooM. Hcu~l ~< inBtua,d of

398

AlBÎB~SÎ.

p. 104. The last source of thia table of the RcmM emperoM seems to bc the "Chronicon of Eusebius." Cf. aJso "mm.~ hpahanensis annahum, libri x., translation, pp. 51, 54. In the addition of the years there M a mistake; the last sum is 313, not 303. p. 105. Part of this table of Byzantine emperors aeemp to have been taken from ~amza Is~hâni, translation, p. 52 and 55 S. In this table the Mm of the years is 526, not 528. In the text (p. 96,1.12), read Û~. instead of ML-<. (De Ctoeje). p. 106. The tradition of the judge ~~& see in Hamza Isfahâni, translation, p. 57-59. AiwaM' seems to have lived in the nrst half of the 4th century of the Flight, vide Xitab-aiChriat," p. 114 The addition of the years of this table is in groat confusion, and AIMrun! bu not made an attempt at correcting it. In the text (p. 98, L 10), read C. instead of p. 107, L 1. The following chapter on Peraian chronology beaN a close reNemblance to that of Hamza la&hanî, translation, p. 6 ff. The explication of the word Gayomarth, I. 5, see in Hamza, p. 48. p. 107 t. 43. AbA-'AIi Muhammad ben 'Ahmad AlbatHi!, mentioned only in thM place, ia not known to me from other sources. Hajî Khalî&. ~.p.l3,qnotesfromAtberûnî. P. 108, L 3. The following sources of ancient Peraian history are aJso quoted by Hamza, p. 7. was killed in Atba~a, probably A.n. 145. Cf. "Kitâb-alfihrist," p. 118 Ibn-EMIi~ân, nr. 186. M~hamm~d b. Aljahm, of the family of Barmak, lived under the Kh~M Almu't~im (A.=. 218-227). Cf. Etab-aIShAt," 81, 245, pp. ° PP 277, and notes Ibn.BMiMn, nr. 81, p. 40. Hisham b. AIk6sim and Bahram b. mrdânsh&h, Zoroastrian priest in Shapûrstown, in Persis, are mentioned in thé "Eitâb-a.Mhnst," p. 245, among those who translated Ferstan bocks into Arabie. p. 108, 1. 19. The mamwscnpts have kkaûra. My reading, kkrûra, is a conjecture. Thé word may be identiod with &M~ of the AYMt& (ft~Just, "~ndbuch der Zend~he," and also with mentioned by Mas'M!, Prairies d'or," ii. p.in92), a very curious chapter, 88, where the author enumerates AMman and hie son 2KW<~ in a table of kings of the Syrians.

ANNOTATIONS.

399

instead p~M8,1. 34~~1 ~OMtty m<tK. Intext (p. 100,1. 7) read 4' of 4* (1. 11) instead of jt)~; and L~~ instead of J~b ~-4 (1.18). (Fleischer.) p. 109,1. 14. Simila.r tables of the worda for king, emperor, prince, etc. in various languages are given by severa.! authors, e.g. by IbnJournal Asiatique," 1865, p. 249-257. Ehurd&dhbih, ÏM<m. Perhaps we must read TMf~tB, and compare thé following note of the Etymo!ogicum Ma.gnum," ed. Gaisford, p. 763: T<n!8oM'ot o! T<Mr<MT)/M~TM !rapa ToepffOt!. On SK!, vide note at p. 37,1. 9. The word~-t J~ttoM~ (p. 110, 1) M supposed by my learned friends P. Lerch, of St. Petersburgh, and W. Tomaschek, of Gra.tz, to be a misspelling for j~, i.e. JïtMM, ~ttctez (a derivation from the Teutonic cuninga), a conjecture whieh 1 recommend to the students of Slavonian antiquities. The title jB<t<-M)'<XK(!(M has been found by P. Lereh on the coins of the satraps of Bukhârâ under Sasanian rule and la.ter (as far as the time of Alma.hdt). The coins offer an original writing of Semitic origin; thé legend is without any doubt to be read B<:Mt<:)-tî XAM~u< (or XAwd<M&, X~<t~(M!). A number of these coins are found in the coincollection of the BoyaJ Muséum of Berlin. p. 110, 1. 26. The following verses are also found "FraMes d'or," ii. p. 116. in Maa'Ad!,

p. 111. On the pedigree and family relations of the Pëahdadhiajis from HôshaNg till Fredùn, cf. Bundihish, chap. xxxii. On the chronology of the Peshdadhiams and Kayânians, ib. chap. xxxiv. In the text (p. 103, ll. 11, 15), rea.d &<~ inatead of & p. 112. On the descendants of Kawi E'a.wâta, or E~i~ubâdh and their names, cf. Nôldeke, "Ka.ya.nier im Awestâ, Zeitschrift derDeutschen Morgenlsndiachen GeseUseh~ft," tom. xxxii. p. 570. p. 113. 9,10. With this table compare that of Hamza, tramsta.tion, pp. With thia table, compare Hamza, pp. 17,18. Ca~o~ Maau-

p. 114,1. 4.

p. 115,1. 3. A similar table occurs atso in the author's dicta (MS. Elliot, fol. 29a.).

4or<

ALBhtÛx!.

After tho kings of Assyria fmd Arbaces thé Median follow Me t;);~ f<H'!JMe~M. JRf;&y!f):t'<t YeMitof foign. Anni Mandi. .P<HJ~, a df-ffcendant of Sardane! Tin!atj.i)Mar 8.ttniatMnmr ((~~L.) i.e. BuHitMM~~rl.14 8a.nherih Sa.)'g«n oj~- <-<a~EzMhaddon~A~ Merodakh Baladan ben Baladan, i.e. Mttrd«kemj)ad .48 Sanhent) Minor Kinitadan ~JLJL-* .17 NabopotaMMtheMagian HM son Nebu~dnezar, t.e. ButhtMMsMr II., who destroyed Jeruf<alem Evilmerodakh t)6n Nebukadneziur HMhrotherBe!tesha~~a.r Darius thé Médian Then follow the kings of the Persiana Cyrua Hia son Ca.mbyMs Darius the son of Vishtasp Xerxes, i.e. Xerxes Kirn-a b. Darius Artaxerxes (t~<)~), i.e. ArdMMr Longinmnns Darius Nothos .18 ArtMerxef~-MM ArtMerxes Ochua, t.e. the black Arses ben Ochus DanuabenAmat: 35 35 4709

9 g

47~ ~cy 4770 4818 4849 4866 4887 4930 4932 4936 [4953] 4962 ~9~0 5u06 502C 5067 5085 5125 5152 5i5(; 5162

31 21 43 <! 4 [17~ 9 8 M 20 41 40 27 4 6

Then follow Alexander and the Ptolemeaa.ns. In a special column the author mentions some contemporary éventa of Jewish, Egyptian, Greck and Roman history. p. 115, 1. 45. (FteMcher). In tho text (p. 112, 1. 4) read instead of

p. 116, 1. 8. 8a.d b. Muhammad Aldhuhlî ia perh&ps tho same Dhah!: mth whom Bukhâr: (died A.K. 256) had a controversy, vide ~&j! KhaJifa, iii. 172. p. 116, M. BMh is Média, or Aljibâl or Aljabal in tho later geogra.phical terminology. Read J\ instead of the mMprint J)<~<.

AX\nTA'nnxs.

4f)1

They <peMone of the families, etc. is a literal translation of the reading of the manuseripts, but 1 do not believe that this reading is correct, nor that Arabie grammar allows such a. construction. instead of is not satisfactory, as it is not My conjecture, (~ conformable to the usual construction of this word. One might think of reading f)-~ (" They were the most daring and enterprising of thé pptty princes," etc.), but this, too, does not Beem to settle the dinicu!ty. I am sorry to state that 1 have not been able to nnd the original upon whieh the term J(fMf~t-a~<<)t~ Petty princes," has been coined. Cf. with this passage Hamza, p. 30 Tabar!, ed. Zotenberg, i. 523 ff. Ibn-Alathir, i. 2C8-210, 27], 272; Mas'ûd:, Prairies d'or," ii. 136. The pedigree of Ashk ia carried bM~ to a. son of Siyxwush, whosf name I do not know how to pronounce. Another son of Siy&wush is mentioned by Ibn-Alathîr, i. 173 (Fcrozad ') and Tabar!, ed. Zoten. berg, i. 467 (Afroud). For another pedigree of Ashk, «Me B. Dom, Sehir-eddin's Cteschichte von Tabarista.n, Bujan und Masanderan," p. 152. For the chronology of the Ashkanians, cf. MuhIau-Gtntschmid in "Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenliindischcn Gesellschaft," tom. xv. Gobineau, ib. tom. xi. p. 700; Muj. p. 664; Bla.u,<&.tom.xviii.p.680; -i .1-altawàrîkh in Journal Asiatique," 1841, p. 164 H. Schneiderwirth, Die Parther," Heiligenstadt, 1874. p. 117, 1. 9. On the sumames of the Ashkanians 1 offer a f"w conjectures <~erace pure = setnvahya, );M!e Gobineau, XMaMtA, i.e. we!H<M'M, "Zeitschnft der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft," tom. xi. p. 702. ~nv!m, i.e. yoMet:. jrtitfMm seems to be a mistate forj)~- i.e. Gotarzea. i.e. e?')'M, cf. the Persian word Gcsûd:tr=a. man of auGeeiMMt)-, thority. .B<tf(Mtt=<n &<t~)py.6orH. Bc[M~='J ~tyA-~t-M; but see note at p. 118,1. 21. p. 117,1. 30. 3ee this table in Hamza, translation, p. 10.

5. See this table in Ha.mz&,p. 18. p. 118,1. L p. 118, 1. 21. name JMtMo!,in 393, 415, 416. and the surname Besides the na.me JfaM~M~ there occura a. Parthian "JouryuJ Asiatique," 1843, pp. Mujmit-a.ttawMkh, Perhaps there ia some cornection between jS~* j&< of Fêrôz ben Bahrâm, mentioned p. 117,1.17 (~). 28

402
Ot~cfother 8Ot1l'CCS.

AMÎBÛNÎ.

known to me from text (p,117, ~) read < mate~ of instead of

<j*j0"(~* P. 120, 22. <~ ~3~ pp. 865-361, 36. ~~1,1. of ..J)\.r.

In the text (p. 118. 1. 3) read f~

this work of M&n!'B very little M known, und seine Schriften," Leipzig, 1862, 5) r.wit.theMSS.,iu~d

Inthetext(p.lI9,L

40. The following calculation ia known in p. 121, 1. astrology by thé mMneofTMyAr~M). Thec~euhtionMthis 407x93~=37,925~. If you divide this produet by 360, you get a remainder of 1521 degrees. The meaning oith.~ degrees, the nature of the solar cycle here~: tioned, and the further details of the calculation, 1 do ~.de~ .d, and cannot, therefore, guMantee th. correotneM of the text. .1~ 14. ~~° Alkisrawi i. also mentioned in the translation, pp. 11-16. ~J~ p~ 146,151. pp. m~ With by S. de For the pedigree of ArdMMr ben B&h~ cf. B. Dorn, M~d.~ history of the Sasanians according t. in antiquités de

la Perae, p. 273 ff. Instead of read 'K~ surname of L The is explained by Mirchond as Shâpûr (S~y, p. 296). Instead of u~j:~ Mirchond has ~&L<. Instead of N\ M!rchond hM ~~t/ ~u:1~ (see Journal Asiatique," 1841, p. 265 1843, p. 403). 1 have to add in this opposite the name of Bâbak the MSS. have the place that note following ~L. <~j g< e~ «~ uI have not been able to make out the meaning of the b..t word In the note which M written the Mme of SI.~r h~ Ar< oppo~

AKNOTATIMtS.

403

whieh 1 hâve aitpred mtu shîr, the MSS. have the reading us~ M the word ~e is in the masculine. B< The surname of ShahrbarAz ~~y. is perhaps to he read or to be considered as a corruption of ~\t~ He is also called yanMnK. In the text (p. 122,1. 7) read )3-~ instead of )jp. 124. p. 125. With this table compare Hamza, translation, With this table, cf. ttamza, pp. 18,19. pp. 10, 11.

p. 126,1.27. Jushanasptadha or Jusha~nasta~hit is tho correct reading G. HoSmann read nrst the beginning of thé word of the signs <e. or jMf)t<!Ka<!p as JtM&<MMM Annenian form 7es~H<Mp, vide (~ (; Langlois, Collection des historiens," etc., ii. p. 345). The second part of thé compound 1 read Tada or ra~/M (a word of unknown etymology), and found the whole nmne in thé Armenian form of FM/<M<Mp/<t~ (vide Langlois, "Collection des historiens de l'Arménie," tom. ii. p. 387). G. Hoffmann added a. further support of this identification by pointing ont the Greek form of the name, viz. rou<ntfa<rra&)! (cf. P. de Lagarde, Gesammelte Abh<mdlungen," p. 185). instead of p. 127,1. 23. In the text (p. 129~ 1. 9), read ~i~ and ~t (L 11) inatead of ~t.~ (1.14) instead of p. 128. With this table, cf. Hamza, pp. 14, 15.

'Ahma.d b. Alta.yyib Alsarakhsî, a. pupil of Alhind! and p.129,1.16. companion of the Kha.!if AImu'ta.did, was killed A.H. 286. Cf. EitâbaMhrist," pp. 261, 300, and Wûstenfeld, Geschichte der Arabisehen Aerzte und Naturforscher," nr. 80. p. 129,1.19. On the Indian astrotoger Kanaka, vide p. 270, and note. p. 129,1.24. of ~\«* (L 13) instead of In the text (p. 132, h 10), read e~ (1. 12) instead of (Fleischer). Kit&b-al&hrist," instead J~ c~ and

p. 130. This table contains a number of mustly well-known princes, atatesmen, and generats No. 1 was Vazîr to the KhaJif Ahuu'tadid, and died A.H. 291. Cf. Weil, Q<'achichtp der Chalifen," iii. pp. 51-t, 539. His son, 'Amîd-aldaula, is not known to me. No. 3-5 are princes of the house of Mamd&n in Syria (Mosul). No. 6-11, 13, 14, 17-21, 23, are princes of the house of Buwaihi or Baya, vide the pedigree of this family in F. Wilken, .Mirchond's Ge.

404

AMÎBÛXÎ.

schichte der Sultane Ms dpm Hause Bnjeh," p. 12 the Turkish chroniclc of Munajjim Bashy. ii. pp. 484, 488, 495, 501. No. 12, 15, are two princes of the family of the BanA-Ziyad of Jnrjân. No. 16 is not known to me. No. 22, 28, 29, are the two founders of the famous Gha.zna.wt dynasty. No. 24, 27, 32, belong to the family of Shnj&r, governor of Ehnras&n under the Samanide dynasty. Cf. Defremery, Histoire des SanMnides," pp. 261,169,188,201,203. No. 25. AbA-al'abbas Tâsh waa governor of Nîshap&r under Sama. mde m:< and died A.H. 379. Cf. Defrémery, tô. p. 168. No. 26. AM-aïhaaan A!f&'i~, a general of the last Samanide princes, diaappeN-8 before A.H. 389. Cf. Defrémery, t6. p. 196. No. 31. AM-aK&wâria Begt&ztn was governor of Khuras&m and VMir to the ]aat Samanide pïinces he seems to have died before A.H 389. No. 33. Abù-Man~&r Alp-Aralan Alb&b~ was VM!r to the last Samamide prince Munta~ir, and was still a]ive when this book waa composed. Cf. Defrémery, t6. p. 202. On BughrjUtMn, prince of K&ahghar, the conqueror of p. 131,1.18. Transoxiana, vide Weil, Geachiehte der Chalifen," iii. Anhang 1. p. 131, 1. 23. Here the author apeaka of the prince of Jurjân, ~&b&s ben Washmgir, to whom he bas dedicated his book, vide note at p. 1, 1. 25. p. 131, 1. 41. (Fleischer). In the text (p. 135, 1. 6) read instead of

p. 132,1. 3. TMfM&t. (Cf. p. 162,1. 34.) By the term <tM~bH (or redoubled) ~t~Mam, the author means an oblong quadtamgniar field, divided into two equal parts by a diagonal. TailMâa ia the name of a pieM of dress, vide Dozy, Dictionnaire des noms des vêtements chez les Arabes," p. 278, and Lane, Arabie Dietionary under this word. p. 132,1. 7. The Greet name of the sexagésimal System is ~Kooro, vide Delambre, Histoire de l'astronomie ancienne," ii. pp. 577, 608 (Hexécostades). There is a chapter on the sexagésimal System of calcuiation in BarJaMn's Ao~tort~ <!<~K)fo~ (Delambre, ib. i. 320). p. 133. A similar table of intervah between the epochs of the various eras is also given by Delambre, "Histoire de l'astronomie du moyen âge," p. 96, on the authority of Ibn-Tunus. In the text of this table 1 had to correct some mistakes ~i< notea a, c. PL have the correct reading, 101 4933, guamnteed by The corresponding sexagésimal numbers 54, 7,43,4, are ~J~ wrong in all mamaacripts, for they represent the mroneeus number 101, 9274.

a p. 41. 148-156. 5. i. Thé correspondence between the L Tôt and the I. 20. Wednesda. 136.p. whilst we must read 56. M&d A. p. 6. astronomica.627.ngula~ field in a. Ideler. 136. ~<M)'e.1. 55. p. p 136. If 1 had used the common expression for a field onthe chess-board. Histoire de l'Mtronomie du moyen âge. represent the number 183. as frequently in one sentence 1 should have ha~ to spea& of a e~cn-e (in the mathematical meaning) and a square (a field on a chess-boMJ).8528 ia wrong. able. The epochal day of the ~&n ~!sMm~t Farghânî.PMH~pt is a. is also Btated by AIfMgh&nî. as check seems to be the next synonymous term. pp.44." p. 4. Accordingly also t~~e~ must be changed into ~~a~~ The sexagésimal numbers have also been derived from the wrong number. 184. Albatim's rules for the comparison of era8 between each other. 1. 136. 628. e. ii. 405 1 bave printed inatead of them the sexttgesimat numbers which represent the number 101.e. Elementa. 44.my translation would have become very ambiguous. L 26. 30. 8. 38." tom. Sunday Ideler. 628.5 5 as representing the number 183. 1 must say a word to justify the use of the word check.ANNOTATIONS. xxix.8516. The reading of the manuacripta 123. d. p. u. TLe square (former meaning) of the <nt<t)6efof a square (latter meaning) would hâve been intoler. vide Hamdbuch der ma.4933. pp. meaning a quadra. 5. p. ii. see <&. The epochal day of the JEw yettomoMa~ is a.8516. The epochal day of the ~)-<t Diluvii is a Friday. Daim&h.tischen und technisehen Chronologie." Ideler. for the addition of thé oonstituent numbers gives the sum of 128. p.1. p.thema. ie. ed. 96. The daya of the epoeha of thé various era~ according to Ibn-Yûnus have been communica.8523. 627.y. . piece of Scotch cloth or tartan plaid.ted by Delambre. BegMding the English terminology of this chapter. L 7. is a Monday. <tinatead of jit d. for 3 {not 43). tt. that of the -~r<t . The chapter on the chess problem 1 have separately edited and explained in the "Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgentandischen QeBeDschaft. To avoid this ambiguity I hâve adopted the word check in the common meaning of square. 41. GoHus. !M)<ea &.

1. SO.t day of the ~-<t OM<!e<t<t<n is a Wednesday. 628. and the Mtro. p. 22). that of B. No regard hss been had of the intercalation of the Julian years. 48 Reg. t. In the text. The following lines (till p. 2) mean. The aubtmctionof two yeara in this ca. 'Addâ of 365 d. 1. t~ p. 137. 2). p. 137. 139. . The epochal day of thé Era o/'tte p. Both Jewiah Years. "Der Judische KaJender.(noie i. are a <o!-Mof which 1 do not know a proper restoration. p. The ~. read instead of p. 6. 1. 629.) Mitd ~f gt-~ inateitJ ur . 138. 5 h. eee Héler. 21. 144. 138.QN:U. Samuel (the Julian year). In the squares of the thirteenth year of the cycle read hût 7. the Greek year with the 1 January.lcalation is necessitated by the Babylonien Or<&)ttt~n:o!c[<MtM.1.. the Christian. is a Tuesday. Ideler. and Mêler.406 AI. p. 17. The Syrian year commences with the 1 Cet.BÎBÛNÎ. A. 65. which the author uses in this place. if compared with the Julitm year. 142. 137. 1. It seems the author gave an exposition of the length of the Jewish. 1. p. 9. vide p. p. ii. The interval between thèse two New Yea. 142. In the present state of the text 1 am not able to say what the 165 days (p.Ma~Mt~Cn-c!e ia based on the assumption that the Enneadecateris corresponde to 19 solar ye~rs (whilst there M a difference between them of 145 Halâ~im. 6.athor means that motion By the <t~)<n-ett< In the texf. huit lino.1. ii. The epochaJ day of the ~E-a ~<t~<M<t Mêler. ~< is a Thuraday. and that of R. 143. L 12. 120.1. Cf. 142.~Mt-M (also in the te~t. p. 997 H. p. p. 628. Schwarz. 16). p. 629. vide Dr.1. 29. The epoeha. Y<M<&[?n-f!t Bead ~t!<Mtt)-M!t instead of . The epochal day of the ~nt Me Ru-ghan!. is too short by 11 days the latter is too long by 19 days. 142. instead of /M~ 6 (also in the toxt). and pointed out some incongruity between Jewish and sciemtinc astronomy. 5. 20.1. 142. 1. p.r'6 Days is 92 days. 6 h.1years. p. 28. of 365 d. u." pp. The former. nomica. are too long. 141. 142. 37. 65. is a Thursday p. u. H. 9. 1. 7. and that the mean Lunar year haa 354 days in a common year and 384 days in a leap year. 64. motion the a. p.

144. h. 30. may check by always adding for a common year 4 d. 148. 2 d." p. Friday morning. p. of the J. 145-147.of the CootMtoM p. H. p. 1817.e.tion or correction being used.1. 8 h. 20. 595 H.15. 16 h. 145. hours. dividing the sum by 7. 2d.1.eap-yM)'." Bendavid. Ct<MfK:<e)' 1.. p. 3460 yeMs are 6 Great Cycles 14SmaJHCycles SamgIeyeaM = = = d. § 32. 16 h.. however. 12 (ie. )'. which you get by multiplying the Character of the Enneadeca. t.B<MM. the 5 d. The numbers of days.ractcr of the Enneadecateris. Dr.1 observation. 3 20 600 2 15 770 3 6 385 9 18 675 Therefore the Môtëd of the 12th year of Alexander is 2 d.1.e.rz. 26. no eqna. 14 h. mainder.1. 21 h. 8 o'clock.fftH~n begins a new Enneadecateris of the Jewish ~E)~ ~Idamt. thé Môlêd of J?. 8h. thé C'Aat'acfeiZur Geschichte und Berechnung des Jtidisfhea . and t~a. 7 h.. are thé CtftMc~). 876 H.. A.l&k!mthe reader p. ~<!a)ttt 3460) has been The . Alex. 42. note 2. of the Enneadecateris. 675 H. Schwa. 589 H.e. 2 d. With the 12th year of the ~m ~i~. Cf. 19). and by subtracting 7. The 4 d. 146. TiMtM. 147. 595 H is the so-called p. Der Judische Eidender. as soon as thé addition of the days gives more than seven days. 21 h. the 182 d. 144. . are the Môlêd of the Creation (T '*)) <.laMm of this table the reader may check by aJwa. The Character of the Great Cycle is 5 d. 147. 876 H. and by subtracting 7. :.1. as soon as the addition of the days goes beyond this number. one. 407 which at any time is found by Mtronomiua. by 28.Katendera. The number of days.ya adding the Cha. 145. These 5 d. 50. 595 H. This spaco of time.e. for a leap-year 5 d. 16 h.teris. h-~urs. p. easy to find by the help of the tables on pp. L 30. It is.e. i. and taking the re. 144. (cf. Cf. BerHn.ANNOTATIONS. 18 h. One <)tte is equal to four minutes. 589 H. 460 H. the astronomical calculation of thia Môlêd on p. omitted in the tables of aU mEmuscripts. 17.1. Lazarus Year. p. 1. and Ha.

where the same meaaure is mentioned. 15. 132. p.5h. J~ (~' instead of J~! y~ The three values of the table give thé following six permutations cannot follow each other. 53 Iv. p. L 28. Perhaps it would be instead o:f ~~< (text. better t6 read ?'<M~. ~+<~ m+uh 3+H L can foUow each other. 57m. tP+m 5+~~ 3+<!<~ p. 48 270-28~ 14iv. 3.44IV. M the Table of ~e6M~ (at p. Accordingly the Enneadecateris aecording ta thé sons of Jnuaft ben Shâku* was 6939 d. The ChahMter of the Great Cycle is 5d. §§ 46-48. Thei~fore.31i 311. The j~m~ p. read in the text. 154) plainly shows.e. vide note at p. vide pp. with this dit ference.158. Cf. 44 2~17111 21 iv. 28"' 671. '35.1. "Zur Beredmung~dGeBchichte des JndMehen E~tenders. 22. p. L 14." §§ 35-39. 153. L 1). 148. 4. 150. that there the number of fifthe M st~ted to be 12. OHI. 28 57 n. 8 h. 280.givea the length of the synodical month M asaumed the sons of Mûaâ hem Shâkir. The ÏM<e o/'J%«<t<M)t. i. 12 h.32i 29~ 45m 35 Iv.1. p. 143. 10 v.21h. Cf. there is a mistake. used AMtiBCNÏ. 57 m. note at p. in the corresponding field. 16h. cf. within whieh the Môlêd of a year may &U ~M~d C~L~rus BSpn~ Bendavid. 281. 16 h. 152. 153. In the following tables these measures have been Charactero/'<~e B!:M<t<~c<t~rM 2d. The Character of the Leap-Year ia 5d. On the relations between New YeM-'a Day and the chuter or nature of the year. Lazarus Bendavid. In this table as it occurs in the MSS.408 p. 1. L 34. 159. The division of thia aum by the number of the lunations of the Enneadecateris. . Md 3 can follow each other. The Character of the Common Year is 4 d.1. by 29 d. ggnr.

cf. cf. the corresponding Greek year M ~!ea:. i." § 45. In the following tables I have printed the real lst of a month in Arabie numerats. not 1304. give the sum of 6. 8th. § 11. 29 . the 3rd.e.~!e. derwesens. Alex. 14th. 13 Small Cycles) nearly (not accura. 153. hâve the 20<&AM instead of tlw 19<A~)M (text. kindly settled the question for iM by computing the date in question by means of the formula. 1856. Lazarus Bendavid. The table comprises the yeara of Alexander 1305-1818. of Gauss. 166. § 90. the last day of the preceding complete month in Latin numérale. according to Albërûnî. The New-Year's Day (or Ist Tishrî) of 1305. or one Great Cycle of 28 Small Cycles. This difforence is to be explained in thé following way: The Jewish year 4754 falls together or runa parallel with ~1. Dr. 16h. 125 months of 30 daya each. with 1552ff. The Ordo Jmtercf~MtCMM in each Small Cycle is ~Q!3~) :.940 days is a round nnmber. 595 H. 18." Leipzig. Alex. 142.e. 1. 16th.Pey/ec<~MtMover the J)!tpet/ec< ones in the EnneaGeachichte und System des J&disehen Ealendecateris. 1304. Schramm. jM!e at p. On the two beginnings of a Jewish month.939 d. of Vienna. p. On this subject. cf. vide the Assaying Cirele on p.e. Lewisohn. whieh the reader will find confimed if he compares the years 1305ff. or thé two B6sh-H6desh. 1305. the nrst 11 days) of the Jewiah year 4754 falls into the Greek year 1304. It is a noteworthy tact that in every 247 years (t. and 1799 ff. 19th years of the cycle are leap-years. with one difference A. 26. The MSS. The Jewish NewYear'a Day (let of Tishr!) fell 11 daya earlierthan the GreekNew.1. 1304. However.tely) the same HeM'ôth return. The Jewiah New-Year aiways precedea the Greek New-Year by a amaU number of days. pp. and the fictitious nrst of a month. lith. This seema to he the reason why the author haa in this table compared thé Jewish year 4754 with the Greek year 1305. Lazarua Bendavid.~<!cntM 4754 was the 19tk ~i:! ~1. The number of 6. Begarding the prépondérance of the .ANNOTATIONS. There was a fatal mistake in the first square of this table.e. Alex. Therefore-to apeak accurately–thé beginning (i. for in reality the Enneadecateris has only 6.e. 154. ~') 1 p. but the whole remainder of the year corresponds with A. 5th. Adami 4754 was the 19th ÎIûl A.e. 155. Zur Berechnung und Geschichte des Judischen Ealenders. 1305. and 110 months of 29 days each. 532 years. i.940 days.167). The New-Year's Day of the Jewish ~1.TeM-'a Day (or lst of Tiahrîn Primus).

in. 441. 18 h. p. 2~'i. The wttoeyM! egwo~otMrefer to the various inequalities in the rotation of both aun and moon. amd note at p. 12h. 10. Thé Character of the month is 1 d.1.396~H.day on which the New-Year's Day of thé following year falle. This table shows that AlbërAi~ reckoned the interval between two con. 12 h.8ni. The half of this Character is Od. 12v. l2V.410 ALBÎBÛNÎ. the Môlêd of a month falls by 1 d. 793 H. Accordingly the Character of this synodical month is 1 d. 143. 2 n 17ni. The reason of the following calculation is this. 12h. 392g ï~. t. between the Môlêd of one month and that of the following there is an interval of 29 d. Mcntivo conjunctions (after the sons cf Mùs&b. 21 iv. 1J7. 36~.21~.table resta on the theory thh. sin-40~ IvThe table consista of additions of these two values. the beginning of a month falls by se much later in the week than that of the preceding month. 18 h. L 28. 793 H.4(~iv. or 14d. whilat in the computation they have not been disregarded. 17ni. 1. L 11. The computation of this . you add 2 to the week.e. 158. 18h. you get the week. that Paasover atways falls on thé 163rd day from the end of the year. sista of additions of thèse two ~tues. Sh&kit) at 29d. my conjecture on p. 8in. p. 40~. If.day of tho Passover of a year. 29. 44 2n. 159.1.18 h. IS.sm-o. The Character of the Fortnight ia 0 d.e. The half of this is 14 d. and they serve the purpose of motion. cf. 793 H. 148. as in the oolunm of the fourths the fractions have been omitted in aJl the manuscripts of the text. changing their real motion into MefMt . p. The division of 163 by 7 gives 2 as remainder. therefore. lator in thé week than thé Mûled of the preceding month. The half of this (thé Fortnight) is 14 d. p. 12 h. t. 18 h. The table con. 159. 221-1 n. 22 in. 12h. With thia mea. The checking of this table gave Home diiEeulty.

163.1. Dividing thia by 7. in the ta. 7~ hours. The number 350 if the multiplication of the 7 years of the Cycle of Sh&où' by the 50 years of thé Cycle of Yôbet. 595 H. PhU. etc.1. 540 H. 164. Cf. 182. p. The solar year of 365~ days. The year conta. This length of the solar year has been found by dividing by 19 the Enneadecateris of Meton (6. read \~î p. Dr. Abû-Naar Mamsùr.'Addâ bar'Ahabâ. 4. 7. 5 h. xxxiii. a mathematician and astronomer. 5~~ h. Their calculation is based upon thé Julian years of Rabbi Samuel. 48 BegMm. lived in Khwa.I.1." 1876. In the text (p. 997 H. The Te~ùfôth are the chronologiea." p. Converting thia latter spaoe of time into Jewish measurea we get 365 d. 168. Sec~tM wtf! Dr. 161. as it scems." P. 16 h. 19ff).10). 177. and which has been adopted by the Jewish chronologists.1. is called the year of Rabbi Samuel. MO. Der Jüdische Ealender. read mste~d of t~~ instead of In the text (p. L 12). 167). 21). 160. you get the remainder of 7 h. p.939 d. i.20. the text. The following are the clemcnts of thia calculation: 1. each of 91 d.miua.. 6. Classe. 540 H.tter p)!M. :. .e in the nmt quarter of the 5th century of the Flight.. 65 ff. February. the second of the two Hnds of solar years whieh occur in Jewish chronology. p.rtcrs. G p. which comprehends 235 synodical months of Hipparchus.ANNOTATIONS. 176.<<! &t ~'t'tt ~f~e~/tet'H oo)t Prof. 38. With M<!tttMm<.. 29.). p.nzm and Gha. ~o~~c/tei!: (p. the Julian year.1. ~o7t. 163.c. and died. 1. Schwarz.tion of the following chapter (as far as p. Cf. For an astronomice exa. Binleitung.1. After this cycle of 3o0 yeam the single yeara of both cycles in question return agMa in the same order.e. is o6t!ledthe year of R. whilst thé year of 365 d. 411 p. p. m the Sitztmgsberiehte der Ea.-hMt. 167.iserlichon Akadcmio der Wisseuscha~ten in Wieu.ins four qua. 1 refer the rea~er to Bt~eBefee/MM~ <!<')-~ttt/M-MM~ ~eo jS'otmMt-~lpoy<Mifw'< oo~ u~MtJ''rft7t!t)~/WM/. Ad. Bead ~< instead of <?~ (text.zna.1. not the mtronomical year-points. 7 h. p.

4 d. is. 6. . a corruption for <t)y)e) p.e~ =nËn 33~ which reminde one of the pronandaëon~of the Jews of (Mici&. 174. i. This precession amounts for one complete year to 30 houra or 1~ day. pp. which means that after a cycle of 28 such years thé year-points fall again on the time within the week.e.1. 6 o'clock in thé evening. come pretty near reaJity. 3. 4 d.412 AMÎBÛNÎ. 4. 1. The names of the planets as given by the author are well known in later Hebrew. of ~~<& the author has asaumed as the beginning of his calcuia. after the same Môlêd.) M the time of the Tekûfâ of Nisân. 156-175. The author shows that a year-point. you get no remainder. after the Môlêd ofNîs&n. instea. In the Table. 172. amd that on the other hamd the Te~ûfôth. Wednesday.=n8n and «c. I cannot account for this divergency. The Character of the Te~ûfâ ia 7~ hours.d of the sunaet (of Tuesday) or 4 d.bier und Sabismus. cf. If you multiply 30 hours by 28 and divide the product by 24. 15 h. perha. he bas said that feU 4 d. Oh. Tuesday. 65-69. I mention the spelling of ~. 15 h."pp. 0 h. The one. as calcnlated by the System of Rabbi Addâ. t. Onthissnbjeet. 15 hours).e. The question is whence to begin with this calculation p with the Tekûfâ of Tishrl or that of Nisân f The author fixes the Te~Afâ of Tishr! on the 5th Tishi!. Here (1. which ia thé amount of the precession of eMh year-point within the week. Schwarz.e. p.10. as the chapter is a <oy<«. The proof for this atter assertion has fallen out. as calcula. p. whieh 1 have mot been able to decipher. 21) the author atates that the firat Te~ûfâ of Tishrî feU 5 d. Begajding Oriental names of the p~amets.e. with a year-point as determined by astronomieal observation. Dr.tion the time of noon (of Wednesda. Ad. 169. 9 o'olock in the morning.ps.e. the author nnds the nrst hour of the night of Wednesday (or. In the square of the Syriac najnes of Venus there occur two other names. "DerJndischeKaIender. I refer the reader to Chwolsohn. after the Môlêd of the year. 2. a. ie. 19. after the Môled of Tisbrî. By subtraoting herefrom the amount cf tho weeMy precession of two TokAfoth (i. according to our method. according to the Julian year). As a matter of interest for the history of Hebrew pronunciation. 1 h.ted by the Te%. t.ûfôth of Rabbi Samuel (t. in no way agrees with reality. 4d.y)." ii. 168. "Sa. 18 h. whilst on p.

= 24.\e~ Of p. h.=171. 11 h.r minua 29 d. AddA.e. 5~. we come as far M a.. 174. 33. the firet of 'Rahrin Primus.738.15. 2S3~L of daytime is 0 d. The year of Rabbi Addâ contains 365 d.195 d. 4104th parts of am hour) one day contains 98. Taeada.280. added to Sunday. and in the text.768 Julian years. 11 h. 194.y night.208. thia kind of fra~tiona (t. If we divide thia sum of 4104th parts of an hour by 35. we get as quotient 4. 19 h. &nda remainder of 850 d.788. If we count 30 d. for M it M to be read) 205 millions have Mien out. 7 h. = 1.e.200 -5 1.254. The constituent parts of this eum are d.624 961~ 253.e.351 (which ia the solar year of B. Hence it is évident that in the number 171. 2. 11 22 21 7 1 6 H. the lat of Elûl.720 6h.y (i. 21~r h. 17S. and a t. 1. 1.ANNOTATIONS. p. the preceding aunaet). In 1.d 7 h.738. 253 which.758 years.305~.431 26 Small Cycles = 3.2?7 9yeMaorlllmonths Sum RemNmder 1. 1311.e. rea. days givea 4. 7 h. 16.1.305t (line 5.205. read inatead of ua~e~ g-s m. . 255 H into theac fractions 1.490 8 Great Cycles = 180.280.. 7 h. 7 h.496. from the beginning of a Stmda. one yea. Alex. reduced into the same kind of fractions). 253~ 29 d.195 the following h. 827 H. i.195 d. The division of this aum by 364. The following ia thé converaion of 1.738. 6 h.975.= Stun 171.. 413 p. If we compare this remainder with that of the former calculation. instead of 9 h. givea the aum of 30 d. 440 850 543 253 253 This ia the interval between the Tekûfâ of TIshn of thé &rst ysa-r of the Adami amd the Môlêd of A.554. 827 remainder of 33S~ d.

21.1. thé astronomica equinox feU 14 days earlie!. (It must be noticed that in the former number minuta are 60th parts of a day.. p. in the nrat year of the cycle is nxed npon 2. The table on p. for. That part of the text whioh is missing in this place (t e between the worda ~U*-J and ~L. 628.1. after which the aingle yeam begin again on the same week-days. L. is this. 35. that Monday is the epochal day of this em. seconds 60th parts of a 60th part of an hour. 22' 1"=354 d. p. 174. Alex. 5. that. whilst in thé second number minutes are 60th parts of an hour. io." ii. 479) reckons it as 354d. Nahonasaar and PhiJippna commence. 174." ii. Hamdbuch.1. 176. 253~ we get a difference of 15 d. p. but in reality the mean lunar year is longer." p. Ideler (" Hamdbuch. seconda 60th parts of a 60th part of a day. 48 min. Histoire de l'astronomie dn moyen âge. ander only the end ia extant. 18 h. p. as the author saya himself on p. 8h. SimUar rules for the derivation of the beginnings of the yefja of the different eras are also given by Delambre. according to Rabbi Addâ. and the author does not explain the principle upon whieh it is baaed. Of the chapter relating to the EM of Alex. 3 h. p. The reason why the beginning of Tishrin I. 175. as the epoohal day of the era of the Flight. p. 1311 faNa by 15 d.9. p.&e. 335 d. eajiier tham that of R.414 ALBÎB~NÎ.1. 27. 21. 3 h which means ~H. Thé epochal days of the single èrM are also given by Delambre.8h. 175 contains a cycle of 28 Julian years. 176.48'36". This rule for the derivation of the Signum Jtf~tuv~mt of any year of the Flight is very intricate. 96. and the author seema to reckon it as 354 J. H. 194. thé Te~afâ of Tishr! of A. Ideler. othors Friday.=354d. 3~~ h. Samuel. not be~ tween the nnmber and ~) originaUy contained rutes by which to find the week-days on which thé yeara of the eraa of the Deluge. in thé text.8h. earlier than that of Rabbi Samuel. Monday. Most people take Thursday. The lunar year of this era is generaHy reckoned at 354~d. p. 1 ff. 1.) . 41. ].1. Cf. p.48'. This difference shows that the syatem of Babbi Adda comes pretty near aatronomical truth. whilst hia autumnal equinox feU 15 d. 24 sec. Read u~ instead of M~ in the text. 194.

515. The title of the table.1. 176. 26. 1." p.15. according to thé general pmetice.44. For the intercalary System of the lunar calendar 1 refer the reader to L. must be corrected Table showing on what week-days the Bamadans of the single years of the cycle of 210 years commence. p.1. 177. Further: why does the author count aU minutes above 15 as o)'e toM)-. 177. whilst. cf. In this form the table is given by Alber&m. Muhammad bon Jabir Alba. after a cycle of 210 yea~a the New-Year days fall again on the same week-day. Ideler. the day on which a month begins.1. momical tables. There is no remainder of days if this cycle is repeated seven times. otde "Kitab-aJËhliat. 415 The author does not explain why ho adds 34 to the minutes. and the addition of 6 days brings us back to Sunday. divided by 7.H. as there is a remainder of 5 days. 43 &. p.1. p.e. 11 days must be interealated within 30 years. and H&j!EhaKfa. 479 S. i. p. died A. and those above 30 to be counted as one hour? The nitricacies of thia rule have not revealed to me the mystery of their mathematical ratio. ~abash the mathematician. a famous astronomer of ~NT&mMi origin. 197. thé author intended by some contriyamœ to meet the incorreetness of the common year (of 3544~ d. This table is the invention of the mathematician Habash. gives ~e remainder of 3. 317 w~ "Kit&b-aMhmt. advances in two montha as far as 3 daya within the week. To add 5 days and 34 minutes is the same as if yoa add 6 days. p. This is the reason why the table was constructed for a period of 210 years. v. 19). 177. as given by me. and notes. The aum of the days of two months is 59.tt&n!. 180. the minutes below 30 ought to he disregMded.e. As it seoms. 279. for 210 years but some sectarian has indicating the Signa Jtf<t~<nv<ntM in every place added 5 to the number of days.) being too short. As the lunar year is reckoned as 354 days.1. p. a native of Marw. 38. which. After the cycle of 30yeam the New-Year days do not again fall on the aame weet days. p. In thia case we must assume Friday (6) as the epochal day of thé era.BaMMKMtM for the cycle of 210 years. and thereby changed it into a tabk indicative of the Signa . B. Read JM! mstead of JMt in thé text. t. the beginning of the week in whioh the Flight oceurred (cf.1. 275. 180.ANNOTATIONS. author of famous astre. 179. p." p. . p. ii. is to be altered. and p." Aceordingly also thé superseription of col. 2.

. whilst. 7. 16. BaNM~B}) mmus 5 givea VI. 21. Thé principle of Habash ia obvioua He inteMaJa. Thé word W<M~ or Medium meana the corrected or mean motion of any celeatial body. Mcording to whieh Ha. In thé first square J (thé Signum of the ûrst Bam~ân) has f&Uen out. 10.kes 1.19. 24.81. 29. 13. The Signum of the year 25. Aocording to HabMh. 7. portio mteMahndft. read instead of~ J 4.~rdsof&wholeda. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 83 84 25 26 27 29 30 S S S L.416 AMhtÛNt.5. 'ÏM~M~M~w.30. (Friday) as thé Signum MuhaNami. 5. 180.16. 29.1.baah Cyole of SO yeara. J 3. Habash bas used Friday as thé epochal day. The Signum of the year 181. p. 7. L. 18. 13. . 26.SE 11 12 18 14 B t! S L. H S L.(Signum In thé text (vide thé screw-figure. 198) there are four mista. 18. 21. The following lis the Ordo M~rM~tcuM h&s constructed his table. 26.11.13.24. A L.e.tea thé w<e)-. according to the common Ordo M~co~~MM.y. A L.p-yeam: 2. 2 8 3 4 5 6 8 L. 10.27. 5. 24. viz. Mele&p-yeaM: the following °' vears 2. L. 2. be~use IV. A L L. when the fractioD bas Men to portio more than ~° t. portio interoalanda. T L.madânî for the year 9 has fatlem ont. Cyole of SO yeara. the following years of the cycle of 30 yeara are iea.8. or 2. calanda as one rrhole day. 15. read inatead of J p. The Signum Ba.

22 (F~)' (Floiecha). viz.34. 564. ~w. p. If we compute the beginnings of the firat Octaeteris by the help of the corrected table. p. 181 The Correoted T~Me of the ~thor contains thé C~ of th. 74. find the Signum 3f~< of ~0. Team ot Signa theCycte.day. p. 182. < the remainders which you if divide get you thé aum of the d&ys of the yeMs by 7 ~?: ~e~cu~ted for Friday as the epochal.l8' +&d. 5d. or Wednesday. for the S~~ the preceding year t. Thé following passage aud table are also found in the of At~Mw!nt. but there is a difference of four minutes.1.we we t&ket~eS~<t<tMoItheyeM99. 417 test. vide Ideler. Mntamuni. single years of the cycle of 210 y~s. 1 = 4~+6 3 2 ? = 1~+6 6 8 S = 6~+6 4 2 = 3~+6 6 = 6 0~+6 6 6 4 = S~+6 1 = 2~+6 8 6 = 6~+6 30 . ii. It must be kept in mind that in order to find the S~M Jf~M for any year. we muet look out in the C.e. p.~M ~<. 1.ANNOTATIONS. 1. ~cMtoyf~te The Octaeteris of lunar years is the basis of the Turkish calendar. we get thé following Signa.' 3 d. the of one OctMteris. Mis by four minutes later than that of the beginning preceding° one. ed. WMtemfeld. p. 52'=IV. It resta on the observation that the of beginnings eMMecutive cycles of eight yeara fall on the same identical time nearly of thé week. 198. The author doea not explain what System of intercalation he foUows. t.

as given by the author. p. and of 1 year. t. 183.e. 322. e.8~h. 1 do mot see the reason why the author ordera 4 to be added to the complete yeara of the J&<t J~<B (11. 282. Flûgel. 282. but for thé multiplica<ion by AIUi&zin bas sought for a aimpli6ed method. if converted into the aext~eaimal system. 'Ab&. a contemporary of Muhammad ben Musa. 'Ahmad ben Muhammad bon Shihâb ia not hnown to me from other sources. 7. who died a. vide "Kitâb~tahrist. He was a contempomry of died A. § of a number are more than of it by of the number. The nrst Signum JMM~mwmt of thé table belangs to thé second year of the Flight.=0 d. a famous astronomer amd mathep. 13.e. one. 183.=1 d. The c~tMetef of the lunar year ia 4~ d. mentiona a mathematician Ahmad ben Muhammad. The Kit&b-atnhnat. 1. Cha.418 ALBÎBÛNÎ. 259." Abû-ZaidAlbatkM. 10. The ChMMteN of 30. we multiply a number of years by (t.a. .who p. 40' 5 yeM9=0 d. 20 h.28' The remainder of thé rule does not require an explanation. of 60 (or of 30).y. "Et&b. 34. In 1.aMhnst. if we half the number by 3 and divide the product by 4). therefore. 16 h. will be found to agree with the Cor<-ec<e<! T<e. of a number is nearly equal to § of it. The second rule of Alkhtzm is as correct as the firat p." p. §of60=22~ ot 60=22 The différence between both numbers ia y. we muât multiply aubtract from the product of the number (or of hait the number).e. =5 d. Example: A.=4d. 5). read under 8 instead of under 7. 50' lyeM==4d. an odd number. or of half the number.4. 183.H.ï&cter of 30 yeaM=5 d. 0' 10 yeMa=l d. If. 138. matician. 90. 5 years. but it ie lumeceaaMiIy complicated. The number of complete years is 89.H.18. Cf. and G. 204. GrMnmatMche Schulen der Araber.1." p." p. It ia easy to multiply any number of yeMa by 4 (or half the number by 8).J&'&tr Alkhâzin. t. in order to get of thé aame number of years.

ANNOTATIONS.

419

We subtmct 1 year, and write down ita ekaracter, t.e. 4d. 22', Half of the remainder (88)=44.

d. I.) 44x8=352 H.) 44x3=132 4=33d.
352 d.

33d.
6 d. sum 391 d. -0 d. 390 d. +4d. (we add 6, taking Friday as epoehal day, m a.gt'eementwithWûstenfeld'a Tables, whilst Alkhâzin adda 5, taking Thurs. day as epochal day.) 44' (60th parts to the amount of httif the 390 d. 16' mumbet.) 16' 22' (character of the one yea~.)

394 d. 38' (these 38' are counted aa one day.) Therefore 395 7=remainder 3=C. i.e. A.H. 90 commenced on a Tuesday (cf. Wustenfeld, VergleichungsTabeUen"). p. 184,1. 24. The aa,me rule for the ~Brc Yazdft~Mt, vide in Delambre, Histoire de l'astronomie du moyeu âge," p. 41. Zur Geschichte p. 184,1. 33. On the ~Etft Magorum, cf. Ed. Sacha. und Chronologie von Khwarizm I." ("Sitzungaherichte der KaM. Wiener Akademie der Wissenscha~ten, phil.-hiat. CiMse," 1873, tom. 93, p. 485). 42. The authors report on the intercalation p. 184,1. Persians, vide on p. 38. p. 186,1.27. Ibn-SanMIa me from other sources. (the son of Syncellus?) of the ancient

is not known to

p. 187, 1. 13. 'Abdall&h b. 'lamMl h unknown ajmaah AIMndi seems to be the famous philosopher an authority on Sa.biama he is also quoted by the 318, vide also Chwolsohn, "Sabier und Sabismus," ii. p. 18?, 1. 37. 1.3.

to me, but 'AMof this name. As Eit&b-alnhnst," p. pp. 3 and 56.

TMfMMt, name of a piece of dress, cf. note at p. 132,

p. 188,1. 3S. Aljâmida waa f large village in thé district of Wâsit, between this town and Ba~ra.. Y&&t, ii. p. 10. A JM)'-<t~&t in Wasit is mentioned by Yakût, iv. p. 841.

420

AMÎBÛNÎ.

A place, ~i~o~n-, I do mot know, but A!-ja*&tî was a castle in the neighbourhood of Samarrâ, built by the KhaUf AhnntawakHL ~~e Ta~At, ii. p. 86.

345.

p. 188,

44. On the Sa~KMot, o~

a note in

EttAb-aMMst,"

p.

L 2. Bahdr is the Sanskrit word ctM<w of IMiM)~ 1 do not p. 189, know the origin. The author seeme to think of the Buddhiatic monuments of the K&bal vaUey. On the sects of Bardesanes and MMeion, et. KitAb. p. 189,1.14. aMhriat," i. pp. 338, 339, G. nagel, mnî, "Seine Lehre und seine SeMften," 1862, pp. 169,161. p. 189, t. 20. division of eaoh the influence of mined diCerenay of Ptolemy). The a~Mtttt %mtare an Mtrologio&l term, meaning the zodiacal sign into five parts. Thèse parts stand under the planets (except Sun and Moon). They are deterin different Systems (that of the Egyptians and that Sein

p. 189, 1. 43. The chapter on Mânî, cf. with G. Flugel, M~nî, Leben und seine Sohnften," Leipzig, 1862.

p. 190,1. 87. Ta~nt (iv. p. 317) mentions the canal of Kùtha, but he does not mention the name of JM<M'<~<! (sic.). p. 191, L 1. Tahy& b. Ama'man, the Christian, is not known to me from other sources. p. 191, 19. Jtbr&'ît Nûh is not known to me. Tazdanbakht was a Manichman chief in the time of the EhaHf Ma'mun, w<<e FInseL MAn:, pp. 108 and 99, etr. p. 191, L 44. 1. 32. On this prince MarzabAn b. Bnstam, vide note at p. 47,

p. 192, L 6. The "Etâb-atnhrist" mentions two booka on J&BKM, one by Ibn-aimntaaa.' (p. 118), and one by 'Ab&n b. 'Abd-athamîd In the same book, p. 342, a chapter on Mazdak. (p.163). p. 192, L 26. This con-espondenoe took place A.H. 10, cf. Ibn-HisMm, pp. 96S. 946; Ibn.al'atMr, iL 227; Ibn.~utaiba, "Etâb-aima'arif," p.206. p. 193, L 3. In a different form this verse is quoted by Ibn-Kutaiba. "Ma'àrif,"p.206.

ANNOTATIONS.

421

p. 193, L 6. The story of thé idol that was eaten by ita worahippera is told by many Arab authors. Cf. Muh!t-ahn~h!t," a.v. C~Iti. On Bah&nrM, cf. Shahriatanî, ed. Curoton, p. 187;¡ p. 193, Eitàb-amhriat," p. 344.. The village or town of Sfr&wamdis fdso mentioned by T&~ût, e.v. < ii. p. 486. p. 194,1.12. 1 do not know an 'AbdiJIah b. Shu'ba in the ea.rly history of the AbbMides. In the Eit&b.a.t&htist," p. 344,1. 24, one of thé two officers who were sent out in puMuit of Ba.hânrîd, is called 'AbdaJIM~ ben S&'îd, tmd a man of thia name ia known as provincial governor of the KhaMa H&r&n and 'Amin, vide Ibn-al'athîr, vi. pp. 156, 214. p. 194,1. 22. Ibn-td'atMr, vi. pp. 25, 35, relates thé coming forward of Abnu~Mma.' under A.H. 159, and his death under A.H. 161. p. 194,1. 45. &?,93. The history of AIhaU&j ia told by Ibn-at'atMr, Tiii. pp.

p. 195,1. 33. On the literature of the ~tt)tt-ttb)MM~M)t, cf. M. Stein. schneider, Apoktdypsen mit polemischer Tendenz (" Zeitechrift der Deutsohen Morgenlândischen GeseUschaft," xxviii. p. 627 6.). On Aimnhhtar, who wasMUed A.H. 67, cf. Ibn-~utaiba, p. 195, 37. "Ma'Anf," p. 204, amd Ibn-at'atMr, iv. p. 220. p. 195,1. 42. Ba4w& M a mountain in Athij&z, between Yanbu' and Medina, also mentioned by T&~&t (ii. p. 790, 1. 20) as the residence of Ahnahd!. Cf. also Aïkaz~M, Xosmographie," ii. p. 160. p. 196,1. 1. On the ialamd of BMt&'îl, cf. Al~bzw!nî, i. p. 53. Kosmographie,"

p. 196, L 13. On the history of the ~arma.tia.M, cf. De Goeje, "Memoire sur les Carmathes du Bahrain," Leyde, 1862. p. 196,1. 21. Tamâm is mentioned by Takùt, iii. p. 547, as a town near HadTMnaut. Abn-'AbdaUah Al'âdî is not known to me from other p. 196, 44. sources. An Abù-'Abdimah AHA': (~ a. mistake for ?) is known in history as a chief of thé Shï'a in Dailam, vide Ibn-al'&thîr, vin. p. 424, at A.n. 355, amd yiii. p. 443. is Sûra. 39. These verses were p. 197, t. 39. The Sûra called ~&MM<tf also tramBlatod by de Goeje, Mémoire sur les Ca.rma.thea," p. 51.

422

ALBÎRÛNÎ.

Read j~ p. 198,1.1. Al'azâHr instead of jt~ Alghrr&~ir, and /)-om S~Ma~~t: ~t*Jt. (~. instead of b. St<t~M~ (~it. (text, p. 214,1. 9). Cf. Y&~ùt, iii. p. 314, and Ibn-al'atMr, viii. p. 216. Shalmaghân was the name of a district belonging to Wâsit. An extract from the author's chapter ou the festivals of p. 199,1.1. the Persians is given by Atkazwinî, Xosmographie," ii. pp. 79-84; aee <t~oAlfM-ghân!, Elementa. MtronomisB," notre, pp. 20-42. p. 199,1.20. I am unable to tell what the author means by the sphere of Fêrôz (not Mrôza.) and by the sphère of Afrimja.w! (or I&~m&w!) ou p.208,lS. p. 199,1. 28. S&'M b. A!f~l. me from other Bourcea. (vide also p. 208,1. 27) is not known to

T&~ût, ii. p. 584, mentions a place, Dummd, below Baghdad. Perhaps it would. be preferable to rea.d On the mountain of Dumma," etc. p. 200,1. 3. Ealw&dha, a place not far south from Baghdad. Yakût, iv. 301. The year in which 'Adud-aJda~uIa.entered Baghdad wu A.n. 364. On Abû-aJ&mj Alzanj&n!, cf. note at p. 54,1. 1. p. 201, 1. 4 ff. If popular use may more eaaily determine the solstices than the equinoxes, it is just the reverse for their scientme determination, as the author himself observes on p. 167,1. 2. Cf. Sa<ha.u and Holetscheh, "Berechnung der Entfemnng des Sonnenapogaeums von dem FrùMingsptmkt," p. 25. on the mounp. 202,1. 4..B<M~. It would be better te translate tain of Bûshamj," as Bûshanj is a. village in the district of Hera.t, not far from the road to inshapûr, vide Y&~ut, i. p. 758. p. 203, 1. 32. 1.37. p. 204, 1. 8. M<t<&. With this innovation of Shapûr the Hero, cf. p. 209, ~Mfn-. Apâkhtaja. means in the AvestA north, not

p. 204, 1. 51. Manifest in the ~M~M (vide ~o p. 205,1. 24) is the common mode of quotation in Pajsee books, <~e "Bundihish," éd. Justi, CHossajy, e.e. <~U!e{. p. 204, 1. 52. On the Gàhambars, cf. F. Spiogel, "Avesta. ii. p. c. and p. 4, note 1 on the etymologies of their names, vide A. Bezzen.

ANNOTATIONS.

423

Einige Avestische Wôrter und Formen in Gottinger Gelehrte berger, Anzeigen," 1878, p. 251. p. 205,1.13. CfM~t-t-tMM/a)'meams <te/eM< of the <M<e)'y.

p. 205,1. 25. ~)')'s/). The older form of this name is ~1~/MH,)')'<?<' Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl&ndischen Gesellschaft," Noeldeke, xxxii. p. 570. p. 206, 1. 28. Na~tt was a town half-way between Rai and Ha,ma.d)tn, vide T&kut, iii. p. 24. A town of thé name of ~lH(!~ or MaH(!t is not known to me. p. 207, L 11. Here something seems to be missing, viz. that Âdha.rcashn foll on Mihr-Rôz, i.e. the 16th of thé month. p. 208, 1. 21. Sa.lm&n Alf&ris!, originally a slave of Persian descent, ttfterwajds one of Muha.mmad'a companions. He died in thé beginning of the reign of 'Uthm&n. p. 208,1. 25..AMf~M! from other sources. p. 208, 28. (also p. 211, 1. 19) is not known to me

iSMMm. A mountain of this name is not known to me.

p. 208,1. 32. AUdsra.wî, vide note at p. 122,1.14. p. 208, I. 83. Hâmm. This place seems to be bomething like the an intermediate place between heavea and hell, vide Weat, B<tM&<<t~M, "Mainyo-i-Kha.rd," Glossary, p. 97. p. 209, 1. 20. ~te<t& mea.ns girdle, costume of a.Zoroastrian. still an essential part in the

p. 210, 1. 15. Aln&~ir Al'utrûsù was a descendant of Ali, who ruled for some years in Dailam and Ta.ba.rist&n, and was Hlled A.H.304. As a missiona.ry he had endeavoured to spreaxi Isl&m among the Zoroastrian people of thèse countries. Weil, "Geschichte der Khalifen," ii. pp. 613-615. In the text, p. 224, 1. 9, read~U~ ~.htus!')' instead of~M ~!tt(M)')-. For a description of the feast of Farwardagân, f!<!e p. 210,1.18. F. Spiegel, Avesta," ii., Einleitung," p. ci. p. 211,1. 3-8. The lines between brackets have been taken from the Ccn'omJtf<M!n!tc<M of Alberûn!, MS. Elliot (British Muséum), fol. 60A. p. 211,1. 15. T&hir b. T&hu', unknown to me.

424

ALBÎBÛNÎ.

28. The name of the feast of thé ISth Âban ia aleo in the p. 212,1. Canon JMMMdtMM (ff. 49a, 50a) written t)U~. p. 212, L 83. The second name of this feast is written in the Cc~ott Jf<M<t<!tCt<s (S. 49a, 50a) J~~ whieh M certainly more correct than J~. On these festivals, cf. Canon JfoMMMcMo, fol. 50a, U. p. 213, ll.11-18. 18-22: "On the day of Bahmanja they coo~ in oaidrons ail sorts of plants, kemels, Mossoms, and aU sorts of eatable mea.t. They drink the white Bahman-root, mixed with the purest white milk, maintaining that this helpa to preserve the body and to defend it against evil. means above <<t<~<t~, because it précèdes Sadhat by five B<n'M~ i.e. the new Sadha~. days. It is aJso called J~<MCK!&<t, SfK&tjL They say that on this day the creation of a ~mf!fef! sonb of the family of MesM and Mêshâna had become perfect, and that there. fore the day was called &K!<&t! i.e. But~yet~ According to others there ia an interval of 100 days between this day and Naurôz, if you coant days and nighta separa,tely, and therefore the day was called Bw<t<e<<~y in the same way as Nuwad.Bôz (otate p. 212,1. 12). p. 213,1. 24. Kataj, a town midway between Hamadam and Ispahân, alao a village near Ba.i, and another between Hamadam and Nah&wand. Yâ~At, iv. p. 251. p. 214, 1. 28. Abù.'Uthman Aijahi~ is the well-known zoologist, author of a..Mef <t)ttM<t!tMM, who died at Ba~ra, A.H. Xt<a&-<t~<~<Mi'f!m, 255. p. 214,1. 28. 'Ukbaja, a village in the district of Dujait, near ~a.TM!n and'AwAn&. T&~ût,iiLp.705. p. 214,1. 33. Aijajhant, a famous polyhistor, vezir to the dynasty of the Samanides, beginning of the 4th century of the Flight, vide Beina.ud, Géographie d'AhoolfMa, i. p. Ixiii. p. 215, L 15. AdhfHfHi&r&ia not mentioned by Yâ~ut, nor does he know anything about E&m-Ferôz (L 39). Dâr& (L 88) is not known as a place in Persia, perhaps D&r&bjird was meant. 1. 22. In thé text, p. 229, L 16, read » instead of p. 216,1. manuaoripts. as in the

p. 216, L 81. Dînâr-B&z!. The spelling of this naMe is not quite certain. It is mentioned by Ibn.~au~al, ed. de Goeje, p. 275,1. pen. It is a place on thé road from Jurjân to Khar&san. p. 216, t. 40. Zanj&n, a town in Media towards Adharhaijân, from ~azwîn. Yâtût, ii. p. 948. not far

ANNOTATIONS.

42~.

and the city of this p. 217, t. 26. On thé Fe<M<of J5'<t)'(!~[<!))~M<M!'<t, BMne,cf. Y&kùt, iv. p. 258. p. 221,1. 6. B&muBh ia mentioned by Ya~ut, u. 737, as a village in the district of Bukhârâ. p. 221, 1. 21. The festivals called MâkMraj fell, according to the Mthor'a "Eit&b-altafh!m" (MS. of the Royal Library in Berlin, Peterm. 67, fol. 62b.), alwa.ya on the 13th. the Kit&b-a.lta.fMm has p. 221,1. 22. Instead of t.e. the Âgham or feast of Baikand, cf. Bamush.Âgh&m, 1.16. s~

p. 221,1. 82. Al-~waw!s, a town in the district of Bukhârâ, between ia not known this piMe aihd Samaj~and, vide Ti%&t, iii. 655. ~t~ to me. p. 222,1. 5. Shargh (" Kitab-&lMh!m," fol. 62b), called by Ibn~&ù~.a.l, p. 360, U. 5, 6, was a large village near Bukhârâ, vide Y&~ut, iii. p.276. p. 224, 1. 4. According to the "Eit&b-alta.fMm" festival Ajgh&r feU on the 16th of CM. p. 224,1.12. root efp ((~). p. 224,1.18. AYOStâ. p. 224,1. 22. JN one may think of reading p. 224, L 28. Insteitd of ~!A!& H~t~tt t~~<==t~t. t.%e ?M~/t< (M ~)~==)j!j~'). p. 226,1.14. Ta.hy& Grammaticus, a Jacobite bishop in Egypt who tramala.ted from thé Greek a.nd wrote philosophica.! and polemica.1 books, lived in thé nrst half of the 7th century of our era,. p. 226, 1. 22. JC&&~1 hold to be a derivative from the aame root and ~ftâKMnJMt in thé AvMt&). whence (. ha~ aprung (cf. )<) are p. 226,1. 30. The following Chorasmian na.mes of the G&ha.nb&m diaJect-vajfieties of thé names of the Aveatit in thé following order P(n<M-t<t~<t (26-30 ShfbhrSwtu-). (11-16 Tir). J)f<n(!tw-</tem<t 31 (fol. 63a) thé

~t~)~t6<t& is baga= God, and some derivative from the Read A!<Minstead of .4z<M,and cf. j[<t<t=~ Instead of CM-Boj the Eitab-aJta&ïm in the

haa C!r-r8z

426

ALBÎBÛNÎ.

.M<M<M-~ (16-20BahMan). JMfn~f!<tMm<ty« (11-15 Ardîbahiaht). wMoh ia omitted in this place, thé five intercalary jBom<<{p<t<X)f<!M<t~<t, daya at the end of Spend&rmat. ~~arM)M (26-30 Mihr). author means by .A~~ I do not know. p. 325, 1. 33. What the w -tt~ meana and meana carnet, ~o!tn<jf ,~t <'eMtM~to ~oMf~ (~'). ~~t p. 326, L 10. Whatever the tme Chorasmian form may be, AHtar, ~lM<<n' Akhkhar, or Akhtar, it ia certainly identical with thé Peraian~ =atM'. p. 226, 1. 14. The authors criëcisma on the constellations of the aingle zodiacal atgna as tepreaented by Arabians and ChoMamiana, may be compared with the book of L. Ideler, "UmterauchTmgen uber den Uraprung und die Bedeutamg der Sternnamen," Berim, 1809. ia a Ba.huvnhi compound of two worda p. 226, 1. 81.MyctcitaWt corresponding to the Persian <Ï~=two, amdjpttt&cn'j~;=&gure. p. 226,1. 37. Ab&'Muhammad 'Abd&U&hb. Mualim b. ~utaiba AId!mtwa~ ia in Earope known M Ibn-Kutaiba. He was a native of E&fa, and lived aa jndge in Mnawaj. He died A.H.270. According to Eitâb-at&mMt," p. 77, his booka were highiy eateemed, especMly in Aijabal, ie. Média, and to his <M)aK or Median charaeter AtMr&n! seema to have certain objections (p. 227,1. 16). That one of hie booka whieh our author quotes ia perhapa identical with that mentioned by Eit&b-aînhriat," p. 78, L 8 (~~ ~yH (~ ~i~ ~~). p. 227,1. 23. In SAraix. v. 98, Muhammad blamea thé '-4')-<S, t.e. the Ara.b Bedouins, in the atrongeat terma Thé 'A'râb are the worat infidela and hypocritea, they do not deserve to learn thé laws wMch God reveals nnto Hia prophet, but God is all-knowing, aJI-wise," etc. p. 227,1. 32. Three of the Sogdian names reaemble the con'eaponding Sanskrit namea: r<-M~&<tp<t<M=~ ut~ (No. 24). ~!M'a~– (No. 26). jMo~iM= (No. 8.) Cf. E. Burgeaa, Sùrya-Siddhanta (" Journal of thé Ametican Oriental Society," vol. vi. p. 327 &), and A. Weber, "Jenaer Literatur-Zeitung," 1877 (7 April), p. 211.

ANNOTATtONS.

427

The name in No. 7 is the f<~txt<?. of thé Avesta; in No. 20, cf. with the f<M!<Mf name <M~ of the Avestâ.

thé

p. 229, t. 3. Ahmad waa the last prince but ont of the ancient house of the SMhs of Khw&nzm, who undertook a reform of the calendar A. Alex 1270=A.D. 959, ie. 13 years before thé author was born. Cf. Sachau, Zur Geschichte und Chronologie von Ehwânzm I. der Wiener Akademie," phil. hist. Classe, 1878, (" Sitzungshetichte Kitabp. 503). A short report of this reform is also found in thé altafMm," fol. 63. p. 229,1.13. other sources. AlUiarâj! and AIhMnda.M are not known to me from

p. 230,1. 8. According to the Eit&b.a.ltafh!m thé Ist Nausar~ was nxed 60 as to fall on the 2nd Ntsan (~t-<! < ~Ui\ ~!t ~). p. 230,1. 26. According to p. 258, L 18, the Nile begins to riM on the 16th ~M!r&n, ie. the 16th Payni. p. 233,1. 5. Sinân b. Thâbit died at Baghdad A.a. 331, and his father, Thâbit b. ~un-a, A.H. 288. They were both famous as philosophera, ma.thema.ticia.'tS, and physicians, both ~[a.rrânia.ns, the last representatives of ancient Greek learning, through whom Greek sciences were communica.ted to the illiterate Ara.bs. Cf. Eit&b-a.Uihnat," pp. 802, 272. Sinân had made a collection of meteorologica.t observations, called Xt<a!'<n:Mx!, compiled from ancient sources, and enriched by the observations of his father and his own. The work of Sinân has been incorporated by Alberunî into his chronology, and thereby he hM pre. served to us the most complete Parapeyma of the ancient Greek world. With the works of Sinân other works of a. similar chaj.tcter may be compared Sem&MM, < ra ~tfo~tfct, thé 16th chapter, edited by Ha.lma. 'BMmYmyq in Chronologie de Ptolemée," Paris, 1819, pp. 79-87. (Cf. Boeckh, "Ueber die vietjahrigen SonnenTtreiae," p. 22 ff.) aTrÂafSf a<rT~)m)' Kai owaymyj~ f!n(rq~<rtmf cditcd by .PMettttetM, ~<Mr<M H~lma., "Chronologie de Ptolemée." Jb&<tMtesj!~(!<« (" Corpus scriptorum Histonea Byza.ntinee," Bonn, in ttw f)f).m« 1837), De mensibue, cap. iv., and De M~ vnhmm, pp.357-382. For calendaria of more recent times, vide J. SeHeM, De synedriis et pnefeeturiB jnridieis vetemm Ebrœorum 1734- (contains three calendama.).

with caves and wells in the neighbourhood. Comparing the conflicting opinions of the Arab philologiste on thia word (e~ W. Lame. At htat. 1873.1. 'Alt b. AIMrûn: uses the word Nau' in either of these two meMunga. Yakùt. Pto&rM~~<m'<t. "Uober die vierjâhrigen Somnembtese der Alten. iii.Uik&n. 26. etc. By . 9. Vide BcBmM! "Geschichte der Osmmischem Dichtkunat" i pp. Philippns. but the teehmeal terme are everywhere thé same. and ~tM) huntod a. 40. and Johannes Lydua shows. Cf. pp." ii. p.bout. pp.4." iii. L 19. 473. 97 &).BpM<!m<MM6 I have trMtsIated the word &rt<n~MKrMt J~M'e~. antoislamica. 1 am led to believe that J~w' ia an ancient Arabie word. No. Nachriehten und Auszuge a. Conon. p. 163 ff.1. 270. A calemdariwm ofSpMush-Arabic ongia has been edited by R. Metrodorus. Further inlamd m the mountains the castle 2M~. vonugUeh den Endoxischen. Boech. vide note at p.t the time of the EMif Almuta. 1863. As he had made s~t:ri<=d Tcrscs on the Ehalif. ed WustHmfeld." Leyde.wakM. p." p.. lemy.H. 1 refer the reader to the excellent work of A. p. IbnEha. The meteorological influence of thia riaing ia called B~ftA. the meaning of which WM no longer fully and diatinetly understood by the Mualim Arabs. 415-424. in thé agoniea of expuing he is aaid to have recited thia verse. p. famous poet a. the word Nau' wM used to render the Greek as the compM-iaon of Sinan'a compil&tion'with Gem!nua. Dositheus. Aljahm waa a. two miles distant from the Caspian Sea. Cf. "Le Calendrier de Cordoue.491 ~MwM. p. t. p.phio. Doiiy. (extrait from AIbêr&m). 490. probably much uaed in Nite-MuhMnmadam times. EudoxM. 75 ff. 233. after having been wounded in a &ght with hia pursuers. Fleiacher.428 ALBÎB~Î. Eoamogra. J<~nt' meana the riaing of a LunM Station. The single days of these calendara do Not correspond with eMh other. lap&hbadMn. who died A. ii. 234.1. 50. CaMM.ua den HMdachriften der Kgl. Afterwarde when the Greek calondare were to be tramala. 76-81. Kazwîni. as Enctemon." i.. a town in TM)M-iat&n. ~o~<e!'tt.ted into Arabie. "Zeitachrift der Dentaehon Morgenimidiachen GeseUacha. 1. 238. 10 ab inf.1. Abutfede Hiatoria. 839. Regarding thé a~nthoritiea quoted by Sm&n. Bibliothek in Parie. 249. he Bed." Berlin. 24. Ibn-Khnrdadhbih.ft. p. the influence of the sinking of a LunM' Station is called m<t'. . According to Alb~n!. 235.

1. sncv. et." ii.):)M. 31. The word Da~y does not occur in any Arabie dietionary. 37. a village and Nishâpûr.1. The following discussion on the circumstances under which water rises. 23. Ab&. 246 . it is proba. read ~e~j~ instead of The word if a genuine Greek word. 247. 33. a. a. p. p. 29. was bom at Kûf& A. p. Mihrjan was thc ancient name of IsfM&'tï)." p. p.rs. 16. 3. 34. U. 429 Ya.185. &!so ~azw:n!.1. p." ii. in "Journal Asiatique. 256. Mtyâr known to me from other sources. cf. 255.H.H. Abu-Ta. 1. 1. is not p. p. 838. 320. and died at Bagdad A. p.hy& b. Geschichte der Arabischen Aerzte und Naturforacher.1.ve to physical Mhota. L 15. the due appreciation of which 1 must lea. a province of thé Chinese empire. Einleitung. S. 31. 248. Muhammad b. 699. 1. inhabited by Torkish nomades. known to me. Ethé. 25C. 123. 255.phie. 395. but 1 hold it to be a. ia also mentioned by Wûstenfeld.b* Husain Altammar. who died A-H.Ba. mistake for u<y~M<~e. 17. 1. i. Ennâsa. is of a technicat nature.bs. Eoamogra. p. 'Alî. might be read in various ways.1.cN~ft p. 251. 267268. a mathematician of Bulthâra. 250. my edition of the text. between Jurjân of Mara'în and Yâ~ut. or EaimM:. In thé text. 243. p. 26) is not p.hyâ b. p. 90 tranalated by Dr. 247. vide Kit&b-tJmhrMt. 1." 1865. p. . 39. thé author of a famous Kitâbal'anwa. 207. I." p. also the name of a.ANNOTATIONS. 258. 70.Kosmogra. On thé &re as a apherical body within the lunar sphère. On the correapondence of Albêrûnî with Ibn-Sîna.zwm!. p. 1. contemporary of B&z!. *AMis not known to me from other sources. Eunak.nd p. 1. p. 257. ". 252. pp. 10. p. vide Ka. 6ff. 2." p. 'Abdallâh b. 245. If the writing is correct. iv.1. village in the district of another village between Ispahân and Ta. Cf. 2. 23. (also p. and Ibn-Khurdadbih.phie. p.bly a word of foreign origin. 46. tl. p. 258. 34.~<MK&<t is not known from other sources.

It is a Hebrew form J~t femiaime rr'n2 Eings xxv. 2.iii.e. Bead -.po~ Jerem~ Jeram. ff." Breslau. sect. 858.tenem..tinumvemus commentMiisque iUuatMtus a Daniele Lundio Suceo. p." . doubtful. 925." (Mttmgen. 1. H. 262. der heutigen. Jo. i p. D~f) D'?~ ed.t~MM. Mayer.Nu'âs." Tra. MS. and a great gréât MtMioger. B. M. 87. 261. 0. died A. Historia Miteia}MtiiM. Hayawaniyya-sect. and v-e must not rather ~<. advanced or . 199. 1742. this man may have been the &ther of Abû~!A!f. 128. voL n.H. Elliot (British Muséum. p. p.bbimsche CaeremonMgebrSuche."Et&b. Stmck L 27. sources. 1837. as no approa.tl b. ~. ~6<t~e<!te. Thts`âlx3dt. libruian to thé Eh<dif Hâ~. the famous poet at the time of the KhaM known AM." éd.Ba. 1694. 29.124.). Bonderlich "EKUicheVerfMsrmg der tentaehen Juden."p. p.~hnst. 1. 42. other p. ZedSSn. ex Hebreo Bennonem La.105.. Thia &S~ anywhore. 266. Bead in~ead of . v. Amstelodami.m instead of ''Mf.&. xii ) D~ fOCO id est: CodeT 'MmT. Thu'dliba.jecti ad Bhenum. i. 6-11.Ma~ P. 1840. 268. not known to me.bbimc& ii. 553 & "tes Ebraeorum. ~chcr StSche auti hebraeischen Schrift. 20. Hârûn.430 P. Cf. 1748. Naubakht. ALBÎB~NÎ. 269. ~M&.1.NTf" p. 1724 (cap."Bibliothec& Ba. FMsehm. C.dicuB de Jejunio. pp.Y~t. 37b-38a.p.1.ch is The ~T~ useful material for the of the featal calendar of the Jews the following works have explication been used: Ca)M)tmot<~tc<M. 18 j p. 25.< river." Berlin. 1S6 ff ~<t<<ohcc!.aM. as waa pointed ont to me by Prof. is correct. and ~eb~w garb is found in J. meaaimgjM-.1." Erlangen. pp. 40. $li. T.in Yâkût.

245. 1. 271. 43. 41. 235. 278. The feast of 6e<tet!tc<M)!t T Wa. tmteialajnic& pp. p. 11) the words are a ra. p. 270. On the <(tM:e day (ie. 16(~-162.1. Tifthr!. 1.e. 35. The following story occura alao in AbuKedte. p. v.1.) haa 1 have tranelated.ther ~t short and incorrect expression for NeW ~t*! ~-J< <M~(~ &U)<. a poMiMy between the 8th and 13th there is no Monday a. 27-32.e'haer. 271.1. ~M~ (text. Cf.« Cf. In the text (p. 38a) aa. the 21at) !'s the Peast of Co. p. xxxvi. 29. 1. The court of the temple is called nUSn and the place where the wiUowa are g&thered is caJIed or MN1N(Mishn&) M~NtM (Talmud Pftbeatinensis). p. Canon ~<<MM<!te<M (fol. Antiochus." The of the text is the Hebrew t~M. ii. 3n ~M an~n. Jerem. vide p. L 39. i. or Ft~y falls on the 22nd Co~~a~'o~. L 14. p. p. Instead of the ~~hAA< of thé mamut. yoK eM! celebmte a feaat. ii. 22) is mentioned in Eit&b-dBhrMt. 277.~ the 8th and l3th o/' ?« mo!!&.& Théfeast of ArabM consista of a procession round the aJtM. 'n p. etc. 33. . 431 p. 338. The vord JEHrMMt(1. and Bodenseh&tz.ys ~tM~ J~ AeB. is caUed ?T~D DD!:}i8.ANNOTATMNS. can only be explained M a too literal translation of Levit. 271. 270. Bodenachatz. 11). 111. Eiat.it may happen that this fast-day does not occur in some year (if