Geo Intro Assignment Notes

Relative location: A location of a place in relation to another place e.g. downhill; to the north of Absolute location: The exact spot where something is e.g. longitude and latitude; address Mongolia (Compton's by Britannica 12-01-2005):  Land and climate o Mountains in the north and west; a basin region in the northwest; and a large, arid plateau —the Gobi—composed of steppe and desert in the south and southeast  People and culture o Over half the population is urban o Rapid industrialization at end of 20th century o Former socialist policies: importance of education and healthcare o Programs for improving basic literacy and formal education  most of the adult population can read and write, and almost half have completed secondary school; opportunities for higher education, including Mongolian State University and several specialized institutes. o Health services: medical care is free; network of clinics and hospitals.  Economy o Animal herding traditionally important. (state farms) o Although agriculture employs almost half of the labor force, it accounts for less than one third of the gross domestic product (GDP). o Most farming done in large state farms o Socialist policy to industrialize after WWII: flour milling, mining, power production, and textiles o Although industry employs less than one tenth of the workforce, it accounts for almost a quarter of the GDP. o Food products and beverages, textiles and clothing, mineral products, leather goods, footwear, and wood products are among the most important goods produced. o Major deposits of coal, iron, silver, copper, gold, molybdenum, and fluorspar have been discovered. The latter four minerals are mined in large quantities, and copper constitutes a considerable portion of Mongolia's exports o Early 1990s: changed to market economy o Russia still big trade partner, but more diversity now o Mineral products and textiles are the most important exports; equipment, energy, food, and consumer goods are all key imports. o Despite increased trade activity, Mongolia's trade deficit and international debts are high o The major transport artery is the Trans-Mongolian rail line o The road system is not extensive, and less than 5 percent is paved. o Motor vehicles are used where possible; camels are used frequently in the southern deserts, while yak and oxen haul goods in the rugged western mountains. o Mongolia has more than 80 airports, though many do not have paved runways.  History and government o In Socialist era, all citizens were guaranteed the right to work, health assistance, education, welfare in old age, and leisure o After fall of USSR, coalition government and privatization of economy o Present: republic with parliamentary government and a directly elected president

Mongolia may get mine profit stake; Bloomberg News National Post 06-05-2008 Rio Tinto Group and Ivanhoe Mines Ltd. may share production or profits from a Mongolian copper-and-gold mine with the nation's government to win approval to continue developing the site. The production-sharing plan at the Oyu Tolgoi project may replace a 34% equity stake included in an agreement proposed last year, John Macken, Ivanhoe chief executive, said in an interview. Final government approval for the project, which Rio Tinto has called "the world's largest undeveloped copper-gold resource," has been delayed as lawmakers debate changes to the nation's mining laws. Mongolia is seeking to benefit more from its copper, coal and other resources as the commodities' prices surge.

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