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hnameh Persian Lesson on The Rebirth of Rostam
This elementarylintermediate Persian lesson begins with pre-reading and pre-listening activities, proceeds with reading and listening activities and practice, and culminates in the viewing of a n animation feature film in Persian called The Rebirth of Rostam, which tells a version of the story of Rostam and his son Sohrib inspired by Ferdowsi's Shrihnrimek [Book of Kings]. DVD copies of The Rebirth ofRosram are available for purchase at IranianMovies.com. $1. Read a n English translation of Ferdowsi's story of Rostam and Sohrib. Here is a list of publications and web sites which offer translations of the story. Ferdowsi, Abolqisem. The Epic of the Kings. Translated by Reuben Levy. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago, 1967; New York, NY: Arkana(Penguin), 1990. 4.65-80. . The Shhhnhmeh: The Persian Book of Kings. Translated by Dick Davis. New York. NY: Penguin Classics, 2006. Pp. 187-214. . The Shah-Nameh of Fardoicsi. Translated from the original Persian by Alexander Ross. New Delhi: Heritage Publishers, 1973: first published by London: Chapman 81 Hall, 1907 . The S h a h n h of Firdausi Done into English by Arthur George Warner and Edmond Warner. 9 volumes. Available at various On-line sites. , The Shdhndma of Firdousi. Done into English by Arthur George Warner and Edmond Warner. Volume 111. Ann Arbor, MI: Xerox University Microfilms. Available at The Shahnama of Firdausi-Google Book Results. , Fathers ond Sons: Stories from the Slmhnomeh of Ferdowsi. Volume 2. Translated by Dick Davis. Washington, D.C.: Mage Publishers, 2000. The Tragedy of Sohrab and Rostam. Translated by Jerome W. Clinton. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 1996. Revised edition. First edition, 1988.
$2. Check items in the following vocabulary list ( X ) which identify objects, characters, and events likely to appear in a movie about war and hand-to-hand combat in ancient Iran.
castle fortress tower moat
mountain -mountains rnountain(ous) area elain(s)
h b 4 . c b$
‘h 0 j &
drawbridge gate saddle horse helmet /kolih khudl coat of maillarmor bwt(s)
3 6 ,
desert river woods -forest dagger - sword spear InayzU mace lasso, rope bow and arrow (lit: arrow and bow) quiver
p A&A &b O - & O
,0 j c -gt
'jh.? @ 0 g
k , b k ~ L 0 b ~ l i p I k 0
prince, princess paladin enemy fighter, combatant army (division) demon
attack escape surrender(ing) combat, war, battle
C ~ J
52.1. While working with this lesson and preparing to watch the movie which is the lesson's last activity, think of other words relevant to reading and listening on the subject of ancient warfare. Use an English-Persian dictionary (e.g., Farhang Moaser Living English-Persian Dictionary by M.R. Bateni et al., 2007 [3rd edition]) to find Persian equivalents for English terms that come to mind.
war engine, catapult, manganel
- . .
+ 5 6 ,>
$3. In each of the four groups of words below, match proper Persian names in the column to the right with their
English equivalents or definitions in the columns to the left. Ask your instructor or other adult native speaker of Persian for help in cases where you cannot match pairs. Having read an English translation of Ferdowsi's story o f Sohrib, you should be able to match the six pairs in each of the four groups through the process o f elimination. the son of the Iranian paladin Rostam Iran's most famous legendary warrior Rostam's white-haired father an Iranian king an Iranian paladin whom Sohrab caplures and who later lies to Sohrib ahout Rostam Turanian monarch and lran~an arch-enemy Rostam's grandfather and Nariman's son Iranian female warrior who fights to protect the White Fortress daughter of the King of Samangh who proposes "marriage" to Rostam Iranian farmer, Iranian landowner creator, divine provider Zoroastrian priest the land of Iran's arch enemies
J ~ J.r
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J ~ , J J S ~q
Iranian mountain range which separates the Caspian littoral from Tehr3.n legendary Iranian "capital" called Perseplis in English Iran's tallest mountain a border area and kingdom between I r h and Turin native region of the family of Nariman, Sim, ZBI and Rostam chief devil or demon in Zoroastrian mythology White Demon whom Rostam kills lord, lord god the ciry in Khorb3.n where Ferdowsi was horn, lived, and is buried author of the 11th-century Persian epic called Shrihnrimeh iebolqasCrnfcrdowsul
G ' J ~ jf
L L'~ I A ~
f l S ~?LhJ P
mythological phoenix-like bird who raise Rostam's white-haired father -
$3.1. Use www.iranica.com (Encyclopaedia Iranica On-line) and other On-line resources to get more information about foregoing names.
54.1. Match the following descriptions of word and phrase forms with groups of words and phrases below. English equivalents in the lists below come mostly from Farhang Moaser Kimia Persian-English Dictionary (2006) by Karim Emami.
1. plural nouns
Arabic loanword nouns exhibiting an I...U or l...btl suffix (signalling grammatical feminine gender in Arabic). nourdadjectives consisting of an adjective + a superlative-making suffix. Arabic loanword nouns exhibiting a moldZe3t? panern and communicating meanings of reciprocity, mutuality, or twosidedness. noudadjective words ending in a suffix which denotes "having/possessed of." adverb loanwords from Arabic exhibiting the adverb-making / . . . i d suffix. two-part nouns the second part of which denotes "place." nouns ending in the noun-making l...b2rd suffix denoting "protectorlguardian."
ancestors, forbears Iranians - Turanians heroic exploits people - people(s) human beings powerful, strong
;, & I +
currently, presently usually
consequently combatting, fighting
w wise, sage, wise person
artist(e), endowed to artistic talent needful attack plan part. fate tlulh captivity, slavery camp, encampment
combat, fighting, war, belligerence
highest biggest highcst, loftiest, highest-ranking wisest purest, cleanest
resting place, grave. tomb
b ~ J ) J J i gardener
doorway, threshold, king's palace shelter, place of refuge place of battle, battlefield
; ; ~ J J
doorman, doorkeeper, gate kecper
guard, &a& watchman, sentinel prolector, patron
;4 + i u
84.2. Match the following descriptions of word and phrase forms with groups of words and phrases below. English equivalents come from K. Emami's Farhang Moaser Kimia Persian-English Dictionary (2006).
9. nouns consisting of a noudadjective word + a verb present stem + a noudadjective-making lil suffix 10, noudadjective words consisting of a verb present stem + a suffixed lettedsyllable(s). 11. verb past participles used as noudadjective words. 12. nouns consisting of a verb's past stem ( = infinitive minus /...id). 13. intransitive and active voice transitive multi-word verb infinitives. 14. passive voice verb infinitives. 15. verb present stems (with or without a prefix or suffix) used idiomatically. 16. noudadjective words consisting of a verb's present stem + / , , , 2 d
twisted, complicated burned unlucky, ill-fated unripe(ned)
victory, GJAU win 3"
b+JL; b ~ l > k
defeat, loss return fate to be victorious
! J ,
prince, princess (lit: born of a king] to hide to attack to find IpaydU to need
($/A) j~e i& )
to surrender to be killed tobewounded ) to be tired power, might, energy running
L; I J
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to keep, to hold, to stop (sb) knowledge thought, idea
i ) & G
learned, knowledgeable, wise able, powerful, mighty bird retreat(ing), pull-back arresr(ing)
flowing, moving, fluent; psyche visible, apparent, in full view
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it seems that Ig6yU
as if;you'd think as if; you'd think may it not happen that...
trash talk, warrior's boasting to afoe conducting a military campaign shooting an arrow, firing a weapon
&@ GJ 1 & 1 s
t h e t e x t on
t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . Then, after reviewing the vocabulary i n Sections 52, 53, and 54 ( a b o v e ) , scan the facing page f o r answers.
[How many lines does thelext under consideration have?]
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[With what word d w s the text begin?]
....................................... . . ............................................................ .
['The text contains how many paragraphs?]
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..................... ........................................................... .......
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[What is the last phrase in the text?]
[Thc tcxt in question deab with what Shhhnlmeh slory?]
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...................... . . ............................................................r-I .
[Accordmg to the text, who was Tahmineh?]
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[According to the text, who is Afr6siyBb71
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[Which Iranian w u n o r hero is laken prisoner in this story?]
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i p *I [What is the name of the sister of lhe Iranian hem who is *en prisoner?]
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........................ . . .............................
N o defeats this brother and sisler?]
. . ............
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[ W h m do the most important events offhis story takc place?]
................................. . ...
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[Who was the king of Iran at the time of the story under cornideration?]
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[Whom does the Iranian king send to rescue the bmlher and sisler and other Iranians?]
.................................... . . ..............
$5.3.Read the foregoing text while listening again to a n instructor's reading of it or to its audio recording. If you still
have questions about the meaning of words, phrases, or statements in the text, use this relatively free translation to resolve those questions. The story of Sohrab is one of the most famous stories in the Shdhihndrneh. In this story, Rostam, Iran's greatest paladin, and Tahmineh, daughter of the king of Samangiln, have a child called Sohrib. Because Rostam leaves Samangan (a border area between Iran and Tursn) for good before his son's birth, Sohrab ggrws up with one desire: to find his father. To this end he leaves his birthplace Samangsn recruits an army, and sets out for Iran. At this juncture. Iran's long-time cnemy Afr&iyab, king of the land of Turan, learns of Sohr2b's identity and plots to keep Rostam and S a h i b from recognizing each other and to have them fight cach other. Sohrab reaches the While Fortress, which is in lranian territory, and captures thc Iranian paladin called Hojir (or Hazhir). He also cngages in combat with Hojir's sister Gordilfarid, and she who is no physical match for him seeks refuge within the White Fortress. She sends amessage by means of a bird to Iranian monarch Kaykavus at Persepolis, requesting that the Iranian army come to the aid of the White Fortress. Kaykilvus assigns Rostam, his greatest warrior-champion, to carry out this important task, and Rostam sets out for the White Fortress. Rostam comes to the rescue of the lranians at the White Fortress and confronts Sohrab. Unfortunately, father and son do not recognize each other, and Rostam does not give a true answer to SohrAb when Sohrsb asks him: "Are you Rostam?" Consequently, they proceed to battle one another, and eventually....
56. Read the following translation of a popular preface to Ferdowsi's Story of S o h r a . Then look at the Persian text, checking key words and phrases in it equivalent to underscored items in the English. This preface posits fate as the chief actor in human affairs and offers a rationale for not being overwhelmed by the tragedy which the story entails. Listen to a reading of the text to get a feel for its rhythm, seriousness, and sense of foreboding. Try momentarily to visualize Ferdowsi sitting at a table transcribing this story, perhaps not wanting it to end the way it has to end.
Now listen tohear the story of the battle between Sohrib and Rostam. You've heard about other battles, hear this one as well. It's a story full of tearssensitive hems will become angry at Rostam. If a harsh wind springs up from some comer of the world an
an unripe citron to the eround,
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shall we call thc wind tyrannical orjust? Should we consider it right or wrong? If death is iugkd. what is unjust? then
If it's just, then what is all this clamor and screaming?
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Your knows nothing about this mysteryFor you there is no way into this veil.
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All have approached desire's door (i.e.,to excessiveJgreedy desire) but for no one has this door to secrets opened.
in departure from this world, you'll find a better place when you rest in peace in another abode. Why should there be joy /pleasure in the world for the young, wherdbecause old age is not the cause of death. In this place for passing through, not a place for tarrying. should death tighten the cinch on the horse of transience, know that it is just and not unjust. When justice visits you, what is clamoring and screaming for? Now I'll recount the story of Sohrib's warringlbattling, how he eame to do baule with his father.
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56.1. In a class setting, time permitting, your instructor can read this text with you and point out salient language features in it. A lesson on the text appears in Prrsian Listening (Hyattsville, MD: Dunwoody Press, 2009).
$7. Read the following six rhymed couplets (= pairs of verses) from Ferdowsi's Shdhrdmeh. A Latin transcription with marks indicating long and short syllables in the quantitative metrical pattern in the text, an English translation, and notes on premodern Persian forms appear beneath each couplet.
" . . " . . " . . " .
be n2m-e khodsvand-ejAn-o kherad
" . . " . . " .
k-az in bmar andishe bar nagzarad
[in he name of
the lord of life and wisdom, more lofty han whom thought emat imagine.]
hame talkhi ar bahr-e bishi bovad
.." . . " .
mab8di kc b8 Bz khishi h v a d [All bitterness eames from excessive desire, so god forbid that a person be related to such desire.]
t a v h i bovad har ke din8 bovad
" . . ".."..".
ze dinesh del-e pir born2 bovad
[Capable is whoever is knowledgeable;though knowledge he old headhe heart of an old person is young (again) ] nadhad harni rnardorn az ranj-o & " . . " . . " ..". yaki doshmani-ri ze farzand biz
& &I& ~
j I,-J& [Because of sufferingand pride man does not know son from a foe.]
kas andar jahin jAvd3ne namind
" . . " . . " . . " .
za gardun mari khod bahine namhd
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[No one in the world has lived forever, so far me no complaint remains about the world.]
$7.1. Think about the nature of a culture which privileges such observations and advice as the foregoing. Does any of the advice seem specifically or particularly "Iranian" and opposed to "American?" $7.2. A chapter on "Persian Poems," consisting of fifteen texts and explanations of features of Persian poetry, including meter and rhyme, appears in the textbook Persian Listening (Hyansville, MD: Dunwoody Press, 2009).
$8. Read the following phrases and sentences which appear in the dialogue of the animation feature film Rebirth of Rostam. You will note that the dialogue mixes formal and informal and literarylwritten and colloquial/spoken registers of Persian. What effects can such a mixture have on the audience? Use accompanying English translations to resolve questions about the meaning of Persian statements. Boxed numbers below indicate movie scene numbers. Lines of dots (............) between lines of text indicate missing context or action or some other break between preceding and proceeding dialogue. (An edited version of Text 4 will appear on ferdowsi1000.com.)
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(The opening line of Ferdowsi's Shcihncimeh; (See Section 97. item 1, above.)
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Narrator: In long past times (lit, distant), the land of Iran
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was the broadest. most beautiful, and most pure land of the age At a time when the peoples of other lands
had submitted to Ahiman Iranians lived in purity and truth
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Z i l son of S i m who grew up under the wing6 and feathers) of wise Sirnorgh had a chilUoffspring to protect the people from the stingbite of ~ ~ l n m a n Rostam son of D a s t h ( = ZAI) was born (lit: c a n t inlo the world) to become the most exalted of men. Pat wrotemad written his waylroadlpath for him as follows.
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Afrbsiyib. the Allrimanic(= satanic) king of (the land of)Turb, the Ahimanic king Afrasiysb to reach his filthy goals i k h d
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which was the aequisilion of all of the lands of Iran and SamangPn
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continually skove to raise mia and to increase his satanic power. Kbvus. Lhe wise king who was aware of the wealnessllack of ability of the king of Samangb
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(King Kavus) sent Rostam there to inspect the situation in Samangb.
n e king of Samangb receivedireceives Rostam warmly
and invitediinvites him to spend the night in Samangh.
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Who are you? What do you want? /n>ikhby/= Imikh&hii I am Tahmineh, princess of S a m a n g b
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rve heard a lot about you. /shenide'am/ = ishenid6mJ I've heard a lot about you.
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your h m i c deeds and yonrchivalmus behavior has twistdspread about
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any kings and princes want (to marry) me.
~ u I tsee no man your equal I have come lo ask you to slay here with me ,;, I&madd'ad= I h a d ~ d as my spause, as the grwdson-in-law of Samangh. Samangh needs a brave wanior hero like you.
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My father now longer has the endurance forlpower lo resisl Afrbiybb and taks about stepping aside.
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m enmst Samangh to me.
Ineed a man like you. Stay with me. Your beauty is dazzling
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and your moral conrage and your honesty have found a place in my hem. What you say is very appealing (lit: your speech is sweet].
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Rostam is alive for Iran. Rostam is/exisu for l r h . But 1 can't stay with you Just as you have m be here for your people, the Iranians need me, and 1 the Iranians. So, take me for your spouse (for ) this evening,
even if reparation is our fate.
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Perhapsthe providentGod will givens a child like you.
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IfGodgivesus adaughler.lieitlo hwhair. and if our child is a boy, tie it onto lhis a m .
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Some time passed. God gave Tahmmeh a son just like Rostam.
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from his childhmd he displayed suengrh and bravery and courage.
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In his tecn y e m no man in Samangh or T u r h had the ability to d o battle with him. like hisher ancertorslforbears Meanwhile Afr.%siyW, king of the land of T d a , who w a one of iraa's old enemia,
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persuaded Samangb to join it agaimt the Iranians
m king of Samangb e
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who did not have the power to do bank with the Ahrimanic army of T u r b submittedlsurrenderedl Warsibatlles between Iran andTuran eontinuedfor years. (and) kept Rostam from seeing his spouse and child.
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Mother, now you have to tell me who my father is? No one in this tenitorylregion is like me. No one has the ability lo do banle with me. My father is not of these people.
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Why don't you tell me who my father is? r m worried.
I have the feeling that my father's life is in dangu.
I have to find my father. Who is my father?
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1 knew that one day r d have to tell you the outh.
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Son, your father is the greatest man and the highest-ranking wmior hero of Ule land of Iran.
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If you are possessed of this swength and nobility and courage, it is because you are theson of Rostam.
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Rostam? Rostam son of ZBI ( = D a t h ) ? 7 % ~ wmior hero of Iran? Why diddl you tell me before now? /nlgah6'ri= lnlgoftii In fearof AfiaiiyW I k e p t y w identity hidden. so that I wouldn't lose you.
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On account of this war 1 am separated from your father.
you are my only hope.
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I have to go to lrsn and fmd my father.
My fatheis lifc is in danger. r m afriad rll lose you. r m going w Iran and find my father.
You arcdl safe in Irsn either.
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Not tell anyone? Keep it hidden? My father Rostam and 1 Sohrab. Who should I be afraid o? t In Iran your life will be in danger.
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No one has the strength to confront my father and me, not even an m y .
r m going to Iran and r m going ro find my father.
Then take an a m ~ y with you.
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we know that Sohrtb is Rostm's son
and now he is en mule lo Iran to fmd his father and is raising an m y . Rostam's son Sohrjb musm't reacll Rostam. If these two join together, we're finished. But, but if Sohrjb attacks Iral, R o s t m will surely rise to confront him. Sohrab must not recognize his father
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Take an army and join Sohrgb. Encourage him to make war on Kavrri..
The Iranian king Kjvus fears Rostam.
If those rwo fight each other, one of them will kill the other.
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and he is planning his (Roslm's) death inlwith the desire for emwn and throne But that's not truelit's not like that.
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Quiet! This is ahhe story which Sohr.3b will believe. Encowage him to make war with Kkus. If Sohrab kills Sohraib, Iran without Rostam will be ezuy to overcome. If Rostam kills Sohrlb.
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the sufferingl~ain his son's death by his hand) will remain with him forever. (of
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You've come to fight me all by y o m e l f l / h a d e ' i / = / h a d i / I've come to separate your head from your body, lImad6'amJ = lImad6d and (feed) your body to the hurrardr.
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I don't want your blood to be spilled for no reason. Surrender! Never! Assemble the hoops wlthin the square. Sound the bugle/Uumpet d e n .
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Take (and deliver) this message as quickly as possible.
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0 Iranians, once agair Ahriman has made a foray into o w land
I know that their number is very large. Their (chic0 paladin is very smng. /qavi asV = /qavistl But I know that you the people o f l m to the last dmp of blard
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you'll protect your people, yow aimslphiloraphy, and your culture. Should Iran not exist, may my body not exist.
When/ifIrh should not exist, may my body not exist!
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~ e w has come from ~ o r d ~ a rfrom the White or tress s id
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(that) a great m y from theTurhians and Samangsn has attached them, (that) Hazhir (=Hojir) has k e n taken captive that Hojir has been taken captive Gorafarid fought wiU1 him.
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d dL &
4 JG+P~J \ r b f > j L 3 J g j & + >I& 4 e+ \ ~ ,,
She wrote that that there has never been a warrior with such shength and arms. You'd say he i s Rastam, Iran is in danger. Gather troops from everywhere (lit: every direction). archers, swordsmen, and spear-throwen far confronting their champion. Rostam Send a messenger with my message to Rostam. Write that he should lead an army there as soon as possible. We'll link up togethcr at Payvsk Pass.
\rv \rh \rs \Y. \?\
J > ~
>ji I-) bi ;I&
; G X L
I; J I o+ ~
.9 & ; i t ;
. sT + iS-&dg j iG b i >J
49 y~?qL! \ Y Y ,,
We have to occupyltake over the f o r k s s right now. Come on ... fight...kill...s~c. hiy8yN =hiybyin/ = biyayidl Open the gate. Close the gate.
I b j l g - ) J '&&
I-) b jIS-)Js : . U > T J ~
,eJ !a ! ur.99K
Ksvus, I'm going to kill you! Rostam, where are you? Rostam!...Rostam? You are attacking our home?
You pulVdrag the people into the dirt and blood?
~ n now you dare to call for ~ o s t a m ? d
3 &K L
I-) ;J L, .
+-) ;$ J
AL 15.9J ;
~ @ j
l ,h , ai& YL 4 CJ? JI
If I were Rostam, your face would now be in the dirt.
( , . + - ) ~ L , + ~ > Y ~ ~ & L ~ ~ - ) & ~ I ~ A + ~ ~ C D ~ ~ +
I've come to tell you that a Rostam is not needed in combat with you. We are all Rostam(s), / h a d t a d = i&n.adAml
It's now g~ouru'gollen dark. /shod6 asV = IshodlrV we'll continue the battle tomorrow.
& ) 4 1 -2 ; I
Up to now I haven't wcr battled such a man. wilh a stature like mine but perhaps wilh greater power and courage I hid my name from him. I don'l want him to know that I am Rostam 1 do not know what will happened to the pure Iranian people. if he should knock me lo rhe ground.
+I J ~ L:tid B \bf
\bv \bA \Oq
& a ~ & j g t d L L
92 J k +C
C j~ ~2.i 0
eJ$ ; &
d A I&
&a d d l + el&
\f \ \fY \fT \PI \fb
$ 21 1
A K & -2 + 91 J 4
I> j l s l
If he should emerge victorious over me, he'll still think that Rostam is in our midst/among us.
iuo~>~>i(J j 9
&a j I
'dl jje &a
d p l *
o . JJ
' IJI j 1 1 J 31 L
\ff \fV \PA \Jq f \V.
Perhaps this thought will keep him f o continuing the war, rm Don't you worry, Rostam, Providenodthe provident god is always with the pure.
We will win.
IJ j L L& ?
L " .
~ . d e l & jje
This warrior of theirs has a lot of years
bur he fights like a young tiger.
His physique and face also fit what my father's might be.
God forbid that he's Rostam. H u m b . you've seen Rosram, tell me.
"j &a SJ*"!
. d l 4 eJ j
Yes. I've fought with Rostam,
and, yes. 1 walched yw gmw up. like a bmlher. Believe my words; he is not Roslam.
4 &a ccsJf
~ ~ J + J ~ ~ J ~ ~ d ~ \VV ~ & a ~ J
IVA \V? \A.
. c s ~
FJ'$ jL j 1 1~31~-?4 ~ J J + e 2 :
1 &a d p
If you want to find (lit: reach1 arrivdger to) your father, you have lodestroy him ( Sohrsb's opponent) before it's too late/
I ; h , + #
ir?I;3~ I ; ,& ;a l
Hey Warrior. come, the two of us, let's put our swords aside, let's talk. I think that you are Rostam.
If you are, tell me.
, , .&,LJ+&kd*&
1 L &,i -t&
\AT \ ~ b \A? \AY
T l with you?!? ak
I've come t fight, and fighting will take place. limadtaml= IimadAml J i o g
for ar long as you and your army are in this land
c b s 615 1
You will pay for the blood ofour innacent people.
9 IJh ;
;LJ~ ; $
/to'i/ = you are
You are the beginning and ending of being and nothingness.
!&>L~J '@ ' & + i Y 1 3 &I
Only facing you am I on my h e s .
Ifmy time in this world has come to an end.
calVsummon me on the right path to yourself.
because there is no fear of death.
+ + ,, , G &d ; y + 6;; &I JJ & j h j 3 1 J$ + 1,bl + I-, &
\ ~ 3 \3. \3\ \ql \3T j3Y \ v
+ ;Kg Aim+
& ~ g i Ll ;_ j , ,, ;
My fear is of the d e s m t i o n of the culture of the pure at the ends of Ahriman. If my time has comcknded. my life belongs to you. But be the protector of the pure people because you are the only ~efuge. I surrenderlsubmit to your command.
(jLj s l
\qP \3Y \3A \33
AS j l &
&L. L ;
. ' J$ + lJ A + &
. b L
; L J ~3 &
"Where are you coming? Come back!"
I am Sohrfib, son of Rmtam. Sohrfib, son of Rostaln? The son of Rostam? What a paladin! What a noble person! What a brave person!
eC UJ:J + l.r +
! & J 4 d ~% ! & J $ ( ~
I told myself I wish my son were like you How quickly my wishldesire came to pass
& 153jJi J % ~ ~ 4 I j ~
because 1 am Rostam, your father. Father ..my father. I have you so many signals.
,, o .OJ&
>& gi + & LA &I
'. ' & ~ F J 1.V
1.4 T \ . l \ \
,rJ* . . . Je :-I+
jl i J IL!
I asked your name so many limes.
Why? 0 god!
0 God. what a fate! Iche sameveshli arV = Iche sarvev6shtisV
I spent years without you in hopes of seeing you, I came to Iran in search of you.
-&& + &I ,,
' r i)121 i g J+J ~ e i
so that your blood w o u ~ d k o my hands and by my hand, ~l
0, ~ o d ! Was this my fate? Was this your fate? Calm (down), be calm! All of us join eternity some in life and the rest in death. .= ' Open your eyes. I& /...ml.
e g & c;&~
c ; 3 ~ g 'j4; Li -ei i
! & I J A ~ I ~\ O T
&I L;& & J~ & I d,, & ,
T\F l\V l\A 1\4 11. l l \ TTT TTY 11F l l b
L f is a dream. ie
Wake up and see the beauty of m t h . Death is not the end of the mad. death is only anolher beginning. Today you did norihave not killed Rostam. What you will kill today is the Ahriman within yourself. Henceforth you are Rostam. ~ o s l a m rcmain alive in your k i n g . will Put on, wear Rostam's clothes for the sake of the people. Be the people's friendIsupporter in goodness and purity. The provident God is your support and rcfuge became he is the only complete/perfect truth,
. u s ;5gJJ JJ
b & j
11A 114 lr.
Lrj . .$L
1 1 IJ ' j h ~ ~ ~ TrT
u bL;+ 3 @
4K ~ ~ 3 < J
because he is the only huth of existence.
I won't die hereaftel
because I am alive.
$9. Review the foregoing list, grouping together words, phrases, and sentences with similar patterns. In a classroom setting, the instructor can direct students to phrases and sentences with identical or similar patterns by calling out item numbers for reading aloud. In self-study, readers can read groups of phrases and sentences as follows. This exercises aims to encourage students to reach inductive conclusions about the uses of cited fonns and features.
1. Plural noun forms: Items #3,5,7, 15,16,20,29,44,49,54,55,57,58,61, 161,166, 12, 150, 169,171,
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
8. 9. 9.
10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.
20. 21. 22. 23. 24.
1 8 195,198 8, Personal pronoun forms: Items #24-7,34,43,49,54,55,68-9, 1 7 190, 126, 8 , 191,192-3, 196-7, 199-200,202,207,216 Pronominal suffixes: Items #26,46,50,55,68,69,70,71,80, 1 4 125,127,1 8 148,182,187, 1 83, 2 , 2, 23 Reflexive and intensive pronouns. Items #17,45,58,62, 157, 135, 193,205,228 Comparative and superlative adjective forms. Items #4, 12,71,8 19 Noun phrases exhibiting kasrk-ye ezdfkpprnounced let: Items #1, 1 , 32, 8, 8 28, 33,95, 6 ,190, 1 16 23 Noun phrases exhibiting kasrk-ye ezdfkpprnounced lye/: Items #3,9, 1 ,1 ,19,39,45,53,59, 14, 5 7 94, 14 1 Indefinite nouns and noun phrases exhibiting an l...il suffix: Items #49,51,52,54,65,88, 156, 89,91, 171,182,185,204,210,216,224 Simple past tense verb forms: Items #11,20, 39,51,53, 58, 60,61,62, 177,206, 209, 54, 59, 159, 208, 211,213,225 Future tense verb forms: Items #99,1 1 1 8 11 1,113, 0, 0, 155,161,170,186,188,226 Perfect tenseverbforms: Items#25,28,31,74, 114,115,123,1 1 1 2 134,135,136,153, 84, 3, 3, 154, 1 5 176,181,186,192,196, 7, Postposition specificldefinite direct object marker l...rW Items #lo,13,20,21, 36,54, 70,79, 34, 58, 82, 88,90, 100-1,0 ,109,110-1, 15 112-3, 121-2, 134,47, 150-1, 175,177,179,1 0 193,230 159, 8, Postposition marker I...rU used to signal indirect objects: ltems #65,1 8 2 1 9,3 Subordinating conjunction k e l in relative clauses (wholwhichlthat): Items #8,16,18-9,57, 1 8 59, 0 Subordinating conjunction k e l in noun clauses (that): Items #31,47,68,70, 125,126, 124, 136,137, 153,160, 163,166 Temporal clauses: Items #5-6 Imperative verb forms: Items #45,47, 109,118,120,1 1 122,138,141,142,1 6 147,168,175,1 9 2, 4, 7, 182,184,193,201,217,220,222,230,231 First and third person commands verb forms: Items #84,85,86, 143,1 4 7 Passive voice verb forms: Items #60,117,118, 0 26 Subjunctive present tense verbs: Items #lo, 36,42,43,63,69,70,79,84-6.96,,117,129, 153,160, 10 0 162,165,167,174,180,183,205 Conditional sentences: Items #72,97,98-9, 110-1, 101, 112-3, 161-2, 152, 164-6, 184,196-7 180, Purpose clauses: Items #-lo, 11-12,22,31,75-6, 13 5 Sequencing of verb tenses: Items #43,47,63,70,79,93,96, 103,1 5 1 3 1 7 100, 4,5, 6 Mi-past verb fonns: Items #7,17,70, 0 25 Past perfect verb forms: Items # 5-6,7, 13,75,5 16
Foregoing grammatical terms, along with definitions, explanations, and illustrations of the language phenomena in 09. question receive detailed treatment in Persian Grammar and Verbs (Hyattsville, MD: Dunwoody Press, 2 0 )
$10. After reviewing all foregoing vocabulary lists, watch Ttte Rebirth of Rostarn in its entirety without concern at not understanding everything. $1 1. At the end of the movie appear its credits, along with a song called "lran" by Ziba Shirazi, the first track on her readily available CD called Haft Setdreh [seven stars]. "Iran" is also available On-line: Google "Ziba Shirazi' and click the site called Ziba Shirazi Music I Iranian Music I Bia2.comM bia2.comlmusidplayer.php?id=139. When or Shir2zi's music is uploaded, choose Haft Setareh and then play " I Iran" in it. $1 1. I . Listen to the song "Iran" to verify that it has a first-person speaker. Check any of the following words and phrases (X) that you hear in the song's lyrics.
my homeland~falherland/rnotherland my heart my d i r ~ e a r t ~ a n d I'm crmylmad I ' ~ ~ ~ ~
&A A L 0 GI?J 0
P" . 4
, &o i
4; 0 Jj
I used to becomdwu becoming/would become
$1 1.2. Read the lyrics here to the song "Iran." Use your Persian-English dictionary (preferably Kirnia Persian-English Dictionary) to resolve questions about meaning of Persian words and phrases. Then, listen to the song without looking at the printed lyrics.
Do not read this Lexl unlil direcled to do so.
Tonight, o heart, I've lost my mind. I'm out of my mind (in thoughts of longing) for my nest. I'm wearyltircd withlof this insensitiviy to the people. I'm a seangedforeign(er), alien to good and bad.
6 gJ J -1 1 i Y
.rl Gus GI?J
0 lord, give me patiencdthe strength to endure.
My heart feels eonshcted from homesicknesdfeeling alienated. May i l k lhallhe morning prayer willgivea baldsalve to my hem..
"9b J J I S J F ' U J
6. G bG LL . s JISL;
.Le 4 Jgi
0 pah, il war the state of being a s m g e r l f a r from home, period.
711e only balmlsalve a soulmate. 711e only balmlsalve is my land/soiVearth. My land was Imn. period.
&A A L khb pp
J i l%l> gG
homeland, fatherland, motherland - legend, fable with demons and wild beasts. R a t lovelyllovablddarling land was unique like a jewel.. Would thatll wish I could be annillilatedc (that) I couldwould become one with didealth. Would that I inion the soil of the homeland couldwould become lifeless. R e house is no longer populated, flourishing It's stoppedtiedeaught and uot h e , its atmosphere war and blood. Ira, is not Ira, any mordbnger.
So ,where is Alyadlranian ethnicity?
Where me R o s m and Esfandiyh?
0 lord, our nobleichivalric people
what person gave them to the wind?
$1 1.3. Listen to the song again while reading its lyrics
$1 1.4. Think about the song as voicing the feelings of Iranians with the views of the poet Mehdi Akhavin-e Siles (d. 1990) at any time in Iranian history after the invasion of the Iranian plateau by Arab Muslims in the middle of the 7th century C.E. Think about the song as voicing views of Iranian expatriates in America who are opposed to the Islamic Republic of Iran. $1 1.5. Watch The Rebirth of Rostmn again and listen to the song "Iran" played during the credits after the end of the film. Think about the appropriateness of the song's lyrics to the film's action and theme(s). $12. Watch The Rebirth of Rostam again, scene-by-scene. Refer to the list of words, phrases and sentences in Section 59 in places where you do not understand something said in the movie. The groups of words, phrases, and sentences in Section $9 are numbered according to scene number.
513. After thinking about the following questions and bearing in mind your earlier reading of a translation of Ferdowsi's story of Rostam and Sohrab, watch the film again in its entirety.
In Ferdowsi's story, Rostam visits Samangin because he has lost his horse Rakhsh outside of the city while sleeping after hunting and eating what he hunted. Does it matter that in the movie Rostam goes to Samang2n on assignment from King Kayksvus? In Ferdowsi's story, Tahmineh's interest in Rostam is romantic or hero-worship. Does it matter that in the movie she says that she needs Rostam because her father is planning to entrust Samangin to her? In Ferdowsi's story, no formal marriage between Rostam and Tahmineh takes place. Does it matter that in the movie there is a scene in which an official or cleric is preparing or reading a marriage contract? In Ferdowsi's story Sohrib embarks on a military career to defeat the Turinian king Afrhiyab and to replace the Iranian king Kayksvus with Rostam and himself as partners, thus bringing an end to strife in the world. Does it matter that no such political ambition figures in the motivation of Sohrib in the movie? In Ferdowsi's story Sohrsb is smitten romantically by Gordifarid when her helmet comes off. Consequently, she is able to trick him and retreat to the White Fortress and escape from there with her army later that evening. Does it matter that the movie does not develop that story line? In Ferdowsi's story Rostam tricks Sohrfib into letting him live after Sohrib has knocked him to the ground and has drawn his dagger to kill Rostam. Then in a later battle, Rostam does not let Sohrtb up in similar circumstances, but quickly delivers a fatal dagger blow. Does it matter that the movie does not remain faithful to t h e S h d h n h e h story in these regards? In the movie, we see Ferdowsi writing a version of the story in which Sohrib defeats his father and then changing his mind and discarding that draft of the tale's conclusion. We then see a version which ends with Sohrib on the ground and the screen goes black just as Rostam is about to stab his son to death. What reasons can have prompted Director Saied Ghahari to depict the poet Ferdowsi and the two versions of the end of the story when none of this material appears in Ferdowsi's Shdhnbmeh? Do the many differences between Ferdowsi's story and the movie suggest any particular insight into the Iranian orientation or world view of the movie's director? In other words, does Saied Ghahari create his specific modem story of Sohrsb and Rostam because he is a particular son of 2lst-century heir to Iranian history and culture not living in Iran? If you were making a movie out of the story of Rostam and Sohrfib and one of those two characters had to die at the hands of the other, would your movie end in patricide or filicide? How would your culture or your age or both figure in your choice? In light of the movie's plot and outcome, how do you interpret Ghahari's title The Rebirth of Rostanr?
814. For intermediate reading and listening practice, Dunwoody Press offers the following Persian readers and textbooks by Michael Craig Hillmann, all presenting authentic Persian texts, language notes or lessons, English translations, and accompanying audio CDs: Persian Fiction Reader: Second Edition (2003), Persian Newspaper Reader: Second Edition (2003). Reading Iran Reading Iranians: Second Edition Revised (2002). Persian Vocabulav Acquisition-An Iirtermediate Reader and Guide to Word Form. and the Arabic Element in Persian: Second Edition (2003), Persian Reading and Writing (2009), Persian Listenir~g(2009). and Persian Grammar a i ~ d Verbs (2009).