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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY ACADMIE CANADIENNE DE LA DFENSE

Pashtu for Beginners


Self-Learning Course

STUDENT/TEACHER BOOK

Modules 1-5
Provisional Copy December 2008

National Defence

Dfense nationale

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY ACADMIE CANADIENNE DE LA DFENSE

National Defence

Dfense Nationale

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Modules 1-5

Modules 1-5

PASHTU FOR BEGINNERS

Self-Learning Course

Self-learning Course

2008

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Modules 1-5

CDA Canada - 2008 Copyright All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieved system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopy, recording or otherwise, without the prior, written permission of the Publisher. DLI & NATO military institutions are exempted from copyright restrictions. This publication is to be used primarily in support of instructing military personnel as part of CFLS language training program. Refinement of the material of this pilot project is still in progress. Inquiries concerning the material to be addressed to: Canadian Defence Academy Directorate of Training and Education National Standards Gatineau, Qubec Canada J8Y 6L2 e-mail: Nahid.Alawad@forces.gc.ca Jana.Vasilj-Begovic@forces.ca

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTORY COURSE - SELF-LEARNING COMPONENT .....................................................................1 THE COURSE RATIONALE ..................................................................................................................................1 KNOWLEDGE.........................................................................................................................................................1 PERFORMANCE.....................................................................................................................................................1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................3 MODULE 1 GREETINGS AND COURTESY EXPRESSIONS .........................................................................9 TEACHING POINTS ...............................................................................................................................................9 GRAMMAR .............................................................................................................................................................9 VOCABULARY ....................................................................................................................................................17 GRAMMAR POINT...............................................................................................................................................39 MODULE 2 - TIME & NUMBERS .........................................................................................................................47 TEACHING POINTS .............................................................................................................................................47 GRAMMAR ...........................................................................................................................................................47 REVIEW.................................................................................................................................................................49 VOCABULARY ....................................................................................................................................................52 MODULE 3 - ASKING FOR AND GIVING PERSONAL INFORMATION .....................................................87 TEACHING POINTS .............................................................................................................................................87 GRAMMAR ...........................................................................................................................................................87 REVIEW.................................................................................................................................................................89 VOCABULARY ....................................................................................................................................................92 MODULE 4 - MILITARY COMMANDS.............................................................................................................119 TEACHING POINTS ...........................................................................................................................................119 GRAMMAR .........................................................................................................................................................119 REVIEW...............................................................................................................................................................120 VOCABULARY ..................................................................................................................................................123 QUIZ.....................................................................................................................................................................161 MODULE 5 - MILITARY OPERATIONS...........................................................................................................167 TEACHING POINTS ...........................................................................................................................................167 GRAMMAR .........................................................................................................................................................167 REVIEW...............................................................................................................................................................168 VOCABULARY ..................................................................................................................................................170 QUIZ.....................................................................................................................................................................189 TEST.........................................................................................................................................................................195 ANSWER KEY (TEST) ..........................................................................................................................................201 EVALUATION OF THE SELF-LEARNING PASHTU COURSE....................................................................205 INDEXING...............................................................................................................................................................206

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INTRODUCTORY COURSE - SELF-LEARNING COMPONENT


THE COURSE RATIONALE Plans for deployment of Canadian Forces to support Afghans in Afghanistan have created a need for the introduction of a self-learning course in Pashtu. The rationale for this course lies in the fact that most members of the mission, especially the liaison officers, often find themselves in situations in which a basic knowledge of the language becomes a necessity. The ability to exchange the most basic messages not only makes communication between the peacekeepers and the local representatives and citizens, possible, but is also a symbol of goodwill, a display of friendly intentions and readiness to help. The linguistic aim of this course is to enable the students to function, using a limited vocabulary scope, within different social situations. The specific objectives are as follows: KNOWLEDGE The students will be acquainted with the basic pronunciation system The students will learn the conjugation of the verbs The students will acquire a general knowledge of personal, interrogative and demonstrative pronouns The students will learn the past, present and future tenses of verbs The students will assimilate a limited vocabulary referring to general, military, medical, political, and geographical terms

PERFORMANCE The students will be able to: Introduce themselves, state where they come from and what their ranks are, and exchange basic social courtesies Introduce a third person Ask for the time and answer time related questions Ask for, understand and give simple direction Simulate through role-plays different real-life situations

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Pashtu Modules 1-5

Self-learning Course

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Modules 1-5

GENERAL INTRODUCTION
KEY DIALECTS Pashtu and Dari are the official languages spoken in Afghanistan. The present course is concerned with Pashtu. Pashtu (, [to] - also known as Pashtu, Pushto, Pukhto, Pashtue, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pushtoo, Pukhto ,) - is spoken by over 60 million people across the world (this statistic is only an approximate estimate). It is an Indo-European language over five thousand years old. More than 30 million people speak Pashtu in the southern part of Durand Line (Afghanistan has yet not recognized that line as a border) such as Peshawar area and Balochestan. More than a million people speak Pashtu in India. More than 16 million people speak Pashtu in Afghanistan. A number of Pashtu native speakers are also in China and Iran. Pashtu is an Indo-European language. There are four major dialects in Pashtu Language divided as South-western (Kandahar-Afghanistan and Quetta), Central dialect (Kandahar- WardakNorthern Afghanistan), Southern dialect (Paktia, khost, Paktika) and eastern dialect (Nangarhar, Laghman, and Peshawar). The standard written form of Pashtu is the South-western dialect, however according to the Academy of science and international association of Pashtu language, the standard spoken form is the central dialect. After the introduction of Islam, Pashtu adopted the Arabic alphabet. Before the introduction of Islam, Pashtu was written using the Greek alphabet. The main name of the language is called Greeko-Bakh-tarik. This form of adoption occurred after the invasion of Alexander the great and continued for more than 500 years. Before Alexander the great Afghanistan had its own system of writing very much identical to todays Chinese and Hindi writing systems called Khroshti language. There are 28 alphabetic letters in the Arabic language and Pashtu has 15 more letters. The total number of Pashtu alphabet letters is 47. The official name of Afghanistan is The Islamic State of Afghanistan. Total area of Afghanistan is about 6,525,225 sq km divided into 34 provinces. The government form of Afghanistan is Islamic State.

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Pashtu Modules 1-5

TRANSLITERATION SYSTEM

gh

Not in English; somewhat like a French "r" but harsher. Ts sound that comes at the initial position in Pashtu, whereas, in English, it comes at the end. Example: rats, fits, etc. and in Pashtu as in uk (who). Dz sound that doesn't come at the initial position in English, but at the end as in reads, birds, etc. in Pashtu at the initial as in em (I go) as the German word acht or Scottish loch. Not in English; like the /g/ as in goat, but farther back in the throat. r In Pashtu, it is rolled as an /lr/, e.g. oond ( blind). as in j sound eg: zhemay= winter, and in English like usual. it is pronounced as strong zh, e.g. ghwa: to listen.

q zh kh

It sounds like a double a as in aa It is pronounced like in English nn. E.g. maa apple. It is a glottal sound pronounced like a deep /a/ sound from the throat. i.e. mal. =action

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Pashtu Modules 1-5

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MODULE 1

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 1

MODULE 1 GREETINGS AND COURTESY EXPRESSIONS


In this module, we shall cover the following teaching points TEACHING POINTS Pashtu Alphabet and Pronunciation Greetings and Introductions

GRAMMAR Verb TO BE (affirmative and negative) Personal Pronouns Plurals Preposition at Demonstrative pronouns

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LEARNING OBJECTIVE
The objective of Module 1 is to teach you how to pronounce the Pashtu alphabet and Pashtu sounds, and how to greet people, introduce yourself and a third person. Moreover, you will learn the personal pronouns, affirmative, negative and interrogative forms of some verbs; you will also learn how to pose a few simple questions and give simple answers to questions asked.

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PASHTU APLPHABET
First you will hear the Pashtu letters, with each one followed by its sound. Note that some sounds are identical to English and some are unique. Later on, you will practice more on the unfamiliar sounds of selected Pashtu characters. Some of the sounds are very identical.
ALPHABETICAL SOUND FORM A b p t s j ch H kh d r z zh s sh sh gh f q k g l m n TRANSLITERATION FORM A a b P t j ch h kh d r z zh s sh X gh f q k g l m n ALPHABET Alif Alif mad Bay Pay Tay Ttay Say Jim Chay Dzay Tsay Hay Khay Dhal Ddhal -aal Ray ray zay zhay ay Seen Sheen Xeen aad aad way way in Ghai-n Fay Qaaf Kaaf Gaaf Laam meem Noon oon PASHTU SCRIPT SOUND a aa be pe te Tt (stressed) s j ch dz ts H (stressed) Kh (x) d d (stressed) z r R (stressed) z zh g s sh sh s z t z A (stressed) gh f k k g l m n N (stressed)

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ALPHABETICAL SOUND FORM w h y

TRANSLITERATION FORM w h y

ALPHABET Waw hay (H) yaa This letter is not the list of Alphabet, however it has been chosen to use it for Vocalization only This letter is not in the list of Alphabet, however it has been chosen to use it for Vocalization only

PASHTU SCRIPT English inditical sounds: - An (a) - Apple (a) English inditical sounds: - er (e) - Apple (a)

SOUND w/o h/o (very soft i-y

Very soft (a)

a Very soft (e)

PRACTICE
Now listen to these unfamiliar sounds of the following Pashtu letters and repeat.

SYMBOL

PRONONCIATION

zh kha gh

DDal Tsay Dzay Rray Zhay Khay Ghai-n Nnoon

As in doctor, but with stressed D This letter sound does not have an identical sound in English This letter sound does not have an identical sound in English As in Robber but with stressed R As in measure As in the German word loch /lokh/ As in French rouge A stressed N sound

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EXERCISE 1
The following Pashtu sounds will be read in a random order. Listen and repeat. Khay Zhay Dzay Nnoon Rray Tsay Ddal Ghai-n chay

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EXERCISE 2
Listen to and repeat each of the following letters and words. Do not worry about memorizing the meaning of the Pashtu words as the focus is in pronouncing the sound of the different letters. UNFAMILIAR SOUNDS tsay dzay ay chay nnoon Khay Ghai-n Zhay al awkai -em wl chay-ray m-a--a khalk ghal Zha-mai an-g-ar

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PRACTICE
Let us practice more. Listen to the sounds of the following Pashtu letters and repeat.

SYMBOLS

PASHTU SCRIPT

PRONUNCIATION EXAMPLE Afghanistan uk (who) em (I go) khapa (sad) oond (blind) zhemai (winter) ghwa (ear)

gh kh zh a

sah`` (Horse) ma--a (Apple) mal (action) As half sound of (a) alphabet as (America) A stressed (T), Table As Tire

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Sound discrimination PRACTICE


Listen to the following words and repeat.

vs z
-Dz -em it means I go Zm Z My it means

kh vs. k
-kh khore it means sister Kore -K it means home

vs. r
- ang it means wrecked Ra r it means come

gh vs. g
- gh ghun it means regiment Ga-hi g it means dawn

vs s
- ts () h what it means S-t s it means hour, time

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY VOCABULARY

Pashtu Module 1

The following is a vocabulary list of words that you will use in this module. To help you learn them, please repeat each word as you hear it. Each word will be followed by its English translation. Do not feel overwhelmed with the volume of this new vocabulary. By the end of the module, and with sufficient repetition and use, you should be able to retain many words.
NEW WORDS salm salm leikum wa-leikum salm nga ay (Informal) nga yst (formal) h m shpa pa khair Sa-hr Pa khair Wra pa khair Manana tashakur in sha'allaAh sar-tai-rai askar afsar Breed-gai dktar Ranurpala /Narsa (f) Too-run h? zh th tso (informal) (formal) Hughui moozh zm Dagha d pa kore kay moar Haw ee agar mayz awkai tow-pack z-da-kawon-kai MEANING haw eeMaidn shg-rd hello (greeting) May peace be upon you response to salm How are you? How are you? too, also, as well good night Good morning Good day Thanks thank you God willing soldier military officer sergeant doctor nurse captain What I You (singular) (m/f) They (out of sight) we My/mine This it At home car airport table chair gun student

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

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GREETINGS AND COURTESY EXPRESSIONS In the Afghan culture, the greeting word (hello) is (salm leikum). In response to (salm leikum) one usually says (wa-leikum salm). Even though the most appropriate response is (wa-eikum salm), one can also reply by simply saying (salm leikum) as well. Afghan men greet each other by shaking hands or hugging each other. The right hand is placed on the chest when greeting people as a means of showing honour and respect. Women usually hug and kiss each other. The two genders do not usually shake hands with each other. It is inappropriate for men and women to come into physical contact when greeting each other; instead they just say (salm leikum) to each other. Now, you will hear the most commonly used greetings and courtesy expressions. GREETINGS AND COURTESIES: salm salm leikum Response: wa-leikum salm Hello Hello Hello (to you)

Salm (derived from the Arabic language) literally means peace and is the common eastern greeting, usually used when saying hello, but occasionally it is also used to imply goodbye. Salm leikum literally means Peace be upon you. Salm leikum is used as a formal and informal greeting.

EXERCISE 3
Listen to the following greetings and expressions and repeat. Initiation Line 1. salm leikum Response Line Wa-leikum salm Initiation Line 2. Salm English phrase Hello English phrase Hello English phrase Hi English phrase Hello (Hi)

Response Line Wa-leikum salm

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Initiation Line 3. Sa-hr Pa khair Response line Sa-hr Pa khair Initiation Line 4. m-shm pa khair Response Line stso hm Initiation Line 5. Shpa pa khair

English phrase Good morning English phrase Good morning to you English phrase Good evening English phrase same to you English phrase Good night English phrase Good night to you

Response Line stso shpa hm pa khair

EXERCISE 4
Let us see now if you remember how to say hello in Pashtu, and how to respond to that greeting. You should have said: a. salm leikum b. wa-leikum salm Listen to the following greetings said in the morning, evening and night, and then repeat them. THE INITIATION IS: Sa-hr Pa khair good morning m-shm pa khair good evening Shpa pa khair Good night THE RESPONSE IS: Sa-hr Pa khair good morning stso hm same to you Shpa pa khair Good night

1. 2. 3.

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FLUENCY DRILLS EXERCISE 5


Listen carefully, and repeat the following phrases after the speaker. THE INITIATION IS: salm leikum Sa-hr Pa khair m-shm pa khair Shpa pa khair THE RESPONSE IS: wa-leikum salm hi Sa-hr Pa khair Good morning stso hm same to you Shpa pa khair Good night

1. 2. 3. 4.

EXERCISE 6
Now let us see how many greetings you remember. You will hear a number of English greetings. Translate them into Pashtu. 1. Hello 2. Good morning 3. Good evening 4. Good night You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said salm leikum Sa-hr Pa khair m-shm pa khair Shpa pa khair

Now, you will learn more phrases and expressions. Tashakur is the general expression of appreciation and gratitude, and is a term borrowed from Arabic. Pashtu also has a common expression, Manana, which means thanks.

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EXERCISE 7
Listen to the following and repeat: 1. Manana 2. Lh tso hm Manana Tashakur Thank you too Thanks

We are continuing with Pashtu phrases and expressions: To Muslims, religion is a part of everyday life and speech is full of references to God. Even the commonplace Goodbye is regarded as a contraction of the original God-be-with-you. Goodbye in Pashtu is The most common way of saying goodbye de khudai pa amnn de khudai pa amnn

Now listen to the phrase again and repeat it three times: de khudai pa amnn

EXERCISE 8
You will hear greetings and courtesy expressions in English. Say them in Pashtu. 1. Hello 2. Goodbye 3. Good morning 4. Thank you You should have said. salm leikum You should have said. de khudai pa amnn You should have said. Sa-hr Pa khair You should have said. Manana Tashakur

Now you will learn how to say the expression how are you? In Pashtu, it is nga yst It is used to address a person formally. A less formal expression is nga ay . It is used in informal situations such as to address a friend or a family member. The response to the question nga ay is Manana shh yem when addressing a male, and Manana sha yem when addressing a female.

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EXERCISE 9
Repeat the following expressions. THE INITIAL LINE 1. nga ay? 2. nga ay? How are you? How are you? RESPONSE Manana shh yem (M) ( ) I am fine, thanks Manana sha yem (F) ( ) zh hm shh yem Manana (M) ( ) I am also fine, thanks zh hm sha yem , Manana (F) ( )

You have already learned that the Pashtu expression for good morning is (Sa-hr Pa khair). When someone says Sa-hr Pa khair, it is customary to respond with: stso hm stso sa-hr hm Pa khair

1. 2.

same to you good morning to you

Imagine that you meet an Afghan soldier at work in the morning. He greets you in Pashtu. Respond to his greeting. sa-hr Pa khair SOLDIER: You should have Said stso Sa-hr hm Pa khair

You have already learned the Pashtu word for hello - Salm. It is used at any time of the day. You could say: The response is: Or just salm You are also familiar with the expression How are you?, which is nga ay? or nga yst? The response for both expressions is zh shh yem Manana (masculine) and zh sha yem Manana (feminine). You could also say Manana, or Manana shh yem (M) and Manana sha yem (F). Let us now practice some more. How do you respond to an Afghan who asks you how you are? Remember that zh means I. salm leikum salm leikum

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Now listen to Ahmed & Najiba and then answer: Najiba: nga ay? You should have responded You should have asked Ahmed should have replied. You should have responded ( ) Note that: th means you( informal), and tso also means you but in (formal) and plural forms Let us now add another expression to our greetings. In Pashtu, shh rghlst means welcome and the response to that is Manana. Now, listen to the following Afghan soldier welcoming a villager. Listen again and repeat: Afghan soldier: Villager: shh rghlst Manana. Manana shh yem (M) zh sha yem Manana (F), ( ) th nga ay?

Now ask Ahmed how is he doing?

EXERCISE 10
Listen to and respond to the following cues. 1. nga ay? zh shh yem Manana (M).or ( ) You should have said zh sha yem Manana (F). ( ) 2. Shh raghlst You should have said Manana

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EXERCISE 11
In the following exercise, you will hear a phrase in Pashtu that initiates conversation. Respond to the Pashtu initiations. You will have 15 seconds to respond. For example, you will hear:
salm leikum You should have responded with wa-leikum salm

INITIAL LINE salm leikum salm sa-hr pa khair M-shm pa khair shpa pa khair de khudai pa amnn shh rghlst nga ay? wra pa khair You should have responded You should have responded You should have responded You should have responded You should have responded You should have responded You should have responded You should have responded You should have responded

RESPONSE LINE wa-leikum salm salm sa-hr pa khair stso hm shpa pa khair de khudai pa amnn Manana Manana shh yem (short response) stso wra hm pa khair

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Now you will learn a few time markers. You will hear the English word first followed by its Pashtu equivalent. Morning Noon Afternoon Dusk Evening Night Day sa-hr gha-r-ma Ms-p-sheen Mz-d-ee-gar m-shm Shpa Wra

The following are a few more Pashtu expressions and phrases. Repeat each expression after you hear it. You will hear the English word or phrase first.

ENGLISH 1. 2. 3. 4. God Willing Unfortunately Why not? I do not know in sha'allaAh mota a-sfna walay nh? zh nh poo-hay-zham

PASHTU

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EXERCISE 12
Let us continue with the English expressions and phrases. You will hear each expression in English first followed by the Pashtu translation. Repeat the Pashtu expressions. Sorry Excuse me Welcome Welcome back wo-bakh-shai ba-kh-shna gh-w-m shh-rghlst pa khair r-gh-lay heela kawam Khw-hesh- kawom Manana Zwandai o-say

EXERCISE 13
Listen to the following expressions and repeat them. 1. God Willing 2. Unfortunately 3. Why not 4. I do not know You should have said insha'allAh

You should have said You should have said You should have said

mota-asfna walay nh zh nh poo-hayzham

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EXERCISE 14
The purpose of this exercise is to check how many expressions you can recall. You will hear a greeting or a courtesy expression in Pashtu. After you hear each expression, say its meaning in English. For example: if you hear salm in Pashtu, you should say hello in English. 1. sa-hr pa khair 2. salm leikum 3. wo-bakh-shai 4. wra pa khair 5. insha'allAh You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Good morning Hi (Returning greeting) Excuse me Good day God willing

EXERCISE 15
You will now hear the same expressions as you heard in Exercise 6; this time, however, they will be given in English, and you should say their meaning in Pashtu. For example: if you hear hello (in English), you should say salm in Pashtu. God Willing Good morning Hello Good evening Thank you Sorry How are you? Fine thanks, and you? Welcome You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said insha'allAh sa-hr pa khair salm leikum m-shm pa khair Manana tashakur / wo-bakh-shai nga ay? Shh yam Manana, tso? shh-rghlst

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GRAMMAR POINT The following are the personal pronouns in Pashtu. You will hear the English meaning first followed by the Pashtu expression. Listen and repeat I You (Singular m/f) He She We You (plural) They t h dai d moozh tso dui

zh

Now listen to the personal pronouns with the verb To be: The underlined words are (to be verbs) associated with its subject personal pronoun SUBJECT PRONOUN I You (singular) He She It (f)/ (M) It (F)/ (m) They am are is is is is are VERB TO BE zh t h dai d dagha hagha Dui SUBJECT PRONOUN yem ay Dai da da/dai da/dai dee VERB TO BE

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The sentence structure in Pashtu is: Subject + Noun + Verb When using the verb To be, the structure will be: Subject (pronoun) followed by noun and then verb To be. Note: Gender and Number must agree with the subject pronoun at all times. Here are a few examples: Zh Ahmad yem Dai Rabert dai D Hussay da Please note that and also mean it, this and that. Dagha Hagha It/this It/that She is Hussay Subject pronoun + Noun + verb The English equivalent is: I am Ahmed He is Robert the structure is: Subject pronoun + Noun + verb Subject pronoun + Noun + verb

Example: 1. Dagha moar de Ahmad dai 2. Hagha kore de Robert dai 3. Dagha telephone dai It is Ahmads car That is Roberts house It is a telephone

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

zh De Canada yem th de koom ai ay? Dai Ahmad dai D Crystal da Moozh de Afghanistan you tso uk yst? Hughui de Germany dee Dui De Ottawa dee

I am from Canada Where are you from? He is Ahmad She is Crystal We are from Afghanistan Who are you? They are from Germany They are from Ottawa

EXERCISE 16
Listen and Repeat the following phrases after the speaker. You will hear the key words first. 1. Students: zda-kawoonk-ee 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Zh Ahmad yem. moozh zda- kawoonk-ee you. th Ahmad ay? Tso zda kawoonk-ee yst? Dai Ahmad Dai. Hughui zda-kawoonk-ee dee D Najeeba da. Dui Sartair-ee dee. 2. Soldiers: Sartair-ee I am Ahmad. We are students. Are you Ahmad? Are you students? He is Ahmad. Those are students. She is Najeeba. These are soldiers.

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Note that the following suffix creates an action or verbal noun. For example in English most verbal nouns end with either {r} or {er} as in drive - driver Pashtu requires the following structure to create verbal nouns: SINGULAR Masculine Kawoon-kai Feminine Kawoon-kay Kawoon-kee PLURAL

Listen to the following verbal nouns in Pashtu and pay attention to the endings (suffixes) PASHTU 1. Drive Driver 2. Teach - Teacher 3. Read - Reader 4. Listen -Listener 5. Study-Student Driver (M) Drivera (F) Show-woonkay Lwast-woonkai aw-ray-doonkay Zda-ka-woonkai GENDER M F M F M

Now you will learn the negative form of Verb to Be The negation sign or particle Nh, which means not, is added before verb to be to indicate negation. The sentence begins with the subject personal pronoun, followed by the noun, then the negation particle nh, and finally ending with the verb at the end of the sentence. Listen to the following example. You will hear the affirmative form first: I am Ahmed I am not Ahmed zh Ahmad yem zh Ahmad nh yem

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EXERCISE 17
Listen and repeat. First you will hear key words.

1. Nurse: Ranoor-pl 1 2 3

2. Friends: Doostn

3.Doctor: dktar

AFFIRMATIVE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I am a nurse I am a doctor We are friends He is a soldier I am a soldier zh Ranoor-pl yem zh dktar yem moozh Doostn you Hagha sar-tairai dai Zh sar-tairai yem

NEGATIVE I am not a nurse I am not a doctor We are not friends He is not a soldier I am not a soldier zh ranoor-pl nh yem Zh dktar nh yem Moozh Doostn nh you Hagha sar-tairai nh dai Zh sar-tairai nh yem

Let us practice and create Pashtu phrases following the structure that you have learned so far. First learn the following new words, and then use each in a complete sentence. Sergeant Military officer I am a sergeant I am not a sergeant Breed-gai afsar khurd zbt shb man-sab

zh Breed-gai yem zh Breed-gai nh yem

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Pashtu Module 1

A brief note of grammar: 1. Most of Pashtu prepositions are in pairs. For instance, the preposition at in Pashtu is pa followed by a noun, and then kay, the post preposition. Example: The word home in Pashtu is kore. The phrase at home is pa kore kay. Pa is the preposition, kore is home, and kay is post preposition. This preposition also means in 2. Remember that structure of a simple sentence is Subject + Noun + Verb. Keep in mind that Pashtu verbs are always located at the end of the sentence, and must agree with the subject both in term of gender and number. Ahmad pa kore kay dai Moar pa garage kay dai Pa Canada kay haw saa da Nabil pa kr ky dai Pa Pkistn kay Terroristn dee St pa kore kay uk dee? You should have said. You should have said. You should have said. You should have said. You should have said. You should have said. Ahmad is at home The car is in Garage The weather is cold in Canada Nabil is at work There are terrorists in Pakistan Who is at your home?

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Pashtu Module 1

INTRODUCTION OF ONESELF EXERCISE 18


In the following exercise, you will hear two people making introductions. Repeat each phrase after the speaker. The English translation will follow each phrase.

1. zh Sur Gul yem Response St pa lee-daloo khwash swm (M) 2. Zm noom Sur Gul dai zh Too-run Sur Gul yem St pa lee-daloo khwash swm (M) Note that for a female the response is: St pa lee-daloo khwasha swm (F)

I am Sur Gul.

Pleased to meet you My name is Sur Gul I am Captain Sur Gul Pleased to meet you Pleased to meet you

Also note that Pashtu always has feminine/masculine words and nouns, as well as adjectives and numbers, whereby the gender and number must agree with the subject pronoun. Now you will learn how to ask for someones name. Listen to the following questions and repeat: 1. Stso noom h dai? (Formal) 2. St noom h dai ? (Informal) What is your name? What is your name?

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Pashtu Module 1

GREETINGS AND INTRODUCTION OF ONESELF EXERCISE 19


You will hear two dialogues. First, listen to the whole dialogue. Next, listen again and translate into English during the pause.
DIALOGUE 1

Ajmal: sa-hr pa khair Natkai: sa-hr pa khair Ajmal: nga ay? Natkai: Manana sha yem. tso? Ajmal: shh yem, Manana. Ajmal: de khudai pa amn. Natkai: de khudai pa amn.
Now listen again, and translate each line as you hear it.

: : : : : : :

Ajmal: Natkai: Ajmal:

sa-hr pa khair sa-hr pa khair nga ay?

You should have said You should have said

Good Morning Good Morning How are you? I am fine thanks, you? I am fine thanks, Good bye

You should have said You should have said Natkai: Manana sha yem. tso? Ajmal: shh yem, Manana de You should have said khudai pa amn Natkai: de khudai pa amnn. You should have said

Good bye

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Pashtu Module 1

DIALOGUE 2
Again, you will listen to a dialogue, and upon the second listening, you will repeat it and translate it line by line. Note : The word aw means and Arsalan: Palwasha Arsalan: Palwasha Arsalan : Palwasha : salm leikum wa- leikum salm, nga ay? zh shh yem Manana st noom h dai? zm noom Arsalan dai, aw Stso? zm noom Palwasha dai

Now listen again, and translate each line as you hear it. salm leikum Arsalan: Palwasha: Arsalan: Palwasha: Arsalan : Palwasha: wa- leikum salm, nga ay? zh shh yem Manana st noom h dai? zm noom Arsalan dai, aw Stso? zm noom Palwasha dai You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said I am fine thank What is your name? My name is Arsalan, and yours? My name is Palwasha You should have said Hi, How are you? You should have said Hi/ Greetings

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EXERCISE 20
Imagine you have met an Afghan and are getting introduced to him. Respond appropriately to his greetings and questions. salm. salm, nga ay? It means: Hello It means: Hello, how are you? You should have responded You should have responded salm. Hello zh shh yem, tashakur I am fine thank you It means: What is your name? You should have responded zm noom Samandar Dai, aw stso? My name is Samandar, and yours?

stso Noom h dai ?

zm noom Husai dai. It means: My name is Husai

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Pashtu Module 1

INTRODUCTION OF A THIRD PERSON


Now listen to the following dialogue between Mr. Alex and Mr. Ak. Alex introduces himself to Ak. The purpose of this dialogue is to familiarize you with introducing oneself in Pashtu. Alex: Ak Alex Ak salm leikum, zh Alex yem wa-leikum salm, zh Ak yem stso pa lee-dalo khwash swm zh hm .

EXERCISE 21
Now it is time to check how many phrases you may recall. You will hear a phrase in Pashtu; say its meaning in English. salm leikum, zh Alex yem wa-leikom salm, zh Arsalan yem salm, nga ay? manana zh shh yem , tso nga yst? zh shh yem Manana stso noom h dai ? zm noom Abdullah dai It means Hi, I am Alex Hi, I am Arsalan Hi, how are you? I am fine thanks, how are you? I am fine thanks What is your name? My name is Abdullah

It means It means It means It means It means It means

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Pashtu Module 1

GRAMMAR POINT Plural of Nouns in Pashtu As mentioned earlier Pashtu nouns must agree in gender and number. Plural nouns in Pashtu have different forms. We will cover the basic ones. Listen to the masculine and feminine of selected nouns, and repeat. We will start with the masculine form, followed by the feminine. NOUNS Afsar Officer Shb-mnsb Nurse Nurse ranour-pl Teacher Mulem Show-wonkai Soldier skar Sartairai Student zda-kawonkai Sh-grd Shb-man-saba Nursa ranour-pala Mulema Show-wonkay skara sartairay zda-kawonkay Sh-g-erda MASCULINE Afsara FEMININE

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Pashtu Module 1

Now listen to the plural form. We will start with the masculine and then follow with feminine.

NOUN Officer Nurse Teacher Soldier Student

SINGULAR MASCULINE Afsar ranour-pal/Nars / Show-woonkai/ mulem / askar/ Sartairai / zda-ka-won- kai / Sh-grd /

PLURAL MASCULINE Afsarn ranourpaln/Narsn (M)/ Show-woonk-ee/ mulemn / askarn Sartair-ee / zda-ka-won- kee / Sh-grdn /

Remember: For masculine animated object nouns, you need to add n, as in Afsarn. For non animated objects, you need to add ona, as in which means books. For feminine animated object nouns, add "nay as in {Doctornay} {Doctors} (Feminine) And for non animated objects, add ay, as in Kitb-chay , which means note book
1. Tables (m) 2. Cars (m) 3. Rifles (masculine) 4. Houses 5.Notebooks (F) 6. Doctors (F) 7. Soldiers (female P) may-zona Motarn Tow-pakn

Kore-ona Kitabch-ay Doctorn-ay askarn-ay

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Pashtu Module 1

ENGLISH Chair (feminine noun) Table (masculine noun) Car (masculine noun) Rifle (masculine noun) House (masculine noun) Note book (feminine noun) awkay

MASCULINE

FEMININE May-z Mooar Tow-pack kore Kitab-cha

Haw-ee-maidan Airport (masculine noun) Haw-ee-a-gar

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Pashtu Module 1

Here are more examples of non-animated plurals:

NOUN 1. Tables (m) 2. Cars (m) 3. Rifles (m)

PLURAL M may-zona Motarn Topakn

PLURAL F

4. Pens (m)

qalamn

qalamoona awkay aw-kay-gnay chatray Chatray-gnay Dialect based exception, singular and plural are same when all words end with (ay) It follows the same rule if you add the plural suffix however {gnay} not (anay)

5. Chairs (f) Umbrellas

6. Airports

hawa-ee Dagarona

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EXERCISE 22
To practice more, listen to the following plurals and repeat. You will hear the English word first.

Please note that there are many irregular plural forms. We will learn some of them gradually as we progress throughout the modules. Airports Nurses Haw-ee-aga-roona ranourpln (M) ranoorplnay (F) Cars Tables Rifles Chairs Doctors Moo-a-ran May-zoona tow-pakn aw-kay Docarn (M) Sar-tair-ee (M) Soldiers Sar-tair-ay (F) Haw-ee-maida-noona Nursn (M) Nursnay (F) aw-kay-g-nay Docarnay (F) Askarn (M) askaranay (F)

So far, in this module, you have learned how to greet someone, introduce oneself, personal pronouns, conjugation of the verb To Be in the affirmative and negative forms and plurals. In order to assimilate the vocabulary and memorize the structures, you should go over the module several times.

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Pashtu Module 1

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MODULE 2

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 2

MODULE 2 - TIME & NUMBERS

In this module, we will cover the following topics

TEACHING POINTS Review of the previously covered material Numbers Days of the week What time is it?

GRAMMAR Interrogative particles who, what, where, how and when Verbs To Go and To Have Negative form of Verb To Have Prepositions in, at, to and from

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Pashtu Module 2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of this module, you will be able to: Count from 1-1000 Identify days of the week, months and seasons Ask general question Respond to simple questions about time and weather Construct simple phrases

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Pashtu Module 2

REVIEW Common greeting expressions presented in Module one

EXERCISE 1
First listen carefully to the following dialogue. You will hear the same dialogue again with Pauses between phrases to allow you translate each. A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: salm leikum wa-leikum salm. nga ay/yst? zh shh yem. salm leikum. wa-leikum salm. St noom h dai? zm noom Ak dai. st pa lee-daloo khwash swm. zh hm /

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Pashtu Module 2

Now you will hear it again to translate into English. salm leikum A: wa-leikum salm. B: A: nga ay/yst? You should / have said You should have said salm leikum. A: wa-leikum salm. B: St noom h dai? A: B: zm noom Ak dai. st pa lee-daloo khwash swm. A: B: zh hm You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said salm leikum. You should have said You should have said salm leikum wa-leikum salm. nga ay/yst? Hello Hello

How are you

B:

zh shh yem.

/ I am fine zh shh yem. Hello

wa-leikum salm. Hello St noom h dai? zm noom Ak dai. st pa lee-daloo I am glad khwash swm. meeting you zh hm Me too My name is Atsek What is your name

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE # 2
Listen to the following expressions in English and translate them orally into Pashtu. How are you? You should have said nga yst? Stso pa lee-daloo khwash swm Thank you You should have said Manana or Tashakur de khudai pa amn

Good to see you

You should have said

Good bye

You should have said

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY VOCABULARY Listen to the following vocabulary that will be used in Module 2 and repeat. PASHTU WORD 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. sat kala (Adverb) kitb wra / wraay Hafta/ Onai Du-bai Mnai Zhmai shmay-r or number Baj-ay daqeeqa u baj-ay dee? shh zh shh yem t-ll kr lar-em paisay moar halk loor kore Sta PASHTU SCRIPT

Pashtu Module 2

ENGLISH MEANING

hour/watch when book / day/days week summer fall/autumn winter / number oclock minute What time is it? good/ fine I am good/ fine to go (infinitive) work I have money car boy daughter house/home there is

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Pashtu Module 2

NUMBERS EXERCISE 3
Listen to the following numbers and then repeat them. NUMBERS (shmay-ray) Even though Pashtu is a right to left reading language system, the numeric format of Pashtu uses the Arabic numeric system in which writing is from left to right. Listen to the Pashtu numbers from 0 to 10 and repeat. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 S-fr yaw dwa/ dway dray alour Pinh sh-pa-zh U-vh ath nh las /

EXERCISE 4
Now listen to the following numbers and give their English equivalent: las S-fr ath alour dray nh yaw Pinh You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. ten zero eight four three nine one five

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 5
Listen to the numbers from 1-5 and repeat. You will hear the English numbers first. After the number 5, try to count from 6-10. One Two Three Four Five Six (Pause) Seven (Pause) Eight (Pause) Nine (Pause) Ten (Pause) yaw dwa/ dway dray alour Pinh / sh-pa-zh U-vh ath nh las

You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said..

EXERCISE 6
Answer the following questions as in the example: How many brothers do you have? (Lets say that you have two brothers). You should have answered dwa. 1. How many days in a week? 2. How many desks are in the classroom? (lets say 10) 3. How many maple leaves are in the Canadian flag? 4. How many cars do you have? (Lets say 5 cars) 5. How many chairs are in your home? (Lets say 8) You should have said You should have said U-vh las You should have said You should have said yawa Pinh ath One Five Seven Ten

You should have said

Eight

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Pashtu Module 2

Now you will learn the:

DAYS OF THE WEEK


In Pashtu the week starts with Saturday, which is shanb and ends with Friday which is joma. All other days are numbered serially (one to five) and followed by shanbe. For example Sunday is yak shanb. Yak means one. Monday is " dO shanb; dO means two in farsi. The same is used to Thursday, which is panj shanb. Panj is the number five. In order to easily understand weekdays, first memorize Farsi numbers from 1 -5 below: yak dO say chr panj One Two Three Four Five

Friday is an official and religious holiday in Afghanistan. Government offices and many businesses are closed on Thursday afternoon as well as Friday.

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 7
Now listen carefully and then repeat the following days of the week. You will hear the English term first. Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Shanb Yak shanb dO shanb say shanb chr shanb panj shanb joma

EXERCISE 8
Listen to the following words that you will see later, and then repeat. Day in Pashtu is Wra Wra is a feminine noun, Its plural form is wraay

Week in Pashtu is Month is Days of the week are

onay

Or

Hafta

onay/ Hafta is a feminine noun The plural form of meeysht is mee-ysht-ay De is the preposition of. It comes at the beginning of the word. For example: Roberts book or The book of Robert is: De Robert Kitab

mee-ysht De Onay wraay Or De haftay wraay

The word year in Pashtu is The word season in Pashtu is Weather in Pashtu is

Kl fasel haw

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 9
You will hear the names of the seven days of the week in English. After hearing the name of each day, say it in Pashtu. Friday Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday Wedensday Thursday You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said joma Shanb Yak shanb dO shanb say shanb chr shanb panj shanb

EXERCISE 10
Listen to the following phrases and repeat. You will hear a question first, followed by its Pashtu and English meaning What day is it? Nn Kooma wra da What day is it? Nn Kooma wra da What day is it? Nn Kooma wra da Today is Tuesday Nn de say-shanb wra da Today is Monday Nn de dO-shanb wra da Today is Friday Nn de jomay wra da

Now practice asking the same question and give answers using: - Saturday which is Shanb in Pashtu - Sunday which is yak shanb - Wednesday which is chr shanb - Thursday which is panj shanb

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 11
You will hear the names of the seven days of the week in English. After hearing the name of each day, say it in Pashtu. Wednesday Friday Thursday Tuesday Saturday Monday Sunday You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said chr shanb joma

panj shanb say shanb Shanb dO shanb yak shanb

EXERCISE 12
Now you will learn the Pashtu numbers from 11 to 30; listen and repeat. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 ya-volas d-volas de-yr-las var-las pinh-las shpa--las U-vh-las ath-las noo-nas/ noo-las Shell yaw-weesht dwa-weesht dr-weesht alour-weesht pinh-weesht sh-pazh-weesht U-vh-weesht ath-weesht n-hh-weesht dayr-sh /

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 13
Listen to the following numbers and give their Pashtu equivalents. 12 22 13 23 14 24 15 25 16 26 17 27 19 29 30 You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said d-volas dwa-weesht de-yr-las dr-weesht var-las alour-weesht pina-las pinh-weesht shpa--las Sh-pazh-weesht U-vh-las U-vh-weesht noo-nas/ noo-las n-hh-weesht dayr-sh /

Now you will learn the Pashtu months of the year. Pashtu has its own names for the months of the year. However, ordinary people use Arabic and Islamic names, as it is common in Dari. Pashtu months are actually names of animals as in the Chinese calendar. hamal which means Lamb/Aries is the first month of the year, and is the beginning of spring in Afghanistan. In the Gregorian calendar, the first day of the New Year in Afghanistan coincides with the 21st of March as both Afghanistan and Iran use the solar calendar. As a result, in some years the first day of the year will be on the 20th of March, depending on the rotation of earth around the sun. According to the calendar commonly used in Afghanistan now, the year 2007 is equivalent to 1385-1386. March 21st of this year will be the beginning of 1386. New Years Day in Afghanistan is called NOW ROZ. Conversion of the Gregorian calendar to solar calendar: According to the Islamic Solar Calendar, the calendar begins after the 621st birthday of Jesus the Christ. In order to convert any given year from Gregorian, 621 will be subtracted from a year which in turn gives you the solar year and vice versa.

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Pashtu Module 2

The first six months of the Afghan Calendar has 31 days. The second five months of the Afghan calendar has 30 days. The last month has 29 days except for the leap year (kabeesa kl )which has 30 days.

EXERCISE 14
Listen carefully to the names of months of the year and repeat each twice. Remember that mee-ysht in Pashtu means month. Mee-ysht-ay hamal sawr saratn asad mizn jaw-z is is is is is is is is is is is is Months March 21-April 20 April 21-May 21 May 22-June 21 June 22-July 22 July 23-August 22 August 23-September 22 Sept. 23-October 22 October 23-November 21 Nov. 22-December 21 Dec. 22-January 20 January 21-February 19 February 20-March 20

sunbula qrab Qaw-s ja-dee dalwa hoot

Now lets see if you could recall some of the months in Pashtu. First you will hear the months in Pashtu. hoot hamal qrab saratn Qaw-s sunbula You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said February 20-March 20 Last month of the year March 21-April 20 First month of the year October 23-November 21 June 22-July 22 Nov. 22-December 21 August 23-September 22

Go back and listen to the months again and try to identify you birth month. Say that month in Pashtu.

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 15
Answer the following questions in Pashtu. What day of the week is today? Lets say it is Thursday What is the day of the week that is a holiday in Afghanistan? What month is today? Lets say today is September 25. How many days in the month? Lets say 30 days How many hours in a day?
You should have said ... panj shanb

You should have said ...

joma

You should have said ...

mizn

You should have said ...

dayr-sh

You should have said ...

alour-weesht

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Pashtu Module 2

SEASONS OF THE YEAR


You will learn the names of the seasons in Pashtu.

EXERCISE 16
Now listen to the following seasons of the year and repeat. Remember the word season in Pashtu is fasel. Winter is: Zhmai Spring is: Pasar-lai Summer is: Dubai/Uai / Fall (autumn) is: Mnai

EXERCISE 17
Listen to the following sentences and repeat. First you will hear key words and their meaning.
Key words: Keep in mind that each single adjective in Pashtu has both the masculine and feminine forms.

1 2

How Hot

nga Towd FEMININE Tawda soo FEMININE saa Bran-ee

5 6

Snowy Dusty

Ww-ra-U-ree Gard-jan

MASCULINE Towd Cold MASCULINE soo Rainy

MASCULINE FEMININE Gard-jan Gard-jana Moderate narem MASCULINE narm Mutadel

Mutadel FEMININE nar-ma Mutadela

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Pashtu Module 2

How is the weather today? It is hot How is the weather today? It is cold How is the weather today? It is moderate How is the weather today? It is rainy How is the weather today? It snows How is the weather today? It is dusty

Nn hawa nga da? Tawda da Nn hawa nga da? Saa da Nn hawa nga da? Mutadela da Nn hawa nga da?
Bran-ee da

Nn hawa nga da?


Ww-ra-U-ree

Nn hawa nga da?


Gard-jana da

The structure of the question How is the weather today? is: How Interrogative Pronoun While Pashtu Nn Adverb of Time is To be Verb Hawa Noun nga Interrogative Pronoun da verb The weather Noun Today Adverb of Time

The structure of the answer sentence It is hot`` is: It Demonstrative pronoun is To be verb hot Adjective

While in Pashtu as a short answer, the demonstrative pronoun is omitted Tawda Adjective da verb

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 18
Now you will learn more numbers. You will learn the numbers 31 to 100. Remember in Pashtu 30 is dayr-sh. Listen to the numbers and repeat. You will hear the English version first. 31. 32. 33. 34. 40. 41. 50. 51. 60. 61. 70. 71. 80. 81. 90. 91. 100.
yaw-dayr-sh dwa dayr-sh dray-dayr-sh alour-dayr-sh al-way-sht yaw-al-way-sht pin-os yaw pin-os shpay-th yaw-shpay th a-v-y yaw a-v-ya at-y yaw at-y na-vee yaw na-vee cell

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 19
Listen to the following numbers and give their Pashtu equivalents. 30. 31. 40. 42. 50. 53. 60. 65. 70. 76. 80. 87. 90. 98. 100. You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... You should have said ... dayr-sh yaw-dayr-sh al-way-sht dO al-way-sht pin-os Dree - pin-os shpay-th Pinh shpay-th a-v-y Shpazh a-vy at-y U-vh at-y na-vee ath na-vee cell

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 2

TIME
Now you will learn how to ask about time and give a response to questions about time. First let us practice few words: 1. Time wakht bajay 2. Hour S--t 3. Minute daqeeqa 7. Past tairee dee 4. Second snya 8. Oclock baj-ay**

5. half: Neem-ay is used with all numbers except One Oclock, For example for 1:30 we say: yawa neema

6. Quarter to. Pw-kam Pw bl Pw bnday

Quarter past..

** Please note, that the word baj-ay which means oclock, is used only with full and half hours (for example, Pinh baj-ay 5 oclock) and when asking a question about time, for example: What time is it? u baj-ay dee?.

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 20
Listen to the following questions and repeat. What time is it? What time is it? u baj-ay dee? Sat u baj-ay dee?

Now listen to the answers and repeat. You will hear the English answer first One oclock Two oclock Three oclock Four oclock Five oclock Six oclock Seven oclock Eight oclock Nine oclock Ten oclock Eleven oclock Tweve oclock yawa baja d-vay-baj-ay d-ray baj-ay alour baj-ay pinh baj-ay sh-pa-zh baj-ay U-vh baj-ay ath baj-ay nh baj-ay las baj-ay ya-volas baj-ay d-volas baj-ay

EXERCISE 21
Listen to the following words and phrases and repeat.
1. kam means: to, alour means: 4 2. Pw kam: Quarter to 3. Bnday: passed, shell means: 20 4. Pw bnday means quarter passed, dray means: 3 Example: 10 (minutes) to 4 is: las kam alour Example: Quarter to 5 is: Pw kam Pinh Example: 20 passed 1 is: Shell bnday yawa Example: Quarter passed 3 is: Pw bnday dray Listen again and practice using different hours.

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 22
Try to answer the following questions:
What time is it? Sat u baj-ay dee ?

1. Five minutes past two 2. Six-thirty 3. Ten minutes to eleven 4. Twenty minutes to five

You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said

pinh bl dway Shpazh-nee-may las km yavolas Shell kam Pinh

EXERCISE 23
In Pashtu there is no time abbreviation as a.m. or p.m.. Afghans say dusk, morning, evening, afternoon, etc. Listen to the following time markers and repeat. You will hear the English first. Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Dawn Day Night Midnight Sa-hr gha-r-mah ms-pa-shin m-shm Mz-dee-gar Wra Shpa Neema shpa ..

Note: When you say the above daily time phrases, keep in mind that Pashtu speakers use De which means of. For example: 5 oclock in the morning is: De sa-hr pa pino bajo

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 24
u baj-ay dee? What time is it?

We will now continue practicing the use of time expressions. Listen and then repeat.
1:00 oclock is Yawa baja 2:00 oclock is dway bajay 3:00 oclock is dray bajay 4:00 oclock is alour bajay 5:00 oclock is Pinh bajay 6:00 oclock is Shpa-zh bajay

EXERCISE 25
Now try to say the following phrases in Pashtu. Remember 10 oclock in Pashtu is: las bajay, 12 oclock is Dovolas bajay, 4 oclock is salour bajay , 9 oclock is nh-ha bajay, and 2 oclock is dway bajay 1. Twelve noon 2. Five p.m. 3. Nine a.m. 4. Two p.m. 5. Ten a.m. You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said De ghar-may Dovolas bajay De m-zdee-gar Pinh bajay De sahr Nh-ha bajay De ms-p-sheen- dway bajay De sahr las bajay

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 26
Listen to the following questions, and answer them in Pashtu. You will hear the question in English followed by Pashtu. What time is it? u baj-ay dee? It is eight oclock in the morning You should u baj-ay dee? have said It is seven oclock in the evening You should u baj-ay dee? have said It is one oclock in the afternoon You should u baj-ay dee? have said It is six oclock in the morning You should u baj-ay dee? have said It is quarter to three in the afternoon You should have said De sahr ath bajay dee De m-shm U-vh bajay De ms-p-sheen yawa baja da. De sa-hr shpa-zh bajay dee De ms-p-sheen pw kam dray bajay dee

EXERCISE 27
One more time, listen to the time and then repeat. 3 p.m. 7 a.m. 1:30 p.m. 11:05 a.m. 11: 40 a.m. 2:00p.m. 5:30 p.m. 9:50 a.m. 3 in the afternoon 7 in the morning 1:30 in the afternoon Five past 11 early noon 20 m to noon 2:00 in the afternoon 5:30 at dusk 10 minutes to 10 in the morning De ms-p-sheen dray bajay De sahr U-vh bajay De ms-p-sheen yawa neema De asht pinh bnday yavolas De ghar-may shell kam dvolas De ms-p-sheen dway bajay De Mz-dee-g-ar- pinh neemay De sa-hr las kam las

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 28
You will now hear a simple dialogue twice. After the second listening, you will be asked a question. Within the given pause respond in English to the question Ahmed: Ibrahim: Ahmed: Ibrahim: u baj-ay dee? ath neemay bajay dee Manana de Mananay wa na da : : : :

According to the dialogue, what time is it? You should have said It is 8:30 Here is the dialogue once again with its English translation Ahmed: u baj-ay dee? : It is 8:30 : Thank you Ibrahim: de Mananay wa na da : : Not worth mentioning / you are welcome What time is it?

: Ibrahim. ath neemay bajay dee

Ahmed: manana

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 29
The following dialogue will help you learn how to ask someone the time. Ajmal Ajmal sa-hr pa khair u baj-ay dee? Manana Here is the dialogue once again with its English translation Ajmal : sa-hr pa khair Nabi: Ajmal: Nabi: Ajmal: U-vh neemay : Manana : Thanks u baj-ay dee? : 7:30 sa-hr pa khair : What time is it? Good morning Good morning Nabi You should have answered Nabi 7:30 You should have answered Nabi You should have answered sa-hr pa khair U-vh neemay de Mananay wa na da

Ajmal

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Pashtu Module 2

GRAMMAR POINT
Before we proceed with the following activity, you need to learn few interrogative particles to help you ask questions. You have learned HOW, which is enga., and WHAT which is u. Now listen to the following interrogative particles and repeat. Each particle will be followed by an example in Pashtu and English. INTERROGATIVES 1- When : Kala 2- Where : Chay-ray 3- Who: uk PASHTU Dai kala -ee? Th chay-ray ay? Hagha uk da? ENGLISH TRANSLATION When is he going? Where are you? Who is she?

EXERCISE 30
Listen to the names of the days of the week along with a number of time expressions, and repeat. This exercise will help you learn how to ask and answer questions linked to these expressions. First listen to, and then repeat the following time phrases: Example At what time (when) is it? Pa u bajo? When is he going? Dai kala -ee? 3:00 oclock Pa drayo bajo 8 oclock a.m. de sahr ath bajay

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Pashtu Module 2

Now listen to and then repeat the following answers. The English translation will follow. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. shanb yawa baja yak shanb, pw bnday dray say shanb pinh bnday ath De chr shanb pa shpa Joma yawa neema baja De sa-hr pa pino bajo 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Saturday 1 oclock Sunday at Quarter passed 3 Tuesday 8:05 Wednesday night Friday at 1:30 5 oclock in the morning

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 2

GRAMMAR POINT
In the previous lesson you learned how to say When is he going? The following is the conjugation of verb To go with selected personal pronouns and examples: First listen to the following words/phrases that you will hear in the conjugation examples: 1. 2. 3. 4. har Hara wra Hara mee-ysht ta Every Everyday Every month Preposition to 5. 6. 7. Har sahr Kr masjd Every morning Work (noun) joomt Mosque

VERB TO GO I go

VERB TO GO TLL (PASHTU) -em

ENGLISH

PASHTU

I go to Kandahar every month You go to Canada every year He goes to work every day We go to work every day They go to the mosque every day

h hara mee-ysht Kandahar ta -em Th har kl Canada ta -ay

You (s) go

-ay

He goes We go They go (m)

-ee -oo -ee

Dai hara wra kr ta -ee Moozh hara wra kr ta -oo Dui hara wra Joomt ta -ee

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 31
Now listen to the following English phrases and translate them into Pashtu. First listen to the following words and their English meaning. 1 2 3 4 Kl-ai Kore Kl shr Village Home Year City

I go to Afghanistan every year

You should have said ...

Zh har kl Afghanistan ta em

They go to the village every day Every day I go home at 3:00 oclock I go to this city every month

You should have said ... You should have said ...

Dui hara wra k-lee ta -ee Zh hara wra pa dray bajo kore ta -em Zh hara mee-ysht Shr ta -em

You should have said ...

Remember that the demonstrative pronouns THIS and THAT in Pashtu are Dagha and Hagha, which also mean these and those.

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 2

GRAMMAR POINT
You have learned the conjugation of the verb To go with selected personal pronouns. Now you will learn how to use the verb To have. First listen to the following words/phrases that you will hear in the conjugation examples: Note: In most noun cases Pashtu uses preposition and postposition as pairs Example: pa . Kay = IN 1. 2. kitb Tow pack book gun 5. 6. Show-wan-ai School Qaw-mee mshr Maktab Tribal leader

3. 4.

Zoi son Pa Preposition kay Postposition IN At ...... VERB TO HAVE VERB TO HAVE LAR-EL (PASHTU)
Lar-em Lar-ay

ENGLISH

PASHTU

I have You (s) have

I have a book You have a son

Zh kitb Lar-em Th zoi lar-ay

He has We have They have (m)


Lar-ee Lar-oo Lar-ee

He has a gun We have a school

Dai Tow-pack lar-ee

Moozh maktab laroo They have a tribal leader Haghui Qaw-mee mshr laree

The structure of the sentences above is: Personal pronoun I- Zh followed by the object book kitb and verb comes at the end.

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 32
Listen to the following questions in English and Pashtu, and then answer them in Pashtu. 1. Do you have a gun? (use the word gun) th tow-pack lar-ay 2. Do you have a son? Th zoi lar-ay? 3. Who is the tribal leader? (use the name Ahmad.) uk Qaw-mee mshr dai? 4. Do you have a school at this village? (answer yes) Tso pa dagha ka-lee kay maktab lar-y? 5. Where are you going? (say I am going to Kabul city) Chay-ray -ai? You should have said ... Ho, Zh tow-pack lar-em You should have said ... You should have said ... Ho, Zh zoi lar-em Ahmad Qaw-mee mshr dai Ahmad is a tribal leader Yes, I have a son Yes, I have a gun

You should have said ... Ho, moozh pa dagha ka-lee kay maktab lar-oo You should have said Zh de Kabul shr ta -em I am going to Kabul city Yes, we have a school at this village

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 2

GRAMMAR POINT
The negative form of verb to have is made by simply adding nh before the verb. For example: I have a son, In Pashtu is: Zh yaw Zoi lar-em; I dont have a son is: Zh Zoi nh lar-em.

EXERCISE 33
Now listen to the following expressions and repeat them. You will hear the English meaning after each. Zh yaw Zoi lar-em Tso yawa loor larai Hagha moar lar-ee Zh Zoi nh lar-em Tso kore nh lar-ai Hagha kitb nh lar-ee I have a son You have a daughter He/She has a car I dont have a son You dont have a house He/She does not have a book

GRAMMAR POINTS
As mentioned previously prepositions in Pashtu consist of two parts: pre and post positions. There are some irregular forms that you will learn in later modules Listen to the following prepositions and examples and repeat: EXAMPLE IN PASHTU
In :pa kay ........ At:pa. kay ........ To:... Ta From: De Lh Lh -kha na Haghui pa Afghanistan kay dee Zh pa kore kay yem Dai hara wra maktab ta -ee Zh De Kandahar yem

ENGLISH
They are in Afghanistan I am at home He goes to school every day I am from Kandahar

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 34
Listen to the following Pashtu phrases and translate them in to English. First you will hear a few key words. 1 2 3 4
paisay st Kore lui kore Money Watch House Big house

1. Zh paisay lar-em 2. Hagha halk Moar lar-ee 3. Hagha enjalai st lar-ee 4. Dui/hughui yaw lui kore lar-ee /

You should have said. You should have said.

I have money He has a car

You should have said.

She has a watch

You should have said.

They have a big house

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Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 35
You learned the numbers from 1-100. Now you will learn numbers from 101 to 1000,000. Listen to the following numbers and repeat.
100 102 110 200 201 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 3000 4000 10,000 100,000 200,000 1000,000 Cell yaw cell aw dwa yaw cell aw las d-va sava d-va sava aw yaw dray sava alour sava pinh-sava pinh-sava U-vh sava a-th sava n-hh sava Zr dva zera dray zra alour zra las zra cell zra (yaw lak) d-va sava zra (d-va laka) yaw milyoan ( )

EXERCISE 36
Listen to the following numbers and say their English equivalent. yaw milyoan zr dray zra las zra cell yaw cell aw yaw d-va-sava yaw a-th sava d-va sava zra (d-va laka) ( ) You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Million 1000 3000 10,000 100 101 201 800 200,000

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 2

EXERCISE 37
This is a final practice before you finish module 2. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat. You will hear the English phrase first, followed by its Pashtu equivalent. First listen to and repeat the following phrases and their meaning before you proceed to the dialogue. 1. 2. 3. 4.
Manana Thank you I am going

Zh -em

Bairta-r--em I will return God willing


insh-Allah

Now lets listen to the dialogue. A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: Good morning. How are you? I am fine thanks, and you? I am fine too, thank you I am going to Canada on Monday When will you be back? Thursday, God willing See you See you Sa-hr pa khair, nga yst? zh shh yem manana, aw tso? zh hm shh yem, manana zh pa dO shanb Canada ta -em Kala bairta Ra--ay? insh-Allah panj shanb beya ba goro beya ba goro

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY Considering the same phrases please create 5 new sentences of your own.

Pashtu Module 2

In module two you learned the days of the week, time expressions and numbers. Before proceeding to Module 3, we recommend that you review the previous exercises to ensure that you have assimilated the phrases and expressions illustrated during this module

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Pashtu Module 2

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MODULE 3

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

MODULE 3 - ASKING FOR AND GIVING PERSONAL INFORMATION

In this module, we shall cover the following topics

TEACHING POINTS Review of t previously covered material Ask for and give personal information (i.e.name, age, marital status, family make-up) Ask for and give directions Military ranks Occupations

GRAMMAR Interrogatives Possessive Verb To Show Auxiliary (can) Verb To work

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Pashtu Module 3

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY REVIEW

Pashtu Module 3

In Module two you have learned the numbers, days of the week, seasons, months of the year and time. Now let us review.

EXERCISE 1
Listen to the following numbers in Pashtu and say their English equivalent. las zr dray shell S-fr dray zra sh-pa-zh pina-las pina-sava nh dayr-sh n-hh sava You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. 10 1000 3 20 0 3000 6 15 500 9 30 900

EXERCISE 2
You will hear the names of the seven days of the week in English in random order. After hearing the name of each day, say it in Pashtu. Friday Sunday Thursday Tuesday Monday Saturday Wednesday You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. joma Yak shanb panj shanb say shanb dO shanb Shanb chr shanb

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Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 3
Listen to the following time markers in Pashtu and then say their English equivalent. sa-hr gha-r-mah ms-pa-shin m-shm mz-dee-gar wra shpa neema shpa You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. Morning Noon Afternoon Evening Dawn Day Night Mid-night

EXERCISE 4
Listen to the following questions, and answer them in Pashtu. You will hear the question in English followed by Pashtu. What time is it? u baj-ay dee? Pause It is two oclock u baj-ay dee? Pause It is seven oclock in the evening u baj-ay dee? Pause It is one oclock p.m. u baj-ay dee? Pause It is six oclock in the morning u baj-ay dee? Pause It is quarter to three in the afternoon You should have said dway bajay

You should have said

De Mshm u-vh bajay

You should have said

De ms-pa-shin Yawa baja da. De sa-hr las kam shpa-zh bajay De Ms-pa-shin pw-kam dray bajay

You should have said

You should have said

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90

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 5
Say the following in Pashtu. I go to work every day They go to the mosque every day He has a gun He is a tribal leader Ahmed has 3 sons They are in Afghanistan You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Zh hara wra kr ta -em Haghui hara wra Joo-mt t -ee

Dai Tow-pack lar-ee Dai Qaw-m-ee mshr dai Ahmad dray zm-n lar-ee Haghui pa Afghanistan kay dee

EXERCISE 6
Say the meaning of the following words. moar halk Du-bai wra / wraay paisa/paisay You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Car Boy Summer Day - days Money

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

VOCABULARY Listen to the following vocabulary and repeat. You will practice it more throughout the Module. PASHTU WORD 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. mujarad mota-a-hel/wdh ka-ai/Wdh shawai zakhmee swai /apee swai { =ed} zakhm/ap mshoom ,halk lh m sara r--a saak De talshee posta khore PASHTO SCRIPT / / / / / / / / ENGLISH MEANING single married Injured/ wounded injury /wound Child, son. boy come with me road checkpoint sister mother who where what yes capital of a country telephone restaurant Bank to sick

10. More 11. uk 12. chay-ray 13. h 14. Hoo/balay 15. paitakht/plz-maina 16. telefoon 17. rasturn 18. bnk 19. ta (prep.) 20. n roogh/ mareez

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY 21. tashnb 22. Rooghtoon/shf-khna 23. show-wal 24. kooma khw/taraf 25. chapa/keen 26. lai-ray sa 27. mostaqeem 28. rsta/ shai 29. twaydal/garaydal 30. lway-di/ gharb-khw ta 31. shml khw ta 32. su-ail /janoob khw ta / / / / / / / bathroom hospital to show

Pashtu Module 3

which direction left move, move away straight right to turn to the west to the north to the south

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

ASK AND GIVE PERSONAL INFORMATION EXERCISE 7


You will now learn how to ask and answer a few simple questions. The first three questions and answers are related to personal identification. Listen carefully and then repeat twice.
stso noom h dai? De koom ai yst? Tso wdh ka-ai? Hoo. What is your name?

Where are you from? Are you married? Yes How many children do you have? One son What is the capital of your country?

u mshoomn lar-ay? yaw zoi .

stso de mamlakat de pai-takht noom h dai Kabul

Kabul

EXERCISE 8
In module two you learned numbers. In next exercise, you will now learn how to ask and answer questions regarding someones age. Example: Question Answer u kalan ay/yst {M} u kalana ay/yst {F} zh shell kalan yem {M} Zh shell kalana yem {F} / / How old are you? How old are you? I am 20 years old. I am 20 years old.

Now listen to the same question about age in a formal and informal form, and repeat. Informal u kalan ay {M} u kalana ay {F} Formal Tso u kalan yst {M} Tso u kalana yst {F}
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How old are you? (Male) How old are you? (Female) How old are you? How old are you?
2008

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

Response, formal and informal 1. zh pinhh dayrsh kalan yem.(M) 2. eh ath weesht kalana yem (F)

I am 35 years old. I am 28 years old

EXERCISE 9
Listen to the following questions and answers carefully. You will first hear a question in English, and then in Pashtu. Repeat the Pashtu question twice; once you repeat it you will hear the answer in English, followed by a Pashtu answer. A B A B How old are you? I am twenty years old. Is Ajmal 25 years old? Yes he is 25 years old Tso u kalan yst? Zh shell kalan yem y Ajmal Pinh weesht kalan dai? Hoo, Pinh wisht kalan dai

EXERCISE 10
The following table illustrates the gender while asking about age kl kalan kalana Year Age (M) Age (F)

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

The following phrases only illustrate masculine forms however you can apply the feminine form by using kalana Listen to the following and repeat. PASHTU yaw kalan Dwa kalan dray kalan alour kalan pinh kalan shpa-zh kalan u-vh kalan ath kalan nhh kalan Las kalan ya- vo-las kalan shell kalan yaw weesht kalan dayr-sh kalan al vay-sht kalan pinous kalan shpay th kalan a-vya kalan at-y kalan navee kalan cell kalan Dai zoo saai dai D zaah shea da SCRIPT ENGLISH 1 year old 2 years old 3years old 4years old 5 years old 6 years old 7 years old 8 years old 9 years old 10 years old 11 years old 20 years old 21 years old 30 years old 40 years old 50 years old 60 years old 70 years old 80 years old 90 years old 100 years old He is an old man She is an old woman

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23

EXERCISE 11
Listen to the following dialogues twice and answer in English the comprehension questions that follow each in English.

Dialogue 1
A B Tso u kalana yst (Formal) (F) zh dayrsh kalana yem You should have said? She is 30 years old

Question How old is this person?

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Pashtu Module 3

Dialogue 2
A B Tso u kalan yst (Formal) eh al vay-sht kalan yem You should have said? He is 40 years old

Question How old is this person?

Dialogue 3
A B Crystal u kalana da Crystal shell kalana da You should have said? She is 20 years old

Question How old is Crystal?

Dialogue 4
A B Parween u kalana da Parween alour kalana da You should have said? She is 4 years old

Question How old is Parween?

Dialogue 5
A B Ji-g-turan Baryalai u kalan dai? Ji-g-turan Baryalai pinh-wisht kalan dai He is 25 years old

Question How old is Senior Captain Baryalai?

You should have said

Dialogue 6
A B Tu-run Jaml u kalan dai dwa weesht kalan You should have said He is 22 years old

Question How old is Captain Jamal?

Dialogue 7
A B General Barak u kalan dai? General Barak pinh al-vaysht kalan dai He is 45 years old

Question How old is General Barak?

You should have said

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Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 12
Lets ask somebody for his/her telephone number. PASHTU 1. stso de telephone numra u da? 2. zm de telephone numra 613-7649610 da s - - ENGLISH What is your telephone number? My telebhone number is 613764-9610.

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY GRAMMAR POINT Possessive Pronoun

Pashtu Module 3

As indicated earlier, Pashtu uses the genitive noun case in order to specify possession; this case is used a lot in Pashtu language. The sign for genitive noun case is {De} which means {of}. For example: Mikes book, in Pashtu is: De Mike Kitb. Now let us practice. Listen and repeat. First you will hear the phrase in English followed by Pashtu.
Is this Ahmeds gun Yes, this is Ahmeds gun Is this Husais book? Yes, this is Husais book Is this Captain Jamals house? Yes this is Captain Jamals house D Two-pack de Ahmad dai? Hoo, D de Ahmad Two-pack dai D de Nasimay kitb dai? Hoo, D de Nasimay kitb dai D de Tu-run Jamnl Kore dai? Hoo, D de Too-run Jamnl kore dai .

EXERCISE 13
The following questions will be read to you in English and Pashtu. Listen and answer them in Pashtu. Remember the interrogative where in Pashtu is chay-ray; the word place is i, The preposition (IN) in Pashtu is used as locative noun and it has a pair structure of preposition (pa) and Postposition (kay)where the place or location is being placed between both
For example: Pa Kabul kay Pa Ottawa kay In Kabul In Ottawa

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY Also remember that the word son is zoi 1. Ahmeds place is in Kandahar You should have said..

Pashtu Module 3

De Ahmad i pa Kandahar kai dai

2. My telephone number is: 555-2057

You should have said..

Zm de telefoon number 555-2057 dai Ahmad de Jaml zoi dai

3. Ahmed is Jamals son

You should have said..

Listen to more examples with the interrogative where chay-ray and repeat. Remember the word checkpoint is De talshee posta" De Talashee Posta chay-ray da Ahmad Chay-ray dai? Rasturnt chay-ray dai? Tso de Koom i yst Where is the checkpoint? Where is Ahmad? Where is the restaurant? Where are you from?

As you know from the previous modules that the verb To be has the following structure: yst Ay or eyi Are Are Formal Informal Plural Singular

Example: Listen to the same sentence in the formal and informal form, and repeat. Tso De Koom i yst Th de Koom i ay/eyi Where are you from? Where are you from? Either for a individual in fomal form or more than 1 person Informal form for an individual

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100

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 14
Now, ask a passer-by the following questions. First listen to the following words that may help you to form the questions. 1. School Shoowanai 2. Nearest Neeg-day-tareen
You should have asked..

3. Village

Klai

Where is the nearest restaurant?

Neeg-day-tareen rasturant Chay-ray dai

Where is Kandahar? Where is the school?

You should have asked.. You should have asked..

Kandahar Chay-ray dai? Shoo-wanai chay-ray dai? Maktab chay-ray dai? Klai chay-ray dai Neeg-day-tareen saak chayray dai?

Where is the village? Where is the nearest road?

You should have asked.. You should have asked..

EXERCISE 15
Now listen to the following dialogue between two Afghans. Listen twice and then give a summary of the dialogue in English. Salm leikum nga yst? Tso nga yst? Stso noom h dai? u kalan yst? De koom ai yst? tso mujarad yst? tso motahel yst? u mshoomn larai? Wa-leikum salm Zh shh yem Manana h hm shh yem Manana m noom Ahmad dai Zh yaw weesht kalan yem Zh De Afghanistan yem zh mujarad nh yem Hoo zh motahel yem Dway n-joo-nay aw dray halkn larem

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Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 16
Listen again to the dialogue with its English translation. A B A B B A A B A B A B A B A B A B A. Salm leikum Wa-leikum salm nga yst? Zh shh yem Manana Tso nga yst? h hm shh yem Manana Stso noom h dai? m noom Ahmad dai u kalan yst? zh yaw weesht kalan yem De koom ai yst? Zh De Afghanistan yem tso mujarad yst? zh mujarad nh yem tso motahl yst? Hoo zh motahel yem u mshoomn larai? Dway n-joo-nay aw dray halkn larem Hi Hi Greeetings Returning greetings

How are you? I am fine thanks How are you? I am also fine thanks What is your name? My name is Ahmad How old are you? I am 21 years old Where are you from? I am from Afghanistan Are you single? I am not single Are you married? Yes, I am married How many children do you have? I have 2 daughters, and 3 boys (sons)

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

ASK FOR AND GIVE DIRECTIONS EXERCISE 17


Listen to the following directions and repeat. Keep in mind the four directions in Pashtu are used into 2 forms, Arabic borrowed words and pure Pashtu itself. We will focus on the most commonly used Arabic form and it is also used by Farsi/Dari speakers. Directions North South East West Arabic Form Sh--ml Ja-noob Sharq gharb Pashtu form Sh--ml Soo-wayl Khatee- l-way-dee

EXERCISE 18
Now listen to more directions and repeat. North east South west North west South east Right Go right Left Go left Sh--ml sharq Ja-noob gharb Sh--ml gharb Ja-noob Sharq rsta rsta khw ta wl sa Rsta taraf ta wl sa chapa Chapa khw ta wl sa Chapa taraf ta wl sa

Go straight

Mu-kh--makh wl sa

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Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 19
Now listen to the following questions and answer them in Pashtu.
Where is the bank? Turn right Where is the hospital? Go north You should have said bnk chay-ray dai Rsta wo-gar-a Rooghtoon chay-ray dai?

You should have said

Sh--ml taraf ta wl sa
Where is the bathroom? Turn right, and then go straight You should have said tashnb chay-ray dai?

Rsta wo-gar-a aw bey Mu-kh--makh wl sa

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY GRAMMAR POINT Verb To show SHOWDAL The following is conjugation of verb to show. Listen and repeat. Zh Sha-y ..em Zh Sha-yem I show Th Sha-yay You show Dai Sha-yee He shows D Sha-yee She shows Moozh Sh -you We show Tso Shay-ay You show Dui/Haghui Sha-y-ee They show

Pashtu Module 3

Th Dai D Moozh Tso Dui/Haghui

Sha-y Sha-y Sha-y Sha-ySha-y Sha-y

ay ee .ee .you ai ee

When you ask a question using the future form or using the ability auxiliaries such as can, you must add a stem to the verb which is wa; Furthermore Pashtu uses directional prepositions to indicate where the action should be directed to, and they are: r Dr Wur To me/ towards me To you/towards you To him/her/them/ towards him/her/them Example: In this example please note the stem of the verb (wa) and the directional preposition: Kawol-i shay rooghtoon R- Wa shay-ay A more complex example is: Kawol-i shay Hagha saak chi Hawa-ee agar ta -ee R wa shay-ay
Self-learning Course

Action twords 1st person Action twords 2nd person Action twords 3rd person

Can you show me the hospital?

Can you show me the road which is going to the Airport?


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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY Road in Pashtu is saak GRAMMAR POINT Showing the ability and auxiliary verbs

Pashtu Module 3

Compound verbs are made of auxiliaries plus noun or adjectives. Pashtu has a unique structure of showing the ability such as Can you/could you. In order to make the ability simply add {ai} at the end of auxiliary kawol which means to do and add {sh} plus the verbal noun. The structure of the phrase I can has the following word order: It begins with the auxiliary kawol which meansto do: suffixed by ai to indicate ability, then followed by the verbal ending she-em, the phrase in Pashtu reads:
Kawola-i sh-em Listen and repeat the following conjugations I can You can s/he or it can Kawol-i sh-em Kawol-i shay Kawol-i sh-ee

EXERCISE 20
In this section, you will learn a few phrases on both how to ask for and give directions. Listen to the following sentences and repeat them twice. English meaning will follow. Remember the word saak means / road or street. Pashtu D saak Kandahar ta -ee? Kawol-i shay hagha saak chi Rooghtoon ta -ee R wa-shay-ay? D koom saak dai? De dagha saak noom h dai? English Does this road go to Kandahar? Can you show me the road to the hospital? What street is this? What is the name of this street?

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY Kabul koom khw ta dai? De wazir Akbar khn rooghtoon chay-ray dai?

Pashtu Module 3

Which direction is Kabul? Where is (Wazir akbar khan) the hospital?

Now we will practice the same exercise in different directions. Instead of the words Kandahar, hospital, street and Kabul, we will use checkpoint, village, town and Hrt. Listen and repeat. Pauses A B Dagha saak Kandahar ta -ee? Hoo, dagha saak Kandahr ta -ee Does this road go to Kanahdar Yes, this road goes to Kandahar

Lutfan means please: Lutfan Hagha saak chay rooghtoon ta -ee R ta R wa sha-ya Dagha sh-ml-ee saak Rooghtoon ta hm -ee A B A B A B A B D koom saak dai? D de khair khnay saak dai De dagha saak noom h dai? D de Kandahr saak dai. Kabul kooma khw ta dai? Kabul Janoob khw ta dai De Wazir Akbar khn Rooghtoon Chay-ray dai? De wazir Akbar Please show me the road which is going to the hospital? This Northern road goes to the hospital

Which road is this? This is Khair khanas Road

What is the name of this road?


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This is Kandahars road Which direction is Kabul? Kabul is the south Where is (wazir akbar khan) hospital? (wazir akbar khan) hospital is in the
2008

Self-learning Course

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY khan Rooghtoon de Kabul pa sharq kay dai east of Kabul

Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 21
Please replay the audio of the above exercise and try to evaluate how many phrases you can recognize back. Once you hear it, ask your self questions and reply with YES or NO. For example: Is this the street that goes to the airport? Is this the road to the hospital? Do I turn right? Here are the answers:
Is this the street goes to the airport? (Positive) D saak haw-ee Maidan ta -ee? Is this the road to the hospital? (Negative) d saak rooghtoon ta nh -ee Do I turn right? (Positive) rsta wo-gar--em

Hoo, D saak haw-ee Maidan ta ee You should have said B Yes, this street goes to the airport . You should have said Na,/ ya: d saak rooghtoon ta nh -ee B No: this road does not go to the hospital : / You should have said B Hoo, rsta wo-gar-a Yes, turn right

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 22
Now we will practice more with phrases linked to directions. Listen to them and repeat them twice.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

y chapa khw wl sam? mostaqeem wl sa rsta khw wl sa rsta wo Gara gharb khw ta sharq khw ta Shamnl khw ta janoub khw ta

Shall I go left? Keep going straight go right turn right to the west to the east to the north to the south

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109

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY MILITARY RANKS

Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 23
You will now learn the Afghan military ranks. Listen to them twice, and then repeat them after the native speaker. In the previous modules you learned few ranks. Captain which is too-run , Sergeant which is Brid-gai , and General which is s-tr General in Pashtu. Listen to the following ranks and repeat askar/sartairai Pak masher Loi Bresh kru Dray-yam Bridman Dwa-yam Bridman Loomai Bridman Jagan agar-man agar-wl Brid General agar General Marshal / Private Corporal Staff Sergeant (Arial force) Sergeant 1st class (Arial force) 3rd lieutenant 2nd lieutenant 1st lieutenant Major Lieutenant colonel Colonel Brigadier general Lieutenant general General of the Army

Please note that in Pashtu, when addressing someone in the military, the rank is placed before the first name. For example: Dwahm-bridman Akram Dreyma baridmana Jamela Junior2nd lieutenant Akr am Akram is the first name of a man 3rd Lieutenant Jamila Jamila is the first name of a woman.

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 24
Now, we will practice using ranks in sentences. Listen to each statement and repeat it twice. Pashtu Dai tu-run Aek dai Zh askar yem Ji-g- tu-run Karim

English Aek is the junior captain I am a soldier. Senior Captain Karim.

EXERCISE 25
We will now practice using ranks in affirmative and negative statements Example AFFIRMATIVE General Rahim pa General Rahim is in Kabul kay dai Kabul NEGATIVE General Rahim pa General Rahim is Kabul kay nh dai NOT in Kabul

EXERCISE 26
Listen to the following phrases and repeat them. A B A B A B A B A B Ji-g-tu-run Karim dlta dai Na, Dlta nh dai Too-run Khaled R-ghai. Kala? Nn sahr General Khaled kore ta tlalai dai Kala r--ee? Sab ta r--ee MARSHAL Mike sta? Na , nh-sta Is Senior Captain Karim here? No, he is not here Captain Khaled came When? This morning General Khaled has gone home When will he come (back)? He comes (back) tomorrow Is Marshal Mike there? No , he is not

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY FLUENCY DRILL

Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 27
Listen and repeat twice after the native speaker. After you have repeated twice, you will be asked a question in English. Respond with yes or no in a complete sentence. General Khaled Is Khalid a major? Ji-g-too-run Karim Is Karim a Captain? Drayema Bridmana Jamila Is Jamila a lieutenant? You should have answered.. You should have answered.. Na, khled General dai No, Khaled is General Na, Karim Ji-g-too-run dai No, Karim is senior Captain You should have answered.. Hoo, Jamila Bridmana da Yes, Jamila is lieutenant

Note that in Pashtu, in order to show respect during interactions or when addressing someone, the word (shib) {Sir} is used after a persons rank and before his/her first name. For example: Ji-g-tu-run shib Hmed Tu-run shib Jaml

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 28
The following dialogue will help you learn how to greet high-ranking military persons. Listen to each dialogue line, and repeat each phrase after the native speaker. PASHTU Salm Ji-g-tu-run shib Fahim. wa-leikum salm ji-g tu-run shib. nga yst? zh shh yem Manana De khudai pa amnn. De khudai pa amnn ENGLISH Hello Captain Fahim. Hello (reply) How are you? I am fine thank you. Good bye. Good bye.

A B A B A B

EXERCISE 29
Let us check now how many ranks you have learned. You will hear a rank in Pashtu. Say the meaning in English. For example: you hear Too-run, you say Captain. Let us begin. 1. Brid General You should have said Brigadier General 2. agar-man You should have said Lieutenant Colonel 3. Brid-gai You should have said Sergeant 4. agar-wl You should have said Colonel 5. Tu-tun You should have said Captain 6. Ji-g-tu-run You should have said Senior Captain 7. agar General You should have said Lieutenant General 8. jagan You should have said Major 9. Lomai Bridman You should have said 1st lieutenant 10. Drayem Bridman You should have said 3rd lieutenant
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Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 30
Now we will repeat this exercise, but in a different order. You will hear a rank in English.After you hear it, say it in Pashtu. For example, you hear Captain, you sayToo-run. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1st lieutenant Sergeant Major Captain Corporal Brigadier general Lieutenant general Colonel Private Junior/2nd lieutenant You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Lomai Bridman Brid-gai jagan Too-run p-ak-mshr Brid General agar General agar-wl Askar/sartairai / Dwa-yam Bridman

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

EXERCISE 31
You have learned few occupations in previous modules such as teacher, doctor, nurse, officer etc. Now listen to more occupational nouns and repeat: 1. Farmer Baz-gar Dh-Qn Zhoor-n-lst Khabar-yl De Mo-a-s-say kr-ka-woon-kai

2.

Journalist

3.

4. 5.

Aid worker Note: Since NGOs are helping people, ordinary people accept this commonly adopted term where The word {Mo-as-sa} means organization. Laborour Daily wage worker Guard Keeper

Maz-door-kr Ghar-eeb-kr Moh-fz S-toon-kai

EXERCISE 32
Listen to work related location/sites for some occupations and repeat them. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Farm Construction site Both nouns are very common Refugee Camp Radio Station TV Station Pa-ai t-mee-r-tee Saha De Moh-j-roo Camp De Radio Station t-meer Niz-mee Qit-a

De b-da-wa-loo-Seema

6.

Buidling Both nouns are very common Military Base Both nouns are very common

De Tele-vi-z-you-n Station Wa-d-nay Paw--ee a--a

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 3

In module three you learned how to ask for and give personal information, ask for and give directions, Military ranks and occupations. Before proceeding to Module 4, we recommend that you review the previous exercises to ensure that you have assimilated the phrases and expressions illustrated during this module.

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MODULE 4

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

MODULE 4 - MILITARY COMMANDS


In this module, we shall cover the following teaching points TEACHING POINTS Review of the previously covered materials Some basic military commands Asking for identification documents and searching at a checkpoint Understand and use vocabulary related to basic geography and topography Provide the simplest and most basic physical descriptions of places

GRAMMAR Imperative Prepositions (on, in, inside/among, for and from) Adjectives (small, big, dry, long, etc)

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

REVIEW

EXERCISE 1
Listen to the following Pashtu words or phrases and say their English equivalent.
PASHTU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ENGLISH

Shml khw ta Ay chapa khw wola sam? Janoob khw ta Shpa pa khair Sharq khw ta Gharb khw ta

You should have said: You should have said: left? You should have said: You should have said: You should have said: You should have said:

To the north Shall I go to the To the south Good night. To the east To the west

EXERCISE 2
Listen to the following Pashtu sentences and guess their meaning in English. PASHTU shml khw ta wl sa! ! 2. Tso de koom ai yst? 3. Dai agarwl Jamil dai. 4. Zh de Afghanistan yem 5. Canada yaw lui haywd dai 6. Dui sartairee dee 7. De Jomay pa war rookh-sa-tee da 8. D saak Kandahar ta -ee? 9. Zh Afghan yem. Tso Hindee yst? . 10. Jagan Khalid De koom i dai?
1.

ENGLISH You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Go to the north! Where are you from? This is Colonel Jamil I am from Afghanistan. Canada is a large country. These are soldiers. Friday is a holiday. Does this road go to Kandahar? I am Afghan you are Indian? Where is Major Khalid rom?

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 3
Identify the following ranks in English. 1. BRID GENRAL 2. agar-man 3. Brid-gai 4. agar-wl 5. Tu-run 6. dwa-ham brid-man You should have said . You should have said . You should have said . You should have said . You should have said . You should have said . You should have said . You should have said . You should have said . You should have said . Brigadier General Lieutenant Colonel Sergeant Colonel Captain 2nd lieutenant Lieutenant general Major 1st lieutenant 3rd lieutenant

7. agar General 8. jagan 9. Lomai Bridman 10. Drayem Bridman

EXERCISE 4
Listen to the following directions and say their English equivalent. y chapa khw wl sam? mostaqeem wl sa rsta khw wl sa rsta khw wo Gara gharb khw ta sharq khw ta Shaml khw ta janoub khw ta You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Shall I go left? Keep going straight go right turn right to the west to the east to the north to the south

Self-learning Course

121

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 5
Listen to the following sentences and say their meaning in English. PASHTU D saak Kandahar ta -ee?

ENGLISH Does this road go to Kandahar?

Kawol-i shay hagha saak chi Rooghtoon ta ee R wo-shay-ay? Can you show me the road to the hospital? D koom saak dai? What street is this? De dagha saak noom h dai? What is the name of this street? Kabul koom khw ta dai?

Which direction is Kabul?

De wazir Akbar khn rooghtoon chay-ray dai? Where is Wazir Akbar khan hospital?

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

VOCABULARY Listen to the following vocabulary and repeat. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. amr y air/ khwr Takhalus/kora-n-ai noom Khwash (M) Khwasha (F) daftar tazkra tahqiqt Wo-daray-zha Jang Jag-a psport asnd Th kawo-l-i say ool bax Nee-zh-day Lee-ray De Telephone numra Dray-ver De dray-varee-licence R-ta r-wo-sha-ya adress Salh/wasla du-shman Band Koomakee-mawd Wo-daray-zha/Daray-zh walay wo-lus-wlee mash-hoor shr ai ghar mashat Seend/daryb Tal-shee / / ( ) ( ) / / order or very last name/ family name happy office birth certificate Investigation stop! war passport ID, document you can trunk close/ near far telephone number driver drivers licence show me address weapon enemy closed/blocked relief materials hold on/ halt why district District headqueater famous city place places mountain Area (In terms of how big the area is) river Search/ check

ai (youna)

()

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

MILITARY COMMANDS EXERCISE 6


Listen to the following military commands, and repeat. Military commands are said either in positive Imperative or prohibitive form (negative imperative) There is a simple formula for either form. The table below illustrates these simple formulas: Positive imperative: Positive imperatives can be produced by adding a stem (wo) before the verb and adding sound (a) at the end of the verb. It should be noted that we only focus on the imperative person for second direct person. Of course there are some exceptions and you will see it in the next exercise. Example: 1 Regular Positive form Daray-zh-em Meaning I am I am standing stopping Imperative form Wo-Daray-zh-a Meaning Stand Stop

Prohibitive can be produced by adding a stem of the verb (mh) before the verb and adding sound (a) at the end of the verb. Again it should be noted that we only focus the imperative person for second direct person. Example: Regular Negative form Nh Daray-zh-em Meaning I am not standing I am not stopping Imperative form mh-Daray-zh-a Meaning Dont Stand Dont Stop

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

First you will hear few key words, listen and practice. Listen to the following military commands, and repeat. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Stop Drop Resist Ground Weapon Surrender Shoot/Fire Come Put Wo-Daray-zh-a k-shay-zh-d-a Mu-q-wo-mat maka wasla Tasleem sa akn r-s k-shay-zh-d-a sar l s

mk-a Sal-h a-zay Ur

10. Head 11. Hand Hands

lsoona

Note that an imperative sentence in Pashtu has the following specification: Singular imperative ends with the sound (a) while plural imperatives end with (ai)

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY Now listen to the phrases and repeat. PASHTU
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Wasla day par mk-a k-shay-zh-da Mu-q-wo-mat mh kawah Ham-dlta osa ool bax day khls ka! ! asnd de r wa- sha-ya Wan-day -a Moar wo dara-wa Ur Dlta r-sai Tasleem sai Lsoona de par sar k-shay-zh-d-a

Pashtu Module 4

ENGLISH
Drop your weapons to the ground! Dont resist! Stay there! Open the trunk! Show me your ID! Move forward! Stop the car! Fire the gun! Come here! (Plural) Surrender! (plural) Put your hands on your head!

EXERCISE 7
Listen to the followings dialogues and repeat. In these dialogues, more commands are used. Dialogue A. Sahib Mansab: askar: ib MSahansab: askar: Dltas-r a air shh ! wasladay r wkhl a ! air shh ! Come here! ok Take your weapon (ok)

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY Dialogue B. Show-wonkai: Shagird: Show-wonkai: Shagird: Show-wonkai: Shagird: nga ay ? Shh yem, manana Kitb day r w-khla shah da moalim shb Halta wla sa! Sha da molm shb. How are you? I am fine, thank you. Take the book! Ok. Mr./dear teacher Go there! Ok, Mr. /dear teacher.

Pashtu Module 4

Self-learning Course

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY GRAMMAR POINT Imperatives- Affirmative form:

Pashtu Module 4

As indicated above in Pashtu language the imperative is formed by adding the stem wo at the beginning of the present tense forms of the verb. While singular form is constructed by adding (a), the plural is made be adding (ay) at the ending of verb. Listen to the following examples in the singular form: Harakat wo-k-a Dlta ra-sa R wo-sha-y-a

Move Come here Show me

Now listen to the same examples in the plural form: Harakat wo-k-ayie Dlta ra-sayie R wo-sha-ya-ayie GRAMMAR POINT Imperatives Negative form There are two ways to form negation in Pashtu. Imperative negative is formed by adding mh before the main verb. Remember, singular imperative ends with sound a and plural ai. Listen to the following examples and repeat: 1. 2. 3. 4. Mh shay-ya Mh shay-ya-yie Ur mh kaw-a Ur mh kaw-ya-yie

(you all) Move (you all) Come here (you all) Show

dont show (singular) dont show (plural) dont fire (singular) dont fire (plural)

Here is another way of saying dont fire 1 2 akn mh kaw-a akn mh kaw-ayie

dont fire (singular) dont fire (plural)

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 8
Listen to the following commands and say their equivalent in English.

PASHTU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Wo-Daray-zh-a ! R-sa ! Dlta r-s-ayie Harakat mh kaw-ayie R-s-ayie Karr karr -ah Tasleem sa Lsona day par Mor k-shay-zh-da You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said..

ENGLISH Stop (singular/ informal)! Come (singular/ informal)! come here (Plural/ formal)! Dont move (Plural/ formal)! Come (Plural/ formal)! Go slowly (singular/ informal)! Surrender (singular/ informal)! Put your hands on the car (singular/ informal)!

Select few verbs and practice more commands and orders.

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

GRAMMAR POINT
Vocative Noun Form To call someone out loud by name, the vocative noun form is used. At the beginning of each name we add the word wa and a at the end for a masculine name. For example to call Ahmed, we say: wa Ahmada, which means Hey Ahmad For feminine names we add wo at the beginning and ay at the end. For example to call out to Zarghoonah, a feminine name, we say: wo Zarghoonay which means hey Zarghoonah Note that there are always exceptional rules to these forms.

EXERCISE 9
Listen to the following names and call the name of each aloud using the vocative form. 1. Ahmed 2. Hmid 3. Palwasha 4. Zarghoonah 5. Hashem 6. Nasir You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said wa Ahmada Wa Hmida Wo Palwashay wo Zarghoonay Wa Hashema Wa Nasira

EXERCISE 10
Now listen to the following commands and/or orders and pay attention to the ending when plurals are used. You will hear the command and orders in English first. Listen and repeat. Practice Vocative form: ENGLISH 1. 2. Ahmad, come here! Zahir and Jalil, come here! PASHTU Vocative Wa Ahmada, dlta rasa ! Wa Zahira aw Jalila, dlta ras-ayie ! !

Self-learning Course

130

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

Practice Military Commands

COMMAND 1. 2. 3. Show me your weapon! (You singular) Show me your weapons! You all/plural) Dont shoot/ Dont fire (You singular)

PASHTU COMMAND Waslay day r wo shay-ya Waslay mu r wo shay-ya-yie akn mh kaw-a

EXERCISE 11
Listen to the following commands and say their equivalent in English. Remember: 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 6. stop come Go move surrender Slowly (Adverb) Wo-Daray-zh-a R-sa -a w-la--s Harakat wo-k-a Tasleem sa Karar karar Wro wro

Self-learning Course

131

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

PASHTU 1. Wo-Daray-zh-a ! 2. r-sa ! 3. dlta r-s-ayie 4. Harakat mh kaw-ayie 5. R-s-ayie 6. Karr karr -ah 7. tasleem sa 8. Lsona day par Mor k-shay-zhda 9. akn mh kawa, Tasleem sa ! 10. Mh daray-ga, Harakat wo-k-a You should have said... You should have said... You should have said... You should have said... You should have said... You should have said... You should have said... You should have said...

ENGLISH Stop (singular/ informal)! Come (singular/ informal)! come here (Plural/ formal)! Dont move (Plural/ formal)! Come (Plural/ formal)! Go slowly (singular/ informal)! Surrender (singular/ informal)! Put your hands on the car (singular/ informal)! Dont shoot, surrender yourself! Dont stand, move

You should have said. You should have said.

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EXERCISE 12
Listen to the following dialogue between two brothers, and then orally translate it into English. The dialogue will be read to you again with its English translation. sartairai: Naseem: Salm leikum, nga ay? Wa-leikum salm. Shh yem. Wasla lar-ay? hoo akn mh kawa air shh

sartairai: Naseem: sartairai: Naseem:

Now listen to the dialogue again with English Translation. sartairai: Salm leikum, nga ay? Naseem: Wa-leikum salm. Shh yem. sartairai: Wasla lar-ay? Naseem: hoo sartairai: akn mh kawa Naseem: air shh You should have said... You should have said... You should have said... You should have said... You should have said... You should have said... Hello, how are you Hello, I am fine Do you have a weapon Yes Dont fire OK

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 13
Listen to the following dialogue to practice the imperative more. Key words : 1.Military Base (paw-ee aa), (qarr gh) / 5.Poohan-toon (university)

2.Road (saak) 6.Wla sa (go)

3.Intersection (alour l-ray)

4.Turn (r-tw-sa) 7.shr (city)

Najiba:

Sahr pa khair

Good morning Good morning Where is the military base? It is on this road. Go straight ahead OK Turn right at the intersection Ok Many thanks

Palwasha: Sahr pa khair Najiba : Paw-ee aa (qarr gh) chay-ray da? / Palwasha: Par ham-dagha saak Bnday, makh-makh wla sa Najiba : shah Palwasha: Pa alour lra {chr-r-hee) kay rsta khw ta tw sa )( Najiba : shah Palwasha: aira manana

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 14
Now listen to the following dialogue and orally translate into English. First you will hear key words: Now listen 1. Far: Lee-ray 2. Which: Koom 3. Go: -ee 4. How much: 5. To: ta (M)and Kooma (F) umra - - A Salm leikum B Wa-leikum salm A koom saak Kandahar ta -ee? B dagha saak Kandahar ta -ee A Kandahar umra lee-ray dai? B 130 kilometera A aira manana B manana Now listen to the dialogue with its English translation, A. Salm leikum B. Wa-leikum salm A. koom saak Kandahar ta -ee? B. dagha saak Kandahar ta -ee A. Kandahar umra lee-ray dai? B. 130 kilometera A. aira manana B. manana

Hello Hello Which road goes to Kandahar This road goes to Kandahar How far is Kandahar? 130 Km Many thanks thanks

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 15 Listen to the following dialogues and repeat. English translation will follow after each sentence.
Dialogue 1: A. B. A. B. Paw-ee aa (qarr gh) chay-ray da? )( Paw-ee aa (qarr gh) de Hrtal pla ta neezhday da )( Lee-ray da ka nee-zh-day? 3 kilometra lay-ray da Where is the military base? The military base is near the Hartle bridge Is it close or far? It is 3 km away

Dialogue 2: A. B A. B. De Turabaz Khan alour lra {chr-r-hee) chay-ray da ? )( De hagh-ay wadanay (tmir) tr shh )( Kooma wadanay ? Koom tmir? De haghay wadanay chapa De hagha tmir chapa khw ta khw ta Tashakur. manana Where is the Turabaz Khan intersection? Behind that building Which building? To the left of that building

A.

thanks

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Pashtu Module 4

AT THE CHECKPOINT EXERCISE 16


Listen to the following sentences and repeat. PASHTU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. asnd day r wo-sha-ya tso Passport lar-ai ? Stso de telephone numra u da? Tso de dray-varay license lar-ai? Stso Adress chay-ray dai,? ENGLISH Show me your I.D.! Do you have a passport? What is your telephone Number? Do you have a driver's License? What is your address?

EXERCISE 17
Listen to the following sentences and repeat. First listen to key words: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Enemy Bridge Closed Bomb Mine Dush-man Pool Band bam Mine

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Pashtu Module 4

PASHTU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Zh Dush-man nh yem Halta mh -a, Pool Band dai Hagha saak Band dai Halta Bam dai Dlta Mine dai

ENGLISH I am not the enemy. Dont go there. The bridge is closed. That road is closed. There is a bomb there. Here is a mine.

EXERCISE 18
Say the following in Pashtu ENGLISH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Stop Show me your ID The road is closed What is your address? I am not the enemy You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said PASHTU Wo-Daray-zh-a ! asnd day r wo sha-ya! Saak Band dai Address day h dai ? Zh Dush-man nh yem

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 19
Listen to the following words and say their equivalent in English. PASHTU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. bamb Dush-man asnd Paw-ee aa (Niz-mee- Qarr-g) / Band You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. ENGLISH Bomb Enemy ID Military base Blocked/closed

EXERCISE 20
Listen to the following conversation at the check point, and then translate into English. Later on, you will hear the dialogue with its English translation. Soldier: Wo daray-zh-a! Th de dray-varee license laray? ! Driver: Soldier: Driver: Soldier: Driver: Soldier: Driver: Hoo R wo ay shay-ya! Th Afghan ay? ! Hoo zh Afghan yem Passport lar-ay? Hoo Wasla lar-ay? Ya, waslah nah waslah nh lar-em nh lar-em

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY Now listen to the dialogue with its English translation. Soldier: Wo daray-zh-a! Th de dray-varee license laray? ! Hoo R wo ay shay-ya! Th Afghan ay? ! Hoo zh Afghan yem Passport lar-ay? Hoo Wasla lar-ay? Ya, waslah nah waslah nh lar-em nh lar-em

Pashtu Module 4

Stop! Do you have a drivers license Yes Show it to me. Are you Afghan? Yes, I am Afghan Do you have a passport? Yes Do you have a weapon? No I dont have a weapon

Driver: Soldier: Driver: Soldier: Driver: Soldier: Driver:

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 21
Now listen to the following English dialogue and translate into Pashtu A: Stop B: Please do not shoot You should have said: You should have said: Wo-da-ray-zha Lutfan azay mh kawa Th wasla lar-ay? Lutfan akn mh kawa

A: Do you have a weapon/gun?

You should have said:

B: No I dont have. Dont fire! You should have said:

A: Where are you from? B: From Kandahar A: What is your name? B: Abdul Hotak. A: How old are you?

You should have said: You should have said: You should have said: You should have said: You should have said:

Th Two-pack larai? Na, nh ay lar-em azay mh kawa Yah, nh ay lar-em akn mh kawa De koom ai ay? De Kandahar

St noom h dai? Abdul Hotak

B: 16 years old

A: Come here. Move slowly and show me your ID. B: Here it is.

u kalan ay? (M) u kalana ay? (F) You should have said: Shp-as kalan (M) Shp-as kalana (F) You should have said: Delt r sa! Karr karr Harakat woka! asnd day r wo-sha-ya ! ! You should have said: D dai

Self-learning Course

141

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Pashtu Module 4

GRAMMAR POINT
Prepositions and Postpositions You learned earlier that Pashtu uses preposition and postposition in pairs. There are few exceptional cases where only prepositions can be used. In any given sentence, these Prepositions and postpositions have the following structure Subject + Preposition+Noun/ or verb+ Postposition+ complement+verb For example PASHTU Preposition Postposition Par Bnday
Pa pa man kay Lh-pra Lh De Lh ph ekha Is: from Is: for kay Is: Inside/ among

ENGLISH
Is: on

EXAMPLE
De talshee post-ah par saak Bnday da. (The checkpoint is on the road) askar pa sinf (oolg-ee) kay dai. (The soldier is in the classroom) )( Zmoozh Post-ah de bzr pa man kay da. Our checkpoint is inside the market Dagha wasla stso lapra da. This weapon is for you Dai lh Kandahar ekha -ee He goes from Kandahar Dai de Kandahar dai He is from Kandahar Zh lh Ahmad sara Kandahar ta -em I am going to Kandahar with Ahmad Ahmad Ph ls o-ay khoor-ee Ahmad eats with his hands

Is: in

sara

Is: with

Is: by

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 22
Let us practice more on prepositions and postpositions. Listen and repeat. ENGLISH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The military officer is among the soldiers. This is for you. Put the weapon on the ground. I am from Kandahar. One soldier is at the checkpoint. PASHTU Shb Mansab de askarnoo pa man kay dai D stso lh-pra da wasla day par mk-a Bnday k-shay-zh-d-a Zh de Kandahar yem yaw sartairai de tal-shee pa posta kay dai .

EXERCISE 23
Say the following sentences in Pashtu

ENGLISH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

PASHTU

There are two checkpoints on the road. Par sak Bnday de tal-shee dway post-ay dee. . These weapons are for the soldiers. D waslay de askarnoo lapra dee . I am not from Kandahar. Zh de Kandahr nh yem Put the weapons inside the car. Waslay pa mor kay k-shay-zhda I am among my classmates. Zh de khpaloo tool-g-ee-wloo (Hm-senf-yno) pa min kay yem. )(

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 24
Listen to the following dialogue and orally translate it into English. Remember 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ID Document Here Job Door Open Documents sanad Da-lay wazifa darwza khls asnd Dlta Danda war

Police Officer: Civilian: Police Officer: Civilian: Police Officer: Civilian: Police Officer: Civilian: Police Officer: Civilian: Police Officer Civilian:

asnd day r wo-sha-ya D- dee De koom ai ay? De Kandahar Danda de h da? zh molim yem Zh show-woon-kay yem u kalan ay? Yaw dayr-sh kalan Wasla lar-ay? Ya, wasla na lar-em Dlta h kaway? Joomt ta -em

Show me your ID Here Where are you from? from Kandahar What is your job? I am a teacher How old are you? I am 31 years old Do you have a weapon? No, I dont have a weapon. What do you here? I am going to the mosque

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 25
Listen to the following dialogue and repeat. Soldier: Driver: Wo-da-ray-zha! Noom de h dai? ! Noom may Haroon dai Zm noom Haroon dai Pa Moar kay day h dee? Komakee mawd R wo ay sha-ya! Darwaza khlsa ka! Asnd lar-ay? R wo ay sha-ya ! ! Shah Zh st moar talshee kawom. Wasla laray? . Ya, tow-pak nh lar-em Stop! What is your name? My name is Haroon.

Soldier: Driver: Soldier:

What is in your car? Aide Materials Show it to me! open the door! do you have an ID? Show it to me! OK I am going to search your car do you have a weapon? No, I dont have a gun

Driver: Soldier:

Driver:

EXERCISE 26
Listen to the following dialogue and orally summarize it in English. Soldier: David: Soldier: David: Soldier: Wo-da-ray-zha ! Tso waslah lar-ai? ! Zh waslah nah lar-em Halta mh -a Walay? Saak Band dai

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY Now listen to the dialogue with its English translation. Soldier: Wo-da-ray-zha ! Tso wasla lar-ai? ! David: Zh waslah nh lar-em Soldier: Halta mh -a David: Walay? Soldier: Saak Band dai

Pashtu Module 4

Stop! Do you have weapon? I dont have weapon Dont go there Why? The road is closed

EXERCISE 27
Listen and repeat.

PASHTU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 6. 7. Wasla lar-ay? Sabr! Wo-da-ray-zha! Chay-ray -ay? Walay nh? Wasla day k-shay-zh-da! ! Saak Band dai

ENGLISH Do you have a weapon? Wait! Halt! Stop! Where are you going? Why not? Drop your weapon! The road is closed

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 28
Say the following in Pashtu

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ENGLISH What is in your car? What is your name? I am searching your car. OK. Do you have a weapon?

You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said..

PASHTU Pa moar kay day h dee? St noom h dai? h day Moar talshee kawom shah Wasla lar-ay?

EXERCISE 29
Listen to the following dialogue and summarize it in English Soldier: Wo-daray-zha! St noom h dai? ! Driver: zm noom Haroon dai Soldier: Pa moar kay day h dee? Driver: Komakee mawd Soldier: R wo ay shay-ya! ! Driver: sha Soldier: Zh st moar talshee kawom. Wasla lar-ay? . Driver: Ya, toopak nh lar-em .

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY Now, listen again to the dialogue with its English translation:

Pashtu Module 4

PASHTU Soldier: Wo-daray-zha! St noom h dai? ! Driver: zm noom Haroon dai Soldier: Pa moar kay day h dee? Driver: Komakee mawd Soldier: R wo ay shay-ya! ! Driver: sha Soldier: Zh st moar talshee kawom. Wasla lar-ay? . Driver: Ya, Wasla nh lar-em .

ENGLISH Stop! What is your name? My name is Haroon What is in your car? Aide materials Show me OK I am going to search your car, Do you have a weapon? No, I do not have a weapon

EXERCISE 30
Listen to the following Pashtu words and say their equivalent in English. PASHTU 1. Pool 2. Dush-man 3. Dlta r-sa 4. Zh lar-em 5. Kooshen-yn 6. Masjid 7. Ha-lk 8. tmir 9. Tow-pack Mshoo-mn Joomt Wad-nay ENGLISH You should have said ... You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. Bridge Enemy Come here! I have Children Mosque Boy Building Rifle

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 31
Listen to the following Pashtu words and expressions and guess their English meaning. PASHTU 1. 2. 3. Halta Hm ENGLISH You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. There Also Injured There is Prisoner Prisoners Dont go! Dont pass! Be careful!

Zakhmee ap-ee 4. Halta da/dai/dee sta // 5. Band-ee 6. 7. 8. 9. Band-ee-yn Mh -a Mh tay-ray-zha Ihtiat kawa Pm kawa

EXERCISE 32
Choose five words from Exercise 31 and use each in a complete sentence. Examples: 1. 2. 3. 4. They are prisoners He is injured There is a land mine here Be careful Haghui Band-ee-yn dee Dai ap-ee dai Halta Mine dai Ihtiat kawa Pm kawa

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 33
Lets see how many phrases you retained. Listen to the following Pashtu sentences and say their English equivalent. PASHTU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Tso de Koom ai yst? passport lar-ai ? Zh askar nh yem. Zh show-woonkay yem . Halta mh -a! ! Kore ta day wla s-a Tazkra lar-ay? asnd day r-wo-sha-ya! ! Lh moar ekha r-shaywah sa Zm noom Ashraf dai. Zh de Kandahar yem . Chay-ray -ay? akn mh kawa, zh Dush-man nh yem You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. ENGLISH Where are you from? Do you have a passport? I am not a soldier. I am a teacher Dont go there! Go to your house! Do you have an ID card Show me your ID! Get out of the car!.

9.

You should have said ..

My name is Ashraf. I am from Kandahar Province

10. 11.

You should have said .. You should have said ..

Where are you going? Dont shoot. I am not an enemy.

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

PROVINCES OF AFGHANISTAN
Afghanistan is divided into 34 provinces. The word province is called wolyat {an Arabic word} in Pashtu and Dari, and the plural form is wolyt. Kabul is the capital city of Afghanistan where the majority of the population speaks both Dari and Pashtu. The main government offices and embassies are all located in this city. Kabul University, which is the biggest educational center in Afghanistan, is also located there. Below is a list of all the other provinces of Afghanistan and their capitals. Listen to the names of the provinces and repeat. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. Badakhshan Badghis Baghlan Balkh Bamian Daikondi Farah Faryab Ghazni Ghowr Helmand Herat Jowzjan Kabul Kandahar Kapisa Khost Konar Kunduz Laghman Lowgar Nangarhar Nimruz Nuristan Panjshir Paktia Paktika Parwan Samangan Sar-i Pol Takhar Uruzgan Wardak Zabol (Faizabad) ( ) (Qaleh-ye Now) ( ) (Pol-e Khomri) ( ) (Mazar-e-Shariff) ( ) (Bamian) ( ) (Daikondi) ( ) (Farah) ( ) (Meymaneh) ( ) (Ghazni) ( ) (Chaghcharan) ( ) (Lashkargah) ( ) (Herat) ( ) (Sheberghan) ( ) (Kabul) ( ) (Kandahar) ( ) (Mahmud-e-Raqi) ( ) (Khost) ( ) (Asadabad) ( ) (KanAbad) ( ) (Mehtar Lam) ( ) (Pol-e Alam) ( ) (Jalalabad) ( ) (Zaranj) ( ) (Nuristan) ( ) (Bazarak) ( ) (Gardez) ( ) (Sharana) ( ) (Charikar) ( ) (Aybak) ( ) (Sar-i Pol) ( ) (Taloqan) ( ) (Tarin Kowt) ( ) (Meydan Shar) ( ) (Qalat) ( )

Self-learning Course

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 34
Listen to the names of Kandahar Districts and repeat. WO-LUS-WALEE (DISTRICT) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Ar-ghan-db Ar-gha-sn K-rayz Ray-g D-man Ma-roof Mai-wand Mee-y-ne-sheen Ghoorak Kandahar (city) Nay-sh Panj-w-ee Zhay-a-ai Shh-walee-koo Shoo-r-bak Speen-bool-duck ENGLISH Arghandab Argisan Kariz Reeg Daman Maroof Maiwand Mianisheen Ghorak Kandahar city Nish Panjwai Zerray Sha Walikot Shorabak Spin Boldak

EXERCISE 35
Now answer the following two questions. 1. 2. How many districts does Kandahar have? Give names of five districts of Kandahar The answer is: 16 DISTRICTS The five districts are: Zay-ra-ai, Mai-and and Ma-roof

EXERCISE 36
Listen to the following dialogues between an Afghan and a Canadian soldier. These dialogues will help you learn how to ask specifically where someone is from (i.e. country, province). Repeat each line of the dialogues.

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY Dialogue 1: Afghan : Canadian : Afghan : Canadian : Afghan : Canadian : Afghan : Canadian : salm leikum Wa-leikum salm. Stso noom h dai? Zm noom Mark Dai. Stso noom h dai? . Zm noom Kabir dai Tso de koom ai yst? Zh de Afghanistan yem. Tso de koom ai yst? . Zh de Canada yem.Tso de Afghanistan de Kom wolyat yst? . Zh de Kandahar yem Hello Hello What is your name?

Pashtu Module 4

My name is mark. what is your name? My name is kabir Where are you from? I am from Afghanistan. Where are you from? I am from canada. which province of Afghanistan are you from? I am from kandahar

Afghan :

Dialogue 2: Canadian: Afghan: Canadian: Afghan: Canadian: Zm noom Mark Stso noom h dai? dai Zm noom Akram dai Tso chay-ray -ai? Zh Kkandahar ta -em Tso chay-ray -ai Zh Kabul ta -em My name is mark. what is your name? My name is akram Where are you going? I am going to Kandahar Where are you going? I am going to Kabul

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 37
Listen to the following and repeat. ENGLISH 1. My name is Robert. PASHTU

Zm noom Robert dai 2. I come from Ottawa. Zh lh Ottawa ekha r-gha-lai yem 3. Ottawa is the capital of Canada. Ottawa De Canada markaz/plz-maina da / 4. I am from Herat Province. Herat is in the Zh de Herat de wol-yat yem. De west part of Afghanistan. Hert wol-yat de Afghanistan pa Gharb kay dai . 5. Ghazni and Faryab are two provinces of Ghazni aw Faryb de Afghanistan Afghanistan. dwa wol-ya-toona dee 6. There are three soldiers on the base. They are Pa paw-ee aa kay dray sar-tair-ee all from Zabul Province. dee. Hughui tool de Zabul de wolyat dee . . 7. Wardak and Logar Provinces are near Kabul. De Wardak aw Logar wolyatoona Kabul ta neezday dee 8. My name is Jamil and I am from Helmand Zm noom Jamil dai aw de Helmand Province. de wol-yat yem 9. Afghanistan has 34 provinces. Afghansitan 34 wol-ya-toona lar-ee 10. Where are you from? Are you from Jawzjan Tso de koom ai yst? Tso de or Kunduz? Jawzjan yst ka de Kunduz

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 38
Listen to the following dialogue between a NATO officer and an Afghan villager, and then translate into English. The dialogue will be read again with the English translation. NATO Soldier: Villager: NATO Soldier: Villager: NATO Soldier: Villager: NATO Soldier: Villager: NATO Soldier: Sa-hr pa khair Sa-hr pa khair Kandahar u wo-lus-wlay lar-ee? Pinhh las? ya, Kandahar shpa-as wo-lus-walay lar-ee . De dray-you wo-lus-wala-you noomoona h dee? . Maroof, Shoo-r-bak aw Ar-gha-sn. ayra manana, de khudai pa amnn de khudai pa amnn

Now listen to the dialogue with its English translation Soldier Villager: Soldier Villager Soldier Villager Soldier Villager: Soldier: Sa-hr pa khair Sa-hr pa khair Kandahar u wo-lus-wlay lar-ee? Pinhh las? ya, Kandahar shpa-as wo-lus-walay lar-ee . De dray-you wo-lus-wala-you noomoona h dee? . Maroof, Shoo-r-bak aw Ar-gha-sn. ayra manana, de khudai pa amnn de khudai pa amnn
155

Good morning Good morning How many districts does kandahar have? Fifteen? Kandahar has sixteen districts. What are the names of the three districts? Maroof, Shorabak and Arghisan Thanks a lot. Good bye. Good bye.

Self-learning Course

2008

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 39
Kandahar has many famous places. Listen to the names of few and repeat. 1. 2. 3. 4. Name of famous places Che-hel-zeena Kher-qa mubraka De Ahmad Sha Baba Maqbara Meer-wais Nee- keh Maqbara Description Located in the city of Kandahar A gown of the Prophet Mohmmad kept in Kandahar The shrine of the emperor of great Ahmad Sha Bb father of the nation The shrine of the grand father of the nation great Meer-wais in they valley of Kookaran at the district of Arghandab The shrine of Baba wa-lee, a great public park. In this place the last stand of Afghan forces against British and Indian army took place in 1880 A public park A public park University of Kandahar The shrine of a great scholar, writer, historian and poet of Afghanistan Professor Reshad Baba

5. De Bb-e walee zeey-rat

6. -la 7. bagh-e pul 8. De Kandahar Poohantoon 9. De Reshd Bb Maqbara

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 40
Listen to the following Pashtu questions and answer them in English. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Che-hel-zeena chay-ray da? Che-hel-zeena de Kandahar shr gharb khwa ta da Kher-qah-mubaraka chay-ray da? Kher-qah-mubaraka de shahidanoo chawk ta neeZhday da Reshd Bb uk dai? Reshd Bb de Afghanistan and Asia str lem de -la h da ? -la yaw lui park di De Bb-e walee zeeya-rat chay-ray dai? De Bb-e walee zeeya-rat de Kandahar shr De Shml pa las Kilometrai kay dai aw laui Park dai Where is Che-hel zeena? Che-hel zeena is situated to west of Kandahar city Where is Kher-qah-mubaraka? Kher-qah-mubaraka is close to de shahidanoo chawk Who is Reshad Bb? Reshd Bb is a great Scholar of Afghanistan and Asia What is -la? -la is a big public Park Where is the shrine of Bb-e walee De Bb-e walee zeeya-rat is 10 Km to the North of Kandahar and a great public park

10.

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Pashtu Module 4

GRAMMAR POINT
Adjectives Similar to English, adjectives in Pashtu are used before the noun they describe; however the usage of adjectives is complex. All adjectives must agree with gender and number of nouns. Note that in question sentences the adjective comes after the noun.

EXERCISE 41
Listen to the following adjectives and repeat. PASHTU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. S/M koshnay Khoshl Sh-eesta shkolai lwa Jig lan mash-hoor bad S/F koshnai khoshla Sh-eesta shkolay lwaa jiga lana Mash-hoora bada P/M Kosh-neinyn khwash Sh-eesta shkolee lwa Jig lan Mash-hoor badn ENGLISH MEANING P/F Kosh-neinynay khwashay Sh-eestay shkolay Lwa-ai jigay lanay Mash-hooray baday Small Happy Nice Pretty Tall / High

short Famous Bad

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 42
Listen to the following questions and translate them into English. 1. 2. 3. 4. De Afghanistan Koom Ghar lwa dai? Koom Wolyat sh-eesta dai? w-uk khash dai koom kore koshnay dai? You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. Which mountain of Afghanistan is the highest Which province is nice? Who is happy? Which house is small?

EXERCISE 43
Listen to the following words and repeat. These are the names of famous mountains and rivers in Afghanistan. 1. 2. 3. 4. De Slang ghar De Bb ghar De Hindukush ghroona De Pmir ghar Salanag Mountain Baba Mountain Hindukush Mountains Pamir Mountain

Now listen to the names of rivers in Afghanistan:

5. 6. 7. 8.

De Kuna seend De Panjshir seend De Arghandb seend De Kabul seend

Kunar River Panjshir River Arghandab River Kabul River

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Pashtu Module 4

EXERCISE 44
Using the names in the previous exercises, answer the following questions 1. De Afghanistan de dovo mash-hooroo ghroonoo noomoona h dee? De Afghanistan de dovo mash-hooroo seendoonoo noomoona h dee? What are the names of 2 famous mountains in Afghanistan? What are the names of two famous rivers of Afghanistan?

ANSWER: de Salang aw Pamir ghroona) 2.

ANSWER: De Kuna seend aw de Kabul seend)

EXERCISE 45
Listen to the following dialogue and repeat. In a geography class:
Teacher: Student: Teacher: Student: Teacher: Nn Kooma wra da? sh-Nn doanb da Th de koom ai ay? Zh de paghmn yem De Afghanistan mash hoor gho-roon-nakoom dee? Student: Teacher: Hindukush aw Pamir. De Afghanistan mash-hoor seendoona koom dee? Student: De Arghandab aw Kabul seendoona What day is today? Today is monday Where are you from? I am from Paghman What are the famous mountains of Afghanistan? Hindokush and Pamir What are the rivers of Afghanistan? Arghandab and Kabul Rivers.

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY QUIZ PART A Say the following English sentences in Pashtu 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Show me your ID! Where are you from? What is your occupation? I am a military officer. I am not a soldier. How old are you? I am 25 years old. Do you have a weapon? No, I dont have a weapon. Where is Kandahar University? Where is the military base? ENGLISH You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said .. You should have said ..

Pashtu Module 4

PASHTU asnd day r-wo-sha-ya! Th de koom ai ay ? St danda/wazifa h da? / Zh yaw afsar yem. zh askar nh yem . u kalan ay? Zh pinh wisht kalan yem Wasla lar-ay? Ya, zh wasla nh lar-em De Kandahar Pohantoon chay-ray dai? Paw-ee aa/ Nezmi Qarar-gh chay-ray da? /

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Pashtu Module 4

PART B Listen to the following dialogue and summarize it in English. NATO soldier: A villager: NATO soldier: A villager: NATO soldier: A villager: NATO soldier: Sa-hr pa khair Sa-hr pa khair Afghanistan u wolyatoona lar-ee? 34 De Afghanistan de dovo mash-hooroo seendoonoo noomoona h dee? De Amu aw Abaseen seendoona Manana

Now listen to the same dialogue with its English translation. NATO soldier: Sa-hr pa khair A villager: Sa-hr pa khair NATO soldier: Afghanistan u wolyatoona lar-ee? A villager: 34 alour -dayrsh NATO soldier: De Afghanistan de dwa-vo mash-hooroo seendoonoo noomoona h dee? De Amu aw Abaseen seendoona A villager: NATO soldier: Manana Good morning Good morning How many provinces does Afghanistan have? Thirty four What are the names of two famous rivers in Afghanistan? Amu and Abaseen rivers Thanks

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Pashtu Module 4

PART C Listen to the following dialogue and orally translate it into English. Soldier: Qumandn Shib, zh tow-pack nh lar-em Walay? Sir! Commander! I do not have a rifle Why? You should have said my rifle is at the base Who has a rifle? Ahmad has a rifle

You should have said

Commander: Soldier: Commander: Soldier:

Zm tow-pack pa paw-ee aa kay dai You should have said uk tow-pack lar-ee? You should have said Ahmad tow-pack lar-ee You should have said

Now listen to the dialogue with its English translation. Soldier: Commander: Soldier: Commander: Soldier: Qumandn Shib, zh tow-pack nh lar-em Walay? Zm tow-pack pa paw-ee aa kay dai uk tow-pack lar-ee? Ahmad tow-pack lar-ee commander (sir), I dont have a rifle Why? my rifle is at the base Who has a rifle? Ahmad has a rifle

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 4

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MODULE 5

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

MODULE 5 - MILITARY OPERATIONS


In this module, we shall cover the following points TEACHING POINTS 1. Understand and use vocabulary related to military weapons and equipment 2. Understand commands related to searches and raids missions GRAMMAR 3. Past tense 4. Verb To Explode

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY REVIEW

Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 1
Listen to the following commands in Pashtu and orally translate them into English. PASHTU 1. Wasla de par mka k-shay-zh-da 2. Muqw-mat mh kawa 3. Ham-dalta osa 4. ool bax de khls ka! 5. asnd de r wa- sha-ya 6. Wan-day -a 7. moar wo dara-wa 8. akn mh kaw-a 9. Dlta r-sai (plu) Delta r-sa (Sing) 10. Tasleem sai (plu) Tasleem sa 11. Lsoona de par sar k-shay-zhda ENGLISH You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Drop your weapons to the ground! Dont resist! Stay there! Open the trunk! Show me your ID! Move forward! Stop the car! Dont shoot Come here! Surrender! Put your hands on your head!

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Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 2
Identify the meaning of the following words PASHTU 1. Pool 2. Dush-man 3. Dlta r-sa 4. Zh lar-em 5. Kooshn-yn 6. Masjid Mshoo-mn Joomt ENGLISH You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Bridge Enemy Come here! I have Children Mosque

EXERCISE 3
Say the following in Pashtu ENGLISH
1. 2. Show me your passport! Get out of the car! You should have said You should have said

PASHTU
Pssport de r-wo-sha-ya! ! Lh moar kha r-shay-wah sa Lh mora r-kooz sa tazkra lar-ay? De koom ai ay ? Halta mh -a! !

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Do you have an ID card? Where are you from? Dont go there! I am not a soldier. I am a teacher. My name is Ashraf. I am from Kandahar Province. Where are you from? Dont shoot. I am not an enemy.

You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said

zh askar nh yem. Zh show-woonkai yem . zm noom Ashraf dai. Zh de Kandahar yem . tso de koom ai yst?

8. 9.

akn mh kaw-a . zh dush-man nh yem . Kore ta day wl s-a !

10. Go to your house!

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY VOCABULARY Listen to the following vocabulary and repeat. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. PASHTU z-gh-rawl Too-ghandai ENGLISH tank cannon rifle machine gun pistol armored vehicle Kalashnikov rocket bomb mine

Pashtu Module 5

tnk tow-p Tow-pack mshindr Tu-pan-chah zrh-poosh 7. kalashinkove 8. rocket 9. bam 10. Mine

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

EQUIPMENT EXERCISE 4
Listen to the following Pashtu words and repeat. NAME OF EQUIPMENT
1. infjria mawd 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Chw-day-doonkee Mawd Explosive Helicopter Jetfighter Roadside bomb Radar Military Radio (wireless) Bullet Heavy round gun Rocket launcher Map Weapon ammunition Weapon storage infrastructure

MEANING

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Helicoptar Choor-la-ka Jet De sak de gh-ay bam Rdr Mookh-bra Mar-may Dah-sha-ka Rocket andz Two-ghandai weesh-toon-kai Naqshah wasla Mohmt Wasla-toon n wa-zhoon-kai-breed-kawoonkai In-three- Hamla-kawoon-kai Fed-ee Talibans Term Sacrificial In-fjr Chw-dana Inthr-ee Hdsa Inthr-ee Pay-sha Hlat amnyat zhwandai mulk-ee khalk wulus mulk-ee khalk Os zakhmee apee

Suicidal attacker

Explosion Suicidal occurrence Situation Security Alive Civilian People Civilians/ civilian people Now Injured wounded

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 5
Listen to the following sentences and repeat. First listen to few key words and repeat. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. nk Mine infjria Mawd Inthr-ee hdsa n wa-zhoon-kai-breedkawoonkai Tank Mine Explosive Suicide attack Suicide bomber

PASHTU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. d nk dai? Hoo, d nk dai d wasla Canada-ee da? Ya, d wasla americ-ee da . Dlta mine sta? Hoo, Dlta Mine sta. Halta mh -a . Tso infjria mawd lar-ai? ya, zh infjria mawd nh lar-em Halta yaw inthr-ee breed sa-wai wo Pa shr kay n wa-zhoon-kai-breed-kawoonkai zhwandai dai?

ENGLISH Is this a tank? Yes, it is a tank Is this a Canadian weapon? No, it is an American weapon Is there a landmine here? Yes, there is a mine. Dont go there. Do you have explosives? No, I do not have explosives There was a suicidal attack In the city Is the suicide bomber alive?

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Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 6
Listen to the following dialogue and repeat. Corporal Rahman: Nn pa shr kay amnyat nga dai? Nnamnyat shh dai Paroon amnyat nga wo? paroon Aminyat shh nh wo walay yaw inthar-ee breed wo so. n wa-zhoon-kai-breed-kawoonkai zhwandai wo . . Chay-ray? pashr kay How is the security in the city today?

Lt. Jamali: Corporal Rahman : Lt. Jamali: Corporal Rahman: Lt. Jamali:

The security is good today. How was the security yesterday? It was not good yesterday! Why? A suicide attack occurred. The suicide attacker was alive

Corporal Rahman: Lt. Jamali:

Where was it? In the city.

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Pashtu Module 5

GRAMMAR POINT
The past tense of verb To Be
In Pashtu the simple past tense of the verb To be is formed by adding the letter (w) before the verb To be present form.. As presented in module 1, listen to the present form of the verb to be once again.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Subject Pronoun Zh t h Dai D Moozh Tso Dui

Meaning I You (S) He She/ We You (P) They 3rd person plural {insight)

To be Verb yem ay dai da you Yst/Ystai Dee

Meaning Am Are (singular) Is (masculine) Is (feminine) Are (1st Plural) Are (2nd Plural) Are (3rd Plural)

Now listen to the conjugation of Verb To Be in the past form Please listen to the pronounciation carefully
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Subject Pronoun zh th Dai D moozh tso Dui Meaning I 1st person You 2nd person (singular) He 3rd person She/ this 3rd person We 1st person Plural You 2nd person Plural They 3rd person plural {insight) To be Verb W-am (wom) W-ay wo W-a W-oo wst w-oo (wool) ( ) Meaning was were (singular) was (masculine) was (feminine) were (1st Plural) were (2nd Plural) were (3rd Plural)

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 7
Now listen to the following sentences and repeat. This practice will help you use the past tense of Verb To Be correctly in Pashtu PASHTU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Singular Plural Th chay-ray way? Tso chay-ray wst? General Ahmad Pa Kabul kay wo Zh pa pinh neemoo bajoo pa Qarr-gh (pawee aa) kay wom. ) ( zh Paroon pa alour-oo bajoo pa kore kay wom tso paroon chay-ray wst? hagha sartai-rai paroon pa rooghtoon kay wo moozh Pa-row-sa-zh-kl pa Canada kay woo Hughui paroon pa koor kay woo They were at home yesterday. ENGLISH Where were you? General Ahmad was in Kabul. I was in the base at five thirty. Yesterday at 4 oclock I was at my house. Where were you yesterday? That soldier was at the hospital yesterday. Last year we were in Canada.

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Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 8
Say the following in Pashtu ENGLISH
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I am a soldier. Ahmad was a soldier last year. Tooryalai is a Major. My father was a military officer. They were military officers. You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said

PASHTU
Zh askar yem Ahmad Pa-row-sa-zh-kl askar wo Toorylai jig-an dai Zm Plr paw-ee afsar wo

Hughui paw-ee afsarn (Sahib mansabn) woo (wool) ( )( ) You should have said

6.

My cousin is a pilot.

zm de ak (kk\ trh) zio Pilot dai

7.

His friends were in Kandahar last year.

( / ) You should have said

De haghh ml-ga-rai Pa-rowsa- zh-kl pa Kandahar kay wo

8. 9.

She is at the base. We were at the base last evening.

You should have said You should have said You should have said

hagha pa aa kay da Moozh paroon mshm pa aa kay woo Hughui Canada-ee askarn dee

10. They are all Canadian troops.

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Pashtu Module 5

GRAMMAR POINT
Verb to Explode comes into two forms Chw-dl (Infinitive) The other form is compound borrowed from Arabic (Infjr) and the auxiliary (kawol) to do The following is conjugation of both forms as they are both in used. First listen to the first form and repeat: Verb To Explode" Chaw-dl (Infinitive) Present Past Chwee Explodes Wo-chw-day-d

Exploded

Now listen to the second form of Verb To Explode and repeat. Infijr kawol (infinitive) Present Infjr kaw-ee Explodes Past Infjr-woka-

Exploded

EXERCISE 9
Lets practice. Listen and repeat the following. Remember the meaning of the following words. 1. 2. 3. dlta hara wra shr Here Everyday City

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

PASHTU 1. dlta bam Chwee dtla bam Infjr kaw-ee dlta yaw bam Wo-chw-day-did dlta yaw bam Infjr-woka- hara wra pa shr kay yaw bam Chwee Hara wra pa shr kay yaw bam Infjr kaw-ee paroon pa shr kay yaw bam Wo-chw-day-did Paroon pa shr kay yaw bam Infjr-woka-

ENGLISH A bomb explodes here

2.

A bomb exploded here.

3.

Every day a bomb explodes in the city.

4.

Yesterday a bomb exploded in the city.

EXERCISE 10
Listen to the following sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verb To Explode in past or present. hara wra pa shr kay yaw bam. ...... paroon pa shr kay yaw bam b. .... You should have said Present Chwee or Infjr kaw-ee / Past

a.

You should have said

wo-chw-dayd Infjr-woka- /

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Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 11
The following dialogue is about a bomb incident. Listen to the dialogue and repeat. Here are few key words. Listen and repeat 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. chay-ray mulk-ee zakhmee shf-khna sar-tai-rai mulk-ee khalk sar-tai-ree where Civilian apee Roo-gh-toon askar mulk-ee kasn askarn Injured Hospital Soldier Civilians Soldiers Wounded

Commander Soldier Commander Soldier Commander Soldier Commander Soldier

Bam chay-ray Wo-chw-day-d Pa shr kay Pa shr kay uk woo? mulkee khalk zakh-mee-yn os chay-ray dee? Pa Roogh-toon kay askarn chay-ray dee? pa Shr kay

Where did the bomb explode In the city Who was in the city Civilians Where are the injured At the hospital Where are the soldiers? In the city

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Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 12
Listen to phrases from the previous dialogue in an unorganized order. Give the English meaning of each. 1. zakh-mee-yn os chay-ray dee? 2. pa Roogh-toon kay 3. askarn chay-ray dee? 4. pa Shr kay You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. You should have said.. Where are the injured? At the hospital Where are the soldiers? In the city

EXERCISE 13
Listen to the following Pashtu sentences and say their meaning in English. First listen to the English meaning of selected words. infjria mawd Mine 2. n wa-zhoon-kai-breed3. kawoonkai 1. Explosives Mine Suicide bomber

PASHTU
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Delta mine sta? Hoo, halta mine dai. Halta mh -a . Tso infjria mawd lar-ai? ya, zh infjria mawd nh lar-em bam chay-ray Wo-chw-day-d n wa-zhoon-kai-breed-kawoonkai zhwandai dai?

ENGLISH
You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Is there a mine here? Yes, there is a mine. Dont go there. Do you have explosives? No , I do not have explosives Where did the bomb explode? Is the suicide bomber alive?

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 14
Listen to the following words and say their meaning in English. PASHTU 1. tow-pack 2. Infjr-woka- 3. woo 4. amnyat 5. marmai 6. wasla 7. mohmt 8. tu-pan-cha tu mn-cha 9. nk Wo-chw-day-d wool Gul-ai ENGLISH You should have said You should have said You should have said... You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said.. . Rifle/ Gun exploded were security bullet weapon ammunition pistol tank

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

SEARCHES AND RAIDS


PRACTICE Listen to the following words and phrases and repeat. PASHTU
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. talshee band-ee post-a sawl jawb tahqiqt Wo-daray-zha Harakat mh kawa! Lsoona day poorta ka ! k-shay-na Wo-da-ray-zha Wa-l-sa Kha-ba-ray mh kawa!

ENGLISH
Searching Prisoner Check point Question answer Interrogation Stop! Dont move! Raise your hands! Sit down! Stand up! Dont talk!

EXERCISE 15
Listen to the following questioning in a search mission and translate into English. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. st noom h dai? de koom i ay? chay-ray -ay? bam lar-ay? h shee- lar-ay? You should have asked What is your name? You should have asked Where are you from? You should have asked Where are you going? You should have asked Do you have a bomb? You should have asked What do you have?

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 16
Listen to the following questions and answers. Translate the answers into Pashtu. 1. What is your name? My name is Abdul. 2. Where are you from? I am from Herat 3. Where are you going? I am going to the farm 4. Do you have a bomb? No, I dont have a bomb! 5. What do you have? Nothing You should have answered. You should have answered. You should have answered.. You should have answered.. You should have answered.. You should have answered.. You should have answered.. You should have answered.. You should have answered.. You should have answered.. Sta noom h dai? Zm noom Abdul dai de koom i ay? zh de Hrt yem chay-ray -ay pa-ee ta -em bam lar-ay? ya, bam nh lar-em h lar-ay? hay- shai

EXERCISE 17
Listen to the following dialogue and repeat Soldier: Driver: Soldier: Driver: Soldier: Driver: d de talshee posta- da h talshee kaw-ay? de waslooTalsh-ee zh wasla nh lar-em char-ray -ay? zh de Kandahar shr ta -em This is a searching post What are you searching? Searching for weapons I dont have weapons Where are you going? I am going to the city of Kandahar

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 18
Listen to the following sentences and translate into English.
Wo-daray-zha! ! Walay? D de talsh-ee posta- da. zh day moa talshee kaw-em. . pa mor kay day h dee? wasla lar-ay? bam lar-ay? You should have said You should have said You should have said What is in your car? Do you have a weapon? Do you have a bomb? You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Stop! Why? This is a checkpoint. I am searching your car

EXERCISE 19
Listen to the following Pashtu phrases and say their meaning in English. PASHTU 1. 2. 3. 4. Hoo, asnd lar-em. Licence lar-em . Stso pa kore kay u nafara zhwand kaw-ee? zh dush-man nh yem ya moozh wasla nh lar-oo. You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said ENGLISH Yes, I have ID. I have a license How many people are in your house? I am not the enemy. No, we dont have weapons.

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 20
The following is a dialogue between a soldier and a villager. Listen and summarize into English. You will hear the dialogue again with its English translation. First listen to some key words 1. Talsh-ee kawol 3. tow-pack 5. yaw sh-mayr khalk 7.khore Khway-nday Soldier: to search rifle A Number of people sister sisters 2. Dush-man 4. Tu-pan-chah 6. Wroo-r wrooa enemy pistol Brother brothers

Moozh dush-man nh you. Moozh askarhn you. Moozh stso kore talshee kaw-oo . . air shh Stso pa kore kay u nafara dee? Las nafara. zm more aw plr, zm wrooa aw yawa khore . pa kore kay tow-pack aw tu-pancha lar-ay? ya, moozh wasla nh lar-oo air shh tashakur. Manana

Villager: Soldier: Villager: Soldier: Villager: Soldier: Villager:

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY Here is the dialogues again with its English translation. Soldier: moozh dush-man nh you. moozh askarhn you. moozh stso kore talsh-ee kaw-oo . . air shh Stso pa kore kay u nafara dee? Las nafara. zm more aw plr, zm wrooa aw yawa khore . pa koor kay tow-pack aw tupancha lar-ay? ya, moozh wasla nh lar-oo air shh tashakur. manana

Pashtu Module 5

We are not the enemy. We are soldiers. We are going to search your house.

Villager: Soldier: Villager:

OK. How many people are there in your house? 10 people. My parents, my brothers and a sister Do you have a rifle and a pistol at home? No, we dont have weapons Very good Thank you

Soldier: Villager: Soldier: Villager:

EXERCISE 21
Listen to the following Pashtu words and expressions and say their meaning in English. PASHTU 1. talsh-ee 2. band-ee 3. post-a 4. thqiqt 5. Wo-daray-zha! 6. Harakat kawol 7. Khabaray kawol 8. k-shay-na ! ENGLISH You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Searching Prisoner Check point interrogation Stop! To Move (infinitive) To talk Sit down!

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

EXERCISE 22
Listen to the following Pashtu sentences and say their meaning in English. PASHTU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. th bam lar-ay? pa mor kay day h dee? d yaw pool dai zh yawa poo-sh-tana lar-em. eh asnd nh lar-em wo-daray-zha! ! kha-baray mh kawa! harakat wo ka! ! ENGLISH You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said ... You should have said... You should have said... Do you have a bomb? What is in your car? This is a bridge. I have a question. I dont have ID cards. Stop! Dont talk. Move!

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Pashtu Module 5

Self-learning Course

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

QUIZ

PART A
Listen to the following dialogue and orally summarize it in English. Soldier: Driver: Soldier: Driver: Soldier: Driver: D De talshee post-a da. Wo-daray-zha! ! . air shh asnd lar-ay? Hoo shib, asnd lar-em chay-ray -ai de Maiwand wo-lus-wl-ai ta

Now listen to the dialogue with its English translation Soldier: Driver: Soldier: Driver: Soldier: Driver: d de talsh-ee post-a da. Wo-daray-zha! ! . air shh asnd lar-ay? Hoo shib, asnd lar-em chay-ray -ai? De Maiwand wo-lus-walai ta This is a check-point. Stop! Ok Very good Do you have an ID card? Yes sir, I have documents Wher are you going? To Maiwand district

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CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Module 5

PART B
Listen to the following Pashtu sentences and say their meaning in English PASHTU pa sak kay min sta? ya, dlta mine nh sta. zh infjria mawd nh lar-em D de talsh-ee post-a da bam chay-ray woo? n wa-zhoon-kai-breedkawoonkai uk woo? You should have said ENGLISH You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said You should have said Is there a mine on the road? No, there is no mine I do not have explosives this is a checkpoint Where was the bomb? Who was the suicide bomber?

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Pashtu Module 5

PART C
Say the following in Pashtu

ENGLISH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Where was a bomb? Is there a mine here? We are not enemy, we are soldiers. This is a checkpoint. Stop! Sit down! Put your hands on your heads! (plural/ group) Do you have weapons? Dont move! Dont talk! Do you have an ID card? You should have said You should have said You should have said

PASHTU Bam chay-ray woo? dlta mine sta? moozh dush-man nh you. moozh askarhn you D de talsh-ee post-a da. wodaray-zha! k-shay-nai! Lsoona mu par saroonoo k-shay-zhdai!

. You should have said ! . You should have said ...

!! You should have said ... tso waslay larai (plural/group) You should have said harakat mh kawa! Khabaray mh kawa! ! ! You should have said ... asnd lar-ay?

9.

Do you have a license?

You should have said You should have said

10. He was a good soldier.

License lar-ay? Hagha yaw shh sar-tairai woo

You have learned how to say and understand simple phrases and vocabulary related to military weapons as well as commands related to searches and raids missions. You may go back and practice more before you proceed to take the end of course test.

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Pashtu Module 5

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TEST

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Test

TEST
You have completed 5 Modules of the self-learning Pashtu course. The course touched upon several survival areas or topical domains. In taking the following test, you will be able to assess how much of the covered material you have retained. After you reply to each item, check the provided answer key and correct your answers. If you are able to answer 60 percent or more questions correctly, it means that you have assimilated a number of memorized words phrases. Before you take the test, you may wish to review some or all modules. You may record your answers and /or write your answers in transliterated form. 1. Respond to the following greeting. (4 points) Salm leikum. ________________________________________________________

2. Say or write the following directions in Pashtu. (1 point each = Total 4) a. North _________ b. South _________ c. East _________ d. West _________

3. Say/or write the Pashtu equivalent of the following numbers. (1 point each = Total 5) a. 10 _________ e. 100_________ b. 18 _________ c. 90 _________ d. 6 _________

4. Say/or write the Pashtu equivalent of the following words. (1 point each= Total 4) a. Monday b. Saturday c. Tuesday d. Thursday ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

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Pashtu Test

5. Ask the following questions in Pashtu. (4 points each = Total 28) a b c d e f g Who is this? _______________________________________________________ What is your name? ________________________________________________ Where is he/she from? _______________________________________________ Where is the hospital? _______________________________________________ What day is today (Tuesday)? _________________________________________ What day is tomorrow (Friday)? _______________________________________ How far is Kandahar? _______________________________________________

6. Say/or write the following English phrases in Pashtu. (5 points each = Total 55) a b c d e f g h i j k They are Canadian __________________________________________________ He is a corporal ____________________________________________________ Stop! _____________________________________________________________ He is my brother ___________________________________________________ I need help ________________________________________________________ No Entry __________________________________________________________ It is 3:00 p.m. _____________________________________________________ Show me your ID ___________________________________________________ Do you have (carry) a weapon? ________________________________________ Drop your weapons _________________________________________________ Surrender _________________________________________________________

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Pashtu Test

7. Listen to the following dialogue and decide whether the following statements are True or False. Soldier Driver Soldier Driver Soldier Driver Soldier wo-daray-zha! St noom h dai? ! zm noom Trq dai pa mor kay h dee? koomak-ee mawd r wo ay shh-ya! darwza klsa ka!asnd lar-ay? asnd r wo shh-ya! ! ! ! shah zh st moar talsh-ee kaw-em

The soldier asked the driver if he had a weapon. The driver showed his ID to the soldier. The soldier did not search the car.

(T/F) (T/F) (T/F)

TEST RESULTS In the box below, please enter the test mark. _________ 100

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Pashtu Test

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ANSWER KEY

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Answer Key

Answer Key (Test)


Wa-leikum salm a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. North South East West 10 18 90 6 100 Shml (Janoob) sharq gharb las ath-las Navee Shpa-zh cell

Do shanb Shanb Say shanb Panj shanb Dai uk dai ? (M) St noom h dai ? Hagha de koom ai da (F) D uk da ? (F) Hagha de koom ai dai (M)

a. Who is this? b. What is your name? c. Where is he/she from? d. Where is the hospital? e. What day is today (Tuesday)? f. What day is tomorrow (Friday) g. How far is Kandahar?

Shfkhana chay-ray da ? Roogh-toon chay-ray dai Nn kooma wra da? (Say-Shanb) sb kooma wra da? (Jum-hah) ( ) Kandahr oomra lee-ray dai?

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Pashtu Answer Key

6. a. They are Canadian b. He is a corporal c. Stop! d. He is my brother e. No Entry f. It is 3:00 p.m. g. Show me your ID h. Do you have (carry) a weapon? i. Drop your weapons j. Surrender Haghui Canada-yn dee dai Pak mashr dai wo-daray-zha! dai zm wroor dai nna-watl man-ha dee asnd day r wo shh-ya! ! wasla lar-ay? wasla day k-shay-zh-da! tasleem sa! ! !

de ms-pe-sheen dray bajay dee.

7. 1. F 2. T 3. F

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EVALUTATION OF THE SELF-LEARNING PASHTU COURSE

CANADIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY

Pashtu Evaluation

EVALUATION OF THE SELF-LEARNING PASHTU COURSE


The Self-learning Pashtu course was developed with the aim of helping its users attain level 0+ proficiency (Interagency Language Roundtable Language Skill Level Descriptors) in the listening and speaking skill. The speaker who attains language proficiency at 0+ is able to satisfy immediate needs using rehearsed or memorized phrases and utterances. To help us improve and finalize our Self-learning Pashtu course, as well as to evaluate whether the aforementioned course aim has been attained, would you please fill out the below evaluation questionnaire. We thank you for taking to the time to evaluate this course.
I Please indicate whether you agree or disagree with the following statement Strongly disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Strongly agree

1.

This course is an effective way of learning a number of words and phrases. I have gained some knowledge about the Pashtu language and the Pashtu culture The instructions given were easy to understand and follow. The feedback given on my performance was appropriate and useful. Going through the material at my own pace helped me assimilate it more efficiently I would feel confident using greetings, and exchanging courtesy expressions with a native speaker I feel I would be able to order food and drinks in an Afghan restaurant

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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Pashtu Evaluation

Please indicate whether you agree or disagree with the following statement

Strongly disagree

Somewhat disagree

Neither agree nor disagree

Somewhat agree

Strongly agree

8.

I would feel confident asking for simple directions in Pashtu I would be able to ask a native speaker a few simple questions regarding his biographical information. I believe I have retained more than 50 percent of material presented Knowing a number of phrases and words in Dari is very useful as a display of good will toward native speakers Cultural notes included in the course were useful and instructive. Time spent evaluating this course and learning some Pashtu was worthwhile. Self-learning course in other languages should be created

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

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Pashtu Evaluation

II Please answer the following questions: Which parts of the course did you find easy? ________________________________________________________________________ Which parts of the course did you find difficult/frustrating? ________________________________________________________________________ How many hours did you spend on the course? ________________________________________________________________________ What phrases or words stick to your mind (which phrases you feel you have retained)? ________________________________________________________________________ What other topics you think should be included in this course? ________________________________________________________________________ Do you describe yourself as visual or auditory learner? ________________________________________________________________________

III

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS AND SUGGESTIONS

Please use the space below for any other comments or suggestions you may have that will help us improve this course.

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Pashtu Evaluation

Inquiries and feedback concerning the material to be addressed to: Canadian Defence Academy National Standards Directorate of Training and Education Gatineau, Qubec Canada J8Y 6L2 e-mail: Nahid.Alawad@forces.gc.ca Jana.Vasilj-Begovic@forces.ca

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Pashtu Indexing

Indexing
Pashtu for Beginners Self-Learning Course Modules 1-5
Track Page Activity Track Page Activity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

1 Introductory Course Self-Learning 3 General Introduction 5 Transliteration System Module 1 Greetings and Courtesy Expressions Greetings and Courtesy Expressions 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15/16 16 17 18 18 19 19 20 21 22 24 24 25 25/26 28 30 32 33 35 36/37 41 Pashtu Alphabet Practice: unfamiliar sounds Ex. 1. Listen and repeat following sounds Ex. 2. Listen and repeat letters and words Listen to the following letters and repeat Sounds discrimination Vocabulary & Greetings and Expressions Ex. 3. Greetings and expressions Ex. 4. Greet in the morning, evening & night Ex. 5. Fluency Drills Ex. 6. Translate greetings in Pashtu Ex. 7. Listen and repeat Ex. 8. Translate greetings in Pashtu Ex. 9. Repeat following expressions Ex. 10. Listen and respond Ex. 11. Listen and respond in 15 sec. Ex. 12. Repeat Pashtu expressions Ex. 13. Listen and repeat Ex. 14. Translate next expressions in English Ex. 15. Translate in Pashtu / Grammar Point Ex. 16. Repeat following phrases Ex. 17. Listen and repeat Ex. 18. Introduction of One self Ex. 19. Translate 2 dialogues into English Ex. 20. Introduction of a third person Ex. 21. Translate phrases / Grammar Point Ex. 22. Listen to the following plurals Module 2 - Time and Numbers Time and Numbers Review Ex.1: Listen & Translate Vocabulary - Ex. 2: Translate in Pashtu Numbers - Ex. 3: Listen and repeat Ex. 4. Listen to the numbers and repeat Ex. 5. Listen, repeat and count from 6-10 Days of the Week-Ex. 6: Answer the question Ex. 7. Listen and repeat days of the week Ex. 8. Listen following words and repeat Ex. 9. Translate days of the week English to Pashtu Ex. 10. Listen and repeat.

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

56 56 57 58 59 60 60 62 63/64 65 65 66 66 67 67 68 68 69 70/71 71/73 7475 76/77 77 78 79 79 80

Ex. 11. Translate days of the week Pashtu -English Ex. 12. Listen & repeat numbers 11-30 Months of the Year-Ex.13. Translate numbers Ex. 14. Listen and repeat months of the year Ex. 15. Answer the following questions Ex. 16. Listen &repeat Seasons of the Year Ex. 17. Listen following sentences & repeat Ex. 18. Listen & repeat numbers 31-100 Ex. 19. Translate numbers / Time Ex. 20. Listen following questions & repeat Ex. 21. Listen to the following questions & repeat Ex. 22. Answer the following questions Ex. 23. Listen to the following time markers & repeat Ex. 24. Time expressions Listen & repeat Ex. 25. Repeat following phrases in Pashtu. Ex. 26. Listen to the following questions & answer Ex. 27. Listen to the time and then repeat. Ex. 28. Listen to the following dialogue and respond Ex. 29. Time/Grammar Point Interrogatives Ex. 30. Days of the Week/Grammar Point to go Ex. 31. Translate in Pashtu/Grammar Pointto have Ex. 32. Listen & respond/Grammar Point-to be neg. Ex. 33. Listen & repeat/Grammar p. pre-postposition Ex. 34 Translate following phrases into English Ex. 35 Listen & repeat from 101-1 000 Ex. 36. Translate following numbers into English Ex. 37. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

47 47 49/50 51 51 52 52/53 54 54 55 55

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Pashtu Indexing

Track

Page

Activity

Track

Page

Activity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Module 3 Asking for and Giving Personal Information 87 Asking for and Giving Personal Information 87 Ex. 2. Translate following days of the week in Pashtu 88 Ex. 3. Listen and translate in English Ex. 4. Listen and answer in Pashtu 88 Ex. 5. Say the following in Pashtu. 89 Ex. 6. Say the meaning of the following Pashtu words 89 Listen to the following vocabulary and repeat. 90 Ex. 7. Ask and give personal information 92 Ex. 8. Asking questions regarding someones age 92 Ex. 9. Listen to the following questions and answers 93 Ex. 10. Illustration of gender while asking about age 93 94 96/97 97 99 99 100 101 101 102/103 104 106 107 108 109 109 109 110 111 111 112 113 113 Ex. 11. Listen to the following dialogues & answer Ex. 12. Asking for phone number/Grammar Point Ex. 13. Listen and answer in Pashtu Ex. 14. Ask a passer-by following questions Ex. 15. Listen and give summary in English Ex. 16. Listen to the previous dialogue again Ex. 17. Ask for and give directions Ex. 18. Listen more of the directions and repeat. Ex. 19. Listen & answer / Grammar Point to show Ex. 20. Ask for and giving directions repeat twice Ex. 21. Listen & reply with yes or no Ex. 22. Listen & repeat phrases linked to directions Ex. 23. Military ranks Ex. 24. Listen to each statement and repeat it twice Ex. 25. Ranks in affirmative and negative statements Ex. 26. Listen to the following phrases & repeat them Ex. 27. Fluency Drill Ex. 28. Listen to each dialogue line and repeat Ex. 29.Tanslate ranks from Pashtu to English Ex. 30. Translate same ranks from English to Pashtu Ex. 31. Listen to the occupational nouns and repeat Ex. 32. Listen & repeat locations / sites Module 4 Military Commands Military Commands Ex. 1. Review - Listen and translate Ex. 2. Listen & guess meaning of the sentences Ex. 3. Identify the following ranks in English Ex .4. Listen direction and translate in English Ex. 5. Listen and translate in English Vocabulary Ex. 6. Military Commands Listen and repeat Ex. 7. Dialogues Grammar : Affirmative & negative Ex. 8. Commands Grammar : Vocative noun form

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

117 118 118 119 119 120 121 122 124/126 127/128

Ex. 9. Call the following names using vocative Ex. 10. Listen and repeat to the following commands Ex. 11. Translate to the following commands in Engl. Ex. 12. Translate following dialogue in English. Ex. 13. Practicing the imperative Ex. 14. Translate following dialogue in English Ex. 15. Listen to the following dialogues and repeat Ex. 16. At the checkpoint Ex. 17. Listen to the following sentences and repeat Ex. 18. Say the following in Pashtu Ex. 19. Say the meaning of the words in English Ex. 20. Translate conversation at the check point Ex. 21. Translate dialogue/Grammar: Pre138/139 postposition 140 Ex. 22. Repeat prepositions and postpositions 141 Ex. 23. Say the following sentences in Pashtu 142 Ex. 24. Translate following dialogue in English 143 Ex. 25. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat 143 Ex. 26. Summarize following dialogue in English 144 Ex. 27. Listen and repeat. 145 Ex. 28. Say the following in Pashtu 145 Ex. 29. Summarize following dialogue in English 146 Ex. 30. Say English equivalent 147 Ex. 31. Guess the English meaning 147 Ex. 32. Use words from Ex. 31 and use in sentence 148/149 Ex. 33. Say Eng. Equivalent/Provinces of Afghanistan 150 Ex. 34. Listen and repeat Kandahar Districts 150 Ex. 35. Answer the following two questions 150 Ex. 36. Listen & repeat following dialogues 152 Ex. 37. Listen to the following phrases and repeat 153 Ex. 38. Listen to the following dialogue & translate 154 Ex. 39. Repeat famous places in Kandahar 155/156 Ex. 40. Answer the ques. / Grammar: Adjectives 156 Ex. 41. Listen to the following adjectives and repeat 157 Ex. 42. Translate following questions in English 157 Ex. 43. Repeat : Mountains & rivers in Afghanistan 158 Ex. 44. Answer the following questions 158 Ex. 45. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat 159 Ex. Quiz : Part A, B & C

128 128 129 131 132 133 134 135 135 136 137 137

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Pashtu Indexing

Track

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

165 167 167/168 169 170 171/172 173 174/175 175 176 177 178 178 179/180 180 181 181 182 182 183 184 185 187 193 199

Module 5 Military Operations Ex. 1. Translate Military commands / Operations Ex. 2. Identify the meaning of the following words Ex. 3. Say the following in Pashtu / Vocabulary Ex. 4. Listen & repeat / Equipment Ex. 5. Listen to the following sentences and repeat Ex. 6. Listen & repeat/Grammar: Past tense to be Ex. 7. Repeat following sentences (past tense) Ex. 8. Repeat in Pashtu Grammar: verb to Explode Ex. 9. Listen and repeat Ex. 10. Complete following sentences Ex. 11. Listen to the following dialogue and repeat Ex. 12. Translate following phrases in English Ex. 13. Translate following sentences in English Ex. 14. Repeat following words / Searches and raids Ex. 15. Translate following questions in English Ex. 16. Translate following answers in Pashtu Ex. 17. Listen and repeat following dialogue Ex. 18. Translate following sentences in English Ex. 19. Say the meaning of the following phrases Ex. 20. Summarize the following dialogue into English Ex. 21. Say the meaning of the following words Ex. 22. Say the meaning of the following sentences Ex. Quiz Module 5 Part A, B and C Ex. Test Module 1-5 Ex. Answer Key - Test

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Pashtu Indexing

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