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Why the Treaty of Trianon is Void

By

LOUIS KOSSUTH BIRINYI, A.B., LL.B., LL.D. Author, "Justice for Hungary," "The Tragedy of Hungary," "International Justice for Hungary," etc.
Member, Cleveland, Ohio, Bar Published by

V. L. R. SIMMONS
531 Cedar St., N.E. Grand Rapids, Michigan Copyright, 1938 by LOUIS KOSSUTH BIRINYI 11803 Buckeye Road Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. Copyright, 1938, London, England Copyright, 1938, Ottawa, Canada

First Edition

November, 1938
Printed in U. S. A.

This book is gratefully dedicated to DR. CONRAD RICHARD SCHIEDT, Ph.D., Sc.D., Emeritus Professor of Biology of Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, a great teacher and an unselfish friend, whose precept to seek, act and live the truth and to serve the best interests of our fellowmen is scrupulously followed by THE AUTHOR

PUBLISHER'S FOREWORD
There are a few things that the reader should know and consider before reading this trial of a treaty. The United States Senate has never ratified the Treaty of Trianon or any other treaty of Versailles. President Wilson, who spoke for the United States then as president, worked out a 14-point plan of settlement of the World War so that all nations and peoples would enjoy what appeared to him to be a fair, justifiable and lasting peace. These 14 points were entirely disregarded in the treaties of Versailles in spite of the fact that the United States supplied the finances to carry all of the Allied nations through the war. With one exception (Finland) those loans are still unpaid. The real causes of President Wilson's death have never been publicly discussed. In reaching a conclusion of facts given in this volume you will find that these positive facts will help you to decide as to the claims of the nation which suffered most in the settlement of that war and which still bears no malice towards the United States. That nation is Hungary. V. L. R. SIMMONS, Publisher.
NOTE -- The author of this book has carefully selected the proofs of this trial of the Treaty of Trianon from established facts and allegations that have not been refuted or denied over a long period of time and have been recognized as facts. The spelling of proper names which varies with different authorities has been given careful selection. Some personages of Europe have two or even more names by which they are known. Dr. Edouard Benes for instance has been known variously as Spolny, Belsky, Berger, Novotny, Konog, Sicha and Leblanc. It is well for the reader to know that such conditions are part of European life.

"Open thy mouth for the dumb in the cause of all such as are appointed to destruction.
"Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy." Proverbs 31:8-9

AUTHOR'S FOREWORD

The author attended Crescent Academy and Business College at Crescent, North Carolina, for two years, and later attended and graduated from Franklin and Marshall Academy of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Upon graduation from the latter, he entered Franklin and Marshall College of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and in the usual time he was graduated from it with the degree of Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) After his graduation from college, he entered the Law School of Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, and in due time graduated from it with the degree of Bachelor of Law (LL.B.). Still later, the University of Dubuque, Dubuque, Iowa, conferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Law (LL.D), and he is now engaged in the general practice of law in Cleveland, Ohio. He is interested in the general welfare of the American people and has made a careful study of the reasons for and causes of our economic, and shall we say, political collapse. He has found that the world is sick economically and morally; that the malady, which is gradually undermining Christian civilization, has reached the acute stage in Europe; and that it has infected our own country to such a serious degree that it would be nothing less than a national crime not to notice it and not to prevent it from destroying our own civilization. The focus of infection is in the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon. The condition created by these treaties has resulted in a world-wide economic chaos and social upheaval, which are threatening to engulf the world in a destructive flame of war. If a war breaks out in Europe, an attempt will be made to involve the United States of America in it. The scientific method to prevent disease is to make a careful study of its causes and, when found, to isolate and destroy them. A scientific method to prevent war is to make a careful study of its causes, and, when found, isolate and eliminate them. If we are to prevent foreign interests from dragging us again into the European mess and losing what we have left as a result of the World War, it behooves us now to study carefully the reasons for and underlying causes of the world upheaval, which threatens to precipitate the world into destructive war. "Know ye the truth, for the truth shall make you free." It is with this divine truth in mind that your author has written this book, so that you may know what underlying causes and what international interests are driving this world of ours toward the brink of destructive war. Should you feel that you want to fight or send your sons and daughters to a foreign country to engage in a war, at least, after reading this book, you will know what the fight and war will be all about. It is the belief and hope of your author that the rank and file of the American people will heed the warning of George Washington to keep out of foreign alliances and entanglements. We have learned to our great chagrin and sorrow in the World War that we have nothing to gain but have much to lose in more war. If other people want to fight, it is none of our concern and we should not interfere. Our own interests demand that we keep out of other people's troubles and mind our own business. The highest duty of an American citizen today is to help rebuild the collapsed economic structure of our own

country, so that our own people may become prosperous, happy and contented. Our duty is to build up our country and not to destroy what other people have built. It is neither a pleasant nor a profitable task to write, speak and advocate the truth regarding the underlying causes of the international chaos and disease, as they are related to our own economic and social problems. Your author has written more or less extensively along this line and consequently has been subjected to various threats and undercover persecutions. We might just as well be frank about it in saying that the impression is rather widespread in this our country, that to be an uncompromising American is equivalent to an invitation to "sudden heart failure" and then death. The mental condition created by this impression will no doubt have its repercussion in our country probably not far distant in the future. Uncompromising and loyal Americanism must not be threatened into silence by foreign interests and their paid agents. In closing, your author makes here an unusual yet well-justified request. If, after having read this book, you should feel, as I hope you will, that it serves the best interest of the American people and that the American people should know the facts detailed herein, please tell your friends and acquaintances about it and urge them to order a copy for themselves and read it. We all want to prevent foreign interests from tricking our country again into a world war, in which we have no national interest; and the most successful way to prevent it is to acquaint our fellow American citizens with the facts and underlying causes of the threatening chaotic condition which is driving world Christianity toward extermination. Your author has done his share of the work. It now behooves you and all liberty-loving Americans to spread the truth and thereby prevent the international invisible powers to force our sons and daughters to fight, bleed and die in any war which does not concern us. LOUIS KOSSUTH BIRINYI 11803 Buckeye Road Cleveland, Ohio "How can humanity justify or God forgive? Human hate demands no such toll; ambition and greed must be denied it. If misunderstanding must take the blame, then let us banish it, and let understanding rule and good-will regnant everywhere. All of us demand liberty and justice. There cannot be one without the other, and they must be held the unquestioned possession of all peoples. Inherent rights are of God, and the tragedies of the world originate in their attempted denial. The world today is infringing their enjoyment by arming to defend or deny, when simple sanity calls for their recognition through common understanding." President Warren G. Harding

Reprinted from Dr. L. Buday's "Dismembered Hungary"

Proportion of Hungary's land distributed among her neighbors by the Treaty of Trianon.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

Publisher's Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V Author's Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII 1. What Ails the World? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. The Treaty and the Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Hungary Before the World War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. The Berlin-Bagdad Railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. The Corruption of the French Government and Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. War Was Provoked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 15 25

39

7. Austria-Hungary and Germany Tried to Avoid War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. The Great Betrayal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 9. The Secret Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 10. The Allies are Guilty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

61

11. The Paris Peace Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 12. The Betrayal of Justice and Decency . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. The Treaty of Trianon Was Forced Upon Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. The Verdict of Public Opinion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. The World Betrayed. Democracy Destroyed. Treaties Violated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. Our Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 17. Our Plea to Christian Civilization. Hungary Must be Revived and Reconstructed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 189 169 183 163

INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Page

Proportion of land taken from Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lineup of Europe in 1938 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nationalities in Czechoslovakia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proportion of nationalities in territories taken from Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

X 4 14

52

Proportion of railroads and equipment taken from Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table salt production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "Navigable River," Ronyva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Budapest, center of transportation system of Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre-war territory of Hungary and the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Europe in 1938 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Railway lines in pre-war Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railway lines of Hungary ruptured by Treaty of Trianon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Budapest is closer than Prague to every point in pre-war Hungarian territory given to Czechoslovakia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mutilated Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 The economic resources of pre-war Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Pre-war one thousand-year-old Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . Baby, victim of malnutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Code letter regarding assassination of Austrian Archduke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal, oil and gas fields taken from Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . "Democracy," as practiced by French soldiers in Ruhr Valley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flood-controlling system of pre-war Hungary . . . . . . . . . . Distribution of territories taken from Hungary . . . . . . . . . . 82 78 79

60

79

82

82

86-87 88

89 89

90 91 92

Berlin-Bagdad Railway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iron ore deposits taken from Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Budapest, natural railway center of Middle Europe . . . . . . Production of iron in new Danubian States . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WHAT AILS THE WORLD?

93 93 94 146

What ails the world? Why do nations look at one another with murderous intent in their eyes? Why is it that every nation of the world is preparing for war? Why is world Christianity reverting to paganism? What is the explanation for the anomaly that the government of Christian England and the government of Christian France are openly in alliance with the godless government of Russia whence God has been exiled and outlawed? Why is it that Christian Germany, Christian Italy and Christian Hungary are opposed and frowned upon by the alliance of Christian England, Christian France and godless Russia? Why is it that Christian America is being cajoled to support and fight alongside of godless Russia? What is it that the socalled "democratic countries," in cooperation with Communist Russia, are attempting to crush? What rational and acceptable economic reason is there for the poverty, suffering and privation that one-half of the American people are experiencing? We have not been visited by a major natural disaster. We have plenty of fertile land and millions of industrious farmers who are able and willing to produce enough food to feed the people of one-half of the world. We have millions of skilled factory workers and thousands of well-equipped factories ready and able to manufacture every possible need of the American people. We have natural resources in abundance and all the money we need; yet far too many are suffering from want of the most elementary necessities of life. Why should this condition exist in the richest country in the world? Why is it that governments of Christian countries that arrogate to themselves the title of "democracy" are threatening to embroil the world in a flame of destructive war without consulting or obtaining the will or approval of their own people? Why is it that United States high government officials and unelected representatives so freely offer to sacrifice American young men, American blood and American money on the altars of foreign war without having first obtained the will and consent of the American people whose lives and fortunes are pledged in a war, in which they have no national interest? Why is it that governments of so-called Christian countries are bent upon assailing human liberty and freedom?

The obvious reason is that the world is sick morally and economically. Unfortunately we, the American people, have contracted the world's ailment and we are suffering from it with an unprecedented intensity. As a result of this moral and economic ailment of the world, we are facing in our own country a serious major national disaster. It would be almost a national crime on our part to remain silent, and fail to diagnose the threatening malady with scientific accuracy, and to apply the proper remedy before it is too late. It is no secret that about one-half of the American children born today are from families in the third lowest economic bracket, who are least able to provide adequately for and to give necessary care to their posterity. It has been definitely established that most of human ailments are the result of lack of food and deficiency of vitamins. Malnutrition is the most dangerous threat to the American people and to the people of the world at large, and it is now definitely known that malnutrition is most severe when there is shortage of food. Speaking of children of many families on relief in the United States of America, Dr. Richard A. Bolt, former medical director of the American Child Health Association, said: "When we see their flabby, pale faces, we do not need to put them on the scale to know they are victims of malnutrition. They haven't actually had enough food to eat for five to six years, and now it is far worse. We are seeing a gradual breakdown of health (in The United States of America) comparable to that in Europe in the World War."
{See David Dietz' article "Vitamins Key To Health," Cleveland Press, August 22, 1938.}

It need not be emphasized here that the wholesale breakdown of the health of the American people augurs a serious national disaster for us. The condition of the peoples of other countries are equally threatening. If these conditions continue long, the world is facing a catastrophe that may destroy Christian civilization. The moral and economic ailment of the world has been caused by the manipulations of unscrupulous men; by the same token it can be cured by men and women of good morals and patriotic caliber. There are enough good Christian people in this world, who will espouse the cause of world health and peace and who will cure, once for all, the serious ailment that is now threatening the world and the people of the United States of America. The first scientific step toward world recovery and peace is to find the cause of universal suffering. Years of careful investigation and minute examination of the facts and official documents relating to world disease have disclosed that the underlying causes are largely the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon. The cure, therefore, is elimination of these harmful treaties. We shall examine these treaties, particularly the Treaty of Trianon, show how and why they were made and why and how they constitute the fundamental and underlying causes for the present world unrest and ailment. We shall show why governments of Christian nations clasp the bloody hand of the ungodly government of Russia. We shall indicate the remedy and the road to world health and lasting peace.

The lineup in Europe in 1938 for and against economic progress. The Berlin-Bagdad Railroad, upon the unobstructed and unmolested operation of which depends, in a great measure, the economic development and prosperity of Europe and the Near East, is supported by Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey and Poland, while it is opposed by England, France, Czechoslovakia, Roumania, Yugoslavia and Russia. The territorial adjustment now being made in Europe is intended to ensure the safe, unobstructed and unmolested operation of the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad and the ensuing economic prosperity of Europe, the Near East and the entire world.

2 THE TREATY AND THE LAW The Treaty of Trianon is one of the series of the so-called "peace treaties," usually referred to as the "Versailles Treaty" or the "Treaty of Versailles," concluded and written by the Paris Peace Conference after the termination of the World War and signed by the signatories at Versailles, a suburb of Paris, in various buildings selected in accordance with the moral and esthetic taste of those in control of the Conference. Thus the treaty, which was imposed upon Germany, was signed on June 28, 1919, in the Hall of Mirrors,

and that which was imposed upon Austria was signed on September 14, 1919, in Saint Germaine, both buildings being at Versailles. The treaty which was imposed upon Hungary and in which the one thousand-year-old territory of that country was cruelly and terribly mutilated was signed on June 4, 1920, in the Trianon Palace, an erstwhile "love nest" built by the French king, Louis XV, for his lady friend, Madame Dubarry. Hence the name, the Treaty of Trianon. These treaties were intended to be and they are punitive, and they were based upon the indictment set forth therein, specifically charging that Germany and her allies, AustriaHungary, Bulgaria and Turkey, were collectively, severally, individually and solely responsible for the outbreak of the World War and for all the loss and damage caused by and resulting from that war. The law made and promulgated by the Conference decreed that the guilty countries must pay, and the penalty inflicted by these treaties upon Germany, Austria, Hungary and their allies was economic and national death. In Article 231 of the treaty imposed upon Germany the indictment was stated as follows: "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of herself and her allies, for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies." It will be noted that the key-word in this indictment is the word "aggression" which is defined by Webster as "the first attack, or act of hostility." The principle of international law promulgated by the Paris Peace Conference and incorporated in the Treaty of Versailles is that the government that was the aggressor at the outbreak of the World War was guilty of provoking, causing and precipitating that war; and that such guilty government must pay for all the loss and damages that have resulted from that war. In the indictment quoted above, Germany and her allies were declared to be the aggressors and the guilt for causing, provoking and precipitating the World War was fastened upon her and her allies. And, in contravention of every known principle of domestic and international criminal law, it was written into the indictment that the accusers "affirm" and the accused "accepts" the truth of the indictment. The defense of the accused was ruled out; the accusers acted as prosecutors, witnesses and judges; and a theretofore unheard of criminal procedure was inaugurated wherein the accused was forced not only to plead guilty to the alleged crime charged but also to plead guilty for all who were accused of having participated in the same alleged crime. Needless to say, such legal aberration and such monstrosity in procedure would be laughed out of any American court of justice and the proponents would be subjected to a thorough psychiatric examination. In the treaty imposed upon Austria the responsibility for the World War was fixed upon Austria and her allies who were declared to be the "aggressors," and it was written in the indictment that the accusers "affirm" and the accused for herself and her allies "accepts" responsibility for the outbreak of the World War.

In Article 161 of the Treaty of Trianon the same indictment was restated and Hungary and her allies were declared to be the "aggressors." The indictment states: "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Hungary accepts the responsibility of Hungary and her allies for causing the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Austria-Hungary and her allies." In this indictment Hungary was compelled to "accept" the entire blame for the outbreak of the World War and to plead guilty to it not only for herself but for Germany, Austria, Bulgaria and Turkey. Further, Hungary was denied the right and the opportunity to defend herself against the charges set forth in the indictment. She was tried, found guilty and condemned in absentia (while absent) in a procedure unknown to American jurisprudence, prohibited by the American constitution and abhorred by the American people. And, further on, her prosecutors, the witnesses who testified against her and her judges by threats, torture, suffering, privations and starvation forced her to "accept" the charges and to sign the awful and terrible monstrosity, known as the Treaty of Trianon. The Allied and Associated Governments that perpetrated the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon were composed of England and her colonies, France, Russia, Italy, Belgium, China and Japan; their "nationals" and satellites, any and all countries and group of persons, who, either in fact or merely on paper, constituted a "government" and had declared war on Germany and her allies. Lined up with the Allied and Associated Governments were Brazil, the British Dominions, Cuba, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Italy, Panama, Hedjaz, Honduras, Liberia, Nicaraugua, Poland, Portugal, Roumania, Serbia, the Czechoslovak Republic (which existed on paper only) and even Siam. It is stated here on the authority of U. S. Senator Norris, that almost anybody who had declared war on Germany could become an ally of the Allied and Associated Governments. "Any nation," said Senator Norris, "which wanted to declare war against Germany could come to our Treasury and get the money they wanted. I do not suppose Germany found out that some of those nations had declared war against her. Nobody knew that these did. They had no navy; they had no army; but they wanted some money, and Uncle Sam, it seems, was looked to from all over the world to hand out money."{1} These "nationals" and satellites were fighting on the side of the Allied and Associated Governments against Germany, Austria-Hungary and their allies, and, after the termination of the World War, they helped to prosecute Germany, Austria-Hungary and their allies and finally passed judgment on the accused, though some of those "nationals" and satellites, in all probability, did not even know who the Germans, Austrians, Hungarians and their allies were. It may be stated at this point, that the treaties of Versailles and the Treaty of Trianon, based on the foregoing indictments, must stand or fall upon the truth or untruth of the indictments and upon the truth or untruth of the fact or facts, on which the indictments

were based. If Germany, Austria, Hungary and their allies were not guilty of the offense charged against them, or, in other words, if they were not the aggressors at the outbreak of the World War, then, in that event, the punishment meted out to them individually or collectively was without legal foundation and legal sanction and, therefore, the indictment against each and every one of the accused is a fraud and a nullity. There is no international law which permits the punishment of an innocent nation or nations. A treaty is an international document, embodying an international agreement. It is defined by the United States Supreme Court as follows: "A treaty is a contract between independent nations, depending for enforcement of its provisions on the interest and honor of the governments which are parties to it."{2} It is necessary, therefore, that a treaty be subjected to the known principles of the law of contract, truth and international honesty. The conclusions reached and the terms employed therein must be supported by facts, truth and honesty of purpose and must be definable by the well-known and accepted principles of international and domestic law. A contract, of course, is an agreement, and "an agreement is a manifestation of mutual assent by two or more persons to one another." It may be stated that "from the standpoint of validity, contracts may be divided into valid, the voidable, and the void. A void contract creates no legal right of any kind. In a void contract the parties to the transaction have gone through the form of making a contract but no contract has been made in law, by reason of a lack of some essential elements in the contract. A void contract may be simply ineffective for all purposes."{3} That is to say if a person has been induced by fraud, deceit or misrepresentation or both, or has been forced by threats, torture or by physical violence to sign an agreement, the paper he has signed is not a contract, because it lacks the element of mutual assent. The same rule of law holds true with regard to an international treaty. In order to sustain the validity of the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon, it must be shown and proved beyond the shadow of any doubt that Germany, Austria-Hungary and their allies were the aggressors at the outbreak of the World War. The facts produced and the evidence introduced must be such as defined by international law to be elements of aggression. It will be recalled that Webster defines aggression as "the first attack, or act of hostility." International law defines who is not and who is the real aggressor, as follows: "The real aggressor is not he who first employs force, but he who renders the employment of force necessary."{4} In common parlance, the real aggressor is he who is "asking for it." In other words: The government which, without a just cause or provocation, mobilizes its military forces against another country first is the real aggressor. The mobilization of the military forces of one country against another country is equivalent to a declaration of war on the country against which the mobilization is directed.{5}

In order to prove Germany, Austria-Hungary and their allies guilty of causing, provoking and precipitating the World War, it must be proved, therefore, that, individually or collectively, or both, they, or either one of them, mobilized first against the Allied and Associated Governments or any one of them. If this cannot be proved, then the indictment against Germany, Austria-Hungary and their allies must be declared to be false, fraudulent and a nullity. International treaties, to which several governments are parties, in order to be valid, must be made by an international conference or congress, to which all the interested governments should be invited and permitted to participate in its deliberations. Stated in legal terminology, international law on this point is that "The settlement of questions liable to give rise to disputes by conferences or congresses is common, and implies a meeting of representatives of the interested parties for consideration of the terms of agreements upon which a question could be adjudicated.{6} And furthermore: "All powers interested in the purpose of the conference should be invited."{7} If the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon are to be held legal and valid in contemplation of international law, it must be shown further that Germany, Austria, Hungary and their allies were invited to the Paris Peace Conference which made and formulated these treaties; that Germany, Austria, Hungary and their allies were permitted to participate in the deliberations of the Conference; and that they were given an opportunity to defend themselves against any and all charges advanced against them. If they were not invited to the conference and were not permitted to participate in its deliberations, and if they were denied the right and opportunity to defend themselves against the charges advanced against them, then, in that event, the Paris Peace Conference was illegal, its deliberations and the treaties made and formulated by it are also illegal, fraudulent, null, void and of no effect in law. Once the conference or congress is convoked and begins its deliberations, international law steps in and, to protect the weaker nations against the stronger nations, it lays down the following rules of law that are essential to the validity of any international treaty: 1. "The agent acting for the state must have the international capacity to contract, i.e. ordinarily they must be independent states." 2. "The agents acting far the state must be duly authorized, i.e. the plenipotentiaries must act within their power."

3. "There must be freedom of consent in the agreement between the states. There is no freedom of consent when an agreement is reached through fraud of either party, and treaties so obtained are void." 4. "The treaties must be in conformity to law, as embodied in the generally recognized principles of international law."{8} 5. "Gross error, fraud, as the use of forged maps vitiate a treaty."{9} Webster defines the word "vitiate": "to render invalid; to make void; to destroy." International law does not stop here in its mission of protecting the weaker nations against the stronger; it continues to reach out its protecting arms and it decrees that an international treaty is void and, therefore, it may be repudiated and renounced by the injured state, when: 1. "The treaty is concluded because of stress of force upon the negotiators or because of fraud; and when 2. "The conditions created by the treaty threaten the selfpreservation of the state or its necessary attributes."{10} To sustain the validity of the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon, it must be shown still further, therefore, that Germany, Austria, Hungary and their allies had freely consented to these treaties; that no threat, no force, no torture, no deceit, no fraud, no fraudulent data, no fraudulent maps were used in inducing Germany, Austria, Hungary and their allies to sign these treaties; and that the conditions created thereby do not threaten the self-preservation of these states. In other words, it must be shown that Germany, Austria, Hungary and their allies had voluntarily consented to commit national suicide. In the absence of such proof, the treaties of Versailles and the Treaty of Trianon must be declared to be fraudulent, null, void and of no effect in law. As the domestic law of any civilized state or country defines how a person may obtain legal title to a city lot or to a farm, international law likewise lays down definite rules and principles as to how a state or nation may obtain legal title to a territory. According to international law, title to occupation of a territory or country may legally be gained by: 1. "Discovery. 2. "Occupation, as by occupying uninhabited land or land inhabited by uncivilized people. 3. "Conquest by arms. 4. "Cession, i.e. transfer by gifts, or in exchange of sale, by special agreement in lieu of payment.

5. "Prescription, i.e. a long use and occupation. 6. "Accretion, i.e. land formed by alluvium or transferred by lease."{11} In the Versailles treaties large territories and several colonies were taken away from Germany and Austria; and in the Treaty of Trianon more than three-fourths of the territory of Hungary and more than one-half of her population were taken away. To prove legal title in the recipients of these colonies and territories, it must be proved that they were obtained by any one of the rights specified by international law. In the absence of such proof, the colonies, and territories that were taken from Germany, Austria, Hungary and their allies must be declared to be stolen property and the recipients thereof must likewise be declared guilty of having received and of holding stolen property. With the foregoing accepted principles of international law as our guide, we now proceed to summon the history of Europe as our witness and we shall examine historical data, official documents, maps and admissions by responsible European and American statesmen and diplomats, with the view of determining once for all as to who and what governments were actually guilty of having caused, provoked and precipitated the World War. And, since the rule of law made and promulgated by the Paris Peace Conference is that the guilty governments must pay the losses and damages caused by and resulting from the World War, we shall proceed to determine who are guilty and what governments should pay.

1 Congressional Record, Dec. 22, 1931. [A variation on The Mouse that Roared? But this time they were on the winning side, so they truly "had their cake and ate it too". -JR, ed.] 2 Edge vs. Robertson, 9 Sp. Ct. 456-8; 112 U. S. 580. 3 Williston on Contracts, Vol. I, p. 5. 4 Greacy, p. 150, quoted in W. E. Hall's "A Treatise on International Law," p. 110. 5 This definition was accepted and recognized by Russia, France and England in 1914. The order of the Russian Czar, dated September 30, 1912, stated: "Mobilization should be equivalent to notification of war with Germany." The Franco-Russian military alliance of 1893 specified that "the aggressor is one who mobilizes first." 6 Wilson's "International Law," 8th ed. p. 118 et seq. 7 Hershey's "Essentials of International Public Law and Organization," p. 428. 8 "International Law" by Wilson and Tucker, 8th ed. p. 108, et seq. 9 Hershey's "Essentials of International Public Law and Organization," p. 432, et seq. 10 Hall's "Teatise on International Law," p. 380, et seq.

11 "International Law" by Wilson and Tucker, p. 108.

The Nationalities of Czechoslovakia. The territory encircling Prague and inhabited by Germans was formerly Austrian territory. The territory east of the semicircular lines, indicated above Hungary and Roumania, was a part of Hungary for the last one thousand years. It consists of 62,937 square kilometers of land and inhabited by 3,676,686 former native Hungarian citizens of Slovak, Ruthenian and Hungarian origin. On the Polish section live 600,000 Poles and on the former Austrian (Sudeten) territory live 3,600,000 Germans. The rest (the minority) of the population of Czechoslovakia are Czechs, Moravians and others.

3 HUNGARY BEFORE THE WORLD WAR The Paris Peace Conference singled out Hungary as an object of its hatred. With an unprecedented cruelty that Conference mutilated the one thousand-year-old territory of Hungary, condemned her to a national and economic death and then fiendishly compelled her to sign her own death warrant, known as the Treaty of Trianon. We now briefly examine the history of Hungary with the view of determining whether or not it is true, as the indictment of the Treaty of Trianon alleges, that Hungary had "imposed" the World War upon England, France and Russia and whether or not Hungary was the "aggressor" at the outbreak of the World War. Let history speak the truth.

The territory of pre-war Hungary was settled by the Hungarians in the year 884 A.D. When entered by the Hungarians, more than one thousand years ago, that territory was a devastated land, abounding in swamps and primeval forests. Charlemagne's historiographer tells us that "one might have traveled through the entire land, without meeting a single house, so terrible were the ruins and the destruction." It is to be noted, therefore, that the Hungarians came into the possession of the territory, known as Hungary, and obtained title thereto strictly in accordance with the time-honored principles of international law, which provide that title to occupation of a territory may legally be gained by "occupation as by occupying uninhabited land or land of uncivilized people." And it should be further noted that the Hungarians have held title to their territory by continuous occupation during the last one thousand years. Their title to the entire area of pre-war Hungary, therefore, is legally unassailable and the same is fully protected by the universally accepted and recognized principle of international law, namely, the right to legal title by "prescription, i.e. a long use and occupation." It is an unquestionable fact of history that the right and legal title of Hungary to her pre-war territory has never been challenged by any one during the last one thousand years, until the Paris Peace Conference, with unholy hand and for unblessed purposes, unconscionably mutilated it and condemned the Hungarian people to an economic and national death. The Hungarians are of Aryan origin, and not Mongolians or Asiatics, as some writers may claim. Professor Arminus Vambery, who had made a careful search into the origin of the Hungarians, has definitely stated on page 312 of his book, "A Magyarsg Keletkezse s Gyarapodsa" (The Origin and Growth of the Hungarians), published in 1895, that "more than three-fourths of the people living in Hungary are of Aryan origin." Sometimes the question is asked: "What is the difference between the Magyars and the Hungarians?" The answer is that there is no difference, because the Magyars are the Hungarians. They have been known as "Magyars" from time immemorial and the reason for the name "Hungarians" is that the territory which the Hungarians, i.e. Magyars occupied in 884 A.D. had been inhabited previously by the Huns. The Latin writers referred to the Magyars as "Hungarians," that is to say, the people who inhabited the land formerly occupied by the Huns. It is, therefore, correct to refer to the Magyars as Hungarians or vice versa, just as one may refer to Americans as "Yankees" or to the American people as "Uncle Sam." The Magyars and Hungarians are one and the same people. Magyars is pronounced Modyars. The land comprising pre-war Hungary was, in time immemorial, the bed of a sea and its area was about 125,000 square miles, or about the size of the States of Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee. It was surrounded by a natural boundary line, which, no doubt, was originally the shore of the sea and which is known as the Carpathian mountains, ranging from the northwest of the country and beginning on the banks of the Danube River, extending all around and along the northern boundary, making a graceful turn and stretching along the eastern boundary and thence turning in the westerly direction until it reaches again the Danube River, thus encircling most of the country, as if ever anxious Mother Nature had thrown her protecting arms around the entire territory. In the south,

the country was bounded by the Danube, Save and Drave Rivers and partly by the Adriatic Sea, where, at Fiume, Hungary had a seaport. The river system of Hungary is almost as perfect as if human engineers had planned it to serve every conceivable need of the country. The climate of the country is favorable and healthy. In the northern part of the country were the coal and iron deposits, forests and grazing land; in the eastern part, known as Transylvania, the New England of Hungary, were the gold, silver and table salt deposits, natural gas and oil, forests and grazing land; while the heart of the country and the southern part of the same comprised the wheat granary of the entire country. This distribution of the natural resources and arable land made the country an independent, self-sufficient organism and self-supporting economic unit. In the form it was created by the Creator, indeed Hungary was one of the most beautiful countries in Europe. It had required continuous hard labor and a never-ending enthusiasm on the part of the Hungarians to develop and build the devastated land they occupied one thousand years ago into a beautiful and flourishing garden spot in Europe. Before the World War broke out in 1914, Hungary was well developed agriculturally, the country was well industrialized and it had modern transportation, telephone and telegraph systems, and her educational system, religious institutions and the culture of her people were second to none in Europe. American, English, French, German, Italian and other visitors to Hungary unanimously testify as to the high and unexcelled intelligence, friendliness, culture and inimitably fine qualities of the Hungarian people. To show the splendid caliber of the Hungarian people, it might be mentioned here that during the World War no American and no Englishman or woman was quarantined in Hungary. The Hungarian people, God bless them, did not fight the American and English people; they merely defended their country, wives and children, their homes and firesides. The American and the English people were never enemies of the Hungarian people and never will be! God be praised for that! The question is frequently asked: "Are the Hungarians all Catholics or all Protestants?" The answer is that they are not all Catholics and not all Protestants. They are all Christians. About one-half of the Hungarians are Catholics and the other half are Protestants, -- Calvinists (Presbyterians, though they call themselves "Reformed"), Lutherans, Unitarians, Baptists and other Protestant faiths. There have been occasions when, if one religious group had no church of its own, the church of another religious group was used for worship. It has not been infrequent that a Protestant preacher had officiated at the funeral of a Catholic priest and vice versa. The Hungarians consider religion a personal holy privilege and they do not interfere with the religious belief of their fellow men. Incidentally it was in Hungary that the first law in Europe had been enacted, which assured the right to freedom of thought and liberty of conscience to every man, woman and child living on Hungarian soil.

Politically Hungary was a constitutional kingdom for more than one thousand years. Her constitution is only seven years younger than the English Magna Charta. In the year 1000, A.D., Pope Sylvester II presented Stephen, the ruler of Hungary, with a crown and conferred on him the title of "Apostolic King of Hungary," in recognition of the religious, moral, economic, and political value of the Hungarians in Europe and the signal service they had already rendered to religion, culture and general welfare not only in Hungary but elsewhere in Europe. King Stephen has since been canonized by the Roman Catholic Church and he is known in history as "King Saint Stephen." Unfriendly writers frequently refer to post-war Hungary as a "kingdom without a king," since she has no king at the present time. It will not be amiss, therefore, to state here that pre-war Hungary was a constitutional kingdom during the last one thousand years. Under their constitution, the Hungarians have a right to elect their king, if they want one, and that right had been exercised by the Hungarians until the Austrian Hapsburg dynasty took control of Hungary. At the present time the Hungarians do not want a king but have elected Admiral Nicholas Horthy Governor of Hungary, who, although of the Presbyterian faith, is well loved and idolized by all the Hungarians, Catholics and Protestants alike. His duties are defined and circumscribed by law and, therefore, he is not a dictator, as some hare-brained writers would have you believe. The form of government of Hungary is a representative democracy. The real ruler of that country is the Parliament which is composed of two Houses, the House of Representatives and the Upper House, resembling the United States Senate. The members of the House of Representatives are elected directly by the people; while the members of the Upper House are appointed by the Governor from among the best and most desirable representatives of the various trades and professions extant in the country. Thus the farmers, for example, have a real farmer of their own kind, the factory workers, the various tradesmen, industrial and commercial groups, the religious groups, and the various professions, each group has its own representative in the Upper House. The government proper is the Ministry, headed by the Prime Minister. The Ministers, whose functions and duties correspond with those of the members of the Cabinet of the President of the United States of America, are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Parliament and from the membership of the Parliament. No person is appointed and can hold office as a Minister, unless Parliament sustains him by a majority of votes. If, at any time, the majority of the members of Parliament vote "lack of confidence" in the Ministry, the Ministers must resign and the Governor must appoint new Ministers, in whom the majority of the members of Parliament have confidence. If the majority of the members of Parliament are unable to agree upon the personnel of the Ministry, Parliament is dissolved and a new election held. It would be impossible in Hungary that a government would rule, which does not enjoy the confidence of the majority of the voters of the country. Under this system, the government of the country stands close to the people and it is bound to carry out the wishes and desires of the majority of the voters.

It is evident, therefore, that under this system of government, it would be impossible for any one single group in Hungary to set up an absolute dictatorship. The only way any person could become a dictator in Hungary would be if the voters, by a majority of votes, would elect him a dictator. A person or group of men, who rule by the will of the people, is in no way a dictator. The Hungarians hold the crown of King Saint Stephen as a sacred symbol of the independence of Hungary, for the reason that Pope Sylvester II (1000 A.D.) presented that crown to Hungary and her ruler, as a symbol of the independence of Hungary. The Pope, at that time, it will be recalled, had the power to grant independence to a country in Europe and to help preserve such independence. The crown to the Hungarians, therefore, has the same significance as the American Declaration of Independence has to the American people. Any attempt to deprive the Hungarians of the possession of the crown of King Saint Stephen would be tantamount to an attempt to deprive Hungary of her independence. That crown is the common property of the Hungarian people, Catholics and Protestants, and for any one to ridicule the crown of King Saint Stephen would be fully as ungraceful and unfriendly as to ridicule the American Declaration of Independence. As long as the crown of King Saint Stephen exists, Hungary will be known as the "Kingdom of Hungary," whether she will have a king or not, because the "Kingdom of Hungary" means Free and Independent Hungary. Geographically Hungary is the gateway between the East and the West in Europe. If the East would want to invade the West, it would have to travel through Hungary, and vice versa; for this reason Hungary has always been and still is the most important outpost of Western Christian civilization. In the year 1241 a powerful Mongolian army attempted to invade the West by marching through Hungary. The Hungarians fought the invaders and prevented them from passing through Hungary and reaching the West; but the struggle resulted in a great loss of Hungarian life and property. Later a powerful Turkish army made an attempt to pass through Hungary and to invade the West; but the Hungarians again fought and prevented the Turks from realizing their ambition. A terrible struggle lasting through bloody centuries ensued; but the Hungarians in the year of 1456 finally and decisively defeated the Turks and definitely saved Western civilization and Christianity from any further danger of Turkish invasion. In recognition of these services, the Pope of Rome gave the Hungarians the title of "defenders of western civilization and saviors of Christianity." Indeed, had the Hungarians not fought and defeated the Mongols and the Turks, the probability is that there would be no Christian civilization today. Should you ask the average man on the street today to tell you why the bells in the towers of Christian churches are ringing at the noon hour of every day, the answer you would probably receive is that it is "eating time." That answer would be incorrect, because the fact is that after the Hungarians finally and decisively had defeated the Turks at Nndorfehrvr, on July 22, 1456, at the hour of noon, Pope Calixtus III ordered that the bells in the towers of Christian churches, throughout the Christian world, should ring at the hour of noon of every day in commemoration of the final victory of the Hungarians over the Turks. {Report of Calcaterra, Cardinal of Milano, 1456; Pastor's "Geschichte der
Ppste seit dem Ausgange des Mittelalters," 695.1; and the letters of Pope Calixtus III in the Vatican Library.} In the pealing of the church bells at the noon hour of every day,

therefore, you may detect the unmistakable feeling and emotion of human gratitude and praise: "Praise God from whom all blessings flow!" The constant struggle with the Mongolians and later with the Turks sapped the strength of the Hungarians. They had saved western civilization and Christianity, but they did not have enough strength left to defend themselves against the encroachment of the Hapsburg dynasty of Austria. In the year of 1526 Hungary fell into the control of the Hapsburg dynasty of Austria and the Hungarians lost their independence. The Hungarians, however, never became reconciled to the Hapsburg rule and they frequently tried to regain their independence. Their last struggle to this end was the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-9, in which, led by the immortal Louis Kossuth, they defeated the Hapsburgs; but a Russian army of 100,000 men swooped down upon the Hungarians and forced Hungary back into the control of the Austrian Hapsburgs, the result of which was that Hungary was compelled to become a member of the AustroHungarian Monarchy. Under this arrangement the old constitution of Hungary was restored and her right to self-government was recognized; but the Emperor of the Austrian Empire was to be also the King of Hungary in one and the same person. The Hungarians were given the right to have a Parliament of their own, the members of which were to be elected by the Hungarian people; and the Ministers, comprising the Hungarian Government, were to hold office at the will of the majority of the members of Parliament. The control of the Hungarian army and the international relations of Hungary were left in the control of the Hapsburg dynasty, the head of which was the Emperor of the Austrian Empire and King of Hungary. In other words, Hungary had no international will of her own; had no right to send her own representatives to any country; had no right and power to declare war on or make peace with any country. In fact, Hungary was in about the same position that Ireland was in relation to England, or somewhat similar to the position of the State, let us say, of Ohio in relation to the United States of America. In brief, Hungary was no more in a position, in 1914, to "impose" war or become an "aggressor" in a war, than was Ireland or the State of Ohio. Neither in fact nor in law can it be said that in 1914 Hungary could, even if she would, have provoked and precipitated a war. Certainly no sane-minded man would charge that Ireland or the State of Ohio was the "aggressor" in the World War or that either had "imposed" that war upon the enemies of the Allied and Associated Governments. It is equally wrong to say that Hungary was the "aggressor" in the World War and had "imposed" the same upon the Allied and Associated Governments. When the Austrian Empire declared war, the Hungarian army had to take orders from the Emperor of Austria, just the same as the Irish army had to take orders from the government of England and the boys recruited from the State of Ohio had to take orders from the United States Government. If the Allied and Associated Governments had lost the World War, Ireland and the State of Ohio would hardly have been charged with the crime of having provoked and precipitated the World War and their territories should not have been mutilated under such diabolical pretext. Writers and speakers sometimes refer to the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy as the "AustroHungarian Empire." Such reference is incorrect and does not agree with facts and truth.

The Austrian Empire consisted of Austria, Bohemia (the Bohemians now call themselves Czechs), Moravia, and Galicia, now part of Poland. As before stated, Hungary was forced to become a part of the Austrian Empire, when neither the Bohemians (now Czechs) nor the Moravians, nor the Galicians helped her to remain independent from that empire, as she had wished. And the official records of the Austrian Empire show, beyond the shadow of any doubt, that Czech and Galician leaders were influential, at the expense of Hungary, with the Hapsburg dynasty. Yet the Allied and Associated Governments did not accuse the Bohemians (now Czechs), the Moravians, and the Galicians to have provoked and precipitated the World War. The fact is, as we shall show further on in this book, that it was the Prime Minister of Hungary, Count Stephen Tisza, who put forth a valiant effort to prevent the outbreak of the World War. Yet the Paris Peace Conference wrote into the Treaty of Trianon that Hungary was the "aggressor" and she had "imposed" the World War upon the world! In this brief review of the history of Hungary you have learned that it was beyond the power of Hungary to have "imposed" the World War upon the Allied and Associated Governments and that it was physically and legally impossible for Hungary to be the "aggressor" in that war. The aggressor, as we have seen, is he who mobilizes first and forces his opponent into a conflict. Hungary could not and did not aggress, and, while we have not exhausted our examination of the history of Europe, on the basis of what has been shown we must conclude that the charges made against Hungary in the Treaty of Trianon are not true and, therefore, the treaty based upon those charges is a fraud, null, void and of no effect in law. 4 THE BERLIN-BAGDAD RAILROAD The year 1914 found Europe already divided into two powerful camps. One was the Triple Entente, composed of England, France and Russia; the other was the Triple Alliance, composed of Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and Italy. Each camp had a special interest to guard. The Triple Entente guarded the British interests, so that international finance and the overseas international commerce of the world would remain under British control. The Triple Alliance was safeguarding the completion and successful operation of the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system, which was planned to run from Berlin, Germany, through Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, across the Dardanelles into Turkey, terminating at Bagdad. If completed and successfully operated, that transcontinental railroad system would have tapped an unlimited quantity of natural resources and would have started in Europe and Asia Minor an industrial and commercial boom, a like of which Europe and Asia Minor had never experienced. No one can readily understand the background of and the underlying reasons and motives for the World War and the reasons for the present world chaos, unless one knows the history of the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system and the international problems, difficulties, struggles and intrigues that arose from it. The members of the human family, it seems, are divided into two main groups: one group is composed of creators and builders, while the

other group is composed of leeches and parasites that live on the sweat and blood of the former group. Between these two groups there is a constant struggle, and this struggle sometimes is calm and unnoticeable, while at other times it is fierce, bloody and deadly. You can see this struggle every day, read of it every day and dream of it every night. At one time the builders and creators are feverishly at work to create the necessities of life for the use and enjoyment of their fellow men, while the leeches and parasites are patiently biding their time and preparing to pounce upon the creators to take away from them the results of their labor. The farmers arduously till the soil and, cooperating with the very God of Creation, raise crops and food in abundance, so that their fellow men may eat, live and be happy; and when the crops are harvested and the life-giving food is stored, the leeches and parasites appear and deprive the farmers of the fruits of their labor. At other times, when their own stomachs are full and their coffers replete, the leeches and parasites conspire against God and man, and they pay the farmers charity or "relief" money for not plowing and for not raising crops, and, as a result, their fellow men do not have sufficient food to eat; expectant mothers do not have enough nourishment for their unborn children; children already born lack adequate nourishment; and millions of men, women and children virtually suffer from starvation. At other times builders of industries, manufacturers of food, clothing, furniture and other necessities of life patiently work to supply their fellow men with their needs, so that they may have food, clothing, shelter and other conveniences of life; and then the leeches and parasites appear, reverse the gears of industry and throw an entire country and even the entire world into economic and political chaos, so that men, women and children may suffer want, privation and starvation. You see evidence of this every day right here in our own country. The American farmers, if they were permitted, would be able to raise enough food to feed the people of one-half of the world; yet one-half of the 125,000,000 American people are virtually hungry, not because God is not good to us, not because God has refused to send us rain and sunshine, not because God through the American farmers is unwilling to create, but because the leeches and parasites have decreed that one-half of the American people must suffer or starve. American labor, -- and there is none better in the world, -- is willing and able to create all the necessities of life for the American people, and even much more; but the leeches and parasites have decreed that the American factories must be shut down and kept idle, so that production may be curtailed and the American people be deprived of their necessities of life. The leeches and parasites and their hirelings shout and lie that there is "over production" of everything, when the fact is that more than one-half of the American people are either ill-supplied or not supplied at all with the most immediate necessities of life. The result is that the needy and the hungry men, women and children are fighting sometimes, unfortunately, their own kind, their fellow builders and creators, their industrialists and local bankers who are also handicapped by the same leeches and parasites. The struggle between the creators and builders and the leeches and parasites is as old as man. God has always been and still is on the side of the creators and builders, because He Himself is a creator and a builder. God has spoken at various times and in various ways

against the attempt to cheat Him and men and He has, at times, meted out dire punishments to those who were bent upon crucifying mankind upon the cross of greed, need and hunger. When offerings of decaying food, lame and sick lambs were brought to the Lord, when men, women and children were condemned to want, suffering and starvation, the Lord God of hosts spoke the words that today are preached, (if they are not, they should be preached), from every pulpit. He said that man must give the best there is in him, so that he may have. He warned that the conspiracy against God and men will have dire consequences: Elijah will come, heralding the great and dreadful day of the Lord. Open your Bible to the Book of Malachi in the Old Testament and in the quiet of your home spend a few minutes with the Lord; converse with Him as a son would converse with a father; learn from the words of the Lord how He wants us, his children, to live by giving, creating and building, so that "the Sun of righteousness may arise with healing in His wings" and "the hearts of the fathers may turn to their children and the hearts of the children may turn to their fathers." In other words, we should attempt to live so that the kingdom of God may be actually realized on this earth. Read the Book of Malachi, Chapter 3. The Lord God of hosts speaks: 7. "Return unto me, and I will return unto you, said the Lord God of hosts. But ye said, Wherein shall we return? 8. "Will a man rob God? Yet ye have robbed me. But ye say, Wherein have we robbed thee? In tithes and offerings. 9. "Ye are cursed with a curse: for ye have robbed me, even this whole nation. 10. "Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, that there may be meat in mine house, and prove me now herewith, said the Lord of hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing, that there shall not be room enough to receive it. 11. "And I will rebuke the devourer for your sakes, and he shall not destroy the fruits of your ground; neither shall your vine cast her fruit before the time in the field, saith the Lord of hosts." The Lord did not say that He wants the farmers to plow under the crop which they and the Lord have brought forth, did He? The Lord did not say that the farmers should kill the little piggies, so that there would be less pork for God's children, did He? The Lord did not say that the factories should be closed down, kept idle and men thrown out of work, the machinery should rust so that there may be less food, clothing, shelter and conveniences of life for the use and enjoyment of God's children, did He? The Lord did not say that He loves those leeches and parasites who create shortage of food and other necessities of life, did He? The Lord did not say that He wants for Himself the fruit of the labor of his children, did He? The Lord did not say that He wants his children to suffer want or starvation on this earth, did He? Just keep your Bible open yet a little while and harken to the Lord, as He speaks. He tells you that when He is robbed, "even this whole nation" is robbed. He wants food, clothing

and other necessities of life on this earth, not for Himself but for his children. He tells the creators and builders, in Chapter 4, verse 9: "Ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet." The struggle of the creators and builders thus continues against the leeches and parasites, under the divine injunction of the Lord Creator; and it shall continue until "the sun of righteousness arises with healing in his wings," when there shall be sufficient food, clothing and necessities of life for God's children on this earth below. The history of the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad reveals clearly this struggle between the group in Europe, that wanted and still wants to open up the vast natural resources of Europe and Asia Minor for the use and benefit of mankind, and the group that wants to rob God and deprive his children of the very things He has created and provided for them. I do not recite the entire history of the great project and, therefore, suggest that you read Earle's interesting and instructive book, "Turkey, the Great Powers and the Bagdad Railway"; Professor G. R. Usher's "Pan-Germanism"; Professor E. R. Turner's "Europe Since 1870"; and F. Neilson's "How Diplomats Make War." The rapid and successive events transpiring in Europe all revolve around the BerlinBagdad Railroad; and it is no longer a prohibited secret and you should know that American industry, labor, commerce and people are all affected by the unsettled problems of the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad. You hear charges and counter charges against this and that nation; you hear the leeches and parasites and their agents shouting for war and blood; you may be called upon to march onto a foreign battlefield, to fight, bleed and die; you may be called upon to sacrifice your sons and daughters in a bloody and devastating war; and, if and when this happens, you will know why you are offering the supreme sacrifice. The history of the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad system briefly is this: The English and French governments, in cooperation with English and French financiers, worked out a plan for a transcontinental railroad system in Europe, which would run from Berlin, Germany, through Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, across the Dardanelles into and through Turkey, ending at Bagdad. A railroad line running from Paris would connect with the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad system at Vienna, Austria. The English and French governments tried to interest the German government in the plan, but Chancellor Bismarck of Germany, at first, refused to interest the German government in the plan. Bismarck, no doubt, saw clearly in advance the international struggle and complications that would follow, when the plan of the railroad would be put into operation. The main trunk line of the railroad would connect the local lines of the railroads of virtually every country in continental Europe, in Turkey and Asia Minor, and it would open up an enormous quantity of the natural resources in Europe, Turkey and Asia Minor. Its successful operation would, no doubt, start an industrial and commercial boom in Europe and Asia Minor on an unprecedently large scale in that part of the world. The

main difficulty with the plan, as Bismarck must have foreseen and as it has so gruesomely come to pass, was that the main trunk line had to run through a number of countries, some of them friendly and some of them unfriendly. Financiers who were interested in steamship lines and other modes of transportation certainly would attack the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad plan, incite the people of the countries, through which it was planned to run, and thus make traveling and shipments unsafe on that railroad. To assure the safe and unmolested operation of that railroad, it was necessary to solidify into one block and under one central control all the countries that were to be traversed by it. You may recall how the American railroad builders had to struggle, before they succeeded in building up an American transcontinental railroad system that could operate safely and profitably. And, although the American railroads traversed not a foot of foreign territory, we had to have the slogan, "The mail must go through!" In some of the states even clergymen preached against it and called it the instrument of the Devil, as if the Devil had ever created anything useful and beneficial to mankind! You no doubt remember how some of the clergymen branded the automobile, when it made its first appearance, as a vehicle of the very Devil himself, though at the present time the same clergymen make use of it, if they can afford it, because it is a gift of God for the use and enjoyment of his children. If this happened in this country, what might be expected in the less civilized Balkan countries, which the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad was intended to traverse? The English and French governments later abandoned the plan of the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system, whereupon German financiers, with some encouragement given by the German government, undertook to complete it. The agents of English and French steamship companies then began to agitate against the railroad plan. Politics, race hatred and even religion were brought into the fight. To alienate the Turkish people from the Germans, it was authoritatively stated that only French missionaries were ordained by God to save the souls of the Turks and that the heathen Turks would surely find themselves in hot water, if they would permit German missionaries to save their souls. The Balkan countries were transformed into a veritable madhouse of propaganda, intrigues and crime. And all this, because a main railroad trunk line was to run across Europe and start the people of that continent on the road to economic development, prosperity, happiness and contentment. The government of England and the international financiers, parking in England and operating under the English flag, developed a stiff opposition to the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system. It was feared by England that the completion and successful operation of that railroad system would jeopardize the English control of international finance and overseas world commerce. The French government joined the English government in its opposition to the railroad, and these two governments formed an alliance against Germany and agreed to dispute every inch of ground which that railroad was to traverse. So there was Germany with the English and French plan for the railroad on her hand, now facing the opposition of the combined forces of England and France.

Another potent and dangerous opposition developed against the railroad plan from Russia. Russia is spread over a much larger territory than that of the United States of America, yet she had no seaport that would be open throughout the year. Although Russia is bordered by a large expanse of water, yet she woefully lacks good harbors. Archangel, the principal port of the White Sea, from which there is an outlet into the North Sea, is icebound for nine months, and the Baltic ports are also icebound four or five months of each year. Russia tried to obtain an all-year-round ice-free port in the Far East; but in the Russo-Japanese War her effort was defeated. The Black Sea could be used for a convenient Russian seaport, if the Dardanelles, which connects the Black Sea with the Mediterranean Sea, could be available for passage of Russian ships to the Mediterranean Sea; and Russia was determined to obtain control of the Dardanelles which was in the possession and control of Turkey. The Berlin-Bagdad Railroad was planned to cross the Dardanelles at Constantinople, which coincidence brought Russia into the English and French alliance, forming the Triple Entente against Germany. Here was a situation, wherein Russia, a country covering an area larger than all the other European countries together and occupying about one-sixth of the land upon the globe, did not possess a single suitable seaport; and at the same time Germany was trying to put through a transcontinental railroad in Europe. The Russian plan, if realized, would have aided tremendously the economic development of Russia; the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad would have started Europe on the road to an industrial and commercial boom; and both plans would have been mutually beneficial to Russia and Europe, if not the entire world. Yet the intersection of these two plans became and has remained to this day the most dangerous plague of Europe and the world. If you draw a line from the Black Sea through the middle of the Dardanelles straight to the Mediterranean Sea and another line across the Dardanelles at Constantinople, you will have the point of intersection of the two lines. That point of intersection was in 1914 and still is the most dangerous spot in Europe, if not in the world. It is not a secret that England and France had vigorously opposed the Russian plan to obtain control of the Dardanelles, because it was feared that the Russian fleet and commerce on the high seas would endanger British and French international financial and commercial interests; yet England and France had succeeded in inveigling Russia into the English-French camp against Germany. Germany had no specific desire to prevent Russia from having an all-year-round open seaport and the Czar of Russia had no specific desire to prevent the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad from going through and crossing the Dardanelles. This is evidenced by the fact that, in November of 1910, the Emperor of Germany and the Czar of Russia met at Potsdam, had breakfast together, and quietly discussed this vexing problem. The two rulers agreed that both plans would be beneficial to both Russia and Europe, and, therefore, both should go through. It was, therefore, decided that Russia abandon her plan of obtaining control of the Dardanelles, so that the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad could go through without any interference on the part of Russia; and that Russia could have a "sphere of influence" in Persia and run a railroad through that country to the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea, thus solving Russia's problem for a convenient seaport. The two

monarchs went back home, feeling that they had solved the two most vexatious problems of Europe without spilling a single drop of blood, and, as a result, Russia and Europe were on the verge of an economic and commercial boom. But England, France and some of the high politicians and diplomats of Russia vigorously opposed this plan. An intensive and terrifying campaign of anti-German agitation was started under the name and pretext of "Pan-Slavism." Throughout Europe the Slavs were urged to unite under the benign protecting wing of the "little father," the Czar of Russia; that all the Slavs should unite into one great empire; but in reality the purpose in that proposed union and the reason behind the agitation was to bring under the control of Russia all the Balkan countries bordering on the Black Sea, the Dardanelles and the countries through which the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad was planned to pass. The ultimate aim in the agitation, of course, was to force Germany into a war with Russia, France and England, in which Germany was expected to be defeated and the plan of the BerlinBagdad Railroad definitely discarded. The method used by Russia, France and England to force Germany into a general European war was similar to the method you see in operation almost every day of your life. If your vile enemies want to get you into trouble, they try to "get you" through your wife. If your wife is wise and does not fall for the intrigue of your enemies, then they try to accomplish their purpose by embarrassing you through your children. If they fail in this, then they try to trick you into trouble by attacking your best friends. We shall show further on how Russia, France and England planned to force Germany into a general European war by first attacking Austria-Hungary who were the allies of Germany; therefore, with this view in mind, the "heat" was turned on Austria and Hungary to force them into a war. An unrestrained agitation was carried on in Poland, Roumania and Serbia against Austria-Hungary, the agitated countries bordering on Austria and Hungary. Later on in a more virulent form the agitation was carried straight into the territory of AustriaHungary, and it was continued there in the form of terror. The people especially in Hungary were terrorized and the situation became so bad that life and property were not safe in Hungary. In a package transmitted through the mail a timed bomb was sent to one of the leading Catholic Bishops in Hungary, which when unwrapped, exploded, killing and maiming several persons. This campaign of terror was a serious interference in the internal affairs of Austria-Hungary and it violated every principle of international friendship and decency. The directors of the campaign of terror knew what they were doing and well informed persons knew that war in the Balkans was inevitable. You may overlook the prank of your neighbor who throws rubber balls into your home through the window; but when he insists upon throwing firebrands, liquid fire and dynamite into your sitting room, sooner or later you will show resentment by going out and by some means restraining your mischievous neighbor from destroying your home, together with the members of your family. Countries usually do the same thing. When the United States battleship, the "Maine," was blown up, we sent our Atlantic fleet and army to Cuba and "cleaned up" the mess there. When the Mexican bandit, Pancho Villa, sallied into United States territory, robbed and killed American soldiers and citizens, we sent an American

army into Mexico in pursuit. When the Mexican government refused to salute the American flag, we sent the American marines to Vera Cruz and told them to stay there, until the American flag was saluted by the Mexican government. What the directors of the terror that was carried into Hungary wanted was to force Austria-Hungary to strike back at the countries from which the terror was directed. It was known then and we know now that the campaign of terror directed against AustriaHungary was financed by Russia and France, acquiesced in by England, and was directed from Serbia, where the Black Hand society had its headquarters. We know now and shall produce ample evidence later on in this book to show that Raymond Poincar, the Prime Minister of France, was in a conspiracy with Izvolski, the Russian Ambassador to France, to force the outbreak of a general European war and to force Germany into it. In November of 1912 Poincar told the Russian government that it could go to the limit in the Balkans and that, if war should break out, France would come to the aid of Russia. Encouraged by the promise of Poincar, the Russian government urged the Serbian leaders to more feverish activity to keep alive the intrigue against Austria-Hungary.{1} It was definitely agreed upon and decided by Poincar and Izvolski that the Balkans should be the scene of the desired war. Money was poured into Balkan countries to keep the cauldron of intrigues boiling and to intensify race prejudice and international hatred. Large sums of Russian money were thrown into France to bribe the French press to adulterate the truth and to print such news and editorials as would mislead the French people as to the actual condition then existing in Balkan countries. Bribe money was distributed to French newspapers by Poincar and his right-hand men, Tardieu, Berthelot and others; so the fact was that these leaders of the French government used Russian money for the purpose of prostituting the newspapers of France to mislead the very people who had elected them to their high offices.{2} The reason Poincar, his fellow members of the French government, and Izvolski, the Russian Ambassador, bribed and corrupted the French press was that they did not dare to provoke and precipitate a war until French public opinion was poisoned sufficiently to become favorable to a Balkan war. The diabolical plot of Poincar and Izvolski finally succeeded and in 1912 the Balkan war actually broke out; but it was localized and consequently petered out, because public opinion in France was not favorable for a Balkan war and public opinion in England definitely opposed it. French and Russian political leaders got cold feet; neither AustriaHungary nor Germany was drawn into the conflict; and the infernal plot of Poincar and Izvolski had failed for the time being.{3} The failure of the Balkan war to develop into a general European war did not discourage Poincar and Izvolski; they determined to continue their plans until it succeeded to provoke and precipitate a general European war. Poincar decided to resign his office of Prime Minister and to have himself elected President of France, so that he might have full control of the foreign policies of France. He told the French people that he wanted to take Alsace-Lorraine away from Germany and that life was not worth living, unless AlsaceLorraine was returned to France. At the same time he accepted large sums of money from

the Russian government for the purpose of bribing French newspapers and corrupting members of the French government and Parliament, in order to secure his election to the French presidency. He believed that as President, with the aid of the bribed press, he would be in a better and more commanding position to mould French public opinion so that it might become more favorable toward a war; and that in the high office of President he would be better able to swing the English government to support France and Russia in a general European war, in which Germany was expected to be defeated, the BerlinBagdad Railroad destroyed, and the Dardanelles taken away from Turkey and given to Russia. In order to attain the office of the presidency of France and to enjoy the emoluments thereof, Poincar became the briber and corrupter of the French press and politicians, the betrayer of his own people, and the grave digger of European peace. In return for the bribe money given him by the Russian government, he conspired with Russian officials to provoke and precipitate the World War to defeat Germany and Austria-Hungary and to prevent the completion and successful operation of the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad. It is no wonder that on the 6th of October, 1922, Vaillant Couturier, one of the members of the French Parliament, rose from his seat and, pointing his accusing fingers toward Poincar, quoting the words of the French critical historian, Renauld, said: "Mr. Poincar, it is you and your politics we have to thank for the fact that the French soil to the extent of 600 kilometers has been converted into one huge cemetery. You may therefore claim the renown of being Europe's paramount grave digger."{4}

And Georges Louis, the French Ambassador to Russia, who well knew Poincar, said to Ernest Judet: "This man, Poincar, is the blackest scoundrel and the greatest criminal of the century."{5} In the next chapter you will learn how the French press, members of the government and Parliament and politicians were bribed and corrupted to secure the election of Poincar to the French presidency and to prepare French public opinion for the World War.
1 H. E. Barnes' "The Genesis of the World War," p. 80; M. Bogitschevich's "The Cause of the War"; E. Durham's "The Serajevo Crime." 2 "The Genesis of the World War," pp. 84-85; Morel's "Secret History of the Great Betrayal." 3 "Genesis of the World War," pp. 1-150; Stieve's "Der Diplomatische Schriftwechsel Izvolakis," 1911-1914; Roger's "The French President" in "Foreign Affairs," in "Political Science Quarterly," December, 1925; Barthlemy's "The Government of France," Chaps.

VI, VIII; "Le President Poincar"; Earl's "Turkey, the Great Powers and the Bagdad Railway," p. 266 et seq; Stieve's "Izvolski im Weltkriege," p. 213. 4 "Corruption of the French Press by Russian Bribes," by "Fichte Association" (Fichte Bund), p. 2. 5 "Izvolski and Poincar, Provokers of the Great War," Ibid. p. 1.

5 THE CORRUPTION OF THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT AND PRESS You now know that prior to the outbreak of the World War in 1914 Europe was divided into two camps: the Triple Entente, composed of England, France and Russia, and the Triple Alliance, composed of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; that the basic and fundamental issue between the two camps was the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad system, which was favored by the Triple Alliance and opposed by the Triple Entente; that Russia was planning to take the Dardanelles away from Turkey and use it as a passageway for Russian ships from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea; that the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad plan crossed the Russian plan but that the Emperor of Germany and the Czar of Russia had settled that issue amicably, which settlement was opposed by England, France and high Russian government officials; that the Triple Entente remained adamant in its determination to prevent the completion and operation of the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad and, with that view in mind, the French and Russian governments definitely decided to provoke and precipitate a Balkan war and to force Germany to fight; that in 1912 the Balkan war broke out but that the French, English and Russian politicians got cold feet, the war was localized and it petered out before Germany could be forced into it; and that Poincar, the Prime Minister of France, and Izvolski, the Russian Ambassador to France, definitely determined to incite the Balkan people against Austria-Hungary and Germany and to corrupt members of the French government and French politicians and to bribe the French press, so that it could, in turn, mislead the French people and mould their opinions in favor of a general European war. You will now be shown how members of the French government, politicians and the press were bribed and corrupted with the intention of provoking and precipitating a general European war. You will learn what actually happened in France and what can happen in a country which is ruled by corruptible and unscrupulous men, and how unfortunate it is for a people whose newspapers are owned, edited and published by men who, for financial gain, mislead and deceive their readers. You have been told that Poincar, the Prime Minister of France, and Izvolski, the Russian Ambassador to France, were the chief conspirators in the camp of the Triple Entente. These two men refrained from nothing that they considered necessary to provoke and precipitate a general European war and to force Germany and Austria-Hungary into it. We know now from official documents found in the Russian State Archives that as far

back as 1909 there was an agreement between France and Russia to the effect that in the event Russia would help Serbia in a war on Austria-Hungary and Germany, France would come to the assistance of Russia. This is verified by the written report sent by Izvolski to the Russian government in 1909, the last sentence of which was the following:{1} Paris, March 16, 1909 "The French Government fully realizes the extent of its obligations towards us and will fulfill its duty at the moment when the national honor of Russia in Serbia is pledged against Austria -- but how will the French people take it? Will they find satisfaction in seeing peace endangered by Serbia and in the prospect of war against Germany?" Izvolski In the same report he discussed the ways and means of misleading and deceiving the French people and of changing their opinion in favor of a European war; and he forthwith advised the Russian government to spend money freely for the purpose of bribing and corrupting French Politicians and the French press by purchasing their silence. In his own words: "The question is to render neutral the papers hostile to Poincar's warlike policy to purchase their silence and thus prepare for war." Money was poured into France from Russia for the purpose of corruption; but it was found that it required a more or less steady stream of money to keep the palms of French politicians and editors well greased. In October, 1912, Izvolski needed more money to grease the gears of the French press, so he sent an urgent message to the Russian Foreign Minister and pleaded for more money. He said:{2} Paris, October 23, 1912

"Some months ago I wrote you as well as Kokovzeff about the absolute necessity of providing further funds for the purpose of influencing the French press. As I personally have very little experience in such matters, I have conferred with Privy Counsellor Raffalovitch, who is familiar with such questions and who proposes the following scheme: To immediately provide for that purpose 300,000 Francs and to entrust Lenior with the distribution, as the latter has managed previous distributions. It is very important not to undertake anything without consulting Poincar. French statesmen are very apt in deals of this sort." Izvolski The plea of Izvolski was acted upon immediately by the Russian government and it sent its Departmental Chief, Davidoff, to France to find out actually how much more money

was needed for bribery and corruption. Poincar was already a candidate for the French presidency and much money was needed to bribe members of the French Chamber of Deputies to support and vote for Poincar as president. It will be recalled that in France not the people but the members of the Chamber of Deputies elect the President of France. Davidoff arrived in Paris on October 29, 1912, and discussed with key persons the necessity and amount of bribe money; and, then, when he was satisfied as to the amount and the necessity therefor, on October 30, 1912, he sent the following telegram to the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs:{3}

"Summary of my conference with Poincar and Russian Ambassador. Further credit of 300,000 francs for quick pressinterventions as soon as same becomes necessary. This is reasonable and I accepted subject to referring to you." Davidoff In the same telegram Davidoff advised the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs that Poincar will arrange "tomorrow" with his trusted man, "Lenoir," the matter of bribery and that Perchot, a (French) radical politician and newspaperman will have to be taken care of, because he was making too much trouble for Poincar. Said Davidoff:

"At our request, Poincar will sketch with Lenoir tomorrow the plan of organization of this service" (to bribe politicians and newspaper editors) "when started. Poincar also asks me to receive Perchot and try to quiet him, as his campaign in the radical party is becoming troublesome to Poincard and the Alliance." The French politicians and newspapermen were decidedly gluttonous in the matter of bribes and, once their appetite was whetted, they wanted more. Before the 300,000 francs arrived from Russia, Izvolski found that he needed 30,000 francs more to oil the machinery of corruption. His Privy Counsellor dispatched a telegram to the Russian government, in which he asked that the 300,000 francs be sent forthwith and an additional 30,000 francs also be sent to be disposed of by Izvolski himself. The telegram was as follows:{4} Paris, Nov. 30, 1912 "Imperial Ambassador (Izvolski) opines to place credit balance at disposal of financial agent for press without haggling. Wire consent. Ambassador demands further 30,000 francs for direct distribution without anyone except himself ever knowing the names." Raffalovitch

The 300,000 francs and the additional 30,000 francs were sent to Paris by the Russian government and we know from the records of the Russian Minister of Finance what became of the money and who received it. The 30,000 francs were paid to Klotz, the French Minister of Finance, and the 300,000 were distributed among politicians and newspapermen. The report to Sazanoff, the Russian Minister of Finance, disclosed the following:{5} "Raffalovitch" (the Privy Counsellor of Izvolski) "wires me that further sum of 75,000 francs should be placed at the disposal of the "French Minister of Finance for future disbursements." Klotz must have been a very nice "Frenchman" and equally fine Minister of Finance, though his name does not sound very Frenchy. He must have been well versed in getting the money and he appears not to have been very squeamish as to the purpose for which it was spent. What a government the French people had in 1912! Raffalovitch, the Russian Privi Counsellor at the Russian Embassy in Paris, reported to his chief, Izvolski, that Klotz was on the job in the matter of bribery and that he instructed Lenoir, the mouthpiece of Poincar, how to proceed with the bribe. The report said:{6} Paris, December 11, 1912 "I have already informed your Excellency that Lenoir, at the instigation of Klotz, who herein is Poincar's mouthpiece, has pledged himself firmly towards the journals 'L'Aurore,' 'Lanterne,' 'Radical,' etc. -- as well as to certain directors of journals having but small editions but great influence in politics." Raffalovitch But Klotz, the French Minister of Finance, wanted more money and he did not hesitate to let the Russian government know about it. Clemenceau's paper, the "L'Aurore," and Millerand's "Lanterne" and others had to be greased still further and the Russian government was urged to send another 100,000 francs to Paris for more bribery. Raffalovitch went to St. Petersburg, Russia, and filed with Davidoff, the Russian Minister of Finance, the following report:{7} "Yesterday I reported to Kokovzeff roughly (grosso modo) about the interview with Klotz. If my telegram surprised you, I was still more astonished when he, Klotz, categorically expressed the wish to receive further 100,000 francs for December and January at the disposal of Lenoir. I observed to him that for our money we should get at least decent value. Even if we were willing in case of need to make payments to such journals as 'L'Aurore' (Clemenceau's paper), the 'Lanterne' (Millerand's paper) and similar ones, I felt diffident about 'La France,' 'L'Evnement.' He replied that a mere 30,000 francs would make but little impression on the papers, and

that their rapaciousness would only be enhanced. It would be more advisable to influence the publishers or the editors of the papers. These always have a large following in parliament." Izvolski In the meantime the campaign of terror directed against Austria-Hungary and Germany was proceeding full blast. The Hungarians in their own country were insulted, their life and property were jeopardized and an infernal machine was sent to one of the Bishops in Hungary, which exploded, maiming and killing several persons. Austria attempted to bring the government of Serbia, whence the terror came, to reason and to conclude a treaty, in which Serbia would guarantee a friendly attitude toward Austria-Hungary; but, egged on by France and Russia and encouraged from England, the Serbian government refused to stop the terror directed from Serbia. It was rumored that war was inevitable. The dutiful and ever accommodating French Minister of Finance, Klotz, reached out his palm for more bribe money. Public opinion in France was still unsatisfactory for war and the gears of politics and of the French press were getting dry and squeaky. Verily, more bribe money was needed, because French mothers were still unconvinced that their sons should die in a war which was not the concern of the French people. Klotz wanted from the Russian government another 100,000 francs and Raffalovitch made the following report concerning it to the Russian Prime Minister:{8} "The sequel to Serbia's refusal to conclude a treaty with Austria to maintain friendly terms will be the occupation of Belgrad and a European war. Under these circumstances the Ambassador thinks 100,000 francs, more or less, would not matter, and that these should be placed at Klotz' disposal for the end of January. Izvolski asked for money in order to hand it over to a number of journalists."

R a f f a l o v i t c h In July, 1912, Poincar looked over the horizon and noticed that the time was about favorable for war. He got into consultation with Izvolski, the Russian Ambassador, and assured him that a little more Russian money was required this time to bathe the French

politicians and editors in bribe money. Listen to the secret report made by Izvolski to his government in Russia:{9} Strictly secret

Paris, July 21, 1912 "After having read the memorandum of the War Minister and after my report with commentary, M. Poincar admitted that at no time had the extraordinary international situation and political constellation appeared so favorable to the Allies as at the present. From that interview I gained the impression that M. Poincar agrees with us in every respect and considers the moment had at last arrived for realizing the aims of our traditional policy and to restore the balance of power in Europe by the recovery of the lost provinces of Alsace-Lorraine. "The greatest difficulty is anticipated by Poincar on the part of the Radical-Socialists who were averse to any war, but particularly to a war originating in the Balkans. That party embraces a number of capable heads and controls a considerable number of deputies and papers. M. Poincar thinks, the same as I, that in order to silence that party, heavy sacrifices on our part will be necessary. I scarcely venture to name the amount:

Three Million Francs


of which 250,000 francs alone for the 'Radical,' the organ of Senator Perchot. I suggest to distribute these subsidies in monthly rates so as to make sure of the papers' accommodativeness at any moment." I z v o l s k i

Money had no odor. What difference did it make to French politicians and newspaper editors what political faith they preached and on what political platform they were elected to office! What did they care how much French blood would have to flow, how many French soldiers would have to be maimed and killed in a war! For money they were willing to betray their own countrymen and to bring a terrible tragedy upon the world. The time for the election of the President of France was drawing near, and Poincar was a

candidate for that office. If elected, he would be in a much better position, than as a Prime Minister, to control the foreign policies of France. As President, he would appoint the Minister for Foreign Affairs and would be able to control him. In addition he would have more prestige with the government of England and it would be easier for him to help the English government to mould public opinion in England, that would be favorable to a war even if it broke out in the Balkans. But the election was an expensive proposition, because there were members of the Chamber of Deputies, who had to be bribed. Senator Perchot was vigorously attacking in his paper, the "Radical," the policies of Poincar and opposed close alliance with Russia; therefore it was necessary to silence the militant Perchot and his paper. Poincar turned to Izvolski for financial help and Izvolski frantically sent his telegrams to the Russian government asking for more money to bribe the French press and members of the French Senate and Chamber of Deputies in order to further the candidacy and election of Poincar. The date of election was January 4, 1913 (old style), and on January 3, 1913, Izvolski sent the following telegram to the Russian government:{10} Paris, January 3, 1913 "Poincar asked me to draw your attention to the Perchot affair, which continues to be a source of anxiety to him. He says that arrangement with the Russian Bank mentioned in Perchot's letter to V. Kokovtov is at present under consideration in the Finance Ministry, and that he hopes that you will make a point of working for a satisfactory settlement. I learn from an entirely trustworthy source that it is very important to Poincar that the affair shall be disposed of by January 4 (old style), the date of the election, for Perchot can do a great deal of harm in this election. I am of the opinion that it is to our interest to give Poincar's candidature this assistance." I z v o l s k i

Provisions had been made to bribe, corrupt and influence every shade and manner of French politician and newspaper to insure the election of Poincar to the French presidency. At the same time politicians and newspapers were bribed and corrupted to incite the French people to war. Professor H. E. Barnes sums up this almost incredible corruption in France, as follows:{11} "Not only was it necessary to get money from Russia to aid Poincar in becoming President of France; Russian gold was also essential in the campaign to bribe and corrupt the French press, so that the French people might come to have the same enthusiasm for a

war over the Balkans as that possessed by Poincar and his associates. Consistently through 1912 and 1913 Izvolski wrote or telegraphed home for Russian money to bribe the French editors and writers to prepare articles, news and editorials designed to frighten or incense the French public." That the Russian bribe money was well and widely distributed among politicians and newspaper editors with satisfactory result is indicated in the report which Izvolski made to his government. According to his report, the French Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Finance had performed their part in the plot of bribery and corruption. Said Izvolski:{12} "To secure this attitude I am at present doing my utmost to influence the press. In this certain substantial results have been attained, thanks to the timely adoption of the needed measures. As you know, I am taking no direct part in the distribution of subsidies (bribes). But this distribution, in which French Ministers (the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Finances) are concerned, appears to be effectual in every case, and has already produced the needed result. For my part I am taking special pains to influence by personal intervention the most important of the Paris papers, such as the 'Temps,' the 'Journal de Debats,' the 'Echo de Paris,' and so on. On the whole there can be no comparison between the tone of the Paris Press at present and during the 1908-9 crisis. The attitude of the 'Temps' is especially noteworthy: four years ago it was remarkable for its violent advocacy of Austria, while at present M. Tardieu is energetically attacking the Austrian policy in its columns." To be sure, there was nothing so influential as the well oiled French press. That was well demonstrated when the election of the French president was held. Poincar was easily elected and two weeks later Izvolski elatedly reported to the Russian government that President Poincar desired to see him often. Said Izvolski:{13} "I have just had a long talk with Poincar. He told me that in his capacity of President of the Republic it would be perfectly possible for him directly to influence France's foreign policy. He will not fail to take advantage of this during his seven years of office to assure the permanence of a policy based on close harmony with Russia. He also expressed the hope that he would continue to see me often, and asked me to go direct to him in every case in which I felt it desirable. . . . As he put it, it is of the greatest importance to the French government to have the opportunity of preparing French public opinion in advance for participation in war which might break out over the Balkans." In other words, the greasing of the palms of French politicians and newspaper editors had to be continued, if the French people were to be induced to favor a Balkan war or any war. We now examine how the Russian bribe money was distributed, and the report of Raffalovitch, who was Paris representative of the Russian Ministry of Finance. It will be recalled that politicians and members of the French government were owners of a number of newspapers and, therefore, the corruption of those newspapers was at the same time

the corruption of their politician-owners. The following are two of the reports of Raffalovitch:{14} Strictly secret

Paris, Nov. 7, 1913 "As per arrangement with M. Davidoff I beg to enclose 27 cheques (receipts) totaling 100,000 francs, that have been remitted to me by the party entrusted with the distribution: 'La Laterne' . . . . . 42,000 frs. 'La France' . . . . . 11,000 frs. 'L'Aurore' . . . . . . 17,000 frs. 'Le Rappel' . . . . . 7,000 frs. 'L'Evnement' . . . 11,000 frs. 'Le Journal' . . . . . 1,000 frs. 'L'Action' . . . . . . . 9,000 frs. 'Le Gil Blas' . . . . . 2,000 frs. "All the papers mentioned here are exclusively organs of the Radical-Socialist Party. It must be borne in mind that the apportionment of the first monthly rate as well as of the second, has been accomplished exclusively by the French Government without any interference on our part." A . R a f f a l o v i t c h

In this official document you find the indisputable evidence that color or creed was no protection against bribery in France. The radical papers and politicians told their readers and voters that they were interested in the protection of the little man, the workers, their wives and children; yet here we have the evidence that they, too, were bought up with Russian bribe money and, like Judas of old, they betrayed the very people they pretended to serve. In addition we have incontrovertible evidence, showing that the French

government, whose duty it was to protect all of the people of France, acted as the chief seducer, briber and corrupter, and the chief betrayer of the French people. On November 19, 1913, Raffalovitch made a second report of the disbursement of the bribe money sent to Paris from Russia and in that report he details how another batch of 419,000 francs was distributed among the newspapers of the higher French politicians:{15} " 'Le Radical' (second payment) Perchot's paper 'Le Figaro' 'La Lanterne' (Millerand's paper) 'Le Temps' 'La Libre Parole' 'L'Aurore' (second payment) Clemenceau's paper 'Le Gaulois' 'Le Libert' 54,000 francs 25,000 francs 30,000 francs" 35,000 francs 50,000 francs 80,000 francs 120,000 francs 25,000 francs

Here you see that Senator Perchot's wounded feelings were healed and he did not have to oppose Poincar any more. His hands and palms were well greased and no more reason was left for him to oppose a war. Millerand and Clemenceau were also sufficiently oiled, the horizon cleared up, and Poincar could easily read in the stars the messages of the angels of death. Poincar and Izvolski now had a clear and unobstructed way to lead the French people into a war. Before leaving this subject, it would be impolite for us to ignore the ever-accommodating briber and corrupter, Klotz, the French Minister of Finance. In 1928 he was convicted on the charge of forgery and sentenced to a long term of imprisonment, in consequence whereof he retired from politics. Now that the French politicians and the French press had been bribed and corrupted and the French public were fed daily with false and poisonous lies of anti-Austrian and German propaganda, Poincar and Izvolski were able to devote much of their time and

attention to the Balkans and to speed up their plot to provoke and precipitate a war and force Austria-Hungary and Germany to fight. In the next chapter you will be told how the plot worked and how the World War was provoked and precipitated. In the meantime it will be well for you to remember that it was these men you met in this chapter who told us, the American people, that France, Russia and England "were fighting to save the world for democracy."

1 "Corruption of the French Press by Russian Bribes," by Fichte Association, p. 1. 2 Stieve's "Der Diplomatische Shriftwechsel Izvolskis," 1911-1914; "Corruption of the French Press by Russian Bribes," p. 1; "The Genesis of the World War," p. 124. 3 "Corruption of the French Press by Russian Bribes," p. 1; "Genesis of the World War," p. 122. 4 "Corruption of the French Press by Russian Bribes," p. 1. 5 Ibid, p. 1. 6 Ibid, p. 1. 7 Ibid, p. 1. 8 Ibid, p. 1. 9 Ibid, p. 1. 10 "The Genesis of the World War," p 116, et seq; Stieve's "Der Diplomatische Schriftwechsel Izvolskis," 1911-1914. 11 "The Genesis of the World War," p. 119. 12 Ibid, pp. 122-3. 13 Ibid, p. 118. 14 "Corruption of the French Press by Russian Bribes," p. 2. 15 Ibid, p. 2; "The Genesis of the World War," pp. 123-4.

Table salt production in countries neighboring Hungary. Not a pinch of table salt was left for Hungary. -Redrawn from Dr. L. Buday's "Dismembered Hungary."

This is the small brook, "Ronyva," in Upper-Hungary, which the Czech leaders represented to the Paris Peace Conference to be a "navigable river" and on that representation it was given to Czechoslovakia. Note the depth of the "navigable river." The dog is shown standing in the middle of the "river," its head pointing toward Hungary and its tail wagging toward Czechoslovakia. The children, knee deep in the water, are wondering what kind of "boat" the Czech leaders intended to float on this "river."

Budapest, Capital of Hungary, is the natural center of every means of transportation not only of Hungary but also of Middle Europe.

Pre-war Europe, the pre-war territory of Hungary, and the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad. Dotted line from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea indicates the intersection of Russian plan and the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad. It was

around this point that the World War was fought and not "to make the world safe for democracy."

Railway lines in pre-war Hungary The railway lines in pre-war Hungary reached into every part of the country and greatly facilitated travel and commerce.

Treaty of Trianon ruptured and mutilated railway lines of Hungary. The railway lines of Hungary ruptured and mutilated by the Treaty of Trianon.

Every point in the former Hungarian territory, given to Czechoslovakia, is closer to Budapest, Capital of Hungary, than to Prague, Capital of Czechoslovakia. The shaded area indicates the territory taken from Hungary and given to Czechoslovakia by the Treaty of Trianon.

This is the way Hungary was mutilated by the Treaty of Trianon. The black area indicates the territories taken from Hungary and the white area, in the center, indicates what was left. In the Treaty of Trianon 24,000 square miles of land and 3,575,685 people were given to Czechoslovakia, 1,500 square miles of land and 393,000 people to Austria, 24,000 square miles of land and 4,138,000 people to Yugoslavia, 40,000 square miles of land and 5,265,000 people to Roumania, 21 square kilometers and 49,000 people to Italy. In all 68% of her territory and 59% of her population were taken from Hungary and given to her neighbors. This international robbery has no precedent in the history of Christian civilization.

The natural distribution of the economic resources of pre-war Hungary. The white circles indicate the nature of the resources. 1. Wheat, rye, oats, barley, corn. 5. Livestock. 2. Iron, steel. 6. Coal, oil, gas. 3. Table salt. 7. Forests. 4. Sugar.

The pre-war one thousand-year-old territory of Hungary, bounded by the Carpathian Mountains, as an evergreen wreath. (1) Northwest Carpathian Mountain, (2) North Carpathian Mountain, (3) Eastern Carpathian Mountain, (4) Southern Carpathian Mountains. In the center (lowland) the two great rivers, the Danube (left) and the Tisza (right), together with their numerous tributaries, furnished pre-war Hungary with sea food and water power. In the mountains were built the flood prevention systems, adequately safeguarding life and property from the danger of flood. The center part of the country (lowland) furnished the cereal food, vegetables and fruits for the sustenance of the people of the country, while the mountainous regions supplied iron ore, coal, gold, silver, lumber, grazing land and table salt. European geographers claim that pre-war Hungary was a perfect geographical, territorial and economic entity.

This baby is not dead, just starved as a result of the Treaty of Trianon. Underfeeding and malnutrition resulted in its emaciation. What a crime, when God has given the world all the food it needs!

Code letter, ordering payment for the assassination of the Archduke of Austria. Originally printed in "John Bull," London, England.

Shaded area represents the territories taken from Hungary by the Treaty of Trianon. The circles indicate the coal, oil and gas fields taken from Hungary. The white area indicates the territory left for Hungary.

The French army of occupation in the Ruhr Valley practiced "democracy" by resorting to savagery and brutality. On the back of this German 72 welts, averaging 74 centimeters were counted by the attending physician.

The flood-controlling systems of pre-war Hungary were built on the upper-parts of the rivers. In the Treaty of Trianon those parts of Hungary in which the flood-controlling systems were built were given to Czechoslovakia and Roumania, rendering mutilated Hungary defenseless against floods. Shaded area indicates the territory in mutilated Hungary, depending for safety upon the flood prevention systems that had been built by Hungary before the World War in the mountainous sections of the country. Those parts of the rivers where the flood prevention system had been built were given to Czechoslovakia and Roumania, leaving mutilated Hungary at the mercy of those countries. This is equivalent to a sentence of death to the Hungarians by drowning. Since her mutilation Hungary had experienced several floods, against which she was helpless.

Shaded areas indicate the territories taken from Hungary by the Treaty of Trianon. White area indicates the territory left for Hungary. The black circles indicate all the table salt deposit taken from Hungary and given to Roumania. The territory given to Roumania is known as Transylvania, which had been an integral part of Hungary for the past 1,000 years. The Unitarian Church was born in Transylvania, and the first law in Europe, giving the people freedom of religion and liberty of conscience, was enacted by the Hungarians in Transylvania. It is the most important outpost of Christian civilization. Both Catholicism and Protestantism suffered an irreparable loss when Transylvania was taken from Hungary. Without the return of Transylvania to Hungary, there will never be peace in Europe.

The Berlin-Bagdad Railroad. Draw a line from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. The point of intersection of the line with the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad was the point around which the World War was fought.

The black circles indicate the iron ore deposits taken from Hungary by the Treaty of Trianon. The white area indicates the territory left for Hungary. 99% of her iron ore deposits was taken from Hungary and only 1% was left.

Budapest, Capital of Hungary, is the natural center of the railroad system of Middle Europe. The railroad lines of the Berlin-Bagdad railroad system, running from Berlin, from London, through Belgium, from the Balkans, Poland, Russia and Italy, all unite at Budapest. The mutilation of Hungary rendered the transportation system of Middle Europe chaotic. The future of Europe and world peace depends upon the correction and elimination of this chaos.

THE GREAT BETRAYAL

The French, Russian and English Governments Betrayed Their Own Peoples. The World War was Precipitated.

The corruption of the French government, politicians and the press; the election of Poincar to the French presidency, with the aid of Russian bribe money; the assassination of the Austrian Archduke and his wife; and the secret mobilization of the Serbian army against Austria-Hungary brought the joint Russian, French and English plan dangerously close to its realization. The Russian government had decided to mobilize over one million men of the Russian army and its Baltic fleet against Austria-Hungary and Germany, before either Germany or Austria-Hungary had issued orders for the mobilization of their armies; France was urging Russia to make war on Germany and Austria-Hungary, and promised Russia full support in the event a war should break out; and the English government accorded sufficient encouragement to the Russian government to prepare for war and to precipitate a conflict, into which Austria-Hungary and Germany were intended to be forced. The field was cleared, the fuse was fixed, and the only act remaining to be done was to light the fuse and thus engulf Europe in a destructive flame of war.

It will be well to recall that prior to the assassination of the Austrian Archduke and his wife Europe was divided into two camps: the Triple Entente, consisting of England, France and Russia; and the Triple Alliance, consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. The Triple Alliance represented that type of the people of Europe, who were creators and builders and who, believing in the golden rule of "live and let live," were building the transcontinental railway system, known as the Berlin-Bagdad Railway, extending from Berlin, Germany, into and through Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, across the Dardanelles into Turkey and terminating at Bagdad. It is universally known and acknowledged that when and if the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system is completed and successfully operated, an economic boom and an unprecedented prosperity will start in Europe and Asia Minor, the like of which has never been experienced in that part of the world. The peoples of the Triple Alliance, therefore, can be said to have stood for the economic building up of Europe and for the prosperity, happiness, contentment and peace of the people living there. Every American knows how much the American transportation systems, our railroads, waterways, paved roads and airlines have contributed to the economic, commercial and intellectual building up of our country. The Berlin-Bagdad Railway system was calculated to perform the same service for Europe and Asia Minor, and it is predicted that when that railway system will be completed, Europe will be united into one great economic federation which will bar and eliminate any cause, reason or necessity for war. The Triple Entente was under the control of a group of men of the type of leeches and parasites who lived on the fruit of the labor of the creating and building type of mankind. A united, prosperous, happy, contented and peaceful people of Europe would be an anathema to the leeches and parasites who were controlling the Triple Entente. And since the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system was the key to a united Europe and to European prosperity, contentment, happiness and peace, the leeches and parasites determined to prevent the completion and successful operation of the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system;

and, in order to accomplish their diabolical purpose, they bribed, corrupted and prostituted the French government, French politicians and the French press; employed, financed and directed the Serbian terrorists, the Serbian Black Hand society and made murderers out of the Serbian government and criminal conspirators out of the Serbian royal family; and they finally brought suffering, sorrow and misery upon mankind. Russia was brought into the camp of the Triple Entente by promises made by France and England that she would be helped in her effort and plan to seize the Dardanelles so that she might have an outlet for her ships from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. France and England were never sincere and honest in making this promise to Russia, because they have never permitted in the past and, as long as they are controlled by the leeches and parasites, they will never willingly permit Russia to seize and control the Dardanelles or to have an all-year-round ice-free seaport anywhere in the world. This antagonistic attitude of France and England toward Russia regarding an ice-free seaport was fully demonstrated and proved, when the Paris Peace Conference refused to give the Dardanelles to Russia, despite the fact that Russia was drawn into the camp of the Triple Entente by the promise that the Triple Entente would help Russia to seize and control the Dardanelles. As we have said, the German Emperor had fully recognized the need and right of Russia to an ice-free seaport; the Russian Czar had fully recognized and admitted the great need for the Berlin Bagdad Railway system and its great benefit even to Russia; and the two monarchs had settled the problem by agreeing that the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad should be completed, as planned, and Russia should have a railroad through Persia to the Persian Gulf; but the leeches and parasites frustrated this peaceful settlement and, to make certain that it would never be revived or realized, they had the Russian Czar murdered in cold blood and his family exterminated. The people of Russia had no power to prevent the leeches and parasites from drawing them into an unnecessary and bloody war. The people of France did not want war; but they were misled and incited into the war by their politicians and press, who were bribed and corrupted with Russian money. The people and Parliament of England did not want war; but they were forced into it through misrepresentations. Neither the Russians, nor the French nor the English people would have been willing to fight in the World War if they had known the truth; and that was exactly the reason why the leeches and parasites resorted to bribery and corruption to mislead the peoples of the Triple Entente in preparation for the World War. The people of Russia were all right; the people of France were all right; and the people of England were all right; but their political leaders betrayed them and as a result millions of them were killed and millions of them maimed, and their actions brought economic and moral bankruptcy upon mankind. The people, God's noblest creatures, had no choice in the matter: "Theirs not to make reply,

Theirs not to reason why, Theirs but to do or die!" You have been shown that, after the assassination of the Austrian Archduke and his wife, the Austro-Hungarian government made a demand on Serbia to stop the agitation against Austria-Hungary and to punish the murderers of the Archduke and his wife. Egged on by the French and Russian governments and encouraged by the government of England, instead of complying with the proper and rightful demands of Austria-Hungary, the Serbian government secretly ordered the mobilization of the entire Serbian army and then sent an evasive reply to Austria-Hungary which said that if Austria-Hungary did not like their attitude, they could go to The Hague. Austria-Hungary could have but one answer and that was the mobilization of a part of the Austrian army, which was done six hours after the mobilization of the Serbian army was ordered by the Serbian government. Under the circumstances, and under the self-defense and self-preservation clauses of international law, it was the unquestionable right and duty of the Austro-Hungarian government to mobilize a part of the Austrian army exactly as was done. A country does not have to wait with its mobilization until the enemy invades its territory; and it would have been unpardonable negligence on the part of the Austro-Hungarian government to delay mobilization or to risk a sudden invasion of their territory by the Serbian or Russian armies. In order to understand better what happened after the mobilization of the Serbian army, it should be pointed out here that Austria-Hungary and Germany, both for reasons of selfdefense and self-preservation and because of their common interest in the completion and successful operation of the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system, were bound, by a mutual agreement, to come to each other's help in case of an attack upon either or both of them by a foreign power; and Italy was their ally. It was, therefore, the contractual duty of Germany to come to the aid of Austria-Hungary in the event of a foreign attack upon them; it was the same duty of Austria-Hungary to come to the assistance of Germany in the event she was attacked by a foreign power; and the same agreement had been made with Italy. England, France and Russia had a like agreement among themselves, so that in the event of an attack by a foreign power on either or all of them, it was the duty of each of these allied powers to come to each other's assistance. There was, however, no treaty or contractual obligation on the part of either England, France or Russia to come to the defense of Serbia and help her to become and indefinitely remain the nest of terrorism and the powder keg of Europe. Nor were England and France obligated by treaty to come to the assistance of Russia in the event she was the aggressor in a war. The question, therefore, now presents itself: Who was or who were the aggressors in the World War? International law, as you will recall, defines the aggressor as follows:

1. "The real aggressor is not he who first employs force, but he who renders the employment of force necessary.

2. "The government which, without a just cause or provocation, mobilizes its military forces against another country first is the real aggressor.

3. "The mobilization of the military forces of one country against another country is equivalent to a declaration of war on the country against which the mobilization is directed."

Commonly said, the real aggressor is he who "asks for it." This is true in civil life. If your adversary draws a gun and you have good reason to believe that your life is in danger, it is your legal right, as a matter of self-defense and self-preservation, to down your adversary and to kill him, if necessary. He, who puts you in fear of your life, is the aggressor. Thus far is developed the following picture: England, France and Russia were determined to involve Germany in a war, to defeat her and destroy the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system. The only way to involve Germany was to force Austria-Hungary into a war with Serbia and to this end the Archduke of Austria was assassinated. Austria-Hungary sent an ultimatum to Serbia, demanding that agitation against Austria-Hungary be stopped and the persons who assassinated the Archduke be apprehended, tried and punished. At 3 P.M. on July 25, 1914, Serbia ordered the mobilization of her army against AustriaHungary and then sent an answer to Austria-Hungary, saying that if Austria-Hungary did not like their attitude in the matter, they could go to The Hague. The French government favored war and promised military aid to Russia; and the English government strongly indicated that she would go to the aid of Russia in event of war against Germany and Austria-Hungary. To be explicit and chronological:

June 28, 1914. The Archduke of Austria and his wife were assassinated.

July 20, 1914. Poincar, the President of France, assured the Czar of Russia that France would aid Russia.{1}

July 22, 1914. The Austro-Hungarian government sent an ultimatum to Serbia.

July 24, 1914. The French Foreign Office was ordered to prepare for war.{2}

July 24, 1914. Secret military plans between France and Russia were arranged.{3}

July 24, 1914. The English government promised aid to France and Russia.{4}

July 24, 1914. At 3 P.M. the Russian government decided to mobilize part of the Russian army and navy against Austria-Hungary and Germany.{5}

July 25, 1914. The French government promised military aid to Russia in event of a war against Austria-Hungary and Germany.{6}

July 25, 1914. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon, the Serbian Government ordered the mobilization of the entire Serbian army against Austria-Hungary.{7}

July 25, 1914. At 6 o'clock in the evening the Serbian government dispatched its reply to Austria-Hungary.{8}

July 25, 1914. At 9 o'clock in the evening Austria ordered the mobilization of a part of her army.{9} There is ample evidence, as Professor Barnes states, that:{10} "Serbia was determined to resist Austria and enter the local war which she hoped would bring Russia to her rescue and set off the European conflagration that would at its close bring into being Greater Serbia. She had been preparing for the conflict actively for more than a year, and for several months had been receiving shipments of arms from Russia in anticipation of the ultimate struggle with Austria."

Neither the people nor the Parliaments of France and Russia encouraged the warlike preparations of their respective governments.{11} The only acts the people of either of these countries did was to shout for war after they had been deceived and misled by politicians and newspapers that had been bribed and corrupted; therefore, when in speaking of France and Russia, always have in mind their political leaders and newspapers and not the people themselves. Russia began the secret mobilization of her army on July 26, 1914, against Germany, when the two Russian military chiefs, Sukhomlinov and Janushkevich, called out the reservists and the militia for service in the frontier districts near Germany. As Professor Fay states:{12} "Sukhomlinov and Janushkevich (Russian military leaders) really began secret mobilization measures against Germany on July 26th and when war actually came surprised Germany and the world by the rapidity with which the Russian troops poured into East Prussia." Three days later, on July 29, 1914, the Russian government issued an order for general mobilization of the Russian army against Germany and Austria-Hungary. "Telegrams were at once sent to London and Paris informing the Russian Ambassadors of the ominous decision which had been made. The French government was to be thanked for its promise of support, and it was ordered that a telegram should be sent to the British government requesting it 'to range itself alongside of Russia and France without delay in order to prevent the European balance being destroyed.'{13} Dobroroloski, as chief of the mobilization division of the Russian General Staff, was instructed to telegraph the general mobilization order throughout Russia." Sazonov (Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia) had dispatched a telegram to the French government asking for final and explicit approval of the decisive Russian military measures."{14} The French government was very obliging. Poincar, the President of France, who was elected to the presidency with the aid of Russian bribe money, promptly, in the night, called to his official residence two trusted members of the French government, namely Viviani and Messimy, and these three men, in that night conference, decided to give the answer of the French government. Viviani then sent a telegram to Paleologue, the French Ambassador to Russia, stating that France was fully resolved to fulfill all the obligations of the alliance and advising him to tell the Russians to proceed with mobilization as secretly as possible, so as not to afford the Germans any excuse for mobilization.{15}

Public opinion in England was unfavorable for the contemplated war and Sir Edward Grey, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of England, was reluctant and afraid to give his blessings so brazenly to the Russian mobilization. The English government was already

committed to France and Russia; but still it was necessary to find some pretext which would justify the warlike attitude of the English government in the eyes of the English people. Later on, Sir Grey was forced to plan and prepare necessary propaganda to influence English public opinion to favor war in which Russia would be their ally and in which the unspeakable crimes of Serbia would have to be defended. "John Bull," an English journal, published a leading article under the heading "To Hell with Serbia . . . once more, to Hell with Serbia!"{16} and then vigorously objected to any war, the purpose of which would be to defend the Serbian terrorists, gangsters and murderers. The "Manchester Guardian," an influential English journal, bitterly exclaimed:{17} "Of all the small powers in Europe, Serbia is, quite decidedly, the one whose name is most foully daubed with dishonor. The record of her rulers and her policy in recent years is an unmatched tissue of cruelty, greed, hypocrisy and ill-faith . . . If one could tow Serbia to the edge of the ocean and sink it, the atmosphere of Europe would be cleared." The nocturnal secret meeting of Poincar, Viviani and Messimy, President and members of the French government, really sealed the fate of Europe and their telegram urging the Russian government to proceed with the mobilization secretly, so that Germany might not find out, actually unleashed the dogs of war. Morhardt, an eminent French writer, in the words of Professor Barnes, quite correctly states that:{18}

"The secret conference of Poincar, Viviani and Messimy, in consultation with Izvolski (the Russian Ambassador), on the night of the 29th of July (1914) marks the moment when the horrors of war were specifically unchained upon Europe. After that there was no chance whatever of preserving peace, and the French President and ministers knew this as well as did Izvolski (the Russian Ambassador to France) and Sazonov (the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs)." This is significant to note, because the world now seeks to determine who the aggressors were in the World War. That the general mobilization of the Russian army was intended to be a preparation for war against Germany and Austria-Hungary is clearly indicated by the frank admission of General Dobrorolski, chief of the mobilization division of the Russian General Staff, who knew the purpose of the mobilization. He knew that the general mobilization was an irrevocable step toward war and did not hesitate to say it in the following words:{19} "This (the general mobilization) once fixed, there is no way backwards. This step settles automatically the beginning of war."

General Dobrorolski has further admitted that:{20}

"By July 25, 1914, war was already decided upon and the whole flood of telegrams between the Governments of Russia and Germany represented merely the mise en scne of an historical drama." And Pashitch, the Prime Minister of Serbia, admits that the Serbian Minister to Russia had reported to the Serbian government that:{21} "When her (Russia's) mobilization is finished, she will declare war on Austria." Viviani, one of the members of the French Cabinet, openly declared that:{22} "He who mobilizes first is the aggressor." And General Gurko, the Russian military expert, frankly confirmed in 1919 that:{23}

"Looked at from the German standpoint, the beginning of the Russian mobilization was for Germany synonymous with the necessity to begin military preparations immediately . . . The Russian mobilization meant for Germany the necessity of declaring war without wasting a single day." The confirmation of General Gurko is fully supported by the definition of an aggressor set forth in the 1893 Franco-Russian military agreement, in which it was specifically declared that:{24} "The first to mobilize must be held the aggressor and general mobilization is war." From the evidence presented, it must be concluded that Russia was the first to mobilize. What was happening in France while Russia was mobilizing? Poincar arrived from Russia on July 29, 1914. When he landed at Dunkirk, he was asked by Senator Trystram: "Do you believe, Mr. President, that the war can be averted?" And Poincar replied: "To do so would be a great pity, for we shall never witness more favorable circumstances."{25} Upon his return to Paris, Poincar was greeted with great patriotic demonstrations and cries of "On to Berlin!" And in this connection it is well to remember that the password in Russia was: "The road to Constantinople (the Dardanelles) is through Berlin."{26} It should be further recalled that, while Poincar was absent (in Russia), Bienvenu-Martin, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Baron von Schoen, the

German Ambassador to Paris, were discussing the Serbian-Austro-Hungarian crisis in a friendly manner, and Poincar was greatly disturbed by it. He wanted war and he did not relish the possibility that the French Minister of Foreign Affairs might frustrate it by being too friendly with the German Ambassador. Poincar got busy to undo the friendly feeling that might have been created by BienvenuMartin, French Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Baron von Schoen, the German Ambassador. At his gesture the already bribed and corrupted French press began to unload and hurl invectives at Germany and Austria-Hungary. Berthelot, Poincar's henchman, went so far as to publish in the "Echo de Paris" a grave distortion of the conversation between the French Minister of Foreign Affairs and the German Ambassador, thus inflaming French public opinion against Germany.{27} The result was that on July 30, 1914, a day later, Poincar was able to assure the Spanish Ambassador that "he regarded European war as inevitable."{28} On July 30, 1914, public opinion was favorable for war in France. Viviani, Poincar's man, sent a telegram to the French Ambassadors at London and St. Petersburg (Russia), notifying them that France was ready and determined to stand by Russia and that the Russian government should be urged to continue mobilization but do it as secretly as possible, so that Germany would not hear of it. The French Ambassador in London was requested to assure the German Ambassador that the French government had not taken warlike steps but that it was doing everything to preserve peace by diplomatic means. Cambon, the French Ambassador at London, was requested to get after Sir Grey, the English Minister of Foreign Affairs, and try to swing him on the Franco-Russian side, to which Mr. Grey was already aligned! Izvolski also sent a telegram to the Russian government advising it that France was on Russia's side; but for goodness' sake to speed up the mobilization; be secret about it; and tell the world that Russia was working very hard for peace.{29} Poincar and his fellow politicians had certainly returned the favor for the Russian bribe money they had received; and, like Judas of old, they betrayed their own people and burned the truth upon the arms of Moloch. The memory of these men will be cursed by suffering mankind for generations to come. It is unfortunate that these men should have lived and possessed power at this time to demonstrate their gorilla-like tendencies which resulted in so much woe to so many people who did not deserve to suffer the horrors of war. The planned propagandic activities of Sir Grey, the English Secretary of Foreign Affairs, had added much to the betrayal of the French people by Poincar and his cohorts, by telling the German Ambassador in one breath that "with reference to the Austrian note he recognized the good right of Austria to obtain satisfaction, as well as the legitimacy of the demand of punishment of the accomplices in the assassination of the Austrian Archduke and his wife," and in the next breath implying to the Russian government that the English fleet had already been concentrated for the purpose of helping Russia in her contemplated war against Germany and Austria-Hungary.{30; sic, not noted} There is no question but that the war preparing propaganda of Sir Grey "had an enormous influence in the

encouraging of Russian mobilization."{31} Nor is there any question that the English government was equally guilty with the French government in encouraging the Russian government secretly to mobilize the Russian army and at the same time attempting to mislead Germany. One can easily understand and appreciate the feelings of Lord Welby, formerly the head of the British Treasury Department, when he exclaimed:{32}

"We are in the hands of an organization of crooks. These are politicians, generals, manufacturers of armaments, and journalists!"

Now what was happening in Austria-Hungary while France and England were encouraging Russia to mobilize and while Russia was mobilizing? Several plans were proposed from Germany and England to avert the outbreak of hostilities by diplomatic means; but none of these plans was accepted as useful and workable, because the Serbian army of 400,000 men was waiting to advance on Austria-Hungary from the South and the Russian army of over one million men was moving on toward Austria-Hungary and Germany from the North. There was really nothing that Austria-Hungary could do to avert the impending conflict. The war was decided upon by Russia, France and England and only a divine interference could have averted it; but divine interference did not come. Yet Austria-Hungary was waiting hopefully that in someway the impending calamity might be avoided. In Germany there was much activity on the part of the government to try to prevent hostilities. The German government did not want war, nor did the German people want war. Germany's interest was peace and prosperity of her own people and that of the people of Europe. The Serbian government wanted a Greater Serbia; the French government wanted Alsace-Lorraine from Germany; the English government wanted to defeat and destroy Germany and the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system; Russia wanted the Dardanelles from Turkey and believed that the road to the Dardanelles was through Berlin; the Austro-Hungarian government wanted peace and quiet and no disturbance from Serbia; and the German government coveted nothing, wanted nothing and only desired to be left alone to work out her own destinies and to complete the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system which would have benefited all of Europe and Asia Minor, as well as Russia, France and England. Professor Barnes said:{33}

"Everything was going smoothly in Germany. She was capturing yearly an ever greater percentage of the world's trade, her phenomenal industrial development was proceeding apace, and her chief area of imperialistic expansion was coming under her control with the general success of the Berlin-Bagdad railway system and her triumph at Constantinople . . . The responsible members of the German civil government, from the Kaiser down, were thoroughly opposed to war in the spring of 1914."

This clearly shows that the German Emperor was unalterably against permitting the Serbian-Austrian crisis to develop into a general European war; and, to demonstrate to the world that he was sincere in his effort for peace, on July 5, 1914, he went on an extended cruise, fishing, as it is said in this country. That he was deeply shocked and disappointed when he learned that the Russian Czar was interested in protecting Serbia against any punishment by Austria can be easily understood from the words in which he exclaimed:{34} "I could not assume that the Czar would place himself on the side of bandits and regicides, even at the peril of unchaining a European war. Germans are incapable of such a conception. It is Slavic or Latin!"

The German Emperor proposed several diplomatic methods of settling the dispute between Austria and Serbia. Italy cooperated to help the realization of these plans. Even Sir Grey of England feigned interest; but nothing came of these plans, because France and Russia were bent upon precipitating a war. This, however, did not discourage the German Kaiser. He made a direct appeal to the Russian Czar by sending him telegram after telegram, begging and pleading with him to stop the mobilization of the Russian army and try to avert the outbreak of the impending war. The Russian Czar replied to the telegrams and begged the German Kaiser to do all he could to prevent the outbreak of the threatening conflict. The sincere desire of these two monarchs to avert the outbreak of the World War is unquestionable. If it had depended upon these two monarchs, the problems of the Berlin-Bagdad Railway and the Russian ice-free port would have been solved without any bloodshed satisfactorily to the mutual benefit of Europe and Russia. The Russian Czar ordered his aide, General Tatistchev, to go to Berlin and confer with the German Emperor on the question as to what the two monarchs could do to avert the impending catastrophe; but the General was arrested by Sazonov, the minister of foreign affairs of Russia, and was detained just as he was about to enter his compartment on the Berlin train.{35} At 7 P.M. of July 30th (1914) the mobilization of the Russian army was in full swing. On the next day, July 31st (1914) the German government, at 1 P.M. proclaimed "the state of imminent danger of war"{36}; at 2 P.M. the German Emperor sent his last desperate appeal to the Russian Czar in a telegram saying: "The peace of Europe may still be maintained by you, if Russia will agree to stop the military measures which must threaten Germany and Austria-Hungary"{37}; at 3:30 P.M. of the same day the German government warned Russia that she would mobilize unless Russia suspended mobilization within twelve hours{38}; and then waited for a reply.

No answer was received from Russia. After waiting more than twenty-four hours, on August 1st (1914), at 5 P.M. the German government ordered the mobilization of the German army and navy. That the German government was really patient during the hectic days, when Russia proceeded to mobilize her army which was moving toward the German border, is testified to by Judge Bausman, an American writer, who says:{39} "To me the patience of the Kaiser is incredible . . . The fact is that if we look at this thing purely from the standpoint of German safety, the Kaiser should have ordered general mobilization a week sooner than he did, or at least have served upon Russia his ultimatum that her military preparations cease." As we have seen, General Gurko, the Russian military expert, agrees with Judge Bausman and says:{40} "Looked at from the German standpoint, the beginning of the Russian mobilization was for Germany synonymous with the necessity to begin military operations immediately . . . The Russian mobilization meant for Germany the necessity of declaring war without wasting a single day." It must be concluded that both as a matter of fact and law the mobilization of the German army was fully justified. One can imagine what the United States government would do, if a Mexican army of a million men and a Canadian army of a like number of men would be moving toward the United States, intent to crush the country and annihilate its people. It would sound the alarm and every able-bodied American would shoulder a gun and hasten to recruit to repel the invaders. A government and people who would sit idle and wait until foreign armies invade the country and kill its people would not be worthy. If anybody would like to test the American people on this point, let him start mobilization and see what will happen! Following is the picture:

July 26, 1914. Russia decided to mobilize a part of her army and navy against Austria-Hungary and Germany.{41}

July 29, 1914. Russia ordered the general mobilization of her army and navy against Germany and Austria-Hungary.{42}

July 29, 1914. The French government urged the Russian government to hasten its mobilization but to do it secretly.{43}

August 1, 1914. At 5 P.M. Germany ordered the mobilization of her army and navy.{44}

And, as we have seen, the law is that:

"He who mobilizes first is the aggressor."

There can be no question but that Russia mobilized first, without just cause, against Germany and Austria-Hungary and that, therefore, Russia must be declared to have been the aggressor. It was apparent that war was inevitable. The Austro-Hungarian ministerial council met again to discuss the situation. Serbia was mobilizing and Russia was mobilizing; and the French government was openly offending Austria-Hungary and the French press was berating Germany and Austria-Hungary. Something had to be done, in order to prevent the Serbian and Russian armies from invading the territory of Austria-Hungary. At the present time, as a result of the demoralizing effect the Versailles treaties are having upon international behavior, it is considered proper for a country to send its armed forces into another country, shoot its people and conquer them, without giving reason or declaring war and such a move may be called a military expedition or a friendly visit or a tour of good-will. But in 1914 it was the rule that a respectable country should notify the other country in advance of a military move directed against it. Such notification was known as a declaration of war. The Austro-Hungarian ministerial council discussed the possibility of a declaration of war against Serbia, whose army was fully mobilized; then to occupy Belgrade, the Capital of Serbia, which was just across the Danube River from Hungary, and to go and stay there until the Serbian criminals, black hands, terrorists and assassins were apprehended, tried and punished. This step would have been in accordance with the precedents established by the United States of America when we went to Cuba, when our marines occupied Vera Cruz, and our army entered Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa and his bandits. The Hungarian Prime Minister, Count Tisza, however, insisted that, in the event of such a move, the Austro-Hungarian government must declare to the world that the occupation of Belgrade would be only a punitive expedition and that, in the event of war, the

integrity of Serbia would be respected. Accordingly the following resolution was adopted:{45}

"The Common Council of Ministers at the proposition of the Royal Hungarian Premier votes that as soon as war begins, the monarchy declares to the foreign powers that no war for conquest is intended, nor is the annexation of the kingdom (of Serbia) contemplated."

This proves beyond any doubt that the Hungarian government did all it possibly could do to avert or, if unsuccessful, at least to minimize the danger of the outbreak of a general European war. This should be remembered especially, because the Treaty of Trianon says that Hungary was the "aggressor" and had "imposed" the World War upon Russia, France and England!

The time for temporizing had passed. Berchtold, the Common Minister of Foreign Affairs of Austria-Hungary, on July 28, 1914, declared war on Serbia, and at the same time notified Russia and the world that Austria-Hungary's intention was to punish the Serbian gangsters and terrorists and that, in the event of war, the integrity of Serbia would be respected, or in other words, no annexation of Serbia was contemplated. Sazonov, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, has since admitted that the Russian government fully believed that Austria-Hungary would not violate its promise.{46} It will be recalled that the German Emperor frantically tried to localize the crisis between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. In addition to the plans, he suggested peace to the Russian Czar, and published an article in the "London Morning Post" on "Efforts Toward Peace"{47} and, among other things, he said: "Berlin had tried to mediate between Petersburg and Vienna on the appeal of the Czar. But His Majesty (The Russian Czar) silently had already mobilized before the appeal; so that the mediator -- Germany -- is placed 'en demeure' and his work becomes illusory. Now only England alone can stop the catastrophe by restraining its Allies, by clearly intimating that -- as Sir E. Grey declared -- it had nothing to do with the Austro-Serbian conflict, and that if one of its Allies took an active part in the strife it could not reckon on the help of England. That would put a stop to all war."

He closed his article in the following words:

"The whole war is plainly arranged between England, France and Russia for the annihilation of Germany, lastly through the conversation with Poincar in Paris and Petersburg, and the Austro-Serbian strife is only an excuse to fall upon us! God help us in this fight for our existence, brought about by falseness, lies and poisonous envy!" History has abundantly proved the accuracy of the Kaiser's statement. In his telegram to the Russian Czar, dated July 29, 1914, the German Emperor pleaded with the Czar to induce the Russian government to remain neutral in the Austro-Serbian controversy. Russia had no treaty obligation to defend the Serbian terrorists, gangsters and assassins; and it was just as improper for Russia to interfere in Austria's desire to create order near her boundary line as it would have been to interfere in the determination of the United States government to have an American expeditionary force to pursue the Mexican bandit, Villa, and his followers and to apprehend and punish them. What was right on the part of the United States of America certainly should have been right on the part of Austria-Hungary. After all, self-defense and self-preservation of a nation is the highest and indisputable right and is inherent in man. The telegram of the German Emperor to the Czar of Russia was as follows:{48} "I received your telegram and share with your wish that peace should be maintained. But as I told you in my first telegram, I cannot consider Austria's action against Serbia an 'ignoble' war. Austria, knows by experience that Serbian promises on paper are wholly unreliable. I understand its action must be judged as tending to get full guarantee that Serbian promises shall become real facts. Thus my reasoning is borne out by the statement of the Austrian Cabinet that Austria does not want to make any territorial conquests at the expense of Serbia. I therefore suggest that it would be quite possible for Russia to remain a spectator of the AustroHungarian conflict without involving Europe in the most horrible war she has ever witnessed. I think a direct understanding between your Government and Vienna possible and desirable and as I telegraphed to you, my Government is continuing its exertions to promote it. Of course military measures on the part of Russia which would be looked on by Austria as threatening would precipitate a calamity we both wish to avoid and jeopardize my position as mediator which I readily accepted on your appeal to my friendship and my help."

The Russian Czar, as an individual, was willing to cooperate with the German Emperor to avoid war and, as we have seen, he tried to send his aide to Berlin, but, before his aide boarded his train, he was arrested by the Russian government and detained, so he never reached Berlin. There is no question but that the Russian Czar was prevented by his own government to do anything that might have saved the world from the subsequent

catastrophe. As a matter of fairness to the later assassinated Russian Czar and to the German Emperor we must conclude that these two monarchs were sincerely trying to avoid the outbreak of the World War. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, because Serbia and Russia had previously mobilized against both Austria-Hungary and Germany, and there was grave danger that Austria-Hungary would be invaded by the Serbians on the South and by the Russians on the North. Mobilization is an act of war and the same is equivalent to a declaration of war. By her treaty obligations Germany was bound to come to the aid of Austria-Hungary; and in addition the Russian army and navy were being mobilized against Germany also. An ultimatum was sent by Germany to Russia, demanding that the mobilization of the Russian army cease. Russia ignored the ultimatum. Germany waited twenty-four hours for the answer. The answer was mobilization of the Russian army. There was no escape for Germany. The time to act had arrived. At 2 o'clock P.M. of August 1, 1914, Germany declared war on Russia. Izvolski, the Russian Ambassador to Paris, and co-conspirator of Poincar, rubbed his hands and joyfully exclaimed: "This is my war!" There was rejoicing in Paris and London; but in Berlin the Emperor of Germany was greatly distressed; BethmannHollweg, the German Minister of Foreign Affairs, was near a collapse; and "the German Ambassador to Russia broke down and wept when he handed the declaration of war to Sazanov," the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia.{49} There are times when men, creators and builders, weep, while the leeches and parasites laugh and rejoice. When He saw that the work of his lifetime was collapsing, even the Son of Man wept.{50} The next move was now up to the French and English governments. Public opinion in France had been whipped up by the bribed and corrupted newspapers and politicians, and the French government would have experienced no serious opposition from the French people even if it had immediately jumped into the affray; but public opinion in England and even in the United States of America had to be satisfied as to the justification of France to enter the war. France had no treaty obligation to support Russia if and when she was the aggressor; nor had England any treaty obligation to support either France or Russia in the situation that had just been created in which they were the aggressors. Both the French and English governments, however, were so committed to each other and to Russia, that a pretext had to be found, which might justify these governments in the eyes of the world for joining Russia in her unjustified war against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Professor Barnes says:{51}

"We know now that late in the evening of July 31st (1914) the French government had firmly and irrevocably decided upon war, and that at 1 A.M. on the morning of August 1st (1914), Izvolski telegraphed this information to Sazanov. Hence, France had decided

upon war at least sixteen hours before Germany declared war on Russia. Technically France was not bound by the terms of the alliance with Russia to come to her aid in 1914, in the light of the priority of the Russian mobilization to that of the German."

It should not be supposed, however, that everybody in France was clamoring for war against Germany and Austria-Hungary. There were men and women in France who were not influenced by the bribed and corrupted newspapers and bad politicians. Peace meetings were held in Paris and elsewhere in France and vigorous objections to war were voiced; but the French government broke up the peace meetings; and finally the French peace leader, Jean Juares{51-a} was assassinated in cold blood by Russian secret service men at the instigation of Izvolski. The bribed and corrupted newspapers were berating Germany and Austria-Hungary; they distorted the facts, the truth and the news of the day; and the French government enforced a most rigid censorship on the unbribed and uncorrupted newspapers. There is a good deal of truth in the statement of the French writer, Georges Demartial, in which he said:{52} "The French people were thrown into the war as helpless as a bound chicken destined for the spit." It is a matter of historical fact that the French government refused to submit to the French Parliament the question whether France should enter the war or not.{53} In England there was considerable opposition to war. "The Manchester Guardian" stated in its editorials of July 28 and July 30, 1914: "Not only are we neutral now, but we could and ought to remain neutral throughout the whole course of the war. We have not a shred of reason for thinking that the triumph of Germany in a European war in which we had been neutral would injure a single British interest, however small, whereas the triumph of Russia would create a situation for us really formidable. If Russia makes a general war out of a local war it will be a crime against Europe. If we, who might remain neutral, rush into the war or let our attitude remain doubtful, it will be both a crime and an act of supreme and gratuitous folly."{54}

To quiet public opinion in England a diplomatic ruse was worked out and put into operation. Upon the suggestion of the English government, the French government issued an order publicly to withdraw French soldiers from near the German borders. To show the world that the order was carried out, a few soldiers here and there were moved from one station to another; but the main French force remained where it was before. As Viviani and Messimy frankly admitted before the Chamber of Deputies on January 31, 1919: "It was purely and simply a diplomatic ruse to impress the peoples of England, France and Italy with the apparent fact that France

was doing everything in her power to avert even the appearance of wishing war. In this manner Poincar and Viviani hoped to rally the French people to the support of their government, to put British public opinion behind Sir Edward Grey in coming to the assistance of France, and to help to detach Italy from the Triple Alliance."{55}

It is now known that the French withdrawal order was given at the instigation of the English government and it was so revealed by Gerald Campbell of the "London Times."{56} The English government was not a bit on a higher plane than the French and Russian governments were; it had no compunction whatsoever against deceiving, misleading and carrying its own people into a war of carnage. And

"The bluff worked perfectly, not only in the case of England, but also with respect to France and Italy."{57}

It is pitiful to relate that:{58}

"Grey (the English Secretary of Foreign Affairs) fully realized that the French withdrawal order was absolutely a diplomatic subterfuge and, yet, he cooperated fully with Cambon and Viviani (both French) in using this ruse to deceive his own countrymen as to the acts and policies of Russia and France."

While the French and British governments were enacting the diplomatic horse-play and going through their pantomimic performances of diplomatic subterfuge and trickery, France was quietly mobilizing her army against Germany and Austria-Hungary. We have seen that on July 31st (1914) Poincar, the President of France, held a night conference with Viviani and Messimy in the official residence of Poincar; that then and there it was decided that France would go to war; and Izvolski, the Russian Ambassador, was instructed so to notify the Russian government. Izvolski then sent the following telegram to the Russian government:{59}

"The French Minister of War disclosed to me with high spirits that the French Government have firmly decided upon war, and begged me to confirm the hope of the

French General Staff that all our efforts will be directed against Germany and that Austria will be treated as a quantit ngligeable (negligible quantity)." The decision of the French government, therefore, on the night of July 31, 1914, was equivalent to a declaration of war on Germany, if not also on Austria-Hungary. On August 1st, at 3:30 P.M., the French government announced that it had formally ordered the mobilization of the French army and that five French corps on the German frontier were ready for war.{60} A part of the French army was dangerously near the Alsace frontier, while another part, together with an English army, was ready to invade and attack Germany through Belgium. Surrounded by the mobilized military forces of Russia and France, on August 4, 1914, Germany declared war on France. England was still out of war, so far as public announcement of it was concerned; secretly, however, she was in it. The English government was still waiting to play its trump card that was hidden in its sleeves. That trump card was the neutrality of Belgium. If Germany could somehow be induced to enter Belgium, the English government would immediately declare that the English people must go to help save the neutrality of Belgium. The neutrality of Belgium was this: In 1839 England, France, Austria, Prussia and Holland signed an agreement to the effect that Belgium shall be perpetually neutral and no foreign government may annex it. This treaty, however, did not bind the signatories to go to the defense of Belgium, in the event any other foreign power would violate her neutrality by passing through her territory. As Professor Barnes states:{61} "Not only international lawyers and historians, but every English statesman who faced the Belgian issue -- Palmertson, Lord Derby, Gladstone and Salisbury -- all agreed that the treaty of 1839 did not bind England to defend the Belgian neutrality."

In fact, as Dr. Ewart states:{62}

"British opinion in 1887 repudiated liability to withstand the passage of German armies through Belgium . . . The United Kingdom was under no treaty obligation to intervene in the war."

The opinion of international lawyers, historians and English statesmen to the effect that the neutrality of Belgium was no cause for England to enter the war had considerably upset Sir Grey's plan to drag England into the war. Grey admits in his biography that he would have tried to involve England in the war irrespective of Belgium, and that, if he had failed in that, he would have

resigned.{63} As a matter of fact Grey was prepared to enter the war, even if he had to violate the Belgian neutrality; and as we shall see French and British military plans were already drawn up for the invasion of Belgium and even plans for the exchange of currency were drawn up for the eventuality. But Sir Grey did not want the British public to know that. And on July 31, 1914, he was not exactly certain just how Belgium would receive the solicitude of the British government for her neutrality, so he decided to ask the Belgian government as to how it felt about the matter. In a telegram dated July 31, 1914, he instructed the British Minister in Brussels, Belgium as follows:{64}

"You should say that I assume that the Belgian Government will maintain to the utmost of her power her neutrality, which I desire and expect other Powers to uphold and observe. You should inform the Belgian Government that an early reply is desired."

The Belgian government replied as follows:{65}

"Belgium expects and desires that other Powers will observe and uphold her neutrality, which she intends to maintain to the utmost of her power." It will be observed that Belgium did not ask England to help her by armed forces to preserve her neutrality. The answer of Belgium might easily be interpreted to mean: Mind your own business; I shall take care of mine. And probably Grey accepted it to mean about as much; but his face must have been red, when later he learned that Belgium was talking of diplomatic help and not armed forces. Grey must have been distressed on August 1, 1914, when the German Ambassador proposed to him that Germany will respect the neutrality of Belgium and will not cross her territory, if England will remain neutral. On the same day Grey sent the following telegram to the British Ambassador in Berlin:{66} "The German Ambassador asked me whether, if Germany gave a promise not to violate Belgian neutrality, we would engage to remain neutral. I replied that I could not say that; our hands were still free, and we were considering what our attitude should be. All I could say was that our attitude would be determined largely by public opinion here, and that the neutrality of Belgium would appeal very strongly to public opinion here. I did not think that we could give a promise of neutrality on that condition alone. The Ambassador pressed me as to whether I could not formulate conditions on which we would remain neutral. He even suggested that the integrity of France and her colonies might be guaranteed. I said I felt obliged to refuse definitely any promise to remain neutral on similar terms, and I could only say that we must keep our hands free."

Here was an opportunity for Grey to demonstrate that he was sincere, when he advocated the sanctity of the Belgian neutrality. By keeping England out of the war, he could insure the neutrality of Belgium, without the shedding of a single drop of English blood; but the neutrality of Belgium was of no real importance to Grey, because he wanted to fight Germany at any cost and under any condition. The plan to use Belgian neutrality as a hoax was not working out very satisfactorily; but there was a "war gang" in England, composed of Bonar Law and an "Englishman" by the name of Leo J. Maxse, the editor of the "National Review." Professor Barnes says of Maxse that he was "the most vocal and detestable of British chauvinists."{67} On August 2, 1914, these two men and others of the "war hawks" formulated and handed to Grey the following letter:{68} "Lord Lansdow and I feel it our duty to inform you that in our opinion, as well as in that of all the colleagues whom we have been able to consult, it would be fatal to the honor and security of the United Kingdom to hesitate in supporting France and Russia at the present juncture and we offer our unhesitating support to the government in any measure they may consider necessary for that object.

Very truly yours, A. Bonar Law."

It will be observed that the "war hawks," including the delectable Mr. Maxse, did not mention Belgian neutrality; they wanted war on Germany, without any string tied to it. Grey then handed the following note to the French Ambassador:{69} "I am authorized to give an assurance that, if the German fleet comes into the Channel or through the North Sea to undertake hostile operations against French coasts or shipping, the British fleet will give all the protection in its power. This assurance is, of course, subject to the policy of His Majesty's Government receiving the support of Parliament, and must not be taken as binding His Majesty's Government to take any action until the above contingency of action by the German fleet takes place."

To the British Ambassador in Paris Grey stated that:{70} "This did not bind us to go to war with Germany unless the German fleet took the action indicated."

The bottom of this proposition was knocked out on the next day, when the German Ambassador notified Grey, that Germany would refrain from attacking the French coasts or French shipping, if England would remain neutral. It was certain that England would not remain neutral, regardless of what Germany would do or would not do. It was also known that France and England planned to invade Germany through Belgium. To ward off a sudden attack by France and England through Belgium, Germany requested the Belgian government to permit German troops to pass through Belgian territory to prevent the invasion of Germany. This request was refused by the Belgian government, probably because the English government put pressure on Belgium. On August 3, 1914, Grey sent the following telegram to the British Ambassador at Brussels (Belgium) and, virtually shaking his fists at Belgium, saying:{71}

"You should inform Belgian Government that if pressure is applied to them by Germany to induce them to depart from neutrality, His Majesty's Government EXPECT that they will resist by any means in their power, and that His Majesty's Government will support them in offering such resistance, and that His Majesty's Government in this event are prepared to join Russia and France, if desired, in offering to the Belgian Government at once common action for the purpose of resisting use of force by Germany against them, and a guarantee to maintain their independence and integrity in future years." This was really an ultimatum to Belgium to reject any German proposal and to come into the war on the side of England, France and Russia. The Belgian government fully understood the British ultimatum and sent the following reply:{72} "The Belgian Government is firmly determined to resist by all means in its power. Belgium appeals to Great Britain, France and Russia to cooperate as guaranteeing Powers in the defense of her territory. There should be concerted and joint action to oppose the forcible measures taken by Germany against Belgium." At last Grey and his henchmen had something of value in their hands. The next morning, after the receipt of the note, Prime Minister Asquith told the British House of Commons that lo, behold, there was "the most pathetic appeal addressed by the King of Belgium." On August 4, 1914, the British government sent an ultimatum to Germany and said: "His Majesty's Government feel bound to take all steps in their power to uphold the neutrality of Belgium and the observance of a treaty to which Germany is as much a party as ourselves."

Events were moving rapidly. On August 3, 1914, Germany declared war on France. On August 4, 1914, England declared war on Germany; and on the same day Germany declared war on Belgium. The World War was on. This is the full picture of the important moves made by the various governments toward war.

July 26, 1914. Russia decided to mobilize a part of her army and navy. July 28, 1914. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. July 29, 1914. Russia ordered a general mobilization of her army and navy against Germany and Austria-Hungary. July 29, 1914. The French government decided upon war and notified the Russian government to proceed with the mobilization of her army secretly.

July 30, 1914. The French government definitely decided on war.

August 1, 1914. At 3 P.M. France officially mobilized the French army and navy against Germany and Austria-Hungary.

August 1, 1914. At 5 P.M. Germany ordered the mobilization of the German army and navy. August 1, 1914. Germany declared war on Russia. August 4, 1914. Germany declared war on France. August 4, 1914. England declared war on Germany. August 4, 1914. Germany declared war on Belgium. Under the rule of international law, "he who mobilizes first is the aggressor." The government that first ordered mobilization and the government that first announced that it was through with diplomacy and was determined to go to war was the aggressor. It is true that Russia took the first step in mobilization two days before a part of the Austrian army was mobilized and five days before Germany mobilized. It is also true that the French government had definitely decided upon war on Germany and Austria-Hungary sixteen

hours before Germany declared war on Russia and two and a half days before Germany declared war on France. In the words of Professor Barnes:{73; sic, not noted} "The Russians were the first to take steps which they knew must lead to war."

But:

"France was the first country in the European crisis officially to announce her determination upon war." In other words, "The French were the first to declare themselves through with diplomacy and determined upon war."

"The only direct and immediate responsibility for the general European war falls upon Russia and France." As to the guilt of England we have seen enough evidence to conclude that she was equally guilty with France and Russia. She had been preparing for the World War for years, as proved by none other than the English Statesman, Lord Haldane, whose statements have been reproduced by Morel in his book "Before the War," partly as follows:{74} "Within five years, by the end of 1910, the detailed plans, the existence of which Lord Grey was so anxious to conceal from the House in August, 1914, had been worked out. Lord Haldane had solved his problem of how to mobilize and concentrate at a place of assembly to be opposite the Belgian frontier, which had been settled between the staffs of France and Britain, a force of 160,000 men to operate with the French armies, with the assistance of Russian pressure in the East . . . British and French staff officers had thoroughly reconnoitered the ground upon which the allied armies were to fight in Belgium and in France; Sir Henry Wilson had been all over it on his bicycle . . . The French army would take the offensive against Germany, with the help of the British army on its left flank, on the tenth day after mobilization."

This plan was ready in 1910 and it did not leave much neutrality to Belgium. Lord Haldane testified before a British Commission to the effect that on August 4, 1914, a few hours after the declaration of war against Germany, some of the English troops were on French soil.{75}

Major W. Cyprian Bridge, official translator of the British War Office in 1914, testified, as follows:{76}

"But what impressed me more than all was the fact that about an hour after we declared war on the fatal day of 4th of August (1914) there was taken out of its hiding place a big document marked 'very secret.' It was drawn up in French and was entrusted to me for translation. It proved to be an elaborate agreement between the British and French Governments regarding the manner in which payments on behalf of the British Expeditionary Force operating in North France were to be adjusted. It went into details, for instance as to the rate of exchange at which calculations were to be made, such as military officers of experience would know could only be useful or necessary if the plan was expected to be put into almost immediate execution. The document was dated and signed in February, I think the 4th, 1914." Sir Grey, the English Secretary of Foreign Affairs, on August 3, 1914, denied on the floor of the House that there was any agreement with France that would obligate the English government to send a large English army to France and read a letter which he had written to Cambon, the French Ambassador, but he left out the part which was of importance, and which the House and the people should have heard. But, as a courageous English scholar, Fredrick Corwallis Coneybeare, wrote on August 4, 1922:{77} "Grey was doubtless as much of a hypocrite in the week before the War as he had been eight years before that. We attacked Germany for three reasons: (1) to down her navy before it got any larger; (2) to capture her trade; (3) to take her colonies."

To complete the record, it might be added that Russia declared war on Turkey on October 30, 1915; Great Britain on Turkey on November 5, 1915; France on Turkey on November 5, 1915; Italy on Austria-Hungary on May 23, 1915; Roumania on Austria-Hungary and Germany on August 27, 1916; and Italy on Germany on August 27, 1916. The problem that remained to be solved was, how to get the United States of America into the World War; and eventually that problem was solved satisfactorily so far as England, France and Russia were concerned. Great Britain went about on the high seas as if she controlled the entire world. In violation of international law regarding blockade, contraband and continuous voyage, Great Britain practically destroyed the rights of neutrals, shut off all imports into Germany and prevented neutral countries, including the United States of America, from carrying on commerce. This British lawlessness went so far as to intercept European mail destined to the United States of America, used the American flag on British ships, seized and searched American state officials below the rank of ministers while traveling to and fro from their continental posts.{77} The plan in this lawlessness of Great Britain was to starve out Germany.

In retaliation and to protect herself, as was her undoubted right under international law, Germany inaugurated a submarine warfare against Great Britain and sunk a number of ships that were proper objects of attack under the law regulating warfare. The submarine activities of the German navy eventually was used as a pretext to inveigle the United States of America into the World War.

Professor Barnes, one of the leading American historians, places blame on the United States government for the continued lawlessness of Great Britain, which forced Germany into the submarine activity. Says Professor Barnes:{78}

"If the United States had held England strictly to international law upon threat of severance of diplomatic relations or even war, as we have done in the case of Germany and as we unquestionably should have done in the case of England, the German submarine warfare would not have been necessary and probably would not have been utilized. So we may say with absolute certainty that it was the unneutrality, lack of courage, or maladroitness of the Washington authorities in regard to English violations of international law which produced the German submarine warfare that actually led us into war."

It is no secret now that:{79}

"President Wilson and Colonel House had decided that we would come into the war a year before the submarine warfare was resumed by Germany."

Although, as the "Alexander Hamilton Institute Business Conditions Weekly" has stated in its December 25, 1936 issue, "nobody of intelligence and intellectual honesty believes that America really had a common cause with any of the allies," the United States government declared war on Germany on April 8, 1917, and the American people were told that we were going to "make the world safe for democracy." The pretext used by the United States government to enter the conflict on the side of England, France and Russia was the torpedoing and sinking by a German submarine of the passenger ship, "Lusitania" which, in violation of the laws of warfare, was loaded in New York harbor with six million pounds of ammunition and explosives, and was equipped with high power naval rifles in conformity with England's new policy of arming passenger boats. This made the "Lusitania" a war vessel that could legally be

attacked by England's enemies. The German navy was acting within the boundaries of international law; nevertheless we took an exception to the rule and declared war on Germany. The real reason why we entered the World War on England's side was that it was more profitable for certain interests than to remain neutral or even to enter the war on Germany's side. As Professor Barnes has correctly stated:{80}

"From the beginning, the international banking houses of the United States had taken a distinctly unneutral attitude, favoring investments in the bonds of the Allied countries, and discouraging or refusing investment in the paper of the Central Powers. This immediately gave us a strong financial stake in the cause of the Entente, and this stake grew larger with each year of the war. Likewise, American industry inevitably became violently pro-Ally. This was due to the fact that British illegal blockade unlawfully cut off sales of war materials to the Central Powers and made our enormous war profits dependent upon the purchases made by Great Britain, France, Russia and Italy. Upon the prospect of their success in the War and their ability to prolong the conflict depended the relative amount of profits and the probability of our receiving payment for goods we sold to these Entente Powers." Of the American press Professor Barnes says:{81} "The American press had become by 1915-1916 almost uniformly and intolerantly pro-Ally, and in its editorials and its handling of the news scathingly attacked Mr. Wilson's neutral efforts. In some cases Englishmen actually took over the control of some of the leading American dailies . . . The capture of the American press by the Entente is proudly narrated by Sir Gilbert Parker in Harper's Magazine for March, 1918." Lord Northcliffe of England "spent vast sums of money to secure extensive control over the sentiment of the American press,"{81} and when he had the enormous power of the American press in his control, the noble Lord complimented the American people in the following words: "Much as I like the Americans, for a people who have boasted of their freedom and democracy, I had never expected to behold on their part so craven a spirit of submission. So far as exercising real independence of judgment and action with respect to war is concerned, I can think of only one people with whom to compare the Americans, namely, the Chinese."{82} The unkind ridicule of the American people by the noble English Lord was not only gratuitous but ungraceful, to say the least. If the American people were misled by their newspapers, it was not because they were on the same intellectual plane with the Chinese

but because there were Englishmen, like Lord Northcliffe, who were unscrupulous enough to use their money for the purpose of misleading the American people. We know well enough that we were the "suckers" in the World War; but it should be remembered that we believed that we were fighting for the lofty ideal of "making the world safe for democracy." We did not know, because the noble English Lord and the newspapers he controlled did not tell us, that the World War was fought to destroy what little democracy was left. The World War cost the American people 126,000 American boys killed or died and 234,000 wounded. We spent sixty billion dollars and loaned to our Allies eleven billion dollars which they have not repaid (Finland excepted). This enormous amount of money would be sufficient to buy every American farm, together with all the buildings and machinery thereon. It is estimated that before we pay the entire bill, the final amount will be in the neighborhood of about one hundred billion dollars, a rather heavy burden, payment of a large part of which will have to be made by our children. In addition to all the loss of American lives and material losses, one shudders to think of the thousands of heartbroken American mothers, wives and sweethearts, whose loved ones were taken from them and killed in a war, in which we, as a people, had no interest. The World War not only killed thousands of our youth, not only sent us back thousands of wounded and crippled, not only stripped us in terms of money, not only broke the hearts of thousands of American mothers, wives and sweethearts, but it has rendered the world economically and politically bankrupt; and, let us remember, when the smoke of battle cleared away and the Paris Peace Conference finished, the President of the United States of America returned home virtually a dead man! This was the cruelest of ingratitude in the annals of human history. Those of our former Allies who consider us, the American people, on the level of the Chinese, should remember that our President had returned from Paris virtually a dead man! The least our former Allies can do for us now is to pay us back the money we loaned them. United States Representative Knute Hill, speaking in the House of Representatives, summarized the reasons for our entry into the World War and the penalty we have paid, as follows:{83} "In 1917 we entered the World War 'to make the world safe for democracy.' Our entry into that war not only cost us $50,000,000,000, the loss of millions of the flower of its youth on foreign battlefields and returning veterans gassed and diseased from trenches but also was the chief cause of the 1929 depression. Senators Norris and La Follette were everlastingly right in their contention that the greatest urge for our entry into the World War was not so much the desire to help the down-trodden peoples of Europe as it was to protect the investment of international bankers abroad, the damnable enrichment of war profiteers at home, and to distract the attention of our people from our own economic troubles. Had President Wilson directed his energies and talents and expended the

taxpayers' money in the solution of our economic problems, there would have been no depression with its suffering and destitution and bewilderment.

"Is it selfish for the United States to refuse to enter into the world conflict to aid democracies and oppressed people? We tried it once and failed miserably. We had better sweep before our own doors, and the old saying, 'Charity begins at home' applies here. Foreign wars can be none of our affairs."

We have certainly learned our lesson. Hereafter let Europe clean up her own difficulty. We want no more European war and we should fight in no more war to aid leeches and parasites.

1 "Genesis of the World War," p. 317.

2 Ibid, p. 403.

3 Ibid, p. 332.

4 Ibid, pp. 376, 471-476.

5 Ibid, pp. 335-376.

6 Ibid, p. 403. Palologue assured Sazanov that he was in a position "to give his Excellency formal assurance that France placed herself unreservedly on Russia's side."

7 Ibid, p. 209.

8 Ibid, p. 209.

9 Ibid, p. 210. 10 Ibid, p. 210. 11 Ibid, p. 397. 12 Fay in "American Historical Review," January, 1921, p. 235; "The Genesis of the World War," p. 337. 13 M. F. Schilling's "How the War Came," pp. 114-15. 14 "The Genesis of the World War," pp. 339-40. 15 Morhardt's "Les Preuves," p. 275; Ibid, p. 340. 16 E. F. Henderson's "The Verdict of History"; The cause of Sir Edward Grey, p. 192; Ibid, pp. 453-4. 17 August 31, 1914; Ibid, p. 198. 18 Morhardt's "Les Preuves," pp. 341-2. 19 Dobrorolski, "Die Mobilizmachung der Russichen Armee," 1914, pp. 10, 27, 29; Ibid, p. 347. 20 "The Genesis of the World War," p. 362. 21 Die Kriegsschuldfrage, November, 1926; Ibid, p. 363. 22 "Falsification of the Russian Orange Book," p. 531; Ibid, p. 285. 23 Morhardt, pp. 295-6; Ibid, 285. 24 "The Genesis of the World War," p. 354. 25 Ibid, p. 404. 26 Ibid, p. 147. 27 Ibid, p. 404. 28 Ibid, p. 405; British Documents, No. 320(b); "Falsification of the Russian Orange Book," pp. 38-40; Morhardt, p. 275.

29 "Falsification of the Russian Orange Book," pp. 53-4. 30 "The Outbreak of the World War," p. 200; "The Genesis of the World War," p. 334. 31 British Blue Book, No. 47; Ibid, p. 335. 32 F. Nielson's "How Diplomats Make War," p. 328; U. S. Senate Document, "Justice for Hungary," No. 436, 1923, p. 11; Birinyi's "The Tragedy of Hungary," p. 128. 33 "The Genesis of the World War," pp. 232-3. 34 Ibid, p. 253. 35 Ibid, p. 350. 36 Ibid, p. 285. 37 Ibid, p. 283; "The Outbreak of the War," p. 284. 38 "The Genesis of the World War," p. 284. 39 Ibid, p. 285. 40 Ibid, p. 285. 41 Ibid, p. 337. 42 Ibid, p. 453. 43 Ibid, p. 453. 44 Ibid, p. 284. 45 The Austrian Red Book; Ibid, p. 180. 46 "The Genesis of the World War," p. 181. 47 "The Outbreak of the World War," p. 351; Ibid, p. 27. 48 Ibid, p. 351; "The Genesis of the World War," p. 282. 49 Ibid, p. 291. 50 St. John, 11:35. 51 "The Genesis of the World War," p. 288. 51-a Ibid, pp. 422-3. 52 Ibid, pp. 398-9.

53 Ibid, p. 389. 54 Ibid, pp. 501-2. 55 Ibid, p. 409. 56 Ibid, p. 411.

57 Ibid, p. 409.

58 Ibid, p. 411; British Documents, No. 319, p. 447.

59 "Falsification of the Russian Orange Book," pp. 60-61; "The Genesis of the World War," p. 415.

60 "Falsification of the Russian Orange Book," pp. 58-63; "The Genesis of the World War," p. 415.

61 "The Genesis of the World War," p. 550.

62 Ibid, p. 549.

63 Ibid, p. 547; "Twenty-five Years," Vol. I, pp. 303, 316.

64 Ibid, p. 513; British Blue Book, No. 115; British Documents, No. 351.

65 British Documents, No. 351; Ibid, p. 553.

66 British Documents, No. 448; Ibid, p. 553.

67 "The Genesis of the World War," p. 514.

68 Ibid, p. 515.

69 Ibid, p. 517; British Documents, No. 487.

70 "The Genesis of the World War," p. 517.

71 Ibid, p. 556; British Documents, No. 580.

72 Belgian Grey Book, No. 40; Ibid, pp. 556-7.

73 "The Genesis of the World War," pp. 416-7.

74 Ibid, p. 461-2.

75 Ibid, p. 464.

76 C. W. Bridge, "England's War Preparations" in the "Kriegsschuldefrage," July, 1924; Ibid, p. 465.

77 "The Genesis of the World War," pp. 597-8.

78 Ibid, p. 598.

79 Ibid, p. 598.

80 Ibid, p. 609.

81 Ibid, p. 612.

82 Ibid, p. 614. Also U. S. Senator Nye's speech in Congressional Record, January 17, 1936, pp. 557-574. In comparing the American people with the Chinese, the noble English Lord probably had in mind the type of abnormal people who are classified by American psychologists as "Mongolian idiots," having flat, expressionless faces, are "tongue suckers," "fissured tongued," defective in intelligence, and imbecile. (See "The Psychology of Abnormal People" by John J. B. Morgan, second edition, pages 320-321.) No doubt there are still men in England, occupying high political positions, who hold the same opinion of the American people, otherwise they would not be attempting to trick us into another world war which is destined to destroy Christian civilization.

83 Congressional Record, April 12, 1938.

9 THE SECRET AGREEMENTS It has been shown that France and Russia had plotted and provoked the World War and used Serbia as a tool to create a condition which made war inevitable. It has been proved beyond the shadow of a doubt that France and Russia were the actual aggressors and that England encouraged them in their plan to embroil Europe in an internecine war. The evidence is clear and convincing that bribery and corruption had been resorted to by French and Russian politicians to mislead the people of their respective countries, and that even the English government had resorted to fraud and deceit to lead the people of England to favor war. Nor is there any question but that the American people were deceived into the World War under the slogan "to make the world safe for democracy." Our examination of the history of Europe and official documents, statements and admissions of responsible European statesmen has disclosed that the underlying purpose in the World War was not to "make the world safe for democracy" but to defeat Germany and Austria-Hungary, to injure them economically and to destroy the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad. We shall now proceed to examine further facts revealing why, how and by whom the destruction of Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad was planned.

On April 26, 1915, about eight months after the outbreak of the World War, a secret conference was held in London by representatives of the allies of England. In that conference the territories of Germany, Austria, Hungary and Turkey were divided up among England's allies.{1} United States Senator Nye, speaking on the floor of the U. S. Senate, on January 17, 1936, disclosed much valuable information relating to the London secret agreement,{2} and said that Ambassador Page, who was stationed in Rome, reported to the U. S. Department of State that on April 30, 1915, Italy was promised by England, France and Russia "a large part of Austrian territory" which Serbia claimed for herself. The price Italy was to pay was to enter the World War on the side of England, France and Russia. It was then expected that Roumania would also join England and her allies in the war. Ambassador Page further reported to the U. S. Department of State that Russia was promised the Dardanelles, provided she would not make a separate peace. Senator Nye produced more than ample evidence showing that the U. S. Department of State had full knowledge of the London secret agreement long before the United States of America had entered the World War, and that, therefore, we had official knowledge of the fact that the World War was not fought "to make the world safe for democracy." In other words, not only the people of Europe but also the American people were deceived, defrauded, misled and unscrupulously betrayed. Someone in England asked Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister, a question somewhat as follows: "Mr. Prime Minister, millions of English mothers are sending their sons, millions of English wives are sending their husbands to this war of carnage, and there are millions of English sweethearts whose hearts have been stabbed by the cruelty of the World War. The hearts of the good English mothers, the good English wives and the beautiful roses in the flower garden of England are profusely bleeding; all of England is bleeding. We are told that the World War is fought to make the world safe for democracy. A woman's heart is unable to understand that it is necessary to exterminate the people who are inhabiting the earth which is intended to be made 'safe for democracy.' Is not 'democracy' a human institution and is not 'democracy' for the benefit, prosperity and happiness of mankind? What good purpose could 'democracy' serve if mankind is exterminated? Of what possible benefit could 'democracy' be without democrats? Mr. Prime Minister, will you please explain to the people of England what this war is all about?" This must have been a good question and it must have moved Lloyd George, because in the spring of 1917 he called the members of the British Cabinet to a meeting and called upon Lord Balfour, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, to give his official answer and explain what the World War was all about. Lloyd George was telling the English people that he was going to "hang the German Kaiser" and no doubt he himself was interested to know why the German Kaiser would have to "swing"? Lord Balfour explained and gave

the true reasons for the war, which reasons Lloyd George did not later put into his political show-window. Said Lord Balfour: "This war has been described, and quite accurately I think, as a war against the world domination of Germany." Lord Balfour swallowed a big lump in his throat, straightened out in his chair and continued: "But I think that Germany, after all, was not equally anxious to have world domination in every direction at one and the same time." This was not all. Lord Balfour disclosed further that: "The practical destruction of the Turkish empire is undoubtedly one of the objects which we desire to attain." It will be recalled that the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad was planned to run through Turkey and terminate at Bagdad. To destroy this railroad, Turkey had to be destroyed also. And since the same railroad was to run across Austria and Hungary, these countries had to be destroyed, as Lord Balfour admitted to his colleagues. A copy of the secret report of Lord Balfour has been in the secret files of the U. S. Department of State since May 18, 1917, bearing the formal number 763.72/51623. It is a secret document, hidden from the American people whose property it is. We had to foot the bill, bleed and die in a war in which we had no personal or national interest whatever. Our own Washington officials were shouting at the top of their voice that we should hurry up, shoulder our guns, rush to France and "make the world safe for democracy." And this, mind you, at the very time when they were betraying the American people and the very democracy under which we lived. Some persons have an idea that democracy is a hunting ground for international racketeers, brigands, gangsters and crooks; whereas it should be the finest human institution that the best human brains have ever been able to devise. "The International News Service" has succeeded in securing a copy of the secret report of Lord Balfour and, on November 14, 1937, it was published in a number of American newspapers. Here we have an official document showing that England sat down with her allies and satellites and with the stroke of a pen dismembered centuries-old countries and empires of other peoples and divided them up as thieves and robbers divide up loot; and yet the American people are told daily in the American newspapers that the very countries that in 1914 and thereafter stooped to the lowest plane of international thievery and robbery are still busy "saving the democracies of Europe" and we should go over and help them. The Balfour secret report discloses, among other things, the following:*

1. "Italy was promised those adjoining regions of Austria which were heavily populated by Italians; and also parts of the Dalmatian coastline of Austria on the Adriatic for use as a naval base. 2. "Roumania was pledged the great Hungarian province of Transylvania, (the New England of Hungary) and a part of Serbia in exchange for giving the latter an 'outlet' to the Adriatic. 3. "Serbia (now Yugoslavia) was promised the Austro-Hungarian provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as the 'outlet' to the Adriatic. 4. "France was pledged restoration of her former provinces, Alsace-Lorraine, with England insisting she take them as a means of depriving Germany of rich iron deposits in Lorraine, even though France indicated a willingness to accept an 'honourable peace' without them. 5. "Plans were fostered to pledge the independence of Poland, along with huge slices of German and Austrian territory, to keep her from sending an army to join the Germans. 6. "The allies were determined to create a new nation out of Bohemia, along with other Austrian territory. This eventually gave birth to Czechoslovakia." The allies were pledged also to the "practical destruction of the Turkish empire" by wholesale annexation of her territory. Balfour plainly disclosed that Britain was not warring for democracy nor "to make the world safe for democracy," nor "to end all wars," but chiefly to rid herself of a powerful commercial rival, Germany. The major purpose of all these pledges, as Balfour outlined it, was to smash the German commercial lifeline, running from Berlin to Bagdad, namely, the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad. "This document," says the "Chicago Herald and Examiner," "proves the Versailles treaty was not in reality a peace treaty but a mere ratification of the spoils of war, divided by the allies in secret pacts prior to the spring of 1917, fully two years before the end of the war. At Versailles the allied diplomats merely 'rubber-stamped' in public what they had pledged each other years earlier in secrecy." The following few statements are quoted from the Balfour secret report. It should be remembered that this report was made by Balfour at the time England, France and Russia were pleading with the United States of America to enter the World War on their side "to make the world safe for democracy" and "to end all wars." Said Balfour in his secret report: "We have entered into treaties with Italy, Roumania and Serbia, all of which affects Austrian territory. "Italy, who has come into the war in April, I think it was of 1915, opened her mouth rather widely; that is Italy's way, and she not only got the Allies to promise her Italia Irredenta, the populations

bordering upon her frontiers who are of Italian origin, speak Italian and possess Italian culture, but she asked also for parts of Dalmatia, which neither ethnologically nor for any valid reason can be regarded as a natural part of Italy. "We promised to Serbia Bosnia and Herzegovina (Austrian territory) and an outlet to the Adriatic. "We promised Roumania, if she came in, that part of Hungary which is predominantly Roumanian in race and in language should be handed to Roumania. It is undeniable that to take away the Roumanian part of Hungary, namely Transylvania, (it was never Roumanian!), and hand it over to Roumania is to break up historic Hungary. That does touch the historic kingdom of Hungary." Balfour then discussed Bohemia. He had already promised over one-half of historic Hungary to Serbia and Roumania; but he wanted to cut out another large slice and give it to Bohemia. So he said: "If all accounts are true, Bohemia has a hatred of German civilization. Some form of autonomy should be given to Bohemia in the Austrian empire." In other words, if it could be demonstrated that the Bohemian people "hated German civilization," they would receive a nice slice from the territory of historic Hungary. It should be stated here that the Bohemian (now Czech) people did not hate German civilization and there is no evidence anywhere that they ever did. It was only a few leeches, who themselves were not members of the Bohemian race, that made the misrepresentation that the Bohemian people "hated German civilization." What is more, the Bohemian people had never authorized anybody to represent them as haters of German civilization, because probably most of them spoke German and were part and parcel of German civilization. Nor is there any evidence anywhere to the effect that the Bohemian people have ever asked England or anybody to take any territory from Austria and Hungary and to add it to Bohemia. And when the Bohemian people are given an opportunity to vote on the question freely and without molestation by self-appointed leaders who are not members of the Bohemian race, the overwhelming vote of the Bohemians will be against the wholesale robbery which Balfour indicated in his secret report. This is written on May 20, 1938, at 6:45 P.M. and shall stand in full confidence and belief that the Bohemian people, when given an opportunity, will repudiate the mutilation of the territories of Austria and Hungary. An accurately drawn map was reprinted in thousands of copies, showing how Germany, Austria, Hungary and Turkey were expected to be divided up and distributed among the Allies. When the war spirit was lagging in Germany and Austria-Hungary, allied (English and French) airplanes flew over Germany and showered thousands of these maps upon the German people, calling their attention to the way their country and the countries of their allies were to be divided up and distributed among other countries, and challenging them to go to the front and shoot the English, French and Russian soldiers or to be shot by them.{3}

Thus the Germans, Austrians, Hungarians and the Turks were challenged by England and France to shoulder their guns and fight in defense of their homeland, homes, wives, children and firesides. Men who would refuse to fight in defense of their country, their homes, wives and children are not worthy. Can there be any question as to what we, the American people, would do, if we discovered that some foreign powers planned to divide our country and have it distributed among foreign people? Godless Communist Moscow and its agents have already painted a "Black Strip" across the map of the United States of America and it is now alleged that Comrade Trotsky (Bronstein), who is sojourning in Mexico, is working on a plan of invasion of the United States of America. When and if that plan of invasion materializes, the American people will be ready with their answer, even as the Germans, Austrians, Hungarians and Turks were, when they were challenged to defend their countries. Many will recall when England and her allies had planned the division of Germany, Hungary, Austria and Turkey and to distribute the severed parts among the allies of England, the American newspapers were detailing under glowing headlines how Germany was going to divide the world, and American moving pictures were showing pictures, in which the German Kaiser was shown as a big fat butcher, cutting up the world and distributing the parts among his sons. And all this happened when a copy of the London secret treaty was on file in the U. S. State Department! Is there any wonder that Pierre Renaudel, a member of the French Parliament, bitterly exclaimed: "It is only for the poor devil, that war is not a gentleman's agreement!" And John H. Hylan, Mayor of New York City issued a statement, in which he said: "We have a rich man's war and a poor man's fight."{4} The World War was a paying proposition for England and France and their sympathizers. Ponsonby, a member of the English Parliament states in his book that England received new territories covering 1,415,929 square miles, which is slightly less than one-half of the entire land area of the United States of America. The territory of France was increased from 207,054 to 212,659 square miles. Yugoslavia, Roumania and Czechoslovakia were given more than two-thirds of the territory of Hungary and a large part of Austria. What did we, the American people get? Well, 126,000 of our boys were killed, 234,000 were wounded or crippled for life; we spent 60 billion dollars of our money; loaned 12 billion dollars to our allies, which they have neglected to repay; our economic structure has collapsed; 13 million of American men and women are out of work; about one-half of the American people are living near the poverty line; and if you happened to have reached the age of forty, you are told that in the richest country in the world you are of little earthly use here! In addition to all these sacrifices, we were told by the noble English Lord, Northcliffe, that we, the American people, were on the same plane with the Chinese! The noble English Lord and his ilk may poke fun at us and the good Chinese people; but we happen to know that the Chinese people, though they may be poor in earthly goods, are honorable. This, we regret to say, cannot be said of the men and governments who betrayed their own people, misled the American people, and brought indescribable tragedy upon suffering mankind!

The price we have paid and are still paying for our entry and participation in the World War is uniquely expressed in a little poem written by Florence E. Marshall in her book of poems, entitled "Silence Is Yellow" and quoted in "Nautilus Magazine," April, 1938, page 9: "A pretty penny we paid for War! Let's make an honest confession; $45,000,000,000 spent And what did we get? The depression!" The Balfour secret report convicts England, Russia, France and their allies of fraud, deceit, falsification and wholesale robbery. England and France have betrayed and are still betraying the Russian people, in that England and France are supporting and maintaining in Russia the godless Communist form of government, headed mostly by non-Russians. In addition, France and England had refused and still refuse to give Russia the Dardanelles but instead they encourage the continuation of the ruthless oppression and torture of the Russian people by foreigners whose only claim to Russia is that they are using her as a hunting ground for the riches which should belong to the Russian people. The Communist regime in Russia is supported by England and France for the reason that, as long as the ungodly Communist regime remains, no demand will be made by or in behalf of the Russian people for an all-year-round open seaport which Russia needs and should have. Governments that are guilty of betrayal, double dealing, double-crossing and deceit should take off their masks and cease to call themselves Christians! Every good Christian wishes well for the good Christian Russian people and devoutly prays for their deliverance from the control of the sadistic foreigners who are now oppressing and torturing them. It is known that the "phantom submarines" that, in connection with the Spanish civil war, recently have been terrorizing shipping on the Mediterranean Sea and sending English seamen to their cold watery graves, were manned by Russian navy men, carrying with them Czechoslovakian passports, provisioned and carried on their furloughs by a Greek ship to a secret submarine base at Oran, North Africa, which, by the way, is a French territory. It is significant to note in this connection that Russia, Czechoslovakia, Greece and France are allies of England, yet they cooperated secretly in terrorizing English shipping on the Mediterranean Sea and unmistakably hinting that the "phantom submarines" were Italian or German war craft. It is further significant to note in this connection, that when this international treachery was done, Leon Blum was Prime Minister of France and Sir Anthony Eden, who is said to be a brother-in-law of the

Russian Foreign Commissar, Litvinoff (Finkelstein), was the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of England. It was fortunate for the English, French, Italian and German people that the "phantom submarines" were unsuccessful in provoking a war.{5}
* "The Chicago Herald and Examiner," November 14, 1937. 1 John Bass's "The Peace Tangle," p. 14; Birinyi's "The Tragedy of Hungary," pp. 143-6. 2 Congressional Record, January 17, 1936, p. 557, et seq. [sic; no ref. in text] 3 "The Peace Tangle," pp. 20-22. 4 "The Tragedy of Hungary," pp. 147-153; U. S. Senate Document, "Justice for Hungary," No. 346, 1923, p. 17. 5 This Communistic Russian treachery was exposed by this writer in the "Cleveland News," June 15, 1938, and in the "Bridgeport," June 17, 1938. Subsequent to that exposure, the Russian government indicated a better international behavior and the French government closed the French borders to the shipping of arms and ammunition to the Communist forces in Spain.

Production of Iron, in million quintals of the new Danubian States 10 THE ALLIES ARE GUILTY

We shall now proceed to summarize the evidence, state the law applicable thereto, and then render our verdict. If you keep in mind the evidence read, how the cards were shuffled behind the screen by unscrupulous politicians and diplomats, and how the people were misled by bribed and corrupted newspapers, you will be able to interpret the daily news, as now printed, with a fair degree of accuracy. If you keep in mind, furthermore, that there are two well-defined divisions of mankind, namely the group that is comprised by the creators and the builders, and the group that is comprised by the leeches and parasites; that the struggle between these two groups is as old as the story of Cain and Abel; that the leeches and parasites are successful only when they are able to bribe and corrupt politicians, diplomats and newspaper owners and editors; and that the fight and struggle going on in your immediate neighborhood and throughout the world is between these two groups, namely, the creators and builders and the leeches and parasites, -- if you keep these things in mind, you will be fully as competent as the next professor to read from the daily news the actual facts which they are trying to hide. Eternal vigilance is the price of success and liberty. An intelligent and vigilant democracy can easily withstand the attack of the leeches and parasites. If you belong to the creating and building group, and let us hope you do, and if you have written on your banner the words "For God, home and country," be of good cheer, for behind the stormy clouds that are hovering around and above you, the Sun of Righteousness is rising slowly and majestically and is steadily coming toward your group with healing in His wings. As light is always and invariably triumphant over darkness, so will your group and mine, the creators and the builders, triumph over the leeches and parasites. The price you and I must pay is just eternal vigilance. The evidence proves beyond the shadow of any honest doubt that England was jealous of Germany's industrial and commercial growth and considered the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system especially antagonistic to her international financial and commercial interests; that Russia wanted the Dardanelles for an outlet from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea and for that reason she objected to the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad crossing the Dardanelles; that France wanted to take away from Germany Alsace-Lorraine, in order to cripple Germany's coal and iron ore supply; that a concerted plan was prepared by France, Russia and England to attack Germany and to defeat and destroy her and the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system; that the "Pan-Slavic" movement was used by France, Russia and England as their agency in stirring up and inciting the people living in the Balkan countries against Germany and Austria-Hungary with the specific purpose and undisguised intention of precipitating a war between Balkan countries and AustriaHungary; that members of the French government, French politicians and the French press were bribed and corrupted with Russian money with the intention of misleading the French people and creating a French public opinion inimical to Germany and AustriaHungary; that Serbia was used as a nest for the anti-Austro-Hungarian and German agitation; that the Serbian Black Hand society was financed and directed from France and Russia and its members carried a violent terror into Hungary and Austria; that the Austrian Archduke and his wife were assassinated by members of the Serbian Black Hand society, who were financed, trained and supplied with guns, ammunitions and explosives from the arsenals of the Serbian army; that the Serbian government and even

members of the Serbian ruling family knew of the plot to assassinate the Austrian Archduke; and that the outrages directed against Austria-Hungary were threatening the very existence of that dual monarchy. The evidence has further proved that immediately after the assassination of the Austrian Archduke, the Austro-Hungarian government, following the usual diplomatic course, made a diplomatic representation to the Serbian government, demanding that the agitation against Austria-Hungary cease and the assassins and their confederates be seized, tried and punished under the laws of Serbia; that Serbia was encouraged by Russia and France not to yield; that Serbia sent a dilatory and unsatisfactory reply to Austria-Hungary and, before dispatching the answer, the Serbian government ordered the secret mobilization of the entire Serbian army against Austria-Hungary; that Hungary tried to avoid the threatening conflict but, by reason of the attitude of France and Russia, her efforts had failed; that France had decided upon war and Russia ordered the mobilization of her army and navy against Austria-Hungary and Germany; and that there was no other avenue left for Austria-Hungary and Germany than to order the mobilization of their armies and navies. It is true that Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia first and Germany declared war on Russia and France first; but it is equally true that under the circumstances and according to the rules and principles of international law that was their right and duty to do. Besides, the declaration of war by Austria-Hungary and Germany had no other meaning than as if they said, "We know you are coming and we give notice that we are going to meet you." The Serbian army was already moving toward Austria-Hungary, and the Russian army and navy were already moving toward Germany and Austria-Hungary, while the French army was already mobilized and ready for action. Austria-Hungary and Germany had a perfect right and, indeed, it was their duty to move and move fast in the defense of their territories and their people. You do not have to be a diplomat to understand this inherent and inalienable right of a nation. It is the same right that you, as an individual, have and enjoy. If, while going about your business, you are surrounded by two or three persons who exhibit a threatening attitude toward you and they give you sufficient reason to believe that they will attack you and, if successful, they will injure your person and take your property away from you, it is perfectly right and lawful for you to use all the necessary force to repel the threatening attack, even if you have to beat and kill your adversaries, in the protection of your person and property. This is known as the right of self-defense and self-preservation. Nations have the same right under international law which declares that:{1} "In the last resort almost the whole of the duties of states are subordinated to the right of self-preservation." The Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon declare that the guilty party is the aggressor and the aggressor must pay the loss and damages caused in and by the World War. International law declares that the aggressor is he who makes self-defense necessary.

"The real aggressor is not he who first employs force, but he who renders the employment of force necessary."{2} We have seen that the French government recognized the principle that: "He who mobilizes first is the aggressor."{3} The Franco-Russian military agreement of 1893 specifically stated that:

"The first to mobilize must be held to be the aggressor and general mobilization is war."{4} The evidence has clearly shown that Serbia, Russia and France had mobilized first, and General Gurko, the Russian military expert, has admitted that:

"The Russian mobilization meant for Germany the necessity of declaring war without wasting a single day."{5} We have read the verdict of history, that:{6} "The Russians were the first to take steps which they knew must lead to war." But that: "France was the first country in the European crisis officially to announce her determination upon war." In other words, "The French were the first to declare themselves through with diplomacy and determined upon war." And that: "The only direct and immediate responsibility for the general European war falls upon Russia and France."{6} And since England was in sympathy with Russia and France, our verdict must be that France, Russia and England were the aggressors. Under the circumstances in which Austria-Hungary had found themselves and when their very existence was in danger and jeopardy, it was their right, under the self-preservation clause of international law, to intervene in Serbia and punish the criminals, gangsters and assassins who made life wretched in Austria-Hungary. It was under this clause that the

United States government sent an expeditionary force into Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa and his bandits. The law is:{7} "The right of self-preservation in some cases justifies the commission of acts of violence against a friendly or neutral state when from its position and resources it is capable of being made use of to dangerous effect by an enemy, when there is a known intention on his part to make some use of it, and, when he is not forestalled, it is almost certain that he will succeed, either through the helplessness of the country or by means of intrigues with the party within." That is to say, if, for example, Russia would be planning to invade the U. S. A. through Mexico and if the Mexican government were either unable to keep out Russia or were in conspiracy with Russia against us, we would have the right to invade Mexico and prevent Russia from attacking us. It was under this clause that Germany was entitled to pass through Belgium in order to prevent the invasion of Germany by the English and French armies. The evidence is clear and conclusive as to the guilt of the government of Serbia in helping, urging and arming the Serbian gangsters and assassins to annoy Austria-Hungary and to assassinate the Austrian Archduke and his wife. International law clearly provides that in a situation of that kind the aggrieved government may move right into the territory of the guilty government and exact punishment or reparation or both. The law declares:{8} "When an injury or injustice is committed by the government itself, it is idle to appeal to the courts; in such cases as in others in which the acts of the government has been of a flagrant character, the right naturally arises immediately exacting reparation by such means as may be appropriate." If the government of the state, in which the prevailing conditions are such as to endanger the safety and peace of a neighboring state, is unable to keep order, it is the right of the injured state to march right into the territory of the state which is either incapable of suppressing the crime complained of or its government is in conspiracy with the criminals, as the members of the Serbian government were in conspiracy with the Black Hand Society. It is the right of the aggrieved state to intervene or, in other words, to enter the territory of the guilty government and create order, as the U. S. Government did, when the American expeditionary force was sent into Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa and his bandits. International law declares that:{9} "International law at the present time undoubtedly regards intervention when strictly necessary to preserve the fundamental right of the intervening state to its existence, as a permissible act, though contravening the right of independence in another state."

International law recognizes the right of a state to tranquility and peace; reversely, no state has any right to disturb its neighboring state. When this right is violated, it is the right of the complaining state to take whatever action is appropriate and effective. The law declares that:{10}

"International law must rest upon observance of certain general principles. It may in extreme cases be necessary to intervene in order that these principles may be respected by certain states in their dealings with other states which, though weaker in physical force, have equal rights in international law." Surrounded by the mobilized forces of Serbia, Russia and France, Austria-Hungary and Germany were fully authorized by international law to do exactly what they did in their own defense. The law is:{11} "In the face of actual dangers immediately threatening its existence, a state may take such measures as are necessary for self-preservation, even though not sanctioned by international law." It is the law of nations that, when a neighboring state injures a state, it is the right of the injured state to obtain redress, after the usual diplomatic procedure fails. Austria-Hungary was deeply injured by Serbia and Serbia refused to give redress. It was the right of Austria-Hungary to send a military expeditionary force into Serbia, as the United States sent one into Mexico, to punish the criminals, terrorists and assassins. The law on this point is:{12} "The state injured by an abusive act committed by a sister state is authorized by international law, after due notice and the fulfillment of the required steps of procedure, to intervene against the delinquent sovereign and by the use of appropriate measure of force, to constrain it to reform its abusive conduct and to conform to international law." The same holds true under the "nuisance" clause of international law: "When the local sovereign fails in its duty, the state injured by the failure may act within the limits of the urgent necessity of the case."{13} Regarding the declaration of war by Austria-Hungary and Germany and the entering of Belgium by the German army, international law is clear and it provides that a state in danger of being attacked does not have to wait until an actual attack is made on her. The law says:{14}

"Other states are not obligated to await the actual commission of an act in violation of their rights."

And also that:{15} "Necessity justifies an invasion of foreign territory so as to subdue an expected assailant." Furthermore, a state does not have to wait until it is attacked by its enemy. Germany was in danger of being invaded by the French and English armies through Belgium. Under the circumstances it was the right of Germany to move through Belgium to withstand an attack upon her own territory. The law provides:{16} "Intervention to prevent hostile act, when the danger is imminent, is established today both in doctrine and in practice." Writing on the same subject, Lord Bacon said:{17} "Neither is the opinion of some of the schoolmen to be received, that a war cannot justly be made but upon a precedent injury or provocation, for there is no question but a just fear of an imminent danger, though there be no blows given, is a lawful cause for war." In other words, it is not the first blow but the preparation and intention to challenge the delivery of the blow that is the cause of war. In other words, the aggressor is not he who declares war first but he who makes the declaration of war necessary. "The first cause of a just war is an injury not yet done which menaces body and goods."{18} Sir Edward Greacy states the principle in perfect form, under which Austria-Hungary and Germany were within their rights to protect themselves as they did against the intended attack:{19} "A state's right to security means not only the right to defend itself against the actual direct attack, but the right to preserve itself from injury by anticipating attack, in case where it is manifest that attack is intended, and that such attack cannot be prevented by any pacific measures, which do not involve undue self-abasement and loss of real national dignity. In such cases and in those of quarrels between individuals the real aggressor is not he who first employs force, but he who renders the employment of force necessary." And finally:{20} "The right of a state to exist in safety calls for no remarks. Its violation or threatened violation gives rise to the remedial right of self-preservation." From the facts presented, the evidence adduced and upon the application of the principles of international law, the inevitable conclusion is that France, Russia and England are guilty in having provoked and precipitated the World War. The verdict, therefore, is that

Austria, Hungary and Germany are innocent of the charges made against them in the indictment incorporated in the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon. It follows, therefore, that the treaties of Versailles and the Treaty of Trianon are a fraud, therefore the same are void and of no effect in law.

1 W. E. Hall, "A Treatise on International Law," p. 110. 2 Greacy, p. 150. 3 Supra, Chapter 7: "Die Kriegsschuldfrage;" Nov. 1928. 4 Supra, Chapter 7. 5 Supra, Chapter 7. 6 Supra, Chapter 7. 7 Hall, "A Treatise on International Law," p. 110. 8 Ibid, p. 352. 9 G. G. Wilson, "International Law," 8th ed., p. 89. 10 Ibid, p. 89. 11 Ibid, p. 81. 12 E. C. Stonewell, "International Law," p. 308. 13 Ibid, p. 313. 14 Quincy Wright, "Control of America's Foreign Policy," p. 152. 15 J. Q. Adams's, Mem. IV:113. 16 W. E. Lingelbach, "The Doctrine and Practices of Intervention in Europe," in "Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Sciences," July 16, 1920. 17 Ibid, p. 112. 18 Grotius, Ibid, p. 112. 19 Greacy, p. 150. 20 Holland, "Elements of Jurisprudence," 13th ed., p. 397.

11

THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE The establishment of the innocence of Germany, Austria and Hungary and the establishment of the guilt of France, Russia and England proves false the indictments contained in the Treaty of Trianon and the other treaties of Versailles. The bribery of the French government, the corruption of French politicians and the French press, the deceiving of the French, English and the American peoples, and the secret treaties in which Germany, Austria, Hungary and Turkey were planned to be robbed of their territories leave a national odor and render the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon a great fraud upon said nations and a flagrant deception of all Christian civilization. Let us examine how this great fraud was perpetrated and imposed upon mankind. It should be stated here that the armies of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey were not defeated but that the governments of those countries entered into an armistice agreement for the purpose of ending the war and to make peace. In January, 1918, President Wilson made an open overture to the peoples of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey for peace. He assured them that if they would agree to cease fighting, their territories would not be cut up and divided among foreign nations. The promises made by President Wilson were broadcast not only in the name of the American people but also in the name of the governments of England, France and Russia, and those promises were the basis of the peace agreements that the various warring countries were to adopt and sign later. In his overture President Wilson made two definite promises, one of which was general and the other specific. In his general promise he stated:{Birinyi's "The Tragedy of Hungary," p. 167; U. S. Senate Document, "Justice for Hungary," 1923, p. 21.} "Peoples and provinces shall not be allowed to be bartered away from one sovereignty to another, as if they were lifeless subjects, or pawns in a game"; that "nations may be ruled and governed only with their consent"; and that "self-determination is no hollow phrase." President Wilson must have known of the London secret agreement, in which the territories of Germany, Austria, Hungary and Turkey were planned to be dismembered and divided among the allies and satellites of England. The Germans, Austrians, Hungarians and Turks knew that they were defending their countries, their homes, wives, children and firesides. The promises of President Wilson to them, therefore, meant this: "You do not have to fight any more, because the integrity of your territories will be preserved and your peoples will not be bartered at a counter table as if they were cattle. It is true that in the London secret treaties your territories were cut into pieces and divided among foreign countries, but, be not afraid, you will be protected. Why fight any longer, when you are no longer in danger?" To the people of Austria-Hungary President Wilson made the following open, specific and solemn promise:

"The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development." At this time, Austria and Hungary were two separate countries. The Austrian empire consisted of Austria, Bohemia, Moravia and Galicia; while Hungary consisted of her own one thousand-year-old territory. Hungary was previously forced into a union with the Austrian empire and was an unwilling member of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The promise of President Wilson, therefore, meant to the peoples of the Austrian empire and of Hungary this: "Now, you Hungarians desire to be free and independent from Austria, Bohemia (now called Czech), Moravia and Galicia, and, if you just stop fighting, you will be given back your independence. Your one thousand-year-old territory will be left intact and there is nothing for you to fight for. You, Austrians, may want to be free from the Hapsburg dynasty and we are in a position to help you. You, Bohemians, may want your independence from Austria; you, Moravians, may also want to be independent from everybody else; and you, Galicians, can have your independence from Austria, if you want it. All of you people will be given a chance to decide by popular vote as to what you want and where you want to belong." Coming, as it did, from the President of the United States of America, the peoples addressed believed implicitly the promises made by President Wilson. The German, Austrian, Hungarian, Bulgarian and Turkish governments agreed to an armistice and the World War came to an end. The armistice was proclaimed on November 11, 1918. On January 18, 1919, the Paris Peace Conference was convoked and it began its deliberations with the ultimate aim to make peace and return the world to a normal condition of peace and prosperity. The Paris Peace Conference, as any other international conference, was governed by international law which provides that: "All Powers interested in the purposes of the conference should be invited." This means that Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria should have been invited to the conference and allowed to participate in its deliberations, because they were interested in its purposes. Whatever agreement or treaty would be drawn up by the conference Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria would have to sign it and the law gave them the right to participate in the preparation of such agreement or treaty. The following countries were invited to the Paris Peace Conference and were permitted to participate in its deliberations: The United States of America, The British Empire and its colonies, France, Italy, Japan, Belgium, Brazil, the British Dominions, India, China, Cuba, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Panama, Hedjaz, Honduras, Liberia, Nicaragua, Poland, Portugal, Roumania, Serbia, Czechoslovak Republic (which existed on paper only), and Siam.

Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey were not invited to and were not permitted to participate in the deliberations of the congress. The barring of these countries from the congress made of it an illegal body and, therefore, its conclusions are not binding upon Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey. It was evident then and, in the light of the Balfour secret report, it is clear now that the Paris Peace Conference was nothing but a meeting of the principal guilty powers and their sympathizing nations; the criminals sitting in judgment of their victims; a political camouflage to fool the people of the world; a rubber stamp to ratify the secret treaties of London; therefore the entire congregation was a fake, a fraud, a demonstration of managing fakers, unscrupulous schemers, real liars and relentless despoilers of other people's countries, properties and territories. No detailed description of the motley crowd that composed the membership of the Paris Peace Conference will be given here. It is suggested that you read the book entitled, "The Inside Story of the Peace Conference," written by Dr. E. J. Dillon, an Englishman, who was a member of the English Commission to that conference. In that book you will find first-hand information and facts that will convince you that this description of that conference is extremely mild and that the entire deception was not only a fraud but it was a shameful disgrace to Christian civilization. It is sufficient to state that, according to the time-honored international usages, customs, precedents and principles of international law, the Paris Peace Conference was an illegal body and, therefore, the conclusions reached and the treaties made by it are an illegal conspiracy to commit international robbery, national mayhem and despoilment. According to both, domestic and international law, an agreement to commit a crime is against public policy, illegal and void; hence the treaties made by the Paris Peace Conference are against public policy, illegal and void and of no effect in law. LEGALLY THEY ARE NOT BINDING ON ANYBODY OR ANY COUNTRY. 12 THE BETRAYAL OF JUSTICE AND DECENCY It has been shown that the Paris Peace Conference was born in iniquity and we now proceed to show that it has given a basis for further iniquity. After the armistice agreement was signed and Germany, Austria, Hungary and their allies had disarmed, African black soldiers of the French army were sent into Germany and Hungary and they attacked, debauched and infected with venereal diseases German and Hungarian women and girls who unfortunately fell prey to them. In addition, Czech, Roumanian and Serbian soldiers were sent into Hungary and were permitted to forage and pillage the country to their heart's content. They dismantled the factories of Hungary, stole railroad cars and equipment, industrial machinery, food, clothing, medicine and, as an American observer put it, "even the door knobs were stolen." The Roumanian soldiers marched into beautiful Budapest, the capital city of Hungary, and went even so far as to

back large trucks to the doors of the National Museum and proceeded to ransack it and steal from it the priceless objects of art that have been accumulated there during the last one thousand years. They would have succeeded, had not Brigadier General Bandholz, who was in command of the American Mission there, put the United States seal on the doors and virtually chased them away. Hungary was ransacked by those foreign soldiers, so that lack of food threatened famine throughout the country. There was not sufficient medicine to treat the sick and not sufficient other medical supplies to bind the wounds of the injured. The situation was so bad that newly born babies had to be bundled in ordinary tissue paper, because there was no linen left, in which these innocent gifts of God could be welcomed into this hard and cruel world! From Russia Communism seeped into Hungary and the bloodthirsty agents of Moscow took control of that already unfortunate country. Wholesale arrests of Christian Hungarians, tortures, hanging of patriotic Christian men, women, ministers and priests, outraging of Hungarian Christian women and girls were perpetrated by the sadistic agents of godless Communist Moscow. The fury of hell seemed to break loose and Hungary was terrorized so much that it defies description. And while this was going on, the Paris Peace Conference was deliberating upon the fate of Hungary, without pity or mercy. Burning the flesh from the toes, burning out the eyes, maiming the body, skinning men alive, bleeding and torturing men and women to death may be considered just a pastime for the demented agents of bloody Moscow and we may pass upon these inhuman cruelties as an unusual but not so terrible invasion of human rights. But it may not be amiss to record here one of the many outrages that were committed against women and young girls of Christian faith, so that those Americans who are indifferent as to whether or not godless Communism should be permitted to obtain control of our own country may have an idea as to what to expect when reason is dethroned and godless Communists sit in the high places of control. In a country town of Hungary one of the Hungarian Christian leaders, an elderly man, was arrested by the Communist terrorists. The young daughter of high school age of the arrested man went to the Communist headquarters and pleaded with the hunchback and syphilitic leader of the terrorists to release her father so that she might take him home. The Communist fiend ran his bloodshot eyes over the beautiful young girl and proposed to her that if she would remain with him over night, her father would be released in the morning. The terror-stricken young girl was faced with the problem of saving her own honor or the life of her father. Which was a higher duty? To save her honor and let her father be murdered? Or sacrifice her own honor, so that her father might live? For a young girl who loved and adored her father, it was an excruciating task to decide. Finally she decided. If it were her own life that was at stake, she would have defended it to the last breath; but she just could not be a party to the murder of her father. She stayed. Early the next morning, the hunchback non-Hungarian Communist fiend called the young girl to the window of his room and ordered her to look through it. She looked and saw her

father's lifeless body dangling from the branch of a nearby tree. Thereupon the unfortunate child immediately became insane.{The Communist terror is vividly
described in Ccile Tormay's "An Outlaw's Diary: The Commune" (Robert McBride & Co., New York, N. Y.), and also in Count Paul Teleki's "The Evolution of Hungary and Its Place in European History." See also Louis K. Birinyi's "The Tragedy of Hungary" p. 175 et seq.; "From Behind The Vails," printed in Budapest, Hungary, by Victor Hornyanyszky; Dr. E. J. Dillon's "The Inside Story of the Peace Conference."}

While Hungary was being ransacked by foreign soldiers and terrorized by the bloodthirsty agents of godless Moscow, Czech, Roumanian and Serbian politicians were called upon by the Paris Peace Conference to present their "claims" to those parts of Hungary, which had already been cut off and promised to them in the London secret treaties. The parts severed from Hungary would have been given to them anyhow; but, since the entire procedure was a planned affair, the people of the world had to be given some pretexts of reason for the mutilation of the one thousand-year-old territory of Hungary. And, in brief, the following happened: The Serbian politicians presented false and forged historical data concerning Hungary and the racial ancestry of the people who lived on that part of the territory of Hungary, which had been promised to Serbia. They falsely stated that the majority of the people living on the coveted territory were mostly, if not all, Serbians, though the fact was that there did live among the Hungarians some descendants of Serbian immigrants who immigrated into Hungary sometime in the 18th century, when they were driven out of their homeland by the Turks, but, in 1919-1920, they were native born citizens of Hungary and, as such, they were a part and parcel of the Hungarian nation. The Roumanian politicians did the same thing. They laid their "claim" to the eastern part of Hungary, known as Transylvania (woodland), the New England of Hungary, and comprising one-third of the entire territory of Hungary. As you recall, Transylvania was promised to Roumania in the London secret treaty and Lord Balfour had so admitted it in his secret report to the members of the British Cabinet. The soil of Transylvania contained most of the gold, silver, table salt, natural gas and oil deposits of Hungary. The culture of the people living there was Hungarian, the schools and churches were Hungarian, and even the few schools and churches that were Roumanian were supported by the Hungarian government from the taxpayers' money. Some Roumanian immigrants settled in various parts of Transylvania, when they were driven out of their homeland by the Turks sometime in the 18th century; but their descendants were native born citizens of Hungary, just as the descendants of the Roumanian immigrants to this country will be native American born citizens two hundred years hence. To substantiate their "claim" to Transylvania, the Roumanian politicians presented false historical data, false ethnographic maps and statistics and forged maps from which important geographical data, villages and towns were removed. They really did not have to falsify history, geography and ethnographical data, because they would have been given Transylvania anyhow; but the Paris Peace Treaty was a fake and a fraud and those acting there had to be fakers and fraudulent. What else could have been expected of

governments that were willing to accept stolen property and to force millions of people under their control? The Czech politicians, whose only claim to be recognized as "Czechs" was that probably they were born on Bohemian soil, and who were the most accomplished and perfidious liars that Europe has ever seen, had their agents first to invade the cemeteries in the upper part of Hungary and had the Hungarian names on the tombstones changed to Czech or Slovak sounding names, so that when a committee was sent from the Paris Peace Conference to look over the Hungarian cemeteries, the Czech politicians could point with pride to the forged names on the tombstones and say: "Lo, behold, even these departed souls were Czechs (Bohemians) or Slovaks during their lifetime!" They produced false historical facts and data and forged ethnographical maps, in which they showed that most of the people living in Upper-Hungary were either Czechs (Bohemians) or Slovaks. The fact and truth was that the people living there were native born citizens of Hungary, the same as the descendants of any group of immigrants one thousand years hence will be native born American citizens, though they may say that their ancestry was this or that race. The "Czech" politicians went even so far as to represent to the Paris Peace Conference that a small brook in Upper-Hungary, the "Ronyva," was a "navigable river." And they got it! Photographs were made of the "navigable river," the Ronyva, and they show a number of small children standing in the center of the river, the water reaching way up to their knees. A dog is also shown standing in the middle of the "navigable river." The only ship that could navigate that "river" would be toy ships, such as American children "sail" in their bathtubs. How do we know that these false and fraudulent representations were made to the Paris Peace Conference? They were not made public, because those who made them would have been laughed at even by the elementary school children in Europe, and in public gaze they certainly could not have stood the test. But when the Treaty of Trianon was ready for signature, the government of Hungary was ordered by the Paris Peace Conference to send delegates to Paris to receive a copy of the treaty. When these Hungarian delegates registered their objections to the treaty, they received copies of the Serbian, Roumanian and Czech "claims," to which written and printed objections were filed by the Hungarians. The answers of the Hungarian delegates have been published in the English language in three large volumes and from these we know what representations were made by the Serbian, Roumanian and "Czech" politicians for the Hungarian territories that had been promised to them in the London secret treaties. As you remember, one of the cardinal principles of international law is that "gross error, fraud, as the use of forged maps, vitiate a treaty." It is also the law that a peace treaty is void, "when it is concluded because of stress of force upon the negotiators and because of fraud." The marauding of Czech, Serbian and Roumanian soldiers and the terrorism that was carried on in Hungary by the Communist agents of Moscow during the armistice constituted all the elements of coercion, fear and force, which are prohibited by

international law as a means to compel a people and their government to accept an unjust and unfair treaty and to consent to national destruction. These frauds and forgeries are sufficient in themselves to render the Treaty of Trianon the greatest fraud that has ever been forced upon unsuspecting Christian mankind. It is fortunate for us that the United States Senate has consistently refused to ratify the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon, because some of the Serbian, Roumanian and "Czech" politicians might have lodged a "claim" for a large part of the territory of the United States of America, on the theory that descendants of Serbian, Roumanian and Czech immigrants live here. 13 THE TREATY OF TRIANON WAS FORCED UPON HUNGARY Hungary Was Mutilated When gangsters hold the keys to the jails of a country, honest citizens are locked up. When and if gangsters sit on the judicial benches of a country, Justice weeps. When unscrupulous diplomats sit in judgment over the people of the world, Christian selfrespect and decency are outraged and put to shame. The Paris Peace Conference demonstrated all these ominous conditions. The text of the treaty, which the Paris Peace Conference prepared and was anxious to have signed by Hungary, was ready. By that time the Hungarians had succeeded in ridding Hungary of the agents of Communist Moscow; but the Serbian, Roumanian and Czech soldiers were still marauding there. A telegram was sent to the Hungarian government by Georges Clemenceau, the President of the Paris Peace Conference, ordering the Hungarian government to send delegates to Paris to receive a copy of the peace treaty which Hungary was expected to sign. The Hungarian government promptly requested the Paris Peace Conference to order the marauding foreign soldiers out of Hungary, so that there would be no threat hanging over the heads of the Hungarian people and the government of Hungary would feel free to discuss the terms of the treaty. While foreign troops were ravaging Hungary and with their bayonets fixed were ready to stab the people who objected to their control of the country, it could not be said that Hungary was free of threats of force and undue influence, as international law required. Clemenceau promptly answered that the "Supreme Council" of the Congress did not consider itself qualified to interfere in a small and trivial matter like that. He again demanded that the Hungarian government send its representatives to Paris immediately. In passing, it will be interesting to know that this redoubtable Clemenceau was the same French politician whose newspaper, "L'Aurore," along with others, was bribed and corrupted with Russian money. We can wonder what might have happened at the Paris Peace Conference if Pancho Villa had been elected its president.

The Hungarian government yielded and sent its representatives who arrived in Paris on January 7, 1920. They were told to appear in the office of the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, on January 15. On that day and in the office designated, at 3 o'clock P.M. the Hungarian delegation received a copy of the treaty. Thereupon they left for Budapest to consult with the government of Hungary. The procedure to which Hungary was subjected was as if a gang of robbers had stolen your property, then they would have organized themselves into a court of justice, and afterwards the leader of the gang would be sitting on the bench, his right-hand man would act as prosecutor, and the rest of the gang would be acting as jurors and witnesses, but you would not be permitted to be present at your trial. The gangsters then would proceed to indict you, try you and then find you guilty of the very crime they themselves had committed. Then you would be called in and handed a copy of the verdict of guilty and judgment would be pronounced which would deprive you of your property. Of course, the American constitution and laws would not permit a procedure like that in our country; but the Paris Peace Conference was not conducted under the rules laid down by the American constitution. From January 15, 1920, to June 4, 1920, the Hungarian delegation presented to the Paris Peace Conference volumes of printed objections to the treaty and showed that it was based upon false and fraudulent representations, forged maps and statistics presented to the Conference by the Serbian, Roumanian and "Czech" politicians. These objections have been printed and published in three large volumes, under the title, "The Hungarian Peace Negotiations." They will interest all who care to know the details as to how the Treaty of Trianon was made. The truth had no influence with the Paris Peace Conference and the treaty was left substantially in its original form. The Paris Peace Conference was merely a rubber-stamp of England and her allies and its duty was merely to rubber-stamp the secret treaties which were made in London long before the termination of the World War. How could one expect the members of the Paris Peace Conference to be convinced that a small brook that a small boy can easily wade across with his short pants undisturbed and dry, was not a "navigable river"? Why, if it had been represented to that conference that Lake Erie was the Pacific Ocean, not all the learned geographers in this world, with all the logic that has been handed down to us from ages past, could have convinced the members of the Paris Peace Conference to the contrary. Ordinarily no country that possesses national honor would have accepted and signed the treaty which was presented to the Hungarian delegation. But Hungary was being overrun by foreign marauding soldiers. The country was ransacked and the specter of Communism was hanging over the head of that country. There was no food for the people, no medicine for the sick, and no linen in which newly born babes could be bundled. Lack of food resulted in starvation and disease. The country was suffering. It was either a national death or the signing of the treaty and the Hungarian government yielded.

On the 4th day of June, 1920, at the hour of noon, the bells in the towers of Christian churches at Versailles and throughout the Christian world were ringing, tolling out the glad tidings that four hundred years ago, at the hour of noon of one day, the Hungarians finally and decisively defeated the Turks and saved Christianity and Christian civilization. At the tolling of the bells, the Hungarian delegates were led into the Trianon Palace, the building which the French king, Louis XV had built for his paramour, Madame Dubarry, and there, in that building, the original copy of the treaty was placed in front of the Hungarians and they were ordered to sign. The Son of Man, Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified, and whose teachings and principles the Hungarians saved, must have again wept. Hungary, the one thousand-yearold country that had been given by the Pope of Rome the title of "Defender of Western Christian Civilization and the Savior of Christianity," was on that day crucified on the Cross of Trianon, her country torn, divided among the thieves and her national heart pierced with the dagger of the very Christianity which she had proudly saved. "O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth, That I am meek and gentle with these wrong doers!" In that treaty more than two-thirds of the territory of Hungary was cut off and more than one-half of her population was severed from their motherland. Nothing like it has ever been done to any Christian country and civilized people, unless you think of England's treatment of Grand Pre (See Longfellow's Evangeline). Transylvania, the New England of Hungary, comprising the entire one-third of the territory of Hungary, was cut off and given to Roumania. This represented 102,787 square kilometers of territory (1 km. equals 3,280.8 feet, or .62137 of an American mile) and 5,266,444 people. With these went to Roumania practically all of Hungary's gold, silver, table salt, natural gas and oil deposits, most of her grazing land, and no table salt deposit was left for Hungary.

Another piece of territory of 20,966 square kilometers, with 1,499,213 people, was cut off from the body of Hungary and given to the Serbians who had served Russia, France and England in forcing the outbreak of the World War. This territory consisted of much of the best wheat land of historic Hungary. Still another large piece comprising 62,937 square kilometers of territory, with 3,575,685 people, was taken from the body of Hungary and given to Czechoslovakia, a country which existed on paper only. With that territory went most of Hungary's iron ore and coal deposits and much of her grazing land, and most of her factories. In addition to the Hungarian territory, Czechoslovakia was given a large Austrian territory with 3,500,000 German people, known as Sudetens. You now read much about these 3,575,685 former citizens of Hungary and the 3,500,000 Sudeten Germans freeing themselves from the

Czech yoke. Some newspapers and propagandists claim that those 7,000,000 people who were forced under the Czech yoke are now engaged in the most "undemocratic" effort for freeing themselves from bondage and slavery! One wonders if 7,000,000 Americans had been forced under Mexican yoke, would these same American newspapers and propagandists claim that it was a violation of the principles of "democracy," if such 7,000,000 Americans would be seeking to free themselves from that yoke? The balance of the severed parts of Hungary was divided among Italy and Austria. Italy was given 21 square miles of Hungarian territory, including Fiume, the seaport of Hungary; and Austria was given 5,055 square kilometers of Hungarian territory and the people living on it. You will recall that the territory of pre-war Hungary during the last one thousand years was about 282,999 square kilometers (about 125,000 square miles) and her population was about 25,000,000. The entire territory of pre-war Hungary was about the size of the states of Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee and it was a fairly self-supporting country. Out of these only 91,243 square kilometers of territory, somewhat smaller than the state of Indiana, and a population of 7,515,886 were left for Hungary. In the ungodly Treaty of Trianon she was shamefully reduced. There is no precedent for this outrage in the annals of human history. The people, who were thus kidnapped from Hungary, were not given an opportunity to vote, as President Wilson had promised them, on the question as to whether they desired to be kidnapped from their motherland. They were just driven as cattle from one pasture to another. In a radio speech delivered in March, 1938, U. S. Senator William E. Borah said:

"When the so-called peace treaties were signed at Versailles, ancient states had been dismembered, national boundaries reestablished, vast colonial possessions given over to the victors, people shoved about from sovereignty to sovereignty, with no more choice upon their part than have cattle which are prodded from one corral to another. All Europe and parts of Asia had been redistributed, divided up, parcelled out largely in accordance with the terms of the secret treaties made while our American boys were being conscripted to fight in foreign countries for the preservation of democracy!" And he exclaimed in his speech: "And, like Mark Antony over the body of bleeding Caesar, we quickly seized the bloody hands of those who assassinated liberty!"{1} The enormity of the crime committed against Hungary in the Treaty of Trianon can only be realized when we know that, with the territories cut off and given to her neighbors, most of the means of communication, such as telegraph and telephones, most of the

railroads, factories and the best wheat land were taken from her and distributed among those neighbors. More than one-half of Hungary's coal fields; almost all of her natural gas and oil deposits; 11,216 schools out of 16,861; 90% of her timberland; more than one-half of her sheep; 66% of her stock of swine; 70% of her corn; 40% of her sugar refineries; 55% of her tobacco industries; 60% of her vegetable oil industry; 27% of her candle industries; 99% of her iron ore mines; 60% of her iron and steel factories; 10% of her engineering factories; 47% of her hemp factories; 52% of her flax factories; 73% of her cotton industries; 90% of her woolen industries; 47% of her petroleum industries; 50% of her leather industries; 49% of her cement works; 79% of her glass works; 95% of her stone quarries; 100% of her table salt deposits; and 60% of her water power and most of her railway system and equipment were taken from Hungary and given to Yugoslavia, Roumania and Czechoalovakia.{2} You might be interested to know that the American glass and shoe factories and glass and shoe workers are complaining, because much glass-ware and ship loads of shoes are imported into this country from Czechoslovakia, throwing thousands of American glass and shoe workers out of work. Most of the glass-ware and shoes brought here by the Czechs are manufactured in factories and with machines the Hungarians had built and which were taken from Hungary in the Treaty of Trianon. The people who were forced under Czech rule are unable to buy all the glass-ware and shoes; therefore, the products of the glass and shoe factories are shipped to this country. The thousands of American glass and shoe workers who are thrown out of work by the imports from Czechoslovakia are thus paying a penalty for the Treaty of Trianon. That treaty has punished not only the Hungarians but thousands of American workers and factory owners also. Yet American newspapers and propagandists tell you that it is one of the cardinal principles of "democracy" that the ungodly Treaty of Trianon should remain undisturbed! Perchance some idiot will rise sometime and preach as from the housetops that the fundamental virtue of "democracy" is starvation! The rumblings heard in Europe are coming from the efforts of eighteen million Hungarian people and others to free themselves from the Serbian, Roumanian and Czech yoke. The "democracy" you hear about from Yugoslavia, Roumania and Czechoslovakia is just starvation and abject slavery. Our forefathers here threw England's tea into the ocean, declared their independence and then stamped it with their precious blood. We are proud of them and revere their memory. You should not be surprised if you hear some day, if you have not heard it already, that the eighteen million people kidnapped from Hungary may throw into some ocean the garlic bags forced upon them by the Paris Peace Conference in the Treaty of Trianon. The creators and builders will no longer submit to the foreign yoke and abject slavery which were cruelly imposed upon them by the leeches and parasites. The promises made to these people by President Wilson in 1918 still ring in their ears and still should hold good. President Wilson promised that:

"The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development." President Wilson's way was the real democratic way of settling the question as to where these people wanted or still want to belong. Let them have a chance to vote and make known their wishes and desires. The "Czech" leaders insist publicly that they "will fight to the death" to retain the stolen territories of Hungary together with the people living thereon. Singularly enough the world has not heard from the Czech (Bohemian) people on this matter. It is needless to say that the "Czech" leaders will not fight; but it requires no extraordinary power of prognostication to say that, when they will be challenged by the very people they are now enslaving, they will flee. When this will happen you will hear them at our door, asking to be permitted to enter as "political refugees." Out of the 15,000,000 people of Czechoslovakia, only 7,000,000 are Czechs (Bohemians) and Moravians. Is it possible to expect 3,500,000 former Hungarian citizens who were kidnapped from Hungary against their wishes and consent to fight to continue Czech control over them? Was it expected by the widest stretch of the imagination that the vociferous "Czech" leaders would dare to march at the head of an army recruited from nearly 8,000,000 unwilling slaves and lead them into a fight that would prolong their slavery? Are there grown-up people who honestly and sincerely believe that such a thing was possible? The vociferous "Czech" leaders do not believe in such possibilities and they are leaving Czechoslovakia, and "the Sun of righteousness will arise with healing in His wings." It is frequently stated in certain American newspapers that the Czechs "marched half-way around the world in the last war to fight on the allied side for their national freedom." It is confidently stated here that such a statement could not be supported by facts. Newspapermen who indulge in such a persiflage might just as well say that the Czechs made a round trip. Hungary was divided in the secret treaties of London long before the end of the World War; and it is a matter of record that Edward Benes, whose "Czech" ancestry is seriously questioned and who was one of the "Czech" leaders for whose benefit the "Czechoslovak Republic" was organized on paper, openly bragged at the Paris Peace Conference that he was given more than he had asked for. It is also a matter of record that Thomas Massaryk, another "Czech" leader, had registered his objections to the giving of the Austrian territory with 3,500,000 Germans and most of Upper-Hungary to Bohemia and Moravia. It was not a matter of what they wanted; they had to take what was given them. It is not expected that anybody will attempt to disprove these statements with facts of record. The legend that the Czechs went half-way around the world to fight for their freedom cannot be substantiated by facts. What happened was this: In order to deceive the world, England and her allies financed a few "Czech" leaders to make a demand for "Czech freedom" and tell the world that they wanted to be free from Austria. Let us remember

that Hungary had nothing to do with Bohemia (now Czech) and so far as Hungary was concerned the Bohemians (now Czechs) could have their freedom from Austria at any time they wanted it. In 1848 Hungary wanted to free herself from Austria; but she was defeated and the Bohemians (now Czechs) helped Austria to defeat Hungary. But during the World War Uncle Sam was generous with his money and the "Czech" leaders received plenty of it. They played the game and agitated against Austria, when hundreds of thousands of real Bohemian (Czech) soldiers were fighting in the Austrian army. The "patriotism" of the few "Czech" leaders may have been acceptable to the English government and her allies; but it should be remembered that those "patriots" were in the service of the then enemies of Bohemia. Real Bohemians did not stoop to that level. The "Czech" leaders who are said to have trotted half-way around the world organized Czech legionaires in Siberia and in France from among the Austrian, Bohemian, SlovakRuthenian-Hungarian prisoners of war, many of whom became members of the legions unwillingly. Those who were in Siberia had been shipped there by the Russian government whose prisoners they were; and it cannot be correctly and truthfully said that they had traveled "half-way around the world in quest of their freedom." The record further shows that the "Czech" legion that was forced into service in the Allied army was more of a hindrance than of real value. These are the facts and it is not expected that anyone will attempt to controvert them successfully. Incontrovertible facts might be produced, however, to show that many thousands of Hungarian prisoners of war were brutally murdered in cold blood in connection with the organizing of the so-called "Czech legions." If they refused to be drafted into the armies of England, France or Russia and to fight their own kind, brothers and comrades in arms, they were brutally mowed down for their refusal; but they died honorable men. Of course, the Bohemian people, who had nothing to do with the things their selfappointed leaders had done, are not blamed. When it became known that the Paris Peace Conference had utterly ignored the promises of President Wilson and the people of Hungary were to be denied the right to vote on the question as to whether or not they desired to be kidnaped from their motherland, Hungary, the Hungarians and those of Slovak and Ruthenian ancestry sent heartrending appeals to the Paris Peace Conference, begging that they be permitted to remain in Hungary. A paragraph from the appeal of those of Ruthenian ancestry will be a good example of the appeals:

"The Ruthenian people are shouting for help to the Allied and Associated Powers, as well as to all the cultured nations, not to allow them to be joined to the Czech State. We beg of you, in harmony with the Wilsonian principles, to have a plebiscite (popular vote) ordered on the Ruthenian territory.{3}

The Paris Peace Conference paid no attention to these petitions but proceeded to divide up Hungary and, as Senator Borah has said, "shoved these people from sovereignty to sovereignty, with no more choice upon their part than have cattle which are prodded from one corral to another." The Treaty of Trianon and the heartless mutilations of Hungary have been condemned by leading economists, statesmen and even newspapers throughout the world. The "New York Tribune," on May 8, 1919, speaking of all the treaties of Versailles, including the Treaty of Trianon, said: "Not since Rome punished Carthage of Punic faith, has such a treaty been written." The English Presbyterian Alliance characterized the Treaty of Trianon in the following words:{4} "It is dishonorable to the Allies in the light of their professions." After a French committee of investigation had returned to Paris from Hungary, the French newspaper, the "Matin," in 1922, exclaimed:{5} "In the name of decency and in the name of true humanity, Hungary must not perish! The Hungarians must be saved! Those people are not responsible for the provocation of the world's catastrophe!" Lord Newton, an English statesman, described the Treaty of Trianon in these words:{6} "It is the most disastrous and senseless action for which international statesmen have been responsible." And nineteen years after the diabolical conception of the Treaty of Trianon, the English editor, J. L. Garvin, said in "The Observer" (England):

"The merciless mutilation of Hungary proper by the Versailles system was and is the most cruel case of all."{7} United States Senator William E. Borah, in a telegram to this writer, tersely and descriptively pronounced the Treaty of Trianon in these words: "The cursed Treaty of Trianon!" Francesco Nitti, ex-Prime Minister of Italy, was so deeply moved by the unprecedented injustice done to Hungary in the Treaty of Trianon that he exclaimed:{8}

"This poor country, Hungary, which saved both civilization and Christianity, has been treated with a bitterness that nothing can explain. After the war everyone wanted some sacrifice from Hungary, and no one dared to say a word of peace or good will for her." And United States Representative Raymond J. Cannon has exclaimed on the floor of the U. S. House of Representatives:{9}

"The Treaty of Versailles (the Treaty of Trianon included) has many crimes and bloodshed to account for." When told that the Paris Peace Conference had assassinated democracy and that the outrage committed against Hungary was a disgrace to Christian civilization, Lloyd George, Prime Minister of England, bowed his head in shame and regret and said:{10} "The religion of Jesus Christ is the only thing that can save this world from another catastrophe." Yes, there is a divine promise in the Holy Writ, that "the Sun of Righteousness will arise with healing in His wings." Christian men and women, throughout the world, who have come to know the truth concerning the un-Christian treatment accorded to Hungary, will demand that the great wrong be righted and that the stolen territories and the kidnaped people of Hungary shall be restored to their motherland, Hungary. And Jesus Christ, the Crucified, whose religion the Hungarians have saved and reverenced, has a definite promise for them:{11}

"Fear not, little flock; for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom." For it is written: "What God hath put together, let no man put asunder!" The Hungarians have an implicit faith in God, the Father, and in His only begotten Son and in the Holy Ghost. Ever since there was a Hungary, the Hungarians have written on the flag their true faith in these words:

"Pro Dei et Pro Patria!" For God and Country! To them God and Country are to be revered; and, when their land was stolen from them, they were deprived of part of the presence of their God. In the Czechoslovak Parliament, in the year 1937, the question was raised:{12} "Is there a God?" The majority members of the Parliament voted in the negative: "There is no God." The Hungarians not only

believe but know that there is a God. In the Treaty of Trianon their God and their Country were nailed to the Cross of Trianon, and the crime of three thousand years ago was to them reenacted. The cruel and heartless mutilation of Hungary was an unchristian act and a most reprehensible international crime. "Man's inhumanity to man Makes countless thousands mourn."
1 Congressional Record, March 29, 1938; see also Senator Nye's speech in Congressional Record, April 29, 1938. 2 For more details, see Birinyi's "The Tragedy of Hungary," p. 199 et seq. 3 Ibid, p. 212: U. S. Senate Document, "Justice for Hungary." 4 Ibid, p. 229. 5 "Virradat," Budapest, May 18, 1922; "The Tragedy of Hungary," p. 229. 6 Vanderlip's "What's Next In Europe?", p. 75; U. S. Senate Document, "Justice for Hungary," p. 32. 7 Quoted in the "Danubian Review," April, 1938. 8 Niiti, "The Wreck of Europe," pp. 164 and 165. 9 Congressional Record, April 18, 1938. 10 "The Tragedy of Hungary," p. 179. 11 St. Luke, 12:32. 12 "Should Great Britain Go To War For Czechoslovakia?" by the Slovak Council, 1937. The Slovak Council begs the people of England not to help the Czechs in enslaving the Slovaks. They want to be delivered from Czech control.

14 THE VERDICT OF PUBLIC OPINION

The government of the United States of America was represented in the Paris Peace Conference by delegates whom President Wilson had appointed and commissioned. These delegates, subject to the will of President Wilson, signed the treaties concluded by the conference; but their signature, and even that of the President of the United States of America, did not make those treaties binding upon the American government and people. Under our constitution, the President of the United States of America negotiates treaties

with foreign governments; but such treaties become valid and binding upon our government and people only after the United States Senate by a two-thirds vote has ratified them. The Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon were rejected by the United States Senate; hence we are not parties to those treaties and we as a nation have nothing to do with them. Statesmen, professors, newspapermen and writers have condemned the treaties of Versailles and the Treaty of Trianon in no uncertain terms. The "Chicago Herald and Examiner," in its November 15, 1937, issue, said: "The Balfour document proves the Versailles agreement was not in reality a peace treaty, but a mere ratification of the spoils of war, divided by the Allies in secret pacts before the war ended. At Versailles the Allied diplomats merely rubber-stamped publicly what they had pledged each other years earlier in secrecy."

Professor Hershey, an author and an authority on international law says:{1} "The treaties of Paris were really imposed, not negotiated. The Great Powers were in actual control of the conference, -- a control which was exercised at first through the Council of Ten and later by the Council of Four (Clemenceau, Lloyd George, Wilson and Orlando). The great Powers had control of the various commissions . . . . The major problems of the settlement, such as French, Italian and Japanese claims, were not referred to commissions, but discussed in secret council . . . . The treaty was not a negotiated one, so far as Germany was concerned. (The same is true as to Hungary and Austria.) Oral discussions were denied, though Germany (Austria and Hungary also) was permitted to make counter observations in writing."

Professor Fay, an eminent American historian and author, says:{2}

"One must abandon the dictum of the Versailles Treaty that Germany and her allies were solely responsible. It was a dictum exacted by victors from vanquished, under the influence of blindness, ignorance, hatred, and the propagandist misconception of which war had given rise. It was based upon evidence which was incomplete and not always sound. It is generally recognized by the best historical scholars in all countries to be no longer tenable." Georges Demartial, an eminent French publicist, has written:

"I will believe in the League of Nations (a part of the Versailles treaties) when it has painted on the walls of the Assembly a picture representing the judges of Versailles crouching over Germany (and Hungary), each with an upraised dagger in his hand, and with the following words: Admit that you are the sole cause in the war or we shall finish you."

Franceso Nitti, ex-Prime Minister of Italy, said:{3} "The assertion (that Germany and her allies were the sole cause of the World War) is a new one in the history of treaties. It is, above all, ridiculous, in that the victor can always find means to make the vanquished declare that he alone is responsible for the war; it has, therefore, no theoretical value. . . With few exceptions, the leaders of European politics are entirely ignorant of economics." In the Paris "Figaro," on July 17, 1928, it was stated:{4} "And in effect, if Germany is not guilty, the peace is unjust. It is unjust even if responsibility be divided." When the Treaty of Trianon was under discussion in the British House of Lords, Viscount Bryce said:{5} "The provisions which are embodied in this treaty will create a rankling sense of injustice, an anger, and a bitterness that will look for the first chance of redressing the wrongs that the treaty inflicts. Unjust settlements seldom last. Can anyone believe that the arrangements embodied in this treaty are calculated to make peace? They are more likely to sow the seeds of future wars, and that at the time when peace is the supreme need of the world."

Lloyd George, Prime Minister of England and one of the "Big Four" in the Paris Peace Conference, said in a speech delivered by him in 1928:{6} "The documents which some of our allies submitted to us during the peace negotiations were false and untrue; our decisions were based upon forgeries."

Senator Norris said on the floor of the U. S. Senate:{7}

"When I discovered that these men (the representatives of the Allies -- England and France) who had talked eloquently here to us had in their pockets secret treaties when they discussed it, -- when I

discovered that they pulled out those secret treaties at the peace table, in contravention and contradiction to the very agreement that they had made, when we entered the peace conference; when I saw that they were demanding that these secret treaties be legalized; and more than all that, when I saw our own President lie down and give in and submit to the disgrace, the dishonor, the crime and the sin of that treaty (Versailles-Trianon), then I said: 'Great God! I do not believe I want to have any kind of dealing with any of you people. You have not been fair with us or with the world. You have been wicked. You have concluded to act here just the same as though you were acting in barbarous days after proclaiming to us and after we believed that you were in earnest and fighting for democracy to build peace, a world peace, a League of Nations that would bring peace and happiness forever to a suffering people. I am suspicious of you all the way through. You are dishonest.'" This speech of Senator Norris was a severe criticism of our former Allies; but they deserved it, because they had deceived and tricked us. They had lied to and betrayed the American people. U. S. Senator Hiram Johnson of California said on the floor of the U. S. Senate:{8} "The statesmanship of the world in the making of the treaty of Versailles (and Trianon) showed itself to be absolutely bankrupt. It left us a horrid legacy which during the years since that treaty was executed has led to many difficulties, and the statesmanship of which we used to boast wrote for the world not a treaty but an irritant for war." U. S. Senator Shipstead said on the floor of the U. S. Senate:{9} "Everyone knows that the decisions (of the Paris Peace Conference) were based upon an untruth. Germany was not the sole government or country responsible for the World War. The Treaty of Versailles is an instrument of war, has been used for that purpose, and that war is going on." He said further:{10} "It is useless to talk of peace, either political or economic peace or stability of international commerce, so long as we still are laboring under the psychology of war, as it is still operating through the Treaty of Versailles (the Treaty of Trianon included)." Speaking on the floor of the United States Senate, U. S. Senator Blaine said:{11}

"So long as the Versailles treaty remains, there can be no peace on earth. Germany alone is not involved . . . . I believe every Senator on the floor knows that the main troubles in the world today are due to the Versailles treaty with all its ramifications. Every Senator knows that as long as Europe is an armed camp and will continue to be an armed camp, as long as there is no revision of the Versailles treaty's provisions."

The Versailles treaties which Germany, Austria and Turkey had signed are dead. Turkey has long ago repudiated the treaty; and when Austria, by popular vote, which was guaranteed to the Austrian people by President Wilson, had decided to unite with Germany, the treaty that Austria was compelled to sign had become totally extinct. Fortunately no blood was shed and the great wrong committed by the Paris Peace Conference eighteen years ago was partially righted. The remaining treaty which is still plaguing Europe is the Treaty of Trianon. As long as it remains, there will be no peace in Europe, because it retards the peaceful rehabilitation and economic reconstruction of Europe. It is an international growth that is destined to destroy Europe, unless it is removed and eliminated. The final step toward the reestablishment of the peace of Europe, therefore, will be the eradication of that international malignant tumor which Senator Borah has aptly described as "The Cursed Treaty of Trianon" 1 Hershey, "Essentials of International Public Law and Organization," pp. 429, 430, 435.
2 Fay, "Origin of the World War," Vol. II, pp. 548-9. 3 Nitti, "The Decadance of Europe," pp. 34, 35 and 43. 4 Paris "Figaro," July 17, 1928. 5 "The Hungarian Question in the British Parliament," p. 222. 6 Henry Pozzi, "La Guerre Revient," Paris, 1933. 7 Congressional Record, October 13, 1919. 8 Congressional Record, December 21, 1931, p. 1009. 9 Congressional Record, December 22, 1931, pp. 1007-1009. 10 Ibid, p. 1100. 11 Congressional Record, December 22, 1931, pp. 114 and 118.

15 THE WORLD BETRAYED. DEMOCRACY DESTROYED. TREATIES VIOLATED

It is the fundamental principle of the law governing contracts and private and international agreements that the oral or written promises made by one of the parties to the contract or agreement, which promises are the moving cause for the other party's entering into such contract or agreement, are the essential parts of the contract and agreement later entered into by and between the promissor and promissee. It follows, therefore, that the promises made by President Wilson to the peoples of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey that "peoples and provinces shall not be bartered away from one sovereignty to another, as if they were lifeless subjects or mere pawns in a game; that nations may be ruled and governed only by their consent; that self-determination is not a hollow phrase; and that the peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development" were essential parts of the armistice agreement and later of the peace treaties. As now seen, these promises were not incorporated in the Treaty of Trianon. Instead, territories were severed and people were driven like cattle from one country to another. This fact makes the treaties of Versailles and the Treaty of Trianon a fraud upon the American people, upon the people of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey and upon the entire world. This is so self-evident that we are content to quote only one authority in support of our contention. Speaking to the United States Senate, U. S. Senator Owens said:{1} "The Allied governments were committed to the principles laid down by the President of the United States in his addresses of January 8, 1918, and subsequent addresses. It was a contract; it was a world contract; and therefore these addresses of the President became supremely important as part of the contract. The principles which were laid down in those addresses of the President of the United States, accepted by the entente belligerents, became the basis of that treaty with Germany (and Hungary). There is no contract which can surpass it in dignity or in force." The American people paid the bill of sixty billion dollars, 126,000 American boys died in Europe and 234,000 were wounded and maimed in the World War in support of the agreements President Wilson made with the peoples of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey and the world; and, so far, not a single one of these promises has been made good. This was a brutal and unconscionable betrayal of the American people, the people to whom the promises were made, and the world. It was dishonorable, reprehensible and unchristian and it has destroyed world confidence. It was a cowardly international crime, and it will always be remembered in history as the blackest international crime that has ever disgraced Christian mankind. When he promised to Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey that their territories would not be taken from them and their peoples would not be bartered away like cattle, President Wilson was motivated by the highest and noblest principles of democracy. He promised the peoples of those countries that they will have a right and opportunity to vote on the question as to what form of government they desired to live under and to what country they wished to belong. That was real democracy; and when

President Wilson's promises were ignored in the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon, democracy was assassinated. Yugoslavia, Roumania and Czechoslovakia, the beneficiaries of the ungodly Treaty of Trianon, had signed separate treaties, in which each solemnly promised "to assure full and complete protection of life and liberty to all the inhabitants (of their respective countries), without distinction of birth, nationality, language or religion." In other words, they promised not to discriminate against the people who were forced under their control; and Czechoslovakia specifically promised that it will give the Ruthenians autonomy, which is a form of self-government. Every provision incorporated in these treaties for the protection of the people who were kidnapped from Hungary has been either ignored or violated. It is the law of nations, that if one of the parties to a treaty violates its provisions, the other parties may repudiate the entire treaty and declare it null and void and of no effect. Yugoslavia, Roumania and Czechoslovakia have rendered their own treaties null and void, so far as those treaties may have bound the people who were kidnapped from their mother countries. For that reason it is the right of those kidnapped people to sever their connection with these faithless governments. Serbia (Yugoslavia) has discriminated against the Hungarians and others, who were forced under her control in the exercise of their religion, in the ownership and use of their property, in their right to ownership of personal property, in the use of their language and in the enjoyment of their individual freedom and liberty. In a memorandum issued by the Hungarian National Federation of the League of Nations it is stated that "in this State (Yugoslavia) there are continually increasing voices to be heard, outcries of the new subjects who, besides forming the majority of the population, are struggling for their autonomy in order to safeguard their national ethnic rights." In December, 1934, without any advance warning, the Serbian government (Yugoslavia) coldly ordered 2,700 Hungarians out of the land of their ancestors, which was given to Yugoslavia. Without adequate clothing, food and means of transportation, those unfortunate Hungarians were actually driven out into the snow and were forced by armed soldiers toward the Hungarian border and then into Hungary. It was the cruelest thing a government could have done to human beings. It was reported that among those unfortunate people, driven like wild beasts in severe winter, several mothers of small children became insane while searching for their children in the frozen snowdrifts. It was then, on December 9, 1934, that United States Senator William E. Borah sent this writer the following telegram: "The cursed Treaty of Trianon is bearing fruit." Volumes could be written on the violations by Roumania of the promises and agreements she made in the treaty signed by her, promising to safeguard the rights and liberty of the Hungarian people who were forced under her control. The Roumanian government has confiscated the private property of thousands of Hungarians and then ordered them out of the land of their forefathers. The properties of Hungarian schools, churches and institutions were confiscated and the Hungarians were interfered with in the exercise of

their religion. Woe unto the Hungarian clergyman who would dare to pray with emphasis the words in the Lord's prayer: "Thy kingdom come!" The English Unitarian Association and the American Unitarian Association sent a commission to Transylvania, the New England of pre-war Hungary which was given to Roumania, to study the conditions under Roumanian rule. The report of the committee is so gruesome, that even the print paper blushes at its sight. Among the not "too bestial" incidents, we record here the following:{2} 1. A Hungarian Lutheran minister was arrested by Roumanian police, thrown into the cold waters of a river, and, at every shot fired at him, he was forced to shout: "Setreasca Rumania Mare!" (Long Live Roumania!) 2. A Hungarian actress was traveling to her wedding. Roumanian soldiers arrested her, stripped her naked and flogged her, with the result that she was sick in bed for several weeks. 3. A young Hungarian girl was lifted up on the shoulders of Roumanian soldiers, her body was uncovered and beaten. 4. A Hungarian woman of good family, being in pregnancy, was sentenced to 25 strokes. At the first stroke she died. 5. A Hungarian woman was ravished by Roumanian soldiers 37 times! When you hear the propagandists shouting that the "democracy" that was created by the Treaty of Trianon should be preserved, this is the "democracy" they want perpetuated. The Hungarians who were forced under the rule of Roumania do not want this kind of "democracy" and they want Transylvania returned to Hungary, where it belongs. Czechoslovakia also has violated her promises and agreements regarding the rights to liberty and life of the people who were forced under her control. The Hungarians and those of Slovak, German and Ruthenian ancestry complain bitterly of the Czechoslovak government pursuing a policy of ruthless Czechization, imperialism and centralization. The Czechoslovak government has refused to grant autonomy to the Ruthenians. The Hungarians are forced to use the Czech language which they do not understand. Much private property of the Hungarians has been confiscated, many thousands of Hungarians have been deprived of their civic rights, and many of them have been ordered to leave the land of their birth. Many of the factories which had been built by Hungary have been dismantled and the workers have been deprived of their livelihood. Names on the tombstones in the Hungarian cemeteries have been changed from Hungarian to Czech or Slovak. The Ruthenians have been reduced to such dire poverty, that at times it has been necessary for many of them to grind tree bark into powder and make bread from it, so that they may eat and live. In 1936 a Swedish commission went to Czechoslovakia to examine the condition of the starving people who were forced under Czech control. The commission has reported that they found the Sudeten Germans actually starving there. Dr. Schultze, Director of the Czech Red Cross gave this reply to Dr. Linder, a Swedish lady doctor, a member of the

Commission: "Since our State is unable to maintain the entire population, it must at least endeavor to provide for one portion of it, even though the rest must starve."!!!{3} The Slovak Council has reported in 1937{4} that in 1919 the following question was raised in the Czechoslovak Parliament: "Is there a God?" The majority voting answered in the negative: "There is no God."{5} The same Council reports that Czech leaders had "pulled down the finest statue of the Virgin Mary in Prague, Capital of Czechoslovakia, shattered it to pieces and spat upon it."{6}

It might be of interest for you to know that the United States Government has loaned to Czechoslovakia ninety-one million dollars and that she now owes us, together with interest, $106,292,205.00. When you hear the propagandist shouting that the "Czechoslovak democracy" must be preserved, you will know that the foregoing is the "democracy" that the propagandists want to perpetuate. It will be further interesting for you to know that the fundamental reason for the propaganda which shouts for the "preservation of the Czechoslovak democracy" is that Czechoslovakia is a springboard for Russia, from which she can jump into Western Europe. If the stolen territories will be returned to Hungary, Russia will be entirely cut off from Western Europe and that will end the efforts of godless Moscow to propagate ungodly Communism in Western Europe. The propagandists would have you believe that the repudiation of the Treaty of Trianon would destroy Czechoslovak "democracy and integrity." The fact, however, is that there is no "Czechoslovak democracy and integrity." Czechoslovakia is not a country that has grown and developed into a country and national unity. It is an aggregation of stolen property and kidnapped people. The way Czechoslovakia was patched together from stolen territories and kidnapped people was as follows: In the London secret treaties Hungary and Austria were cut into pieces and the severed parts were promised to her neighbors. A strip of land, consisting of 62,937 square kilometers and with a population of 3,575,685, comprising the entire upper part of Hungary and forming the boundary line between Hungary and Poland, and being about three or four hundred miles in length, was cut off from Hungary. The land so cut off is not self-supporting and for that reason to make an independent state out of it would have been to condemn most of the people living on it to starvation and death. It was, however, the plan of the English government and its allies to cut Hungary off from Poland, so that there may be no common boundary line between those two countries to the detriment of both.

Bohemia (now Czech) was a part of the Austrian Empire, not a part of Hungary. Moravia

was also a part of the Austrian Empire. The Paris peace Conference cut Austria proper to pieces and the problem was to whom to give the severed parts. Both the Austrian and the Hungarian severed territories bordered on Bohemia and Moravia, so it was decided to tack the severed Austrian and Hungarian territories to Bohemia and Moravia and to name this hash "Czechoslovakia." With the Austrian strip went 3,500,000 Germans, called Sudeten Germans. With the Hungarian territory went 3,575,685 native born citizens of Hungary, and with another piece of territory cut off from Austria went about 500,000 Polish people. And the people, who were thus forced into this hodgepodge, together form the majority of the population of Czechoslovakia. As you well know, these people want to get away from Czechoslovakia and to return to their native lands: the Germans to Germany, the Hungarians to Hungary, and the Poles to Poland.

The geographical shape of Czechoslovakia might be described as follows: Imagine that you are small of stature and the right leg of a full grown man is grafted to the tip of your nose. Then you look into a mirror and what you see will be the picture of Czechoslovakia. And when you walk around, you will find that the appendage on your nose is not only an unsightly thing but it interferes with the personal freedom of other people around you. As the people around you would object to the monstrosity appended to your otherwise tidy nose, so is most of Europe objecting to the monstrosity known as Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia is not a self-sufficient and self-supporting country and it has to be supported by France, England and indirectly by the United States of America. The French and English taxpayers are no longer willing to permit their governments to pour their money into Czechoslovakia, when their own people are in distress. The only way Czechoslovakia is now being kept from a complete economic collapse is that France, England and the United States of America are importing from there manufactured products which their own industries are able to produce. For example, shoes and glassware are imported to the United States from Czechoslovakia and many of the American shoe factories and glass-works have been shut down and their employees have been thrown out of work. If there is the least doubt in your mind about the accuracy of this statement, write to the American shoe and glassware manufacturers and ask them if this statement is true or false. You might keep these facts in mind when you read in your favorite newspapers about the mighty deed of the Czechs trotting "half-way around the world in quest for their freedom." They did not go and did not have to go anywhere; the territories of Hungary, Austria and Poland were given to them by England before they ever dreamed of the concoction known as "Czechoslovakia." A great deal of propaganda has been unloaded on the American people from ungodly Communist sources and an attempt is being made to inveigle France, England and even the United States of America into a war for the preservation of what they call "Czechoslovak democracy and integrity." But the people of England and France are on

the alert and do not want their governments to interfere any longer in preventing the return of the stolen territories and kidnapped people to where they belong. Independent French newspapers and newspaper writers insist that the Treaty of Trianon must be scrapped and Hungary must be restored to her former territorial integrity and economic unity. In England there is a similar movement on foot. Rhys Davis, a member of the British Parliament, stated in March, 1938:{7} "We who have been in those parts of Europe were hardly believed at home, when we told the people the way the minorities were treated in Czechoslovakia. When the question of the German minority is being settled, the affairs of the rest of the minorities must be certainly arranged too." Archibald Ramsey, an English writer, wrote in the "Daily Telegraph and Morning Post" (England), on March 26, 1938, as follows:{8} "The record of the Czechoslovak Government is one of broken promises to all its minorities, which actually consisting together a majority of all the population, thus contravening the fundamental rule of democracy . . . . The Czech Government has during the past four years utterly destroyed the Czechoslovak constitution in the frontier areas which the minorities occupy. What then is the moral ground for the demand that His Majesty's Government shall engage this country to fight for Czechoslovakia?"

Sir Robert Gower and several of his colleagues submitted to the English Parliament the following motion:{9} "This House is of the opinion that, in the interest of all the pacific settlement of Europe as well as to perform an act of justice to the Hungarian nation, the Treaty of Trianon should be revised so that the Kingdom of Hungary shall be restored to it those parts of its former territory that are essentially Hungarian, and urges His Majesty's Government to bring the matter before the Assembly of the League of Nations at the earliest opportunity." There can be no question but that Yugoslavia, Roumania and Czechoslovakia have violated the provisions of their own treaties and have mistreated the people who were kidnapped from Hungary and Austria and were forced under Yugoslav, Roumanian and Czechoslovak control.{10} Those treaties and the Treaty of Trianon, therefore, are no longer valid. It is the right and the privilege of those former citizens of Hungary and Austria, who are unwillingly suffering under the heels of these perfidious governments to assert their right, declare their independence and return to their motherlands. Under what theory of democracy and under what principle of Christianity should English, French and American soldiers be compelled to fight to retain and prolong the slavery of eighteen millions of people who were kidnapped from their motherlands and forced under foreign control without their consent and against their will? You may have read and will read again in some newspapers the warning that "if Czechoslovakia is turned into another

Spain, there will be a great many people who will march around the world to defend her cause," because the "Czechs marched half-way around the world to fight on the Allied side for their national freedom." Briefly examine this threat and see if there is anything in it, that should send a shiver over your back and mine. Before the World War Bohemia (now Czech) was a member of the Austrian Empire, -not a part of Hungary. Naturally the Czech soldiers were fighting in the Austrian army, and many of them were taken as prisoners of war by France and Russia. Some of these prisoners of war were interned in France and some of them were transported to Siberia by the Russian government. The same was true of Austrian, Hungarian, Slovak and Ruthenian soldiers who were fighting in the Austro-Hungarian army. And there were "Czech" leaders, whose origin is in doubt, who were going around the war prison camps in France and Russia, cajoling and forcing Bohemian, Slovak, Ruthenian and Hungarian prisoners of war to join what they called the "Czech Legion." The announced purpose of that "Legion" was to join the Russian and French armies and fight against their own brethren and comrades in the Austro-Hungarian army. Those who refused to become traitors to their own countries, to their own brethren and comrades in arms, were mercilessly mowed down by machine guns or murdered in some other way. We know now that the organization of the "Czech Legion" was a mere fakery and that the "Legion" was quite a handicap to the French and Russian armies, because after all, the Czech and other boys who were forced into the "Legion" were human and they generally refused to shoot at their own brethren and comrades in arms. It is not true, therefore, that any "Czech marched half-way around the world to fight for their national freedom." We have seen in the Balfour secret report that at the beginning of the World War Hungary was divided up in the London secret conference and a part of it was promised to the "Czech" leaders. It was not necessary for the Czechs to travel anywhere or to fight anybody; they just had to reach out their palms to receive a nice piece of Hungarian territory which England so magnanimously carved out of the territory of one thousand-year-old Hungary. Just why some American newspaper writers glorify the disloyal and dishonorable conduct of those so-called "Czech" leaders who compelled unwilling Czech, Slovak, Ruthenian and Hungarian soldiers to join the "Czech Legion" is hard to explain. Supposing the same "Czech" leaders had compelled American soldiers of Czech, Slovak, Ruthenian and Hungarian origin who served in the World War to join a "Czech Legion" and then turn around and fight the American army on French soil, would these same American newspaper writers glorify those same "Czech" leaders? If such a disloyalty would be considered, and it would certainly be considered the foulest treason that has ever been recorded on the pages of human history, if it had been employed against the American army, why should American newspapers glorify it?{11} With regard to making a Spain out of Czechoslovakia, it should be remembered that the civil war in Spain was stirred up and challenged by Communist Moscow. If the Czechoslovak leadership will provoke a war, it will be with the help of the same Communist Moscow. Russia has scientifically built airplane bases in Czechoslovakia and

it is from Czechoslovakia that godless Communist Russia plans to jump on Western Europe. The Czechoslovak leadership is definitely tied up with bloody Moscow and, so that there can be no question of loyalty of the Czech leadership to Stalin and his cohorts, the Czech Parliament has already gone on record in its belief that there is no God. In Prague, the capital of Czechoslovakia, the Czech leaders had the finest statue of Virgin Mary pulled down, the parts contemptuously scattered and spat on. This iconoclastic feat no doubt satisfied godless Stalin and his comrades. We know from the utterances and writings of Czech leaders that they are bent upon provoking another world war. For example, the Czechoslovak politician and newspaperman, the mouthpiece of President Benes, has stated in his newspaper, the "Pritomost," on February 17, 1937, the following: "We must attempt to manage our affairs in such a way as to cause the war to break out in the situation and at the time most convenient for ourselves." We know furthermore that those "Czech" leaders who have made their cause with Communist Russia will not fight, even if they will succeed in provoking a world war, but they will certainly flee. Before fleeing, they will dicker with anybody and will make any concession, provided they will be permitted to retain nominal control over the Czechs. If they will fail in their dickering, they will be knocking at our doors, asking for admittance as "refugees." When our doors will be closed before the troublemakers and racketeers of Europe, that continent and its people will be greatly relieved. And we have enough troublemakers and racketeers here already. We do not want more. No one in this world wants to harass the Czech (Bohemian) people, no one wants to take anything from them that is rightfully and legally theirs. The kidnapped native born citizens of Hungary and Austria want to return to their own motherland, as it is their right to do. The American people will never consent to any international scheme which would take American boys into Europe to fight the kidnapped Hungarians and others in their attempt to regain their freedom. The American flag shall never be used as an emblem of human slavery!

1 Congressional Record, October 15, 1919. 2 Birinyi's "The Tragedy of Hungary," p. 230, et seq.; U. S. Senate Document, "Justice for Hungary." 3 "Mitteleuropaische Korrespondenz," No. 280. 4 "Should Great Britain Go To War For Czechoslovakia," by the Slovak Council. London, 1937, pp. 43 and 44.

5 "Narodnie Noviny," No. 64, 1930; quoted Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 "The Danubian Review," March, 1939, p. 48. 8 Ibid, pp. 50-51. 9 Order Book of House of Commons, 1938, from Friday, 11th November inclusive, p. 15. 10 L. Steiner's "Ungarns Vergewaltigung" (The Rape of Hungary), 1928; Zsombor de Szsz, "The Minorities in Roumanian Transylvania," 1927; "The Hungarian Peace Treaty" (British Statesmen About the Hungarian Question), 1921; "The Peace Treaty of Trianon" (Appeal by lawyers, judges, and professors of law of Hungary), 1931; Dr. Louis Szdeczky's "Revision of the Peace," 1926; The Slovak Council's "Should Great Britain Go To War For Czechoslovakia," 1937; Sir Robert Donald's "The Tragedy of Trianon," London, 1928; Rev. Dr. Louis Cornish's "The Religious Minorities of Transylvania," Boston, U.S.A., 1925; Stephen Czako's "How the Hungarian Problem was Created," Budapest, 1934; Verdicu's "There is no Peace Without the Solution of the Danube Question," Budapest, 1934; U. S. Senate Document, "Justice for Hungary," Document No. 346, 1923; "The Report of the Presbyterian Churches, Eastern Section," by Prof. Curtis of Edinburgh, November 4, 1920; L. K. Birinyi's "The Tragedy of Hungary," U.S.A., 1924.

11 For detailed information regarding the Czech Legion see Colonel Mszoly Jeno's "Sziberia, a Nagy Temeto" (Siberia, The Great Cemetery), published in Budapest; and Lieutenant General Konstantin W. Sakharow's "Die Tschechischen Legionen In Sibirien" (The Czech Legions In Siberia), published in Berlin, 1931. 16 OUR CONCLUSION On the basis of the facts presented and the evidence adduced from the history of Europe, from official documents and from the admissions of responsible statesmen, it must be concluded that the Treaty of Trianon is fraudulent, illegal and void. We now recapitulate our evidence and the law applicable thereto to show how the illegality of the Treaty of Trianon arose and is determined on the basis of facts and law. The Treaty of Trianon was based on the following indictment: "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Hungary accepts the responsibility of Hungary and her allies for causing the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Government and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Austria-Hungary and her allies." This indictment is false and untrue, because the World War was plotted and precipitated by France, Russia and England, and was provoked by their agent, Serbia. The key-word

in the indictment is "aggressor" and if this key-word fails, then the entire indictment must fall. The overwhelming evidence is that France and Russia were the aggressors and England was their accomplice. The ultimate purpose in the World War on the part of England, France and Russia was to defeat Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey and to destroy the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system. Hungary was merely a victim in that war, because her territory lies in the direction of the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system and the mutilation of her one thousand-year-old territory was perpetrated in order to render the completion and successful operation of the Berlin-Bagdad Railroad system impossible. The evidence clearly proves that Hungary was in no way an aggressor or in any way responsible for the outbreak of the World War. The Treaty of Trianon was formulated by the enemies of Hungary in an international conference to which Hungary was not invited and in the deliberations of which she was denied participation. The law, as we have seen, governing an international conference, specifically requires that:{1} "All powers interested in the purposes of the conference which is engaged in making an international treaty should be invited." This vital and essential principle of international law was violated, when Hungary was neither invited to the Paris Peace Conference nor permitted to participate in its deliberations. Since it was her territory that was dissected and mutilated, she was an especially interested party whose presence in the conference was mandatory by international law. Hence we must conclude that the Paris Peace Conference was illegal, its deliberations were illegal and the treaties it made are also illegal; and since an illegal act is a nullity, the Treaty of Trianon must also be declared to be a nullity and of no effect in law. The Paris Peace Conference, as a matter of fact, was merely a rubber-stamp convention of England and her allies, and it merely ratified and rubber-stamped the secret treaties made and entered into by and between the government of England and her allies long before the United States of America entered the World War and long before its final termination. The historical and ethnographical data furnished to the Paris Peace Conference by the beneficiaries of the Treaty of Trianon were false and untrue and maps they presented were actually forged. This was admitted by Lloyd George, the Prime Minister of England, when he said: "The documents which some of our allies submitted to us during the peace negotiations were false and untrue; our decisions were based on forgeries." The law is:{2} "Fraud and forged maps vitiate a treaty." A treaty which has been vitiated is null, void and of no effect in law; hence the Treaty of Trianon is just a fraud, a nullity and without any force and effect in law.

The promises made by President Wilson to the peoples of Hungary and Austria that they would be accorded the right of self-determination, that is to say they would be permitted to vote whether or not they desired to be severed from their motherlands, were a part of the Trianon treaty agreement under all known principles of private and international law. These promises were ignored by the Paris Peace Conference and they were not incorporated into the Treaty of Trianon. This fact also makes that treaty fraudulent, null, void and of no effect in law. The evidence we have examined and presented in this book has amply proved that Hungary was forced to sign the Treaty of Trianon. The invasion and ransacking of her territory by Czech, Roumanian and Serbian soldiers and the tortures and sufferings inflicted upon the Hungarian people by the Communist agents of Moscow cannot be described as anything other than force or coercion. International law strictly requires that a signatory to a peace treaty must possess freedom of consent and that there must be no force and coercion employed to compel the signature.{3} International law says: "There must be freedom of consent in the agreement between the states. There is no freedom of consent when an agreement is reached through fraud of either party, and treaties so obtained are void." International law further provides: "A treaty produced by material fraud or by physical force applied to the negotiator may be repudiated."{4} "Any force or menace applied to the person of the negotiator is, on the face of it, unlawful, be cause consent wrung from pain and terror of an individual cannot with any pretense of reason be regarded as a consent of the nation."{5} And finally, the forced signature of the Hungarian government did not make the Treaty of Trianon valid, because, as, international law provides,{6} "Constraint vitiates the agreement, because it cannot be said that a state would voluntarily commit suicide." You have seen that Yugoslavia, Roumania and Czechoslovakia, the beneficiaries of the Treaty of Trianon, have violated the provisions of their own treaties and thereby rendered them invalid, null and void. Upon the basis of the facts and evidence we have presented, we conclude that the Treaty of Trianon is a fraud, a nullity, void, and a disgrace to Christian civilization and that it has no effect in law.

Our decree, therefore, must be and the same is that the people of pre-war Hungary, who were kidnapped and were forced under foreign control, are not bound by the Treaty of Trianon. It follows that it is their right to declare their independence and return to their motherland, Hungary. "What God hath joined together, let no man put asunder!"
1 Hershey, "Essentials of International Public Law and Organizations," p. 428. 2 Ibid, p. 432. 3 Wilson and Tucker, "International Law," 8th ed., p. 108, et seq. 4 Moore on "International Law," Vol. 5, p. 183-4; Woolsey, "International Law," Par. 104; Grandell, "Treaties, Their Making and Enforcement," pp. 14-15. 5 Moore on "International Law," p. 104; Bernard's "Lectures on Diplomacy," p. 184. 6 W. H. Hall, "Treatise on International Law," p. 380, et seq.

17 OUR PLEA TO CHRISTIAN CIVILIZATION Hungary Must Be Revived and Reconstructed The cruel and unconscionable mutilation of Hungary was based upon the indictment which was incorporated in the Treaty of Trianon and in which it was falsely stated that Hungary and her allies alone, individually and collectively, had provoked and precipitated the World War and had "imposed" upon England and her allies all the loss and damage that had resulted from that war. No one in authority believed that the indictment was true and history has proved it to be utterly false and unquestionably untrue. The Treaty of Trianon, therefore, in which the one thousand-year-old territory of Hungary was dissected, dismembered and mercilessly mutilated is an unconscionable fraud upon Christian civilization. The evidence of history clearly proves that Hungary was mutilated and more than onehalf of her people kidnapped, not because Hungary was bad, or her people were bad, but because her territory was indispensable to the completion and successful operation of the Berlin-Bagdad Railway system, which was not a Hungarian plan, though, if completed and successfully operated, it would have been a great benefit to all of Europe and Asia Minor. Centuries ago Hungary was ravaged by and her people fought, bled and died in their struggle against the Mongolians and the Turks, who attempted to invade the West through Hungary and to destroy western civilization and Christianity. No less an authority than the Pope of Rome himself had recognized the great services of the

Hungarians to Christian civilization and Christianity itself and he, therefore, conferred upon the Hungarians the title of "Defenders of Western Civilization and Saviors of Christianity." Indeed the bells in the towers of Christian churches throughout the world ring out the good tidings, at the hour of noon of every day, that nearly five hundred years ago one day, at the hour of noon, the Hungarians had delivered the final and decisive blow to the Turks and definitely defeated them in their attempt to obtain control of Western Europe. The tolling of the bells at the hour of noon of every day reminds Christians throughout the world that had not the Hungarians fought, bled and died, probably there would be no Christianity today. It is a matter of recent history that the onward rush of Communism from Russia was stopped in Hungary by the Hungarians. If you will consult your map of Europe, you will see that, by reason of her geographical location, Hungary is an ever-important outpost of Western civilization and Christianity and that, once Hungary is destroyed and rendered helpless, no one is able to foresee just what might happen in Europe and in the world at large. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to Christian civilization that Hungary be permitted to be strong and able to defend herself and protect Western civilization and Christianity. If the facts and evidence that have been presented herein are not sufficient for you to be convinced of the truth of our statements regarding the inestimable value of Hungary to Christian civilization, then watch your newspapers and read carefully the attempt to keep Hungary crushed and then note carefully who are the men and groups that are so eager to keep Hungary down so that she may not be able to stem the tide that might, at any time, start to sweep down from the East upon Western Europe. If you will do this, you will see and learn infinitely more that our contention is true. The Christian people of the United States of America, England, France and even the fine and good Christian people of Russia who are trampled under the feet of godless Communists do not hate the Hungarian people. Christians may have differences and different interests but they never hate one another, because hate is not a Christian virtue. As U. S. Congressman Knute Hill has recently and aptly stated on the floor of the U. S. House of Representatives {Congressional Record, April 18, 1938}, "War has no legitimate place in a Christian world." Christians throughout the world know that Jesus Christ of Nazareth, the Crucified, has suffered and died for the Hungarian people also. If the inhuman mutilation and crucifixion of Hungary had served the cause and best interest of Christian civilization the Hungarian people, no doubt, would be glad and happy to suffer so that their Christian brethren and sisters throughout the world might be happy, prosperous and contented. But exactly the opposite is the truth. Since Hungary is an integral part of the economic whole of Europe and the world, when she is ill economically, all of Europe and the entire world is likewise ill economically. This needs no demonstration, because you see the manifestation of this truth every day. Yea, we all suffer as a result of it!

We have shown you that in connection with the mutilation of Hungary, her economic, industrial and commercial developments were destroyed. You have been shown that most of the factories built by the Hungarians on the territory, which has been taken from them by the Treaty of Trianon, were dismantled and the equipment was shipped to Bohemia (now Czech) and used and operated there. But you ask: "What is that to me, an American citizen, an Englishman or a Frenchman?" The answer is that it means much to you, whether you are an American citizen, an Englishman or a Frenchman, because, as we have shown you, Czechoslovakia is not self-supporting and the people of that country are unable to consume the production of the factories concentrated in a small area in Bohemia (now Czech). The small industrial district of Bohemia (Czech) has not been able to sustain the entire population of entire Czechoslovakia, so in order that the economic structure of that country may not collapse at any time, it has been supported by English and French money directly and by American money indirectly. This is the absolute fact and truth and, if you read your newspapers carefully, you will find authoritative statements in proof of it from time to time. What does it mean to you and to me? If you are an Englishman or a Frenchman, you might know that your government is no longer able to finance Czechoslovakia directly, so it is now done indirectly by way of importing from Czechoslovakia manufactured goods which your factory and you can manufacture as well as the Czechs. The more manufactured products are imported to your countries from Czechoslovakia, the more English and French factories are closed down and more English and French workers are laid off and roam the streets in a hopeless quest of employment. You are not able to earn the necessities of life for yourself and for your loved ones and the consequences are that you and yours are suffering. If you are an American citizen, you might know that shoes, glass-ware and other manufactured products are being imported to this country from Czechoslovakia and the result is that the American shoe and glass factories have been forced to shut down and their employees have been thrown out onto the streets unemployed. You can go on charity or you may be able to obtain a government "relief job" at $60.00 per month and keep your soul in your body; but your American standard of living has been destroyed in the richest country of the world! You may be told by agitators and uninformed newspapers that you should boycott Germany and Japan. There are certain things which heretofore we have been buying from Germany, because we did not have them or we were unable to manufacture them; and all of a sudden you and I are told that we should not have them, because they were made in Germany. You are told that it is all right for you to purchase your shoes and glass-ware that were manufactured in Czechoslovakia. Your American shoe and glass factories are shut down, the employees of these industries are walking the streets unemployed, these American industries sooner or later will be put out of business entirely; but that is all right, because it is of utmost importance for the American people, so you are told, that the Czechoslovak shoe and glass industries are kept going on American money, while the American shoe and glass workers and their families are virtually starving. But you must

boycott Germany, the country that is one of the best customers of the American people and industries. If you are a Florida citrus fruit grower, it will be of interest for you to know that Germany has been buying Florida citrus fruit to the tune of about $30,000,000 -- say thirty million dollars -- annually. Since you have been inveigled into boycotting Germany, that country is buying her need of citrus fruit to the tune of thirty million dollars annually from Palestine! Your loss is the gain of the Palestine citrus fruit growers and of those who have invested their money in Palestine. You boycott; they reap the profit. If you are a North Carolinian and engaged in cotton growing, it will be of interest for you to know that Germany has been a heavy cotton buyer and that, since you are boycotting Germany, that country is buying cotton not from North Carolina but from elsewhere. The result is that, under order of our own government, you plow under your cotton. If this method of cotton farming will f be continued long, there will not be much cotton growing left in the fair State of North Carolina. You will be the loser and those who invest their money in other countries, where cotton can be grown and sold will be the winners. Years ago it was believed that it was good business to keep up friendly relations with your customer and even to help him, when necessary, so that he might be able to buy cotton. Today you boycott one of your best former customers and the result is that you are unable to sell him your cotton. Have you ever considered the possibility that those who ask you to boycott Germany are selling their cotton to her? Keep in mind also the fact that while you are boycotting your best customers, American farms are lying idle, American factories are closed down, American working men and women are either on charity or on "relief," or else they are walking the street in search for work, and the American industries are losing not only Germany but also Mexico, the Central and South American countries as their customers. We boycott and we lose. While we are on the matter of boycotting, may you learn a thing or two in connection with the boycott you are urged to carry on against Japan. The Japanese people have to expand either north, east, west or south. The logical direction for Japanese expansion is in China and you well know that expansion means economic development. We all wish well for the Chinese people. China is very rich in natural resources and once a well-directed economic development starts there, the American people should be greatly benefited, because China will buy many things from us, provided we do not alienate Japan from us. It has been estimated that if every Chinese would use a razor blade for shaving and each such razor blade would be purchased from the United States of America, the American steel industries would have to work full time for one year to supply every Chinese with a razor blade. This would mean work, bread, clothing, home and happiness for the American people who work in that line. If we boycott away the good will and friendship of Japan, other countries and other people, who mind their own business, will have the benefit and profit of Japanese and Chinese trade.

Agitation for boycotting Germany and Japan goes on in England and France also. The source of the propaganda is the same, from which we receive the agitation in the United States of America. Let us make no mistake about it. It comes from the visible and invisible rulers of godless Communistic Russia, who are bent upon making Europe and China Communist and then plant their red flag in our own country. Agitation from this source will sooner or later destroy both England and France, unless the better and more patriotic elements in those countries get up in defense of their respective countries. For the peoples of England and France it is fortunate that the trouble makers are definitely on their way out of Europe; but it is not so fortunate for us in the United States of America. If you do not happen to know this, be of good cheer; you will learn to know it soon enough. What has all this got to do with the mutilation of Hungary? Only this, the invisible forces behind the mutilation of Hungary are working feverishly throughout the world to destroy Christian civilization. You have been told and no doubt you well know that the economic structure of our very country has collapsed because of the World War, the treaties of Versailles and the Treaty of Trianon. Our country sunk sixty billion dollars in the World War and loaned to the Allies eleven billion dollars, which they have not repaid to us, and, now, when we need money, many of us have to go on charity or on relief. With our own money the invisible forces have destroyed or alienated from us our best customers. In other words, the same invisible forces that caused the mutilation of Hungary have destroyed our own economic structure also. Of infinitely more importance is the unfortunate fact that we have lost our economic and monetary independence. We are considered as mere "suckers" by the international invisible forces, and, on the basis of the evaluation made of us by the noble Lord Northcliffe that we are on the level of the Chinese, an attempt is being made to reduce us to the economic level of Chinese coolies. In natural resources and intellectual ability we are the richest people in the world, yet more than one-half of our one hundred twenty-five million people are in want. Unless we re-declare our economic independence and recapture our financial independence, we are in grave danger of being hurled into a further economic collapse and a social and political upheaval, the like of which has never been witnessed in our country. The key to our success in our quest for our economic and financial independence is the Constitution of the United States of America. The flag, under which we must march, is the only flag, the Stars and Stripes. The faith, which will give us strength, is written in the Holy Writ. With the American Constitution in one hand, with the American flag in the other, with the religion of Jesus Christ in our hearts, with firm faith in our own country and in ourselves, and with due regard for the future welfare of our children, we can regain our economic and financial independence and we can be the richest, most contented and happiest people on this earth. Agitators of the invisible forces are striving to convince the American people that our salvation lies in un-American, unchristian and godless Communistic theories and humbuggery. We are told that our economic and financial policies must be directed from

London, Paris and Moscow. We read in our newspapers that some of our high government officials travel back and forth to London and Paris to hob-nob with foreign financial leaders and to obtain their consent as to how we should manage our own financial and economic affairs here. We have been greatly humiliated by reading in some of our newspapers that some of our high government officials have gone down to Mexico and there clandestinely had a visit with Comrade Leon Trotsky, the discredited and exiled Communist. Nor is it a secret that several of our high government officials, prior to their appointment to their high offices, had been in Communist Russia and brought with them from there the un-American, ungodly and unchristian theories, the result of which is that American farmers have to plow under their wheat and cotton and kill little piggies, so that the American people may not have sufficient food to eat and clothes to wear. Any person who was born and lives in America, who is unable to find in the American constitution the key to our economic and financial independence and success, is not worthy of the name American. Certainly such person should not be permitted to hold any high American government position. And any high American government official, who considers it necessary clandestinely to visit Trotsky to talk over the future affairs of the American people, should have the common and ordinary decency to resign his position, so that a loyal American, who is able to read and understand the American constitution, might take his place and serve the American people according to the letter and spirit of the American constitution. We do not have to appeal to the shades of Lenin or to foxy Trotsky to find out what ails our country. We know that, as a result of the World War, we have been fleeced of much of our money and we have lost our economic and financial independence. We know that the symptom of our trouble is lack of purchasing power on the part of the American people. We know further that the underlying cause for our lack of purchasing power is that the very life blood of our country, namely money and credit, has gotten out of our control. We know still further that the reason for having lost our control of our money and credit is that the United States Congress and the United States Government have strayed away from the Constitution of the United States of America and farmed out to private individuals, foreigners and Americans, the right and duty to coin money and to regulate the value thereof. This un-American and unconstitutional act was similar to an act in which some superior power would have prevented your physical body from making its own blood and circulating it but would farm out to other persons these all vital functions of your body. How long would your life last, if your blood were manufactured by somebody else and you would receive only so much blood as that somebody else would be willing to give you? How long can our country last economically and financially, if foreign financiers will determine how much money we shall have? Section 8, paragraph 5 of the Constitution of the United States of America clearly and specifically states and mandatorily provides as follows:

"Section 8. The Congress shall have power --"

Paragraph 5. "To coin money and regulate the value thereof." Every President of the United States of America, every United States Senator and every United States Representative, before assuming his or her office, takes a solemn oath to support the Constitution of the United States of America. They who have ignored the above very vital provision and mandate of the Constitution of the United States of America and have voted to delegate the power of Congress to coin money and to regulate the value thereof have violated their oath of office. Every member of the United States Congress who stands by and permits the coinage and regulation of the money of the American people in private hands, whether foreign or American, is violating his oath of office. Section 8, paragraph 5 of the United States Constitution provides the key to the regaining of our economic and financial independence. We do not have to kneel before the shrine of Lenin, we do not have to visit foxy Trotsky clandestinely to find out what to do to regain our economic and financial independence. We know what we have to do. We just have to go back to our Constitution, do what it says, namely, through the United States Congress coin our own money and regulate the value thereof. Once we have gotten back to our Constitution and have regained our financial independence, we can coin, make and print all the money we need and the cost of coining, making and printing our own money would be about thirty (30) cents per one thousand dollars. Is there any sound American economic or financial reason for not doing this? Our Constitution says that it should be done. Why not do it then? Who is going to stop us from doing it, if we want to do it? Sometimes it is said that the United States Congress and our government are in power and control and if they do not do what the Constitution of the United States of America demands and directs them to do, what can we, the people, do about it? The answer to this question is this: the members of the United States Congress and the United States government are the servants of the American people and they will do what the American people want them to do. Once the American people make an unmistakable demand on the United States Congress to return to the Constitution of the United States of America and recapture our economic and financial independence, it will be done. And why wait with this demand any longer? The United States of America is your country. It is not the property of the politicians and foreign financiers but the property of the American people. Why starve, when there is plenty here for every American man, woman and child? Propagandists in the pay and employ of foreign interests that have put Europe on the rocks and are responsible for the mutilation of Hungary are using various devices to distract the attention of the American people from the solution of their own problems. They want us to boycott Germany and they have succeeded in depriving us of the German trade. We have lost thirty million dollars' worth of citrus fruit market, many million dollars' worth of cotton market and about sixty million dollars' worth of steel market from Germany alone, while most of us are on a starvation level. The foreign invisible forces want us to boycott Japan, so that we might lose her good-will and they might gobble up Japanese trade. They want us to interfere in European affairs, help the continuation of human slavery there and fight the countries which they do not like. It is

their plan to inveigle us into another world war, and, when we are in it, they would pounce on us, plant their red flag in our soil and make us their slaves. Their obedient servant, comrade foxy Trotsky, is now sitting snugly in Mexico, scheming and waiting for the opportunity to invade our country and become our dictator. What good have they done for this country by everlastingly agitating against this or that foreign nation or country? Japan is forging ahead in China and, as a matter of American interest, we prefer Japan to expand toward China rather than toward us. As long as she is not jeopardizing our interests, it is none of our affair what Japan is doing and where she is going. Though thoroughly fleeced in 1919, Germany is forging ahead and she now has probably the best equipped industry in the world. There is no unemployment problem in Germany and the Germans are working in the factories and not walking the streets in search for work. Germany has captured the trade of Mexico and is capturing Central and South American trade, while our little Moscovites in Washington, D.C., well paid and well fed out of the bounties of the American people, are wagging their tongues at Germany. Instead of building homes and manufacturing furniture, clothing and food for the American people, our little Moscovites are building battleships, manufacturing guns and ammunition, although there is no enemy in sight to fight. Some day these worshippers of Lenin, Stalin and Trotsky will tell us that we must go to war with Germany, because she has captured world trade from us. Those who want the American people to meddle in other countries' affairs are the same people to whom the monetary policies of this country have been farmed out. They are the unelected and uncrowned financial kings of our country. Let us see what they have done to us, while we have been tricked into boycotting this or that foreign country. In normal times we had about four and one-half billion dollars' worth of gold which was used as a basis of American money. The little Moscovites at Washington with the stroke of a pen increased the value of gold from $20 to $35 per ounce and thus raised the value of the gold we had in proportion of the increased price. Then they pulled the gold out from under the American dollar, -- we went off the gold standard, -- and then they purchased gold from foreign speculators at $35 per ounce to the tune of six billion dollars. We have now about thirteen billion dollars' worth of gold at inflated prices. And do you know what we are doing with it? We dug a hole in the ground of the State of Kentucky and buried our gold there. By this manipulation our little Moscovites at Washington have given a nice little gift to various foreign countries; but it is unlawful in this country to have in your possession more than one hundred dollars' worth of gold. Here are a few sentences from the speech of United States Representative August H. Andresen, which you will find in the Congressional Record, June 17, 1938, on pages 12827-8, and from which you will learn what has been done to us and to our money: "Believe it or not, the biggest crime in all history has been put over on the American people by the New Deal in its gold policy during the past five years. The New Deal administration in Washington has played Santa Claus in a `big way' for gold speculators and bankers in foreign countries. Since January 1, 1934, the United States Treasury has

presented a magnificent gift, $2,308,386,546 in cash, as clear profit on purchase by the New Deal of more than 161,000,000 ounces of foreign gold. "These are the facts. Early in 1934 the New Deal enacted a law which compelled every American citizen, under the penalty of fine and jail sentence, to surrender all gold in his possession to the United States Treasury. For this gold American citizens were paid on the basis of $20.67 an ounce. After the American gold was taken, and it became a crime to possess gold, except newly mined gold, in this country, the New Deal magnanimously boosted the price of gold from $20.67 an ounce to $35.00 an ounce, which amount was paid only to foreign gold speculators and newly mined gold in this country. In fact, the New Deal fixed and maintained the world price of gold at $35, and the United States Treasury became the dumping ground for all foreign gold hoarded since the beginning of time. "No strings were tied to the purchase of foreign gold at a premium of nearly $15 an ounce. Instead of establishing a beneficial policy which would have required foreign sellers of gold to purchase American farm commodities and manufactured products with the high-priced gold, the Secretary of the Treasury issued his proclamation to foreign gold speculators and bankers to bring in their gold and he would pay them $35 an ounce for it in good American dollars. "Beginning early in 1934, the flood of foreign gold began to run into the United States Treasury. It came by boat, by train, and by plane, and up to June 15, 1938, foreign gold hoarders and speculators have sold the American people approximately $6,000,000,000 worth of gold at $35 per ounce. We did not have the money, out of tax collections, to pay for the gold, so the New Deal administration sold the American people $6,000,000,000 in Government interest-bearing bonds and the foreign speculators received their gift from America. "Foreign gold continues to pour into this country. The Treasury continues to sell bonds to pay for it, at a premium, and the country goes further into debt. Our national debt now is around $40,000,000,000. We buy foreign gold and bury it in a hole in the ground in the State of Kentucky. The foreign speculators do not use the magnificent gift from America to buy our farm and manufactured products or to pay the debts which they owe us. They buy stocks and securities in American institutions, and if the whole story could be ascertained and told, we would no doubt find that our foreign friends have made enough money out of the gold and stock speculation to have paid the entire foreign debt of more than $12,000,000,000. "The New Deal brought prosperity to the rest of the world. Although this country is suffering from a disastrous depression, with falling farm prices, closed factories, unemployment, and distress for American citizens, the Roosevelt administration continues to maintain prosperity in foreign countries by buying foreign gold at a premium and permitting foreign farmers and factory workers to dump their cheaply produced farm and manufactured products upon the American market.

"What I have said about the gold policy of the New Deal may read like a 'fairy tale.' Nevertheless, it is a true story and is substantiated by the Government figures . . . . Why should America continue a policy which has made Japan a present of $102,744,930 from taxpayers so as to buy war supplies . . . ? Is there any good reason why the United States should make outright gifts to England of $783,702,711, to France of $724,055,355, and to other foreign countries? All on borrowed money." Representative Andresen gives a table, in which it is shown that $2,308,386,546 was given as a gift to our European and other friends. Just figure out how many $5,000 single homes the American people could have built with the money that we so generously gave to our European friends as a gift. In addition, how much money the American people have to pay annually for dental purposes, in the event gold is required, over and above the $20.67 price per ounce. This will give you an idea of our monetary policy. You no doubt have perceived by this time that those who are directing our monetary policy are not so keen to boycott Japan. She has received almost one hundred three million dollars from us as a gift. You boycott Japanese silk stockings and the boys in Washington present Japan with a gift of $102,744,930. Is there logic in this? This policy is not only un-American but it has resulted in an unfair and unjust economic condition in this country. About one-half of the American people, men, women and children, are living below the poverty line. You are told that the reason for the suffering of one-half of the American people is the result of "overproduction"; but that statement is manifestly false and untrue. There is no overproduction in this country until every American man, woman and child has all the normal necessities of life. You know the truth. Our trouble is lack of purchasing power on the part of one-half of our people. In other words, they do not have the necessary amount of money to buy more than their bare necessities of life. According to our own government's figures, in order to feed the American people, as they should be fed, taking the 1936 figures, the American farmers should raise 50,000,000 dairy cattle, but they raise only 25,000,000, because it would be a violation of the rule to raise more; 17,000,000 beef cattle, but they raise only 15,000,000 for the same reason; 85,000,000 hogs, but they raise only 57,000,000 for the same reason; 30,000,000 sheep and lambs, but they raise only 21,000,000; 637,000,000 poultry, but they raise only 426,000,000 for the same reason; 7,000,000 acres of vegetables, but they raise only 2,300,000 acres for the same reason; 10,000,000 acres of fruit trees and grapes, but they raise only 4,600,000 for the same reason. Read Congressman T. Alan Goldsborough's extension of remarks in the Congressional Record, June 15, 1938, pages 12429-30 for further data. You can obtain further information from the Government at Washington on how much the American farmers would be able to produce per year if they were permitted to do so, how much manufactured products the American factories and American working men and women would be able to produce if they had a chance, and how much the American people are suffering from want of the normal necessities of life.

Has God forgotten us or are we violating God's laws? Probably one-half of the American children are underfed, underclothed and suffering from lack of proper nourishment. The result is that our crime is increasing and our institutions for the feeble minded and our jails and penitentiaries are overcrowded. You might just as well know the truth: crime is not an inherited tendency. We aid in making criminals of young men and women by denying them the necessary amount and quality of food. The chief criminals of our country, therefore, are those who deprive one-half of the American children the necessary and proper nourishment, to which they are entitled. Just make up your mind that God never creates anything inherently bad. Every child, a creation of God, is good, when born. We, who deprive him or her of proper nourishment, are the guilty parties. Yet, if any of our undernourished children become criminals, how eager we are to jail them! In this connection it is well for us to remember that fully one-half of the children born in this country today are born of parents in the third economically lowest bracket, who are the least able to take care of them and nourish them properly. Lack of proper nourishment results not only in crime but also in sickness. Go to any large city in this country and you will find a drug store at almost every corner and you will see many stately buildings used for hospital purposes. The patent medicine manufacturers and vendors grow rich, while a large number of American men, women and children are suffering from sickness. And the absolute truth is that God and the American farmers create and make the best medicine. Good, wholesome food and in necessary quantity is the best medicine that can be made. God and the American farmers are always willing to raise all the good food we need and the best that is required. But our little Moscowites in Washington, who are well paid out of the pocketbooks of the American people and well fed from the fat of the land, have ordered the American farmers to grow less food, so that the American people may suffer from the lack thereof. When will the American people wake up and insist that their kitchen pantries be filled with good and wholesome food and not their medicine chests with patent medicine? When will American mothers demand that their children be given a real American chance, so that they may not fill our jails, penitentiaries, insane asylums and hospitals but that they may have a free, wholesome, healthy and abundant life to which they are entitled? When will American fathers demand that their children shall have the same chance that they had at and after their own birth? Why cannot we be fair to our children? It is now an accepted fact that, try as hard as we may, our economic and financial condition will not improve to any appreciable extent, until we return to our Constitution, coin and regulate the value of our own money, and until the fiendish wrong that has been committed by the Paris Peace Conference be righted. Our own business structure and our financial policies are so tied to Europe, that we shall be unable to grow better economically and financially, until we regain our economic and financial independence and the Versailles Treaties and the Treaty of Trianon are voided. Un-American and unchristian international financial interests that have made heavy investment of American money in foreign countries and thus became the beneficiaries of

the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon are antagonistic to a final and decisive solution of the European. problems. They tell us that they want "democracy preserved" in Europe; but they do not tell us that what they call "democracy" is in the control of international racketeers and furnishes most of the guns and ammunition for the undeclared wars that are being fought in various parts of the world. They do not tell us, but we know, that they have invested heavily in Czechoslovak shoe and glass-ware industries and they are now importing into this country shoes and glass-ware, manufactured by cheap labor, with the result that the American shoe and glass industries are closed and their employees are out of work. The attitude of these un-American and un-Christian international financiers is manifestly unfair to American labor and industry. If and when the wrongs done by the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon will be righted and Europe will start on the road to economic recovery, the people of that continent will be able to buy and consume almost everything manufactured in that part of the world and they will be able to buy from us the things that they are unable to manufacture. They will buy American-grown citrus fruit and cotton and American steel products. International trade and commerce will again assume a healthy and wholesome prospect and the people of the world will be concerned more about a mutually beneficial commercial relationship than about how to shoot, gas and kill one another. We, the American people, do not want to make enemies; we want to make the whole world our friend. We want the European problems solved, so that universal peace may return and reign supreme. To oppose the rectification of the wrongs committed in the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon and to interfere with the solution of the European problems, therefore, is manifestly un-American and conducive to our own economic destruction. It is evident and it is the best judgment of our well informed and patriotic statesmen, economists and historians that the best interests of the American people demand that the Versailles treaties be voided and the Treaty of Trianon be erased from the record, Europe return to sanity and the world have peace. The treaties that were imposed upon Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, and Turkey and which were instrumental in throwing the entire world into an economic collapse are now virtually eliminated. The one great stumbling block still remaining to be removed is the Treaty of Trianon. When that obstacle is removed, Europe will be well on the way toward an economic boom, the like of which has never been experienced on that continent. The first move toward the elimination of the Treaty of Trianon is the solution of the Sudeten German, already under way, Czech and Hungarian problem. The elimination of the Treaty of Trianon, as we have seen, is not only a Hungarian but a world problem, and it should be done without delay. Naturally the erasing of the Treaty of Trianon from the record would mean that the territories stolen and the people kidnapped from Hungary would be returned to her, and her former territorial integrity and economic unity would be restored. This process would not mean, as propagandists would have you believe, that the "Czechoslovak democracy and integrity" or the "democracy" of Europe would be destroyed. No one has any ill-feeling toward the Bohemian, Roumanian

or the Serbian people and no one wants to take away from them what is lawfully theirs. The Bohemians, Roumanians and Serbians are fine and good people and no one wishes them any harm. There is no plan to disturb them in their just and legal possessions or in their political or religious beliefs. The Hungarian territories which were stolen from Hungary in the Treaty of Trianon were never Czech, Roumanian or Serbian territories; and if they are returned to Hungary, nothing will be taken from the Czech, Roumanian and Serbian people, that was theirs by any imaginable legal right. It is confidently asserted that if the good Christian Bohemian, Roumanian and Serbian people were given an opportunity to vote on the question as to whether or not they want their respective governments to retain further control of the territories stolen and the people kidnapped from Hungary, they would overwhelmingly vote to return the stolen territories and kidnapped people to Hungary, where they belong. This would serve the best interests of all concerned and of the world. The spirit of wholesale robbery and kidnapping did not come from the people but was forced upon Christianity by governments that were controlled by international racketeers. Common economic interest demands not only the restoration of the stolen territories and kidnapped people to but also the economic reconstruction of Hungary. The territories stolen from Hungary have been stripped of their factories and other industrial developments, and much rebuilding and reconstruction will have to be done after the return of those territories and about eight million people. Out of her own present resources Hungary will hardly be able to finance all the reconstruction that will have to be done; hence she will need outside help. The Paris Peace Conference has established the rule that the guilty parties shall pay the damages done in the World War. We have demonstrated that France, Russia and England were the guilty governments; hence under their own rule they should pay the damages suffered by Hungary during the World War and after the Treaty of Trianon was imposed on her. It would be difficult to estimate the damages of Hungary in dollars and cents. While the value of the territories stolen from her, together with the factories, machinery, equipment and natural resources could be estimated, it would be impossible to estimate the value of churches, schools, and social institutions that were taken with the territories. The sufferings of eight million kidnaped people could not be estimated in dollars and cents. In the World War Hungary lost 6,610,000 men who died or were taken prisoners. Her cost of the World War amounted to ten billion dollars. Who will pay Hungary her damages? Such a chivalry should not be expected of present Communist Russia. England and France have not indicated any desire thus far to make good the damages they had done to Hungary. They have shown very little indication of willingness to repay the eleven billion dollars which they borrowed from the American government. The unfortunate fact is that the government of Christian England and the government of Christian France are in league with the bloody and godless government of Communist Russia to prevent the elimination of the Treaty of Trianon and excuse

themselves from paying their debt to us by pointing to the unsettled world condition which has resulted from the Versailles treaties and the Treaty of Trianon. The American people have already paid too much and they should not be expected to pay all the European damages caused by the World War. Yet we cannot let Hungary down in her heroic effort to regain her territorial integrity and economic unity and to reconstruct her destroyed economic structure and to rehabilitate her good people. We have a proposition which we hope can be made acceptable to and acted upon by the governments which should assume some moral responsibility for the resurrection and reconstruction of Hungary. The former Allies of the United States of America owe us eleven billion dollars as war debts. This amount in all probability will never be repaid to us; yet we should be glad to see this money put to useful work. We propose that the United States of America assign as much of the debt due to us from our former allies to Hungary as will be necessary for her reconstruction. Let our former allies pay so much of this debt to Hungary and then let Hungary be our debtor for the amount she will thus receive. Under this arrangement our money will be used for a lofty and beneficial purpose and we can be assured that eventually it will be repaid to us. Christian civilization owes Hungary the duty to help the restoration and reconstruction of her stolen territory and the rehabilitation of her kidnapped eight million people. The American people will no doubt be glad to see that the money their former allies owe them will be used for the purpose of the reconstruction of Hungary and rehabilitation of the Hungarian people, with the assurance that eventually their war loans will be repaid to them with interest. Let the Sun of Righteousness arise with healing in His wings, so that the heart of the fathers may turn to their children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest the Lord God of hosts come and smite the earth with a curse!{Malachi 4:3 and 6.}