RHCE 考試指南

聯成補習班專任講師 胡尚忠編著

同學們上課時每每都會問到 RHCE 考試的準備方式,考試流程等等的問題,而 由於上課時間緊迫,往往不太能詳盡說明,而網路上又沒有符合同學需求的類似 文章,雖然原廠已經發佈了考試指南,卻顯然不太對得上同學們胃口,又加上總 公司一些長官不斷的催促我再寫一篇有關於考試的攻略指南,所以今日才集成了 這篇 RHCE 考試指南,希望能夠幫助有意取得 RHCE 證照的同學,在準備考試 時不至於浪費時間或失去方向,同樣的,也請有需要轉載的讀者們註明出

處。
如果一般的 LINUX 認證課程是在訓練 LINUX 駕駛員,希望取得認證的同學能 妥善正常的駕馭 LINUX 主機,RHCE 課程的可貴之處,就是因為他訓練的目標 就是訓練一位工程師,也就是說,你不但要學會正確的駕馭 LINUX 主機,在有 必要或出事的時候,還要能夠修理他。 這個最重要的差異,使得 RHCE 變成了同等級 LINUX 認證考試中最難取得的一 種,因為考試時間長,又是上機實作,考試結果往往是一拍兩瞪眼,有就是有, 沒有就是沒有,非常刺激,而居高不下的考試費用也成為刺激感加倍的因素之 一。而且,隨著時代的進步,RHCE 考試也已經廢除了選擇填充的考試形式,完 全變成實機操作,考生們遇到的問題,就跟實際上遇到的問題一模一樣,這也使 得 RHCE 認證的效度較過去提的更高,在去年的十大熱門 IT 認證中,更是排名 第一,獨占鼇頭,就是因為這個考試真的能夠反應實際的技能需求,又能成功辨 識出有實際能力的人,換句話說,想要用背方法的通過考試同學,還是趁有機會 上課的時候把 LINUX 好好的學會,比較實際一些。 而 RHCE 第五版的考試,與過去第四版最大的不同之處,除了使用的作業系統 是 RHEL 第五版之外,更加進了 SELinux 的限制,我們姑且不論 SELinux到底 好還是不好,但是在軟體的設定及操作上,往往因為 SELinux 被設定為強制 (enforce)之後,本來會成功的的事情又會面臨一些轉折,而這些本來在第四版 考試不需要面對的問題,現在在第五版都要處理,使得第五版的考試成為歷屆 RHCE 考試中,最難的一次。 但是話說回來,所謂的難只是是相對的,RHCE 考試可以重現那些現實操作中會 遇到的問題,要求考生解決,而那些問題其實都很基礎,就像是有不少的汽機車

駕駛人會自己排除一些簡單的故障,自己換機油保養一樣,考的更基礎一些,並 不叫做困難。現在我們來看考試的流程。 報名考試,及考試時間,請洽聯成各分校辦理。

RHCE 考試流程
RHCE 考試需要用到幾乎一整天的時間,上午兩個半小時,下午三個小時,考生 可以帶紙作的英文字典,但不能帶電子字典,手機及任何電子設備都不能帶,並 請提供身份證件以供主考官查驗。 考生在約定時間到達考場之後,主考官會先說明現場需要注意的考試規定,說明 沒有問題之後,就開始計時,主考官會在白板記下考試結束的時間,同學在考試 中間有任何的問題,都可以舉手與主考官反應。 考試分為兩個大階段,兩個大階段各有其通過標準。

第一階段

Troubleshooting and System Maintenance — 2.5 小時

必須取得 80%以上的分數才能通過 RHCE 考試 如果只取得 50%以上的分數,可以取得 RHCT 的資格 除錯(Troubleshooting)換言之就是考生會遇到一些有問題有困難的狀況,如 常見的開機失敗等等,在這一階段中又會被分為兩個小節,各有 50%的分數: 第一個小節中的題目被列為 compulsory item,也就是必須要在一個小時內完成 的問題,而通常這些問題的分數比例又不低,所以不能放棄,考生在一小時內完 成題目的要求之後,可以請主考官查驗,如果主考官說可以,就取得此階段中 50%的分數,可以進入下一個小節。 同樣的,第二個小節也有若干系統維護的問題需要解決,如果考生提前完成考 題,可以在主考官查驗後先離場,第二個小節也佔分 50%。 如果考生無法取得超過 80%的分數,就算下午的第二階段有達到 RHCE 的要求, 也不能取得 RHCE 證照,如果考生在第一個階段取得超過 50%但在 80%以下的成 績,雖然無法取得 RHCE,但仍可在下午繼續為 RHCT 證照努力。

第二階段

安裝及組態 INSTALLATION AND CONFIGURATION

Section 1 RHCT Component 70% 同樣分成兩個小節,第一個小節就是依照題目的指示安裝系統,所有的指示在題 目上都有詳盡的說明,在此節中取得 70%以上的分數就可以取得 RHCT 的資格, 如果考生要取得 RHCE 證照,則還要完成第二節的題目。安裝系統是很多同學容 易忽略的內容,但是同學如果好好搞清楚系統安裝的過程,這一節的分數應該不 難取得。 Section 2 RHCE component 70% 第二個小節比較特殊,在分數上來說,要取得 70%以上的分數才能取得 RHCE 證 照,而其題目數量有十幾個之多,更特別的是,這一節為了幫助考生通過考試, 還另有三題加分題,所以同學可以在此作些考題上的取捨,先答一些保證會過的 題目,拿到一些該拿到的分數,在去想辦法解決一些比較不熟的問題。當然,如 果考生準備充分的話,應該不會遇到這種困難才是。如果動作快一點,把加分題 也做完,那通過考試就十拿九穩了。 總計來說,考生在第一階段取得 80%以上的分數,然後在第二階段兩個小節中 都取得 70%以上的分數,就取得 RHCE 認證了。而考生在第一個階段取得 50%以 上的分數,在第二階段的第一節取得 70%以上的分數,就取得 RHCT 的認證。 關於 RHCT 及 RHCE 的比較,可以參考下列網址: https://www.redhat.com/certification/compare/

如何準備考試 同學上完課後一定要作每章後面的作業,用 VM 或 VIRTUAL BOX 或實機建立 兩台主機的測試環境,測試全程將防火牆關閉,SELinux 設為強制(enforce) 。 做完所有設定後一定要記得將其服務設定為開機時啟動。 上課的同學要上完三本書,其中第一本書為 RH033 Red Hat Linux Essentials,其 中是 LINUX 作業系統的基礎概念,沒有所謂的考試重點,但在其中所學,其實 考試時都會用到,所以沒有基礎的同學,一定要在上課時仔細的學習,在此將學 習的重點用星號標示於下表:

Unit 1 - Linux Ideas and History An Introduction to Linux and Open Source: what are the central ideas behind the Linux phenomenon and where do they come from? Unit 2 - Linux Usage Basics Logging into the system, changing users and editing text files. Unit 3 - Running Commands and Getting Help How to use built-in and online documentation to enhance your experience. Unit 4 - Browsing the Filesystem Understanding the locations of important directories on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system and navigating them from the command line and using the graphical Nautilus browser. Unit 5 - Users, Groups and Permissions Reading and setting permissions on files and directories. Unit 6 - Using the bash Shell Basic tips and tricks to make Red Hat Enterprise Linux's default shell work for you. Topics include tab completion, history and an introduction to shell scripting. Unit 7 - Standard I/O and Pipes The ins-and-outs of redirecting output between programs and files. Unit 8 - Text Processing Tools An introduction to some of the most useful text-processing utilities in Red Hat Enterprise Linux, including grep, cut, sed, sort, diff and patch. Unit 9 - vim: An Advanced Text Editor

How to get the most out of the powerful and flexible vim text editor. Unit 10 - Basic System Configuration Tools Using Red Hat Enterprise Linux's graphical and text-based configuration tools to manage networking, printing and date/time settings. Unit 11 - Investigating and Managing Processes Listing, terminating and scheduling program executions on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. Unit 12 - Configuring the Bash Shell A discussion of using shell variables and scripts to customize the command-line environment. Unit 13 - Finding and Processing Files In-depth coverage of using the find command and related utilities to locate and act upon files based on arbitrary criteria . Unit 14 - Network Clients An overview of network tools available in Red Hat Enterprise linux, from web browsers to email clients and diagnostic utilities. Unit 15 - Advanced Topics in Users, Groups and Permissions A deeper discussion of how user and group identities are stored on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, as well as the introduction of advanced filesystem permissions like SetUID and SetGID. Unit 16 - The Linux Filesystem In-Depth The nuts-and-bolts of how Red Hat Enterprise Linux deals with filesystems. Topics include partitions, inodes, linking and archiving tools. Unit 17 - Essential System Administration Tools An introduction to fundamental system administration topics such as installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux, managing software packages, and enhancing security

with SELinux and the netfilter firewall. Unit 18 - So... What Now? Exposure to further options for training and involvement in the larger open-source community . 第二本書就開始出現考試主題,請同學一定要勤加練習。

RH131 Red Hat Linux System Administration
Unit 1 - System Initialization
• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Objectives Boot Sequence Overview Boot Loader Components GRUB and grub.conf Starting the Boot Process: GRUB Kernel Initialization init Initialization Run Levels /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit /etc/rc.d/rc System V run levels /etc/rc.d/rc.local Controlling Services Hands-on Lab 1: Managing Startup

Unit 2 - Package Management

• • • • • •

RPM Package Manager Installing and Removing Software Updating a Kernel RPM rpm Queries rpm Verification About yum

• • • • • • • • •

Using yum Searching packages/files Configuring Additional Repositories Creating a private repository Red Hat Network Red Hat Network Server Entitlements Red Hat Network Client Hands-on Lab 2: Working with packages

Unit 3 - Kernel Services

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Objectives The Linux Kernel Kernel Images and Variants Kernel Modules Kernel Module Utilities Managing the initrd Image Accessing Drivers Through /dev Device Node Examples Managing /dev With udev Adding Files Under /dev Kernel Configuration With /proc /proc Examples sysctl : Persistent Kernel Configuration Exploring Hardware Devices Monitoring Processes and Resources Hands-on Lab 3: Configuring the kernel

Unit 4 - System Services

• • • •

Network Time Protocol System Logging syslog Configuration XOrg: The X11 Server

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

XOrg Server Configuration XOrg in runlevel 3 XOrg in runlevel 5 Remote X Sessions SSH: Secure Shell VNC: Virtual Network Computing cron Controlling Access to cron System crontab Files Daily Cron Jobs The anacron System CUPS Hands-on Lab 4: System Services

Unit 5 - User Administration

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Adding a New User Account User Private Groups Modifying / Deleting User Accounts Group Administration Password Aging Policies Switching Accounts sudo Network Users Authentication Configuration Example: NIS Configuration Example: LDAP Configuration SUID and SGID Executables SGID Directories The Sticky Bit Default File Permissions Access Control Lists (ACLs) SELinux SELinux: Targeted Policy SELinux: Management

Unit 6 - Filesystem Management

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Objectives Overview: Adding New Filesystems to the Filesystem Tree Device Recognition Disk Partitioning Managing Partitions Making Filesystems Filesystem Labels tune2fs Mount Points and /etc/fstab Mounting Filesystems with mount Unmounting Filesystems mount By Example Handling Swap Files and Partitions Mounting NFS Filesystems Automounter Direct Maps gnome-mount Hands-on Lab 6: Adding New Filesystems to the Filesystem Tree

Unit 7 - Advanced Filesystem Management

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Configuring the Quota System Setting Quotas for Users Reporting Quota Status What is Software RAID? Software RAID Configuration Software RAID Testing and Recovery What is Logical Volume Manager (LVM)? Creating Logical Volumes Resizing Logical Volumes Logical Volume Manager Snapshots Using LVM Snapshots Archiving tools: tar

• • •

Archiving Tools: dump/restore Archiving Tools: rsync: Hands-on Lab 7: Advanced Filesystem Mangement

Unit 8 - Network Configuration
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Objectives Network Inferfaces Driver Selection Speed and Duplex Settings IPv4 Addresses Dynamic IPv4 Configuration Static IPv4 Configuration Device Aliases Routing Table Default Gateway Configuring Routes Verify IP Connectivity Defining the Local Host Name Local Resolver Remote Resolvers Verify DNS Connectivity Network Configuration Utilities Transparent Dynamic Configuration Implementing IPv6 IPv6: Dynamic Interface Configuration IPv6: StaticInterface Configuration IPv6: Routing Configuration New and Modified Utilities Hands-on Lab 8: Manage Network Settings

Unit 9 - Installation
• •

Anaconda, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installer First Stage: Starting the Installation

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

First Stage: Boot Media Accessing the Installer First Stage: Installation Method Network Installation Server Second Stage: Installation Overview Configuring File Systems Advanced Partitioning Package Selection First Boot: Post-Install Configuration Kickstart Starting a Kickstart Installation Anatomy of a Kickstart File Kickstart: Commands Section Kickstart: Commands section Kickstart: Packages Section Kickstart: %pre, %post Hands-on Lab 9: Installation and System-Initialization

Unit 10 - Virtualization with Xen
• • • • • • • • •

Virtualization with Xen Hardware Considerations Preparing Domain-0 Virtual Resources Domain-U Configuration Installing a new Domain-U Domain Management with xm Activating Domains on boot Hands-on Lab 10: Exploring Virtualization

Unit 11 - Troubleshooting
• • •

Method of Fault Analysis Fault Analysis: Gathering Data Things to Check: X

• • • • • • • • •

Things to Check: Networking Order of the Boot Process Filesystem Corruption Filesystem Recovery Recovery Run-levels Rescue Environment Rescue Environment Utilities Rescue Environment Details Hands-on Lab 11: System Rescue and Troubleshooting

RH253 大多是 RHCE 的考試重點。其中郵件伺服器在考試中並沒有指定要用哪 一種軟體來答題,換句話說就是以完成考題任務為依歸,同學準備時可以擇一為 之。另外 NFS 及 NIS 的 automount 整合操作在課本中並沒有寫得很清楚,大家 可以參考鳥哥的網站作進一步的閱讀。 http://linux.vbird.org/linux_server/0430nis.php http://linux.vbird.org/linux_server/0330nfs.php#nfsclient_autofs

RH253 Red Hat Linux Networking and Security Administration

Course Outline

Unit 1: System Performance and Security

• • • • • •

Concepts and Practices System Faults and Breaches Method of Fault Analysis Benefits of System Monitoring Managing Processes by Account Hands-on lab: System Monitoring

Unit 2: System Service Access Controls

• • • • • •

Service and Network Access Controls System Initialization and Service Management Service and Application Access Controls tcp_wrappers Configuration Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) Hands-on Lab: Controlling access to certain hosts

Unit 3: Network Resource Access Controls

• • • • • • • • • •

Internet Protocol and Routing IPv6: Dynamic Interface Configuration IPv6: StaticInterface Configuration IPv6: Routing Configuration Netfilter Overview Rules: General Considerations Connection Tracking Network Address Translation (NAT) IPv6 and ip6tables Hands-on Lab: Securing Networking

Unit 4: Organizing Networked Systems

• • • • • • • • •

Host Name Resolution DNS-Specific Resolvers Trace a DNS Query with dig Exploring DNS with host Service Profile: DNS Getting Started with BIND bind-chroot Package caching-nameserver Package Remote Name Daemon Control (rndc)

• • • •

The DHCP Service DHCP Overview Configuring an IPv4 DHCP Server Hands-on Lab: Implement a Minimal DNS Server

Unit 5: Network File Sharing Services

• • • • • •

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Network File Service (NFS) Port options for the Firewall Samba services Configuring Samba Hands-on Lab: Network File Sharing Services

Unit 6: Web Services

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Apache Overview Apache Server Configuration Virtual Hosts Apache Access Configuration CGI Apache Encrypted Web Server Squid Web Proxy Cache Hands-on Lab: Implementing Web (HTTP) Services

Unit 7: Electronic Mail Services

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Essential Email Operation Simple Mail Transport Protocol Sendmail SMTP Restrictions Sendmail Operation Using alternatives to Switch MTAs Postfix Configuration Postfix SMTP Restrictions

• • •

Postfix Operation Mail Retrieval Protocols Hands-on Lab: Electronic Mail

Unit 8: Securing Data

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The Need For Encryption Symmetric Encryption Asymmetric Encryption Public Key Infrastructures Digital Certificates Hands-on Lab: Securing Data

Unit 9: Account Management

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Account Management Account Information (Name Service) Name Service Switch (NSS) Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM) PAM Operation Utilities and Authentication Hands-on Lab: Account Management Methods

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